The stars were brilliant this evening.
The stars didn't shine quite so bright in the immortal world, and the sky didn't seem as endless.
"Do you like the stars?" he asked her.
Moon and stars were bright overhead.
The sky was clear and stars bright.
Posters of teen pop stars populated her cousin's wall.
That night they slept under the stars - Bordeaux a respectable distance from her, but close enough to assist if anything went wrong in the night.
He looked up to see the stars beginning to twinkle as the clouds moved out.
But in OS measures index error can be eliminated by bisecting both stars with the same web (or different webs of known interval fixed on the same frame), and not employing the fixed web at all.
The sky was dark, the stars plentiful and bright.
I suppose you feel so, too, when you gaze up to the stars in the stillness of the night, do you not?...
There were stars in the sky and the new moon shone out amid the smoke that screened it.
The angle between two objects, such as stars or the opposite limbs of the sun, was measured by directing an arm furnished with fine " sights " (in the sense of the " sights " of a rifle) first upon one of the objects and then upon the other (q.v.), or by employing an instrument having two arms, each furnished with a pair of sights, and directing one pair of sights upon one object and the second pair upon the other.
Stars and a half moon were bright, the sound of the ocean comforting.
A Cnossian didrachm exhibits on one side the labyrinth, on the other the Minotaur surrounded by a semicircle of small balls, probably intended for stars; it is to be noted that one of the monster' s names was Asterius.
The stars are called the earth's brothers and sisters.
These include the mutual distances of some of the stars in the Pleiades, a few observations of the apparent diameter of the sun, others of the distance of the moon from neighbouring stars, and a great number of measurements of the diameter of the moon.
The sounds of fighting grew faint and then disappeared. The stream wound through the jungle until it reached a small waterfall that fed into a massive lake whose black surface reflected the stars and moon. Katie slid down the hill beside the waterfall to the lake's edge, uncertain what to do. Gabriel hadn't mentioned the stream ending or the lake.
Moscow seen from the Poklonny Hill lay spaciously spread out with her river, her gardens, and her churches, and she seemed to be living her usual life, her cupolas glittering like stars in the sunlight.
The stars are so far away that people cannot tell much about them, without very excellent instruments.
However much we may admire the orator's occasional bursts of eloquence, the noblest written words are commonly as far behind or above the fleeting spoken language as the firmament with its stars is behind the clouds.
Pierre glanced up at the sky and the twinkling stars in its faraway depths.
The stars, as if knowing that no one was looking at them, began to disport themselves in the dark sky: now flaring up, now vanishing, now trembling, they were busy whispering something gladsome and mysterious to one another.
When he came to see the stars or watch the sunset, she didn't cry.
It was used by him in his earliest observations of double stars (1779-1783); but, even in his hands, the measurements were comparatively crude, because of the difficulties he had to encounter from the want of a parallactic mounting.
Bright stars shone out here and there in the sky.
Instead of stars overhead, there were ships.
You see the stars and the moon instead of how dark the night is.
In the case of close double stars he estimated the distance in terms of the disk of the components.
He was wearing his long coat with three stars on his breast.
They didn't call the distant suns stars in Qatwal.
Movie stars smoked and it was so cool!
For the measurement of wider stars he invented his lamp-micrometer, in which the components of a double star observed with the right eye were made to coincide with two lucid points placed io ft.
In 1727 he gained the prize given by the Academie des Sciences for his paper "On the best manner of forming and distributing the masts of ships"; and two other prizes, one for his dissertation "On the best method of observing the altitude of stars at sea," the other for his paper "On the best method of observing the variation of the compass at sea."
I have, as it were, my own sun and moon and stars, and a little world all to myself.
Those same stars twinkle over other fields than these.--But how to come out of this condition and actually migrate thither?
From the carriages emerged men wearing uniforms, stars, and ribbons, while ladies in satin and ermine cautiously descended the carriage steps which were let down for them with a clatter, and then walked hurriedly and noiselessly over the baize at the entrance.
But before he reached them Pierre stopped beside a very handsome, dark man of middle height, and in a white uniform, who stood by a window talking to a tall man wearing stars and a ribbon.
This all took place at Valarshapat, where Gregory, anxious to fix a site on which to build shrines for the relics of Ripsime and Gaiana, saw the Son of God come down in a sheen of light, the stars of heaven attending, and smite the earth with a golden hammer till the nether world resounded to his blows.
The night was clear and cool, the sky a beautiful pageant of dark blue silk and brilliant stars, of streaking meteors and two glowing orbs.
Her attention was caught on the falling stars of the meteor shower.
After the two men called it a night and Fred returned to his guesthouse lodging, Dean sat outside his tent lingering under more stars than he had ever viewed in his life.
It stretched for miles, littered with stars brighter than any he'd ever seen.
He did much to advance stellar photography and its use in cataloguing the stars, and he was responsible for the geodetic surveys of Natal and Cape Colony, British Bechuanaland, German S.-W.
He took Damian outside to the rock where he and kiri had watched the stars once long ago and set him down.
353), with which he measured the relative brightness of 2784 stars between the North Pole and about - so declination.
Her early years were clouded by the execution of the duc de Montmorency, her mother's only brother, for intriguing against Richelieu in 1631, and that of her mother's cousin the comte de Montmorency-Boutteville for duelling in 1635; but her parents made their peace with Richelieu, and being introduced into society in 1635 she soon became one of the stars of the Hotel Rambouillet, at that time the centre of all that was learned, witty and gay in France.
These zone observations afforded 3 6 3,93 2 separate places of stars, and form the groundwork of the catalogue of 133,659 stars between 2° and 23° south declination, which was published in 1886 as the eighth volume of the Bonn observations.
Quick motion in position-angle for rough setting or for the measurement of close double stars is given by the large ring R.
webs serve not only for pointing on stars to determine their coordinates (in manner afterwards described), but also for estimating the diameters of the star-images in terms of these 4" intervals.
Certain stars and nebulae show a bright line helium spectrum.
What happened to Death letting you see the stars and moon instead of how dark the night is?
Perhaps the best data for a comparison are those afforded by the varying brightness of stars at different altitudes.
Michael Maestlin in 1579 determined the relative positions of eleven stars in the Pleiades (Historia coelestis Lucii Baretti, Augsburg, 1666), and A.
Few persons can see with the naked eye - much less measure - more than six stars of the Pleiades, although all the stars measured by Maestlin have been seen with the naked eye by a few individuals of exceptional powers of eyesight.
The distance of the lucid points was the tangent of the magnified angles subtended by the stars to a radius of io ft.
Astronomer comes from the Latin word astra, which means stars; and astronomers are men who study the stars, and tell us about them.
The stars are the apexes of what wonderful triangles!
There are the stars, and they who can may read them.
Death lets you see the stars and the moon instead of how dark the night is.
Robinson published a number of papers in scientific journals, and the Armagh catalogue of stars (Places of 5345 Stars observed from 1828 to 1854 at the Armagh Observatory, Dublin, 1859), but he is best known as the inventor (1846) of the cup-anemometer for registering the velocity of the wind.
The position-angles of double stars are reckoned from north through east, the brighter star being taken as origin.
This movement is said to go forth from God to the animated heaven, stars, visible world and man, which represent decreasing degrees of cognition.
He had just entered, wearing an embroidered court uniform, knee breeches, and shoes, and had stars on his breast and a serene expression on his flat face.
The light was so strong and the snow sparkled with so many stars that one did not wish to look up at the sky and the real stars were unnoticed.
Down by the pond, frogs were singing their night songs and the sky was filled with bright stars.
Her own necklace had the same symbols surrounding five stars.
He looked up and recalled the stars.
I miss the stars.
The moon is full, the sky full of stars.
She relaxed after a nice, long soak in the bathtub, her thoughts wandering among the stars.
She tossed her head back to stare at the stars.
is placed on one side or other of the stars.
Thus a latent image of the " reseau-lines " will be formed on the sensitive plate, and, when the latter has been exposed to the sky in the telescope, we obtain, on development, a negative of the images both of the stars and of the reseau-lines.
complex spectra of stars of the solar type this is by no means the case; for, as Dr Hartmann remarks, " in the first place the lines in these spectra are so numerous that their complete measurement and reduction would require many days, and in the second place a rigorous reduction of such material has hitherto not been at all possible because the wave-lengths of the lines are not known with sufficient accuracy.
It is conspicuous by its absorption spectrum in many of the white stars.
This conception is expressed in George Eliot's lines: ", O, may I join the choir invisible Of those immortal dead who live again In minds made better by their presence: live In pulses stirred to generosity, In deeds of daring rectitude, in scorn For miserable aims that end with self, In thoughts sublime that pierce the night like stars, And with their mild persistence urge man's search To vaster issues."
None of the tribes ever ventures out of sight of land, and they have no idea of steering by sun or stars.
The lyre was carried to heaven by the Muses, and was placed amongst the stars.
His catalogue of 1112 stars (1833) was of great value.
Their priesthood was a highly trained profession, and they had schools which taught a knowledge of the stars and constellations, for many of which they had names.
Amos exhibited Him to his countrymen as lord of the universe, who made the seven stars and Orion and turns the deep midnight darkness into morning.
Sebaoth, or " hosts," attached to the name of Yahweh, denoted the heavenly retinue of stars.
The spectra of the stars he obtained by using, outside the object-glass of his telescope, a large prism, through which the light passed to be brought to a focus in front of the eye-piece.
At the present day when the nebulae that are spiral in form have been shown to be so numerous, next to the fixed stars themselves, our view of the nebular theory has been somewhat modified.
Only one external source can be named: the falling of meteors into the sun must yield some heat just as a shooting star yields some heat to our atmosphere, but the question is whether the quantity of heat obtainable from the shooting stars is at all adequate for the purpose.
He arranges a selection from his observations on the nebulae in such a way as to give great plausibility to his view of the gradual transmutation of nebulae into stars Herschel begins by showing us that there are regions in the heavens where a faint diffused nebulosity is all that can be detected by the telescope.
The transition from an object of this kind to a nebulous star is very natural, while the nebulous stars pass into the ordinary stars by a few graduated stages.
It is thus possible to exhibit a series of objects beginning at one end with the most diffused nebulosity and ending at the other with an ordinary fixed star or group of stars.
It seemed to Herschel that he was thus able to view the actual changes by which masses of phosphorescent or glowing vapour became actually condensed down into stars.
Should any one be sceptical as to the sufficiency of these laws to account for the present state of things, science can furnish no evidence strong enough to overthrow his doubts until the sun shall be found growing smaller by actual measurement, or the nebulae be actually seen to condense into stars and systems."
In 1797 she presented to the Royal Society an Index to Flamsteed's observations, together with a catalogue of 561 stars accidentally omitted from the "British Catalogue," and a list of the errata in that publication.
century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.); Ptolemy and Tycho Brahe catalogued 28 stars, Hevelius gave 29.
An interesting member of this constellation is a-Capricorni, a pair of stars of 3rd and 4th magnitudes, each of which has a companion of the 9th magnitude.
His world-conception is highly animistic. He feels the thrill of life everywhere, in plants, earth, stars, the total universe.
Man stands midway between the souls of plants and the souls of stars, who are angels.
His manner of life was ascetic; the sayings of the Sermon on the Mount and the practical maxims of the Stoics were his guiding stars.
the cult of a Divine Principle, resident in dominant features of nature (sun, stars, mountains, trees, &c.) and controling fertility.
In the Mandaean representation the sky is an ocean of water, pure and clear, but of more than adamantine solidity, upon which the stars and planets sail.
117-138), but sometimes, and wrongly, attributed to Tycho Brahe, who catalogued twelve stars in Aquila and seven in Antinous; Hevelius determined twenty-three stars in the first, and nineteen in the second.
It is also a constellation, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.e.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.), and catalogued by Ptolemy, 25 stars, Tycho Brahe 25, and Hevelius 38.38.
He also shows how his method may be used to determine some curious and long-discussed problems, such as the light of the stars, the ebb and flow of the tide, the motion of the balance.
She is usually represented with a pair of scales and a crown of stars.
She receives a crown as a bridal gift, which is placed amongst the stars, while she herself is honoured as a goddess (Ovid, Metam.
The Friends (at any rate under the later Seleucid and Ptolemaic reigns) were distinguished by a special dress and badge of gold analogous to the stars and crosses of modern orders.
Aratus of Soli in Cilicia, in his poetical Prognostics of Stars and the World, refers to a globe in his possession.
A pupil of Nessus, or, as some accounts prefer, of Democritus himself, he was a complete sceptic. He accepted the Democritean theory of atoms and void and the plurality of worlds, but held a theory of his own that the stars are formed from day to day by the moisture in the air under the heat of the sun.
27), he ascended Mount Atlas to observe the motions of the stars, and was suddenly swept away by a whirlwind.
Lucifer), the morning star or bringer of light, the son of Astraeus (or Cephalus) and Eos, the two stars were early identified by the Greeks.
" Just as we see in the firmament above, covering all things, different signs which are formed of the stars and the planets, and which contain secret things and profound mysteries studied by those who are wise and expert in these things; so there are in the skin, which is the cover of the body of the son of man, and which is like the sky that covers all things above, signs and features which are the stars and planets of the skin, indicating secret things and profound mysteries whereby the wise are attracted who understand the reading of 1 The view of a mediate creation, in the place of immediate creation out of nothing, and that the mediate beings were emanations, was much influenced by Solomon ibn Gabirol (1021-1070).
Lime is, in fact, absorbed to an enormous extent by fishes, molluscs, crustacea, calcareous algae and sponges, starfishes, sea-urchins and feather stars, many polyzoa and a multitude of protozoa (mainly the foraminifera).
Some are globular and others are rod-shaped; they may be grouped in clusters, stars, rosettes, rows, chains or swarms of indefinite shape.
By measurements giving the position of Mars among Planetary the neighbouring stars in the morning and evening, Parallaxes.
The planets in question appeared in the telescope as star-like objects which could be compared with the stars with much greater accuracy than a planetary disk like that of Mars, the apparent form of which was changed by its varying phase, due to the different directions of the sun's illumination.
Owing to the difficulties inherent in determining the position of so faint an object among a great number of stars, the results have taken about ten years to work out.
The indirect method is based upon the observed constant of aberration or the displacement of the stars due to the earth's motion.
Serious doubt was first cast upon its accuracy by the observations of Nyren with the same instrument during the years 1880-1882, but on a much larger number of stars.
He proceeded in the beginning of 1847 to Berlin, attracted thither by that brilliant constellation of mathematical genius whose principal stars were P. G.
It took the form of a warrior, wearing a girdle of three stars and a lion's skin, and carrying a club and a sword.
Ptolemy catalogued 38 stars, Tycho Brahe 42 and Hevelius 62.62.
y Orionis or Bellatrix, and x Orionis are stars of the 2nd magnitude.
These four stars, in the order a, 13, 7, rc, form an approximate rectangle.
a Orionis, very close to Orionis, is a very fine multiple star, described by Sir William Herschel as two sets of treble stars; more stars have been revealed by larger telescopes.
He wrote a number of war songs, including "The Soldiers' Battle Prayer" and "The Stars and Stripes."
Among his other papers may be mentioned those dealing with the formation of fairy rings (1807), a synoptic scale of chemical equivalents (1814), sounds inaudible to ordinary ears (1820), the physiology of vision (1824), the apparent direction of the eyes in a portrait (1824) and the comparison of the light of the sun with that of the moon and fixed stars (1829).
Other novelists belonging to this school are: Desiderius Malonyai (Az utolso, " The Last "; Judith konyve, " The Book of Judith "; Tanulmdnyfejek, "Typical Heads "); Julius Pekar (Dodo fohadnagy problemai, " Lieutenant Dodo's Problems "; Az aranykesztyus kisasszony, " The Maid with the Golden Gloves "; A szoborszep asszony, " The Lady as Beautiful as a Statue "; Az esztendo legenddja, " The Legend of the Year "); Thomas Kobor (Aszfalt, " Asphalt "; 0 akarta, " He Wanted It "; A csillagok fele, " Towards the Stars "); Stephen Szomahazy (Huszonnegy Ora, " Twenty-four Hours "; A Clairette Keringd, " The Clairette Valse "; Pdratlan szerddk, " Incomparable Wednesdays "; Nydri felhok, " Clouds of Summer "); Zoltan Thury (Ullrich fdhadnagy es egyeb tortenetek, " Lieutenant Ullrich and other Tales "; Urak es parasztok, " Gentlemen and Peasants "); also Desiderius Szomory, Odon Gero, Arpad Abonyi, Koloman Szanto, Edward Sas, Julius Vertesi, Tibor Denes, Akos Pinter, the Misses Janka and Stephanie Wohl, Mrs Sigismund Gyarmathy and others.
In investigations extending over a long series of years, the advantage of a large aperture in separating the components of close double stars was fully examined by W.
The eye, unaided or armed with a telescope, is able to see, as points of light, stars subtending no sentsible angle.
His description of the Temple ritual is not strictly accurate, but he speaks of the worshippers as passing the night in gazing at the stars and calling on God in prayer; his words, if they do not exactly fit anything in the later ritual, are well fitted to illustrate the original liturgical use of Ps.
On Isaac of Antioch, "one of the stars of Syriac literature," see the special article.
Long garments ornamented with symbolical designs (stars, &c.) are worn by Marduk and Adad.
The fifth book, which has the most general interest, professes to explain the process by which the earth, the sea, the sky, the sun, moon and stars, were formed, the origin of life, and the gradual advance of man from the most savage to the most civilized condition.
The abbe de Chateauneuf died before his godson left school, but he had already introduced him to the famous and dissipated coterie of the Temple, of which the grand prior Vendome was the head, and the poets Chaulieu and La Fare the chief literary stars.
It has also been found as a constituent of various parts of plants and has been recognized in the stars.
Merodach next arranged the stars in order, along with the sun and moon, and gave them laws which they were never to transgress.
The stars had been numbered and named at an early date, and we possess tables of lunar longitudes and observations of the phases of Venus.
In other islands the natives venerated the sun, moon, earth and stars.
Astronomical observations extend over too brief a period of time to show any attraction between different stars except those in each other's neighbourhood.
These demonstrations were of two kinds, one nocturnal, showing the moon and bright stars, the other diurnal, for day scenes.
He says they can be used for observation of the moon and stars and also for longitudes.
perEwpa, literally " things in the air," from yerb., beyond, and a€ipav, to lift up), a term originally applied by the ancient Greeks to many atmospheric phenomena - rainbows, halos, shooting stars, &c. - but now specially restricted to those luminous bodies known as shooting stars, falling stars, fireballs and bolides.
The ordinary shooting stars vary from the brilliancy of a firstto a sixth-magnitude star.
On a clear moonless night one person may count eight or ten shooting stars in an hour.
The finer meteors on entering the air only weigh a few hundred or, at most, a few thousand pounds, while the smallest shooting stars visible to the eye may probably be equal in size to coarse grains of sand, and still be large enough to evolve all the light presented by them.
45, and note the association of the name in the Books of Samuel, where it first appears, with the ark, or with war); by others, of the heavenly hosts, the stars conceived as living beings, later, perhaps, the angels as the court of Yahweh and the instruments of his will in nature and history (Ps.
deals with astronomy - the moon, stars, and the zodiac, the sun, the planets, the seasons and the calendar.
Similar condensations produced the sun and stars; and the flaming state of these bodies is due to the velocity of their motions.
We are not so unreasonable as to blame him for failing to make his pages picturesque or thrilling; we do not want sunsets and stars and roses and ecstasy; but there is a certain standard for the most serious and abstract subjects.
Men and women of all ranks began to visit it; the emperor himself consented (f 887) to witness a performance by the great stars of the stage at the private residence of Marquis Inouye; a dramatic reform association was organized by a number of prominent noblemen and scholars; drastic efforts were made to purge the old historical dramas of anachronisms and inconsistencies, and at length a theatre (the Yurabu-za) was built on purely European lines, where instead of sitting from morning to night witnessing one long-drawn-out drama with interludes of whole farces, a visitor may devote only a few evening-hours to the pastime.
He was the first to employ mercury for the air-pump, and devised a method of determining longitude at sea by observations of the moon among the stars.
Like some other culture-heroes, he steals sun, moon and stars out of a box, so enlightening the dark earth.
By uttering a sacred formula the good spirit throws the evil one into a state of confusion for a second 3000 years, while he produces the archangels and the material creation, including the sun, moon and stars.
9, 10, 14, 15, that God divided the primeval waters into two parts by an intervening " firmament " or " platform," on which the sun, moon and stars (planets) were placed to mark times and to give light.
Ptolemy catalogued fourteen stars, Tycho Brahe twenty-seven, and Hevelius forty in this constellation.
The angle between the stars and g Ursae maj.
The chief objections to the method are that, as one star is in the axis of the telescope and the other displaced from it, the images are not both in focus of the eye-piece,3 and the rays from the two stars do not make the same angle with the optical axis of each segment.
Bessel's practice was to unclamp in declination, lower and read off the head, and then restore the telescope to its former declination reading, the clockwork meanwhile following the stars in right ascension.
6 This most important improvement would permit any two stars under measurement each to be viewed in the optical axis of each segment.
Thus, in measuring the largest as well as the smallest angles, the images of both stars would be equally symmetrical and equally well in focus.
The instrument so altered was in use at the Cape Observatory from March 1881 till 1887 in determining the parallax of some of the more interesting southern stars.
(e) A position-micrometer is attached to the finder to enable the observer to select comparison stars for observation with some unexpected object.
Directing the finder to the comet, he has at once in the field of view all available comparison stars.
The disk 32 operates the wire gauze screens for equalizing the brightness of the two stars under observation.
In determinations of stellar or solar parallax, comparison stars, symmetrically situated with respect to the object whose parallax is sought, should be employed, in which case the instantaneous scale-value may be regarded as an unknown quantity which can be derived in the process of the computation of the results.
He, however, successfully employed the instrument in measuring double stars, so close as I" or 2", and using a power of 300 diameters, with results that agreed satisfactorily amongst themselves and with those obtained with the filar micrometer.
Again, a Christian could not represent Christ as the son of the wife of the sun-god; for such is the natural interpretation of the woman crowned with the twelve stars and with her feet upon the moon.
The contents are of a varied character: the natural history of man, the influence of the stars and genii, music, religious rites, astronomy, the doctrines of the Greek philosophers.
276-324), a celebrated antiquary who recognized in the adjacent mountain peaks a correspondence with the stars in the constellation of the Great Bear, from which circumstance the town was first known as the Tow or Great Bear city.
It was used for taking the altitudes of sun, moon and stars; for calculating latitude; for determining the points of the compass, and time; for ascertaining heights of mountains, &c.; and for construction of horoscopes.
The chemical constitution of the stars was the problem to which he turned his attention, and his first results, obtained in conjunction with Professor W.
Miller, were presented to the Royal Society in 1863, in a preliminary note on the "Lines of some of the fixed stars."
Thus in 1864 the spectroscope yielded him evidence that planetary and irregular nebulae consist of luminous gas - a conclusion tending to support the nebular hypothesis of the origin of stars and planets by condensation from glowing masses of fluid material.
The alternate delay and acceleration of the eclipses are then merely apparent; they represent the changes in the length of the light-journey as the stars perform their wide circuit.
At the end of 1905, however, about 37 had been certainly recognized, besides some outlying cases of indeterminate type, in which continuous occultations by two bright stars, revolving in virtual contact, are doubtfully supposed to be in progress.
His chief work was concerned with the cataloguing of stars: a preliminary catalogue of the stars of the S.
hemisphere was published in 1832 at Hamburg, and in 1846-52 he published his great catalogue of 12,000 stars.
The identification of the " hosts " with the stars comes to the same thing; the stars were thought of as closely connected with angels.
He established an astronomical observatory at Paramatta in 1822, and the Brisbane Catalogue, which was printed in 1835 and contained 7385 stars, was the result of observations made there in 1822-1826.
The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
He made a great number of observations of stars with proper motion.
Quetelet's astronomical papers refer chiefly to shooting stars and similar phenomena.
The discrepancy now, however, amounts to the entire breadth of a sign, the sun's path in Aries lying among the stars of Pisces, in Taurus among those of Aries, &c.
The idea of tracing the sun's path among the stars was, when it occurred to Chaldaean astronomers, an original and, relatively to their means, a recondite one.
brighter stars of the constellation could be said even roughly to mark the equinox much before 1800 B.C.; during a long stretch of previous time the leading position belonged to the stars of Taurus.'
According to an alternative explanation, the heavenly Ram, placed as leader in front of the flock of the stars, merely embodied a spontaneous figure of the popular imagination.
The Taurus solar interpretation of the sign goes back to the far off time when the year began with Taurus, and the sun was conceived of as a bull entering upon the great furrow of heaven as he ploughed his way among the stars.
The Chaldaeans chose three stars in each sign to be the " councillor gods" of the planets."
The Egyptians adopted from the Greeks, with considerable modifications of its attendant symbolism, the twelve-fold division of the zodiac. Aries became the Fleece; two Sprouting Plants, typifying equality or resemblance, stood for Gemini; Cancer was re-named Scarabaeus; Leo was converted, from the axe-like configuration of its chief stars, into the Knife: Libra into the Mountain of the Sun, a reminiscence, apparently, of the Euphratean association of the seventh month with a " holy mound," designating the biblical tower of Babel.
The motive of some of the substitutions was to avoid the confusion which must have ensued from the duplication of previously existing native asterisms; thus, the Egyptian and Greek Lions were composed of totally different stars.: Abstractions in other cases replaced concrete objects, with the general result of effacing the distinctive character of the Greek zodiac as a " circle of living things."
Their use was chiefly astrological, and their highly figurative names - " Great Splendour," " Immense Void," "Fire of the Phoenix," &c. - had reference to no particular stars.
Such were the Hindu nakshatras, a word originally signifying stars in general, but appropriated to designate certain small stellar groups marking the divisions of the lunar track.
8 Alternately admitted into or rejected from the series, it was finally, some six or seven centuries ago, eliminated by the effects of precession in reversing the order of culmination of its limiting stars.
But the nakshatras are twenty-eight, and are represented by as many " junction stars " (yogatara), carefully determined by their spherical co-ordinates.
It is composed of the stars in the head of Aries, and is figured by a horse's head.
The correspondence does not, however, extend to the stars; and some coincidences adverted to by Humboldt between the nakshatras and the zodiacal animals of Central Asia are of the same nominal character.
They were measured by the meridian-passages of the limiting stars, and varied in amplitude from 2° 42' to 30° 24'.
13 The use of the specially observed stars constituting or representing the sieu was as points of reference for the movements of sun, moon and planets.
They served, in fact, and still serve (though with astrological ends in view), the precise purpose of " fundamental stars " in European astronomy.
The whole system of junction stars was doubtless an imitation of the sieu; the choice of them by the Hindu astronomers of the 6th century A.D.
Eight junction stars lie quite close to, seven others are actually identical with, Chinese determinants; 14 and many of these coincidences 9 Sir William Jones, As.
Twenty-four out of twenty-eight were formed, at least in part, of nakshatra or sieu stars.'
Eighteen Chinese determinants were included in the Arab asterisms, and of these five or six were not nakshatra stars; consequently, they must have been taken directly from the Chinese series.
Peirce, Science of the Stars, p. 84.
If the surrounding aether is thereby disturbed, the waves of light arriving from the stars will partake of its movement; the ascertained phenomena of the astronomical aberration of light show that the rays travel to the observer, across this disturbed aether near the earth, in straight lines.
Its external walls are of a pale green and white colour, and it has ten cupolas, four spangled with stars and six surmounted each with a cross.
He calculated an orbit for the comet of 1 759 (Halley's), reduced Lacaille's observations of 515 zodiacal stars, and was, in 1763, elected a member of the Academy of Sciences.
He then read for the bar, but turned to astronomy and authorship instead, and in 1865 published an article on the "Colours of Double Stars" in the Cornhill Magazine.
He intended to follow it up with similar treatises on Mars, Jupiter, sun, moon, comets and meteors, stars, and nebulae, and had in fact commenced a monograph on Mars, when the failure of a New Zealand bank deprived him of an independence which would have enabled him to carry out his scheme without anxiety as to its commercial success or failure.
His Handbook of the Stars (1866) was refused by Messrs Longmans and Messrs Macmillan, but being privately printed, it sold fairly well.
This was followed by a long series of popular treatises in rapid succession, amongst the more important of which are Light Science for Leisure Hours and The Sun (1871); The Orbs around Us and Essays on Astronomy (1872); The Expanse of Heaven, The Moon and The Borderland of Science (1873); The Universe and the Coming Transits and Transits of Venus (1874);(1874); Our Place among Infinities (1875); Myths and Marvels of Astronomy (1877); The Universe of Stars (1878); Flowers of the Sky (1879); The Peotry of Astronomy (1880); Easy Star Lessons and Familiar Science Studies (1882); Mysteries of Time and Space and The Great Pyramid (1883); The Universe of Suns (1884); The Seasons (1885); Other Suns than Ours and Half-Hours with the Stars (1887).
Of these the more noteworthy dealt with the distribution of stars, starclusters and nebulae, and the construction of the sidereal universe.
A chart on an isographic projection, exhibiting all the stars contained in the Bonn Durchmusterung, was designed to show the laws according to which the stars down to the 9 - 10th magnitude are distributed over the northern heavens.
The accounts of the observations given in these papers, however, were fragmentary; but in 1879-80 a complete account of them was published by the present earl ("Observations of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars made with the 6-foot and 3-foot Reflectors at Birr Castle from 1848 to 1878") in the Scient.
The Romans knew the constellation as Arctos or Ursa; the Arabians termed the quadrilateral, formed by the four stars a, 0, y, b, Na'sh, a bier, whence it is sometimes known as Feretrum majus.
Ptolemy catalogued 8 stars, Tycho 7 and Hevelius Of these, the seven brightest (a of the 1st magnitude, 0, y, of the 2nd magnitude, and b of the 3rd magnitude) constitute one of the most characteristic figures in the northern sky; they have received various names - Septentriones, the wagon, plough, dipper and Charles's wain (a corruption of " churl's wain," or peasant's cart).
With the Hindus these seven stars represented the seven Rishis.
- The opposing forces now in the field numbered 190,000 Unionists and half that number of Confederates; sixty-nine warships flew the Stars and Stripes and a number of improvised ironclads and gunboats the rival "Stars and Bars."
An early observatory, where in 1822 were made the observations for the Parramatta Catalogue, numbering 7385 stars, has long been abandoned.
The nous is a sort of second god, the X6yoc which are wrapped up in it are gods, the stars are gods, and so on.
With the first instrument of this kind, having objectives of 1 5 inch aperture, he measured the brightness of 4260 stars, including all stars down to the 6th magnitude between the North Pole and - 30° declination.
With the object of reaching fainter stars, Professor Pickering constructed another instrument of larger dimensions, and with this more than a million observations have been made.
The magnitudes of nearly 8000 southern stars were determined, including 1428 stars of the 6th magnitude and brighter.
The instrument was then returned to Cambridge (U.S.A.), where the survey extended so as to include all stars of magnitude 7.5 down to - 40° declination, after which it was once more sent back to Arequipa.
The important conclusion has been already derived that the majority of the stars in the Milky Way belong to one special type.
For in Oriental (Persian) dualism it is within this material world that the good and evil powers are at war, and this world beneath the stars is by no means conceived as entirely subject to the influence of evil.
The great goddess of heaven is the mother of the stars.
In free space, light of all wave-lengths is propagated with the same velocity, as is shown by the fact that stars, when occulted by the moon or planets, preserve their white colour up to the last moment of disappearance, which would not be the case if one colour reached the eye later than another.
The absence of colour changes in variable stars or in the appearance of new stars is further evidence of the same fact.
The river speeding on its course to the sea, the sun and moon, if not the stars also, on their never-ceasing daily round, the lightning, fire, the wind, the sea, all are in motion and therefore animate; but the savage does not stop short here; mountains and lakes, stones and manufactured articles, are for him alike endowed with souls like his own; he deposits in the tomb weapons and food, clothes and implements, broken, it may be, in order to set free their souls; or he attains the same result by burning them, and thus sending them to the Other World for the use of the dead man.
He remained at Dorpat, occupied with researches on double stars and geodesy till 1839, when he removed to superintend the construction of the new central observatory at Pulkowa near St Petersburg, afterwards becoming director.
Struve's name is best known by his observations of double stars, which he carried on for many years.
Herschel, who discovered that many of them formed systems of two stars revolving round their common centre of gravity.
refractor at Dorpat he discovered a great number of double stars, and published in 1827 a list of all the known objects of this kind (Catalogus novus stellarum duplicium).
From 1847 to 1862 he was advising astronomer to the headquarters of the army and navy; chairman of the International Astronomical Congress from 1867-1878; acting president of the International Metric Commission in 1872; and president of the International Congress for a Photographic Survey of the Stars in 1887, in which year he was also made a privy councillor.
Appended were tables of logarithms and of refraction, together with Tycho's catalogue of 777 stars, enlarged by Kepler to 1005.
The Keplerian like the Pythagorean cosmos was threefold, consisting of the centre, or sun, the surface, represented by the sphere of the fixed stars, and the intermediate space, filled with ethereal matter.
It is a mistake to suppose that he regarded the stars as so many suns.
In her grief at the destruction of the city she plucked out her hair and was changed into a comet; in another version Electra and her six sisters had been placed among the stars as the Pleiades, and the star which she represented lost its brilliancy after the fall of Troy.
An inquirer who examines the stars with a shilling telescope is not likely to make observations of value, and even a trained astronomer has to allow for his "personal equation" - a point to which even a finished critic rarely attends.
In order to refer back to the Physics, the De Coelo, and the De Generatione, this work begins by stating that the first causes of all nature and all natural motion, the stars ordered according to celestial motion and the bodily elements with their transmutations, and generation and corruption have all been discussed; and by adding that there remains to complete this investigation, what previous investigators called meteorology.
The world, according to Aristotle, consists of substances, each of which is a separate individual, this man, this horse, this animal, this plant, this earth, this water, this air, this fire; in the heavens that moon, that sun, those stars; above all, God.
number in arithmetic, magnitude in geometry, stars in astronomy, a man's good in ethics; concentrates itself on the causes and appropriate principles of its subject, especially the definition of the subject and its species by their essences or formal causes; and after an inductive intelligence of those principles proceeds by a deductive demonstration from definitions to consequences: philosophy is simply a desire of this definite knowledge of causes and effects.
animals, plants, water, earth, moon, sun, stars.
Nature's boundary is the outer sphere of the fixed stars, which is eternally moved day after day in a uniform circle round the earth.
Still a man is not the only organism; and every organism has a soul, whose immediate organ is the spirit (7rvEwµa), a body which - analogous to a body diviner than the four so-called elements, namely the aether, the element of the stars - gives to the organism its nonterrestrial vital heat, whether it be a plant or an animal.
Are the things which surround me in what I call the environment, - the men, the animals, the plants, the ground, the stones, the water, the air, the moon, the sun, the stars and God - are they shadows, unsubstantial things, as formerly Platonism made all things to be except the supernatural world of forms, gods and souls?
He was also a diligent and skilful observer, and busied himself not only with astronomical subjects, such as the double stars, the satellites of Jupiter and the measurement of the polar and equatorial diameters of the sun, but also with biological studies of the circulation of the sap in plants, the fructification of plants, infusoria, &c.
Canes Venatici ("The Hounds," or "the greyhounds"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere named by Hevelius in 1690, who compiled it from the stars between the older asterisms Ursa Major, Bodtes and Coma Berenices.
corum, a double star, of magnitudes 3 and 6; this star was named Cor Caroli, or The Heart of Charles II., by Edmund Halley, on the suggestion of Sir Charles Scarborough (1616-1694), the court physician; a cluster of stars of the firth magnitude and fainter, extremely rich in variables, of the goo stars examined no less than 132 being regularly variable.
Aberration Of Light This astronomical phenomenon may be defined as an apparent motion of the heavenly bodies; the stars describing annually orbits more or less elliptical, according to the latitude of the star; consequently at any moment the star appears to be displaced from its true position.
Its origin is seated in attempts made to free from doubt the prevailing discordances as to whether the stars possessed appreciable parallaxes.
As early as 1573, Thomas Digges had suggested that this theory should necessitate a parallactic shifting of the stars, and, consequently, if such stellar parallaxes existed, then the Copernican theory would receive additional confirmation.
Nutation of the axis would determine a similar apparent motion for all stars: thus, all stars having the same polar distance as y Draconis should exhibit the same apparent motion after or before this star by a constant interval.
Many stars satisfy the condition of equality of polar distance with that of y Draconis, but few were bright enough to be observed in Molyneux's telescope.
Bradley had already perceived, in the case of the two stars previously scrutinized, that the apparent difference of declination from the maximum positions was nearly proportional to the sun's distance from the equinoctial points; and he realized the necessity for more observations before any generalization could be attempted.
Two hundred stars in the British Catalogue of Flamsteed traversed its field of view; and, of these, about fifty were kept under close observation.
His conclusions may be thus summarized: (r) only stars near the solstitial colure had their maximum north and south positions when the sun was near the equinoxes, (2) each star was at its maximum positions when it passed the zenith at six o'clock morning and evening (this he afterwards showed to be inaccurate, and found the greatest change in declination to be proportional to the latitude of the star), (3) the apparent motions of all stars at about the same time was in the same direction.
Balmer's formula received a striking confirmation when it was found to include the ultra-violet lines which were discovered by Sir William Huggins' in the photographic spectra of stars.
Aristotle could not know enough, physically, about Nature to understand its matter, or its motions, or its forces; and consequently he fell into the error of supposing a primary matter with four contrary primary qualities, hot and cold, dry and moist, forming by their combinations four simple bodies, earth, water, air and fire, with natural rectilineal motions to or from the centre of the earth; to which he added a quintessence of ether composing the stars, with a natural circular motion round the earth.
In order to obtain the declination a pivoted magnet is used to obtain the magnetic meridian, the geographical meridian being obtained by observations on the sun or stars.
Among his contributions to astronomy may be noted his eleven zonecatalogues of 34,674 stars, his measurements, in 1836-1837, of nebulae and clusters, and his determination of the mass of Uranus from observations of its satellites (Mena.
Hence, however carefully a compass may be placed and subsequently compensated, the mariner has no safety without constantly observing the bearings of the sun, stars or distant terrestrial objects, to ascertain its deviation.
The regularity of their diurnal revolutions could not escape notice, and a good deal was known 2000 years ago about the motions of the sun and moon and planets among the stars.
He attained correct views as to the character of centrifugal force in connexion with Galileo's theory; and, when the fact of the variation of gravity (Galileo's acceleration) in different latitudes first became known from the results of pendulum experiments, he at once perceived the possibility of connecting such a variation with the fact of the earth's diurnal rotation relatively to the stars.
In the meantime some confirmation of the law has been obtained from terrestrial experiments, and observations of double stars tend to indicate for it a wider if not universal range.
No correction for any defect in it has been found necessary; moreover, no rotation of the base relative to the directions of the stars without proper motion has been detected.
This is not inconsistent with the law of gravitation, for such estimates as have been made of planetary perturbations due to stars give results which are insignificant in comparison with quantities at present measurable.
Practically clocks are regulated by reference to the diurnal rotation of the earth relatively to the stars, which affords a measurement on the repetition principle agreeing with other methods, but more accurate than that given by any existing clock.
From about 1864 he occupied himself almost exclusively with spectrum analysis, both of stars (Catalogo delle stelle di cui si e determinato lo spettro luminoso, Paris, 1867, 8vo; "Sugli spettri prismatici delle stelle fisse," two parts, 1868, in the Atti della Soc. Ital.) and of the sun (Le Soleil, Paris, 1870, 8vo; 2nd ed., 1877).
The Godhead was really one; it was the soul of the eternal world, displaying its beneficence on the earth, as well as in the sun and stars (ii.12 seq., 154 seq.).
Philolaus supposed that the sphere of the fixed stars, the five planets, the sun, moon and earth, all moved round the central fire, which he called the hearth of the universe, the house of Zeus, and the mother of the gods (see Stob.
In the middle ages it was a common practice for sovereigns and princes to dub each other knights much as they were afterwards, and are now, in the habit of exchanging the stars and ribbons of their orders.
The ribbon and badges of the knights grand cross (civil and military) and the stars are illustrated on Plate II., figs.
The badges, stars and ribbons of the knights grand commanders of the two orders are illustrated on Plate III., figs.
The scene of the future life may be thought of on earth, in some distant part of it, or above the earth, in the sky, sun, moon or stars, or beneath the earth.
From 1855 to 1859 he acted as director of the Dudley observatory at Albany, New York; and published in 1859 a discussion of the places and proper motions of circumpolar stars to be used as standards by the United States coast survey.
This was followed by a zone-catalogue of 73,160 stars (1884), and a general catalogue (1885) compiled from meridian observations of 32,448 stars.
Precht, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 2326), in some meteorites, in certain stars and nebulae, and also in the envelopes of the sun.
The pious Nosairi takes his rank among the stars, but the body of the impious undergoes many transformations.
A further extension is given by some writers, who use the term as synonymous with the religions of primitive peoples, including under it not only the worship of inanimate objects, such as the sun, moon or stars, but even such phases of primitive philosophy as totemism.
So little was the scientific conception of the solar system familiar to Epicurus that he could reproach the astronomers, because their account of an eclipse represented things otherwise than as they appear to the senses, and could declare that the sun and stars were just as large as they seemed to us.
The stars in their courses fought against him, and at the time of his death he saw how far beyond his power were the forces with which even Charles had been unable to contend.
Professor Petrie has indeed suggested, chiefly on chronological grounds, that a table of stars on the ceiling of the Ramesseum temple and another in the tomb of Rameses VI.
The titles of several temple books are preserved recording the movements and phases of the sun, moon and stars.
On the different days of the year each hour was determined by a fixed star culminating or nearly culminating in it, and the position of these stars at the time is given in the tables as in the centre, on the left eye, on the right shoulder, &c. According to the texts, in founding or rebuilding temples the north axis was determined by the same apparatus, and we may condude that it was the usual one for astronomical observations.
The stars and planets as e likevvise gods.
The life of the dead man in the sky is variously envisaged in different texts: at one moment he is spoken of as accompanying the sun-god in his celestial bark, at another as a mighty king more powerful than Re himself; the crudest fancy of all pictures him as a hunter who catches the stars and gods, and cooks and eats them.
Accordingly, as soon as all the great planets had disappeared, a new constellation was perceived to have risen, and all the stars in it had been lighted by the enthusiasm of Brandes.
The principal fruit of the observations was a catalogue of about a thousand stars, the places of which were determined by the methods usually employed in the 16th century, connecting a fundamental star by means of Venus with the sun, and thus finding its longitude and latitude, while other stars could at any time be referred to the fundamental star.
There are nine windows, three on each faï¿½e, and the ceiling is admirably diversified with inlaid-work of white, blue and gold, in the shape of circles, crowns and stars - a kind of imitation of the vault of heaven.
His first task on taking up this post was the reduction and publication of a large mass of observations left by his predecessor, from a selected portion of which (those made 1856-1860) he compiled a catalogue of 1154 stars.
His principal work was, however, a catalogue of 12,441 stars to the 7th magnitude between the South Pole and 25° S.
At Oxford he extended the Cape observations of stars to the 7th magnitude from 25° S.
declination to the equator, and collected the results in the Radclif f e Catalogue for 1890, which contains the places of 6424 stars.
Just as whatsoever stars there be, their radiance avails not the sixteenth part of the radiance of the moon.
PLEIADES, ATLANTIDES or Vergiliae, in astronomy, a group of stars situated in the constellation Taurus.
This group is particularly rich in bright stars, and is full of nebulosity, but there are fewer faint stars than in equal areas of the surrounding sky; the central star is Alcyone (3rd magnitude); PleIone and Atlas are also of the 3rd magnitude.
The people had a knowledge of the stars, of the rising and setting of the constellations at different seasons of the year; by this means they determined the favourable season for making a voyage and directed their course.
Arcturus has been supposed to be referred to in various passages of the Hebrew Bible; the Vulgate reads Arcturus for stars mentioned in Job ix.
In many localities, especially in Imbabura, pottery and various objects are found belonging to the pre-Colombian period, among which five and six rayed stars (casse-tetes) are very numerous.
10, it is said that the little horn "waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground."
Those who supposed astronomy to inspire religious awe were horrified to hear the stars compared to eruptive spots on the face of the sky.
Anion's lyre and the dolphin were translated to the stars.
In the catalogues of Ptolemy, Tycho Brahe, and Hevelius, eight stars are mentioned; but recent uranographic surveys have greatly increased this number.
In Ptolemy's catalogue thirteen stars are described.
Ptolemy catalogues twenty-three stars, Tycho Brahe twenty-eight, Hevelius fifty-two.
In addition to Arcturus, the brightest in the group, the most interesting stars of this constellation are: e Bootis, a beautiful double star composed of a yellow star of magnitude 3, and a blue star of magnitude 62; Bootis, a double star composed of a yellow star, magnitude 41, and a purple star, magnitude 61-; and W.
Days are distinguished as solar, sidereal or lunar, according as the revolution is taken relatively to the sun, the stars or the moon.
His detection of considerable errors in the tables then in use led him to the conclusion that a more accurate ascertainment of the places of the fixed stars was indispensable to the progress of astronomy; and, finding that Flamsteed and Hevelius had already undertaken to catalogue those visible in northern latitudes, he assumed to himself the task of making observations in the southern hemisphere.
He returned to England in November 1678, having by the registration of 341 stars won the title of the "Southern Tycho," and by the translation to the heavens of the "Royal Oak," earned a degree of master of arts, conferred at Oxford by the king's command on the 3rd of December 1678, almost simultaneously with his election as fellow of the Royal Society.
Halley's most notable scientific achievements were - his detection of the "long inequality" of Jupiter and Saturn, and of the acceleration of the moon's mean motion (1693), his discovery of the proper motions of the fixed stars (1718), his theory of variation (1683), including the hypothesis of four magnetic poles, revived by C. Hansteen in 1819, and his suggestion of the magnetic origin of the aurora borealis; his calculation of the orbit of the 1682 comet (the first ever attempted), coupled with a prediction of its return, strikingly verified in 1759; and his indication (first in 1679, and again in 1716, Phil.
Thus, because Democritus announced that the Milky Way is composed of vast multitudes of stars, it has been maintained that he could only have been led to.
Thus also the sun, moon and stars may be made to descend hither in appearance, and to be visible over the heads of our enemies, and many things of the like sort, which persons unacquainted with such things would refuse to believe."
Molyneux also cites from Bacon's Epistola ad Parisiensem, " Of the Secrets of Art and Nature," chap. 5: "Glasses or diaphanous bodies may be so formed that the most remote objects may appear just at hand, and the contrary, so that we may read the smallest letters at an incredible distance, and may number things, though never so small, and may make the stars also appear as near as we please."
Where accurate differential observations or photographs involving other than instantaneous exposures have to be made, the additional condition is required that the optical axis of the telescope shall accurately and automatically follow the object under observation in spite of the apparent diurnal motion of the heavens, or in some cases even of the apparent motion of the object relative to neighbouring fixed stars.
for 1824 (part 3, pp. 1-412) will be found a description by Sir John Herschel and Sir James South of the equatorial telescope which they employed in their measurements of double stars.
Sir David Gill tested the equatorial coude on double stars at the Paris Observatory in 1884, and his last doubts as to the practical value of the instrument were dispelled.
A large slot has to be cut in the cone which forms the upper part of the polar axis, in order to allow the telescope to be pointed nearer to the pole than would otherwise be possible; even so stars within 15° of the pole cannot be observed.
The largest refracting telescope yet made, viz., that constructed by Gautier for the Paris exhibition of 1900, was arranged on this plan (type F), the stars' rays being reflected along the horizontal axis re rac or of a telescope provided with visual and with photo graphic object-glasses of 49-in.
Also, if the axis is made to revolve at half the apparent diurnal motion of the stars, the image of the celestial sphere, viewed by reflection from such a moving mirror, will appear at rest at every point - hence the name coelostat applied to the apparatus.
Thus, any fixed telescope directed towards the mirror of a properly adjusted coelostat in motion will show all the stars in the field of view at rest; or, by rotating the polar axis independently of the clockwork, the observer can pass in review all the stars visible above the horizon whose declinations come within the limits of his original field of view.
Therefore, to observe stars of a different declination it will be necessary either to shift the direction of the fixed telescope, keeping its axis still pointed to the coelostat mirror, or to employ a second mirror to reflect the rays from the coelostat mirror along the axis of a fixed telescope.
A pair of stars of known declination are selected such that their zenith distances, when on the meridian, are nearly equal and opposite, and whose right ascensions differ by five or ten minutes of time.
The value of "one revolution of the screw in seconds of arc" can be determined either by observing at transit the difference of zenith distance of two stars of known declination in terms of the micrometer screw, the instrument remaining at rest between their transits; or by measuring at known instants in terms of the screw, the change of zenith distance of a standard star of small polar distance near the time of its greatest elongation.
The almucantar was therefore used only to observe the vertical transits of stars in different azimuths over fixed horizontal webs, without touching the telescope.
The interval between the true trails, measured at right angles to the direction of the trails, obviously corresponds to the difference of zenith distance of the two stars.
The essential feature of this astral theology is the assumption of a close link between the movements going on in the heavens and occurrences on earth, which led to identifying the gods and goddesses with heavenly bodies - planets and stars, besides sun and moon - and to assigning the seats of all the deities in the heavens.
To read the signs of the heavens was therefore to understand the meaning of occurrences on earth, and with this accomplished it was also possible to foretell what events were portended by the position and relationship to one another of sun, moon, planets and certain stars.
At the same time, since the invoking of the divine powers was the essential element in the incantations, in order to make the magic formulae as effective as possible, a large number of the old local deities are introduced to add their power to the chief ones; and it is here that the astral system comes into play through the introduction of names of stars, as well as through assigning attributes to the gods which clearly reflect the conception that they have their seats in the heavens.
In another division of the religious literature of Babylonia which is largely represented in Assur-bani-pal's collection - the myths and legends - tales which originally symbolized the change of seasons, or in which historical occurrences are overcast with more or less copious admixture of legend and myth, were transferred to the heavens, and so it happens that creation myths, and the accounts of wanderings and adventures of heroes of the past, are referred to movements among the planets and stars as well as to occurrences or supposed occurrences on earth.
With the development of observational astronomy the sidereal universe was arbitrarily divided into areas characterized by special assemblages of stars; these assemblages were named asterisms by Ptolemy, who termed the brightest stars "of the fi rst magnitude," and the progressively fainter Stars.
P g Y stars of progressively greater magnitude.
The faintest stars visible to the naked eye on clear nights are of about the sixth magnitude; exceptionally keen, well-trained eyes and clear moonless nights are necessary for the perception of stars of the seventh magnitude.
Heis the numbers and magnitudes of stars between the north pole and a circle 35° south of the equator are: - From the value of the light-ratio we can construct a table showing the number of stars of each magnitude which would together give as much light as a first magnitude star, viz.: - Comparing these figures with the numbers of stars of each magnitude we notice that the total light emitted by all the stars of a given magnitude is fairly constant.
- Although the majority of the stars are unchanging in magnitude, there are many exceptions.
Stars whose brightness fluctuates are called variable stars.
Many of these stars seem to vary quite irregularly; the changes of magnitude do not recur in any orderly way.
Of the periodic variable stars, the lengths of the periods range from 3 hours 12 minutes, which is the shortest yet determined, to 61o days, the longest.
There is some over-lapping of these two classes as regards length of period, and it is doubtful in which class some stars, whose periods are between io days and 150 days, should be placed; but the two classes are quite distinct physically, and the variability depends on entirely different causes.
Stars having this type of spectrum are always variable, and a large proportion of the more recently discovered long-period variables have been detected through their characteristic spectrum.
It is natural to compare the periodic outbursts occurring in these stars with the outbursts of activity on the sun, which have a period of about eleven years.
In both cases the rise to a maximum is more rapid than the decline to a minimum, and in fact some of the minor peculiarities of the sunspot curve are closely imitated by the light-curves of variable stars.
On the other hand, the variations in the light of the sun must be very small compared with the enormous fluctuations in the light of variable stars.
Moreover, the solar period (II years) is far outside the limits of the periods of 1 Variable stars (except those sufficiently bright to have received special names) are denoted by the capital letters R to Z followed by the name of the constellation.
The heavenly bodies fall into two classes: (1) the fixed stars, or stars proper, which retain the same relative position with respect to one another; and (2) the planets, which have motions of a distinctly individual character, and appear to wander among the stars proper.
Numerous counts of the number of stars visible to the naked eye have been made; it is doubtful whether more than 2000 can be seen at one time from any position on the earth.
The recognition of stars is primarily dependent on their brightness or " magnitude "; and it is clear that stars admit of classification on this basis.
It is therefore perhaps misleading actually to class the sun with them; but it seems highly probable that whatever cause produces the periodic outbursts of spots and faculae on our sun differs only in degree from that which, in stars under a different physical condition of pressure and temperature, results in the gigantic conflagrations which we have been considering.
There are several wellmarked varieties of short-period variables; the most important are typified by the stars Algol, # Lyrae, Geminorum and S Cephei.
In the Algol variables one of the component stars is dark (that is to say, dark in comparison with the other), and once in each revolution, passing between us and the bright component, partially hides it.
Two stars are supposed to revolve about one another nearly or actually in contact.
In such a system the tidal forces must be very great, and under their influence the stars will not be spherical, but will be elongated in the direction of the line joining their centres.
When the line of centres is at right angles to our line of sight, the stars present to us their greatest apparent surface, and therefore send us the maximum light.
Supposing that the two stars are of unequal surface brilliancy, the magnitude at minimum will depend on which of the two stars is the nearer to us, accordingly there are two unequal minima in each revolution.
When the two stars are of equal brilliancy the minima are equal; this is the case in variables of the Geminorum type.
A large eccentricity also produces an unsymmetrical light variation, the minimum occurring at a time not midway between two maxima; stars of this character are called Cepheid variables, after the typical star S Cephei.
Ellipsoidal, pear-shaped or hour-glassshaped stars would all give rise to the phenomena of a short-period variable, and doubtless examples of these intermediate forms exist.
Thus the cluster Messier 5 was found at Harvard to contain 185 variables out of 900 stars examined.
Temporary Stars or Novas.
According to Miss Agnes Clerke there are records of ten such stars appearing between 134 B.C. and A.D.
For nearly three centuries after these two remarkable stars no nova attained a brilliancy greater than that of the ordinary stars, until in 1901 Nova Persei appeared.
In the case of this star there is evidence that the outburst must have been extremely rapid, for the region where Nova Persei appeared had been photographed repeatedly at Harvard during February, and in particular no trace of the star was found on a plate taken on the 19th of February, which showed eleventh magnitude stars.
Two possible explanations of the phenomena of temporary stars have been held.
The collision theory supposes that the outburst is the result of a collision between two stars or between a star and a swarm of meteoric or nebulous matter.
In many cases, however, two or more stars are really connected, and their distance from one another is (from the astronomical standpoint) small.
But these cases form a very small proportion of the total number of double stars.
In many other double stars the two components have very nearly the same proper motion.
Unless this is a mere coincidence, it implies that the two stars are nearly at the same distance from us.
We can therefore infer that the two stars are really comparatively close together, and, moreover, since they have the same proper motion, that they remain close together.
Several double stars were observed during the 17th century, Ursae Majoris being the first on record.
In 1784 Christian Mayer published a catalogue of all the double stars then known, which contained 89 pairs.
Struve at Dorpat examined 120,000 stars, and found 3112 double stars whose distance apart did not exceed 32".
Burnham's General Catalogue of Double Stars (1907) contains 13,655 pairs north of declination - 31°.
These systems appear as a connecting link between short-period variable stars on the one hand and telescopic double stars on the other.
Stars of the class to which the Algol type of variables belongs will appear to us to vary only in the exceptional case when the plane of the orbit passes so near our sun that one body appears to pass over the other and so causes an eclipse.
A continuous gradation can be traced from the most widely separated visual binaries, whose periods are many thousand years, to spectroscopic binaries, Algol and # Lyrae variables, whose periods are a few hours and whose components may even be in contact, and from these to dumb-bell shaped stars and finally to ordinary single stars.
Whilst there is thus no well-defined lower limit to the dimensions of systems of two stars, on the other hand we cannot set any superior limit either to the number of stars which shall form a system or to the dimensions of that system.
No star is altogether removed from the attractions of its neighbours, and there are cases where some sort of connexion seems to relate stars which are widely separated in space.
A curious case of this sort is that of the five stars a, -y, 6, and i of Ursa Major.
The agreement is too close to be dismissed as a mere coincidence, and it is confirmed by a corresponding agreement of their radial motions determined by the spectroscope; and yet, seeing that a and Ursae Majoris are 19° apart, these two stars must be distant from each other at least one-third of the distance of each from the sun; thus the members of this singular group are separated by the ordinary stellar distances, and probably each has neighbours, not belonging to the system, which are closer to it than the other four stars of the group. Further, E.
It is difficult to understand what may be the connexion between stars so widely separated; from the equality of their motions they must have been widely separated for a very long period.
Of multiple stars the most famous is 0 Orionis, situated near the densest part of the great Orion nebula.
It .consists of four principal stars and two faint companions.
From the more complex systems of this kind, we pass to the consideration of starclusters, which are systems of stars in which the components are very numerous.
When examined with a telescope of power insufficient to separate the individual stars, a cluster appears like a nebula.
The " beehive cluster " Praesepe in Cancer is an example of an easily resolved cluster composed of fairly bright stars.
The great cluster in Hercules (Messier 13), on the other hand, requires the highest telescopic power for its complete resolution into stars.
The Hercules cluster is of this form; another example is Centauri, in which over 6000 stars have been counted, comprised within a circle of about 40' diameter.
These clusters present many unsolved problems. Thus Perrine, from an examination of ten globular clusters (including Messier 13 and Centauri), has found in each case that the stars can be separated into two classes of magnitudes.
About one-third of the stars are between magnitudes 11 and 13, and the remaining two-thirds are between magnitudes 15.5 and 16.5.
Stars of magnitudes intermediate between these two groups are almost entirely absent.
Thus each cluster seems to consist of two kinds of stars, which we may distinguish as bright and faint; the bright stars are all approximately of one standard size, and the faint stars of another standard size and brightness.
The mutual gravitation of a large number of stars crowded in a comparatively small space must be considerable, and the individual stars must move in irregular orbits under their mutual attractions.
On examining the stars telescopically, many which appear single to the unaided eye are found to be composed of two or more stars very close together.
however, only the red stars that form a clearly marked class by themselves.
Of the first magnitude red stars Antares is the most deeply coloured, Betelgeux,.Aldebaran and Arcturus being successively less conspicuously red.
Systematic study of red stars dates from the publication in 1866 of Schjellerup's Catalogue, containing a list of 280 of them.
The two components of double stars often exhibit complementary colours.
As a rule contrasted colours are shown by pairs having a bright and a faint component which are relatively wide apart; brilliant white stars frequently have a blue attendant - this is instanced in the case of Regulus and Rigel.
The occurrence of change, either periodic or irregular, in the colour of individual stars, has been suspected by many observers; but such a colour-variability is necessarily very difficult to establish.
There is perhaps room for doubt as to the precise significance of the words used; but the fact that Ptolemy classes Sirius with Antares, Aldebaran, Arcturus, Betelgeux and Procyon as " fiery red " (inrorceppoc) as compared with all the other bright stars which are " yellow " (;av©oc) seems almost conclusive that Sirius was then a redstar.
When examined with the spectroscope the light of the stars is found to resemble generally that of the sun.
As in Stars.
telescope) measured the positions of the chief lines in the spectra of about forty stars.
or " Sirian " type includes most of the bright white stars, such as Sirius, Vega, Rigel, &c.; it is characterized by strong broad hydrogen lines, which are often the only absorption lines visible.
includes the " Solar " stars, as Capella, Arcturus, Procyon, Aldebaran, their spectra are similar to that of the sun, being crossed by very numerous fine lines, mostly due to vapours of metals.
The great majority of the visible stars belong to these first two types.
or "Antarian " stars are of a reddish colour, such as Antares, Betelgeux, Mira, and many of the long-period variables.
also consists of red stars with banded spectra, but the bands differ in arrangement and appearance from those in the third type, and are sharply bounded on the red side.
These stars are also believed to have a comparatively low surface temperature, and the bands are attributed to the presence of compounds of carbon.
stars are known, but none conspicuous; 19 Piscium, the brightest, is of magnitude 5.5.
into two divisions, called helium and hydrogen stars respectively.
The former are often called " Orion " stars, as all the brighter stars in that constellation with the exception of Betelgeux belong to the helium type.
Helium stars are generally considered to be the hottest and most luminous (in proportion to size) of all the stars.
is now subdivided into " Procyon," " Solar " and " Arcturian " stars.
The " Procyon " or calcium stars form a transition between Type I.
spectra has been recognized, in which, as well as the usual absorption bands, bright emission lines of hydrogen appear; stars having this particular spectrum are always variable.
Finally, a fifth type has been added, the Wolf-Rayet stars; these show a spectrum crossed by the usual dark lines and bands, but showing also bright emission bands of blue and yellow light.
About ioo Wolf-Rayet stars are known, of which y Velorum is the brightest; they are confined to the region of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds.
(See Planet.) Evolution of Stars.
Stars of the different types are therefore not necessarily of different chemical constitution, but rather are in different physical conditions, and it is generally believed that every star in the course of its existence passes through stages corresponding to all (or most of) the different types.
The stars are known to be continually losing enormous quantities of energy by radiating their heat into space.
The greatest temperature attained is not the same for all stars, but depends on the mass of the star.
(carbon) stars are placed last in the series by all authorities; they seem, however, to follow more directly the solar stars than the Antarian.
If the latter are considered to be in an early state this presents no difficulty; but if both Antarian and carbon stars are held to be evolved from solar stars, we may consider them to be, not successive, but parallel stages of development, the chemical constitution of the star deciding whether it shall pass into the third or fourth type.
The WolfRayet stars must probably be assigned to the earliest period of evolution; they are perhaps semi-nebulous.
Density of Stars.
- Interesting light is thrown on the question of the physical state of the stars by some evidence which we possess as to their densities.
The mean density of the sun is about 13 times that of water; but many of the stars, especially the brighter ones, have much lower densities and must be in a very diffused state.
When evolution to that which is taking place in double stars; the latter appear to be separating from a single original mass and the former condensing into one.
The brighter stars show a marked variety of colour in their light, and with the aid of a telescope a still greater diversity is noticeable.
It is, the orbit and periodic time is known, and also the parallax, the masses of the stars can be found.
The Orion stars have the highest temperature of all and have admittedly the greatest surfaceluminosity, but the extreme brilliancy of i Orionis in proportion to its mass must be mainly due to a small density.
There are many stars, however, of which the brightness is less than that of the sun in proportion to the mass.
It may be that these fainter components are still in the stage when the temperature is rising, and the luminosity is as yet comparatively small; but it is not impossible that the massive stars (owing to their greater gravitation) pass through the earlier stages of evolution more rapidly than the smaller stars.
Formerly attempts were made to determine parallaxes by measuring changes in the absolute right ascensions and declinations of the stars from observations with the meridian circle.
Nowadays the determination is more usually made by measuring the displacement of the star relatively to the stars surrounding it.
The quantity determined by these methods is the relative parallax between the star measured and the stars with which it is compared.
To obtain the true parallax, the mean parallax of the comparison stars must be added to this relative parallax.
It is, however, fair to assume that the comparison stars will rarely have a parallax as great as o oi "; for it must be remembered that it is quite the exception for a star taken at random to have an appreciable parallax; particularly if a star has an ordinarily small proper motion, it is likely to be very distant.
Still exceptional cases will occur where a comparison star is even nearer than the principal star; it is one of the advantages of the photographic method that it involves the use of a considerable number of comparison stars, whereas in the heliometric method usually only two stars, chosen symmetrically one on each side of the principal star, are used.
In the table are collected the parallaxes and other data of all stars for which the most probable value of the parallax exceeds 0.20".
Although much work has been done recently in measuring parallaxes, the number of stars included in such a list has not been increased, but rather has been considerably diminished; many large parallaxes, which were formerly provisionally accepted, have been reduced on revision.
For one or two of the more famous stars such as a Centauri the probable error is less than so oi"; but for others in the list it ranges up to X0.05".
Stars with Large Parallax.
The stars selected to be examined for parallax are usually either the brightest stars or those with an especially large proper motion.
These two stars must have an intrinsic brilliancy enormously greater than that of the sun, for if the sun were removed to such a distance (parallax o oi"), it would appear to be of about the tenth magnitude.
Although the parallaxes hitherto measured have added greatly to our general knowledge of stellar distances and absolute luminosities of stars, a collection of results derived by various observers choosing specially selected stars is not suitable for statistical discussion.
For this reason a series of determinations of parallax of 163 stars on a uniform plan by F.
The stars chosen were those with centennial proper motions greater than 40", observable at Yale, and not hitherto attacked.
It is greatly to be desired that a general survey of the heavens, or cf typical regions of the heavens, should be made with a view to determining all the stars which have an appreciable parallax.
If three plates (or three sets of exposures on one plate) are taken at intervals of six months, when the stars in the region have their maximum parallactic displacements, the first and third plates serve to eliminate the proper motion of the star, and the detection of a parallax is easy.
We should learn perhaps the distribution and luminosities of the stars within a sphere of radius sixty light years (corresponding to a parallax of about 0.05"), but of the structure of the million-fold greater system of stars, lying be y ond this limit, yet visible in our telescopes, we should learn nothing except by analogy.
Fortunately the study of proper motions teaches us with some degree of certainty something of the general mean distances and distribution of these more distant stars, though it cannot tell us the distances of individual stars.
There is another method of determining stellar distances, which is applicable to a few double stars.
Proper Motions of Stars.-The work of cataloguing the stars and determining their exact positions, which is being pursued on so large a scale, naturally leads to the determination of their proper motions.
The problem is greatly complicated by the fact that the equator and equinox, to which the observed positions of the stars must be referred, are not stationary in space, and in fact the movements of these planes of reference can only be determined by a discussion of the observations of stars.
Halley was the first to suspect from observation the proper motions of the stars.
It was early realized that the proper motions of the stars were changes of position relative to the sun, and that, if the sun had any motion of its own as compared with the surrounding stars as a whole, this would be shown by a general tendency of the apparent motions of the stars to be directed away from the point to which the sun was moving.
By far the most valuable of these is Bradley's catalogue of 3240 stars observed at Greenwich about 1750-1763, which has been re-reduced according to modern methods by A.
These stars include most of the brighter ones visible in the latitude of Greenwich, ranging down to about the seventh magnitude.
An early catalogue which includes large numbers of stars of magnitude as low as 8.5 is that of S.
Groombridge, containing 4200 stars within 52° of the north pole observed between 1806 and 1816.
The results are given in his Prelimina, y General Catalogue (1910), which comprises the motions of 6188 stars fairly uniformly distributed over the sky, including all the stars visible to the naked eye.
Bossert's catalogue (Paris Observations, 1890), which consist of lists of stars of large proper motion determined from a variety of sources.
Recently the proper motions of faint stars have been determined by comparing photographs of the same region of the sky, taken with an interval of a number of years.
In the table is given a list of the stars now known to have an annual proper motion of more than 3".
The faintness of the majority of the stars appearing in this list is noteworthy.
Stars with Large Proper Motion.
The majority of the stars have far smaller proper motions than these.
Only 24% of the stars of Auwers-Bradley have proper motions exceeding to" per century, and 51% exceeding 5" per century.
With catalogues containing fainter stars the proportion of large proper motions is somewhat smaller, thus the corresponding percentages for the Groombridge stars are 12 and 31 respectively.
Several stars appear to have speeds exceeding Ioo m.
per second; several stars (Groombridge 1830 among them) have radial speeds of this amount.
The stars of the Helium type of spectrum are remarkable for the smallness of their velocities; from spectroscopic observations of over 60 stars of this class, J.
When the proper motions of a considerable number of stars are collected and examined, a general systematic tendency is noticed.
The stars as a whole are found to be moving The Sofa, towards a point somewhere in or near the constellation Motion.
The motions of individual stars, it is true, vary widely, but if the mean motion of a number of stars is considered this tendency is always to be found.
Accordingly this mean motion of the stars relative to the sun has been more generally regarded from another point of view as a motion (in the opposite direction-towards the constellation Lyra) of the sun relatively to the stars.
In what follows we shall speak of this relative motion as a motion of the sun or of the stars indifferently, for there is no real distinction between the two conceptions.
Although his data were the proper motions of only seven stars, he indicated a point near X Herculis not very far from that found by modern researches.
Again in 1805 from Maskelyne's catalogue of the proper motions of 36 stars (published in 1790), he found the position, R.A.
The systematic tendency of the proper motions is so marked that the motions of a very few stars are quite sufficient to fix roughly the position of the solar apex; but attempts to fix its position to within a few degrees have failed, notwithstanding the many thousands of determined proper motions now available.
The motion of the sun relative to the stars depends on what stars are selected as representative.
There is no a priori reason to expect the same result from the different classes of stars, such as the brighter or fainter, northern or southern, nearer or more distant, Solar type or Sirian stars.
There is for example some evidence that the declination of the solar apex is really increased when the motion is referred to fainter stars.
Having regard to the special precautions taken to eliminate systematic error, and to the fact that the stars used were distributed nearly equally over both hemispheres, it is fair to conclude that this is the most accurate determination yet made.
91), using mainly stars of large proper motions derived from various sources; their results are of the same general character.
Most of the above investigators, besides giving a general result, have determined the apex separately for bright and faint stars, for stars of greater or less proper motion, and in some cases for stars of Sirian and Solar spectra.
its motion relative to the mean of all the stars, is Motion called its peculiar motion (motus peculiaris).
Regarded as a linear velocity, the parallactic motion is the same for all stars, being exactly equal and opposite to the solar motion; but its amount, as measured by the corresponding angular displacement of the star, is inversely proportional to the distance of the star from the earth, and foreshortening causes it to vary as the sine of the angular distance from the apex.
To arrive at some estimate of the speed of the solar motion, we may consider the motions of those stars whose parallaxes have been measured, and whose actual linear speed is accordingly known (disregarding motion in the line of sight).
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