The standard day is longer than ours, about thirty hours instead of twenty-four, with that divided evenly between day and night.
Gabriel understood why the old standard was gone.
A large brass vessel used as a standard measure for the lead ore, and dating from the time of Henry VIII., is preserved.
The access to information that mobile phones are bringing virtually everywhere on the planet is helping people raise their standard of living and will do so even more dramatically in the years to come.
And it occurs to no one that to admit a greatness not commensurable with the standard of right and wrong is merely to admit one's own nothingness and immeasurable meanness.
"Hurrah!" shouted Prince Andrew, and, scarcely able to hold up the heavy standard, he ran forward with full confidence that the whole battalion would follow him.
A standard clock and measures are seen at the entrance.
This corresponds to 8.3 kilometres of air at standard pressure.
1 50o), the Dominican inquisitor of Cologne, who with Heinrich Kramer (institor) published M alleus maleficarum or Hexenhammer, the standard textbook on witchcraft, especially in Germany.
Seeing them he kept thinking, "That may be the very standard with which I shall lead the army."
The natural basis for a standard musical pitch is the voice, particularly the male voice, which has been of greater importance historically.
They played the National air called "The Oz Spangled Banner," and behind them were the standard bearers with the Royal flag.
Both the series and the branching methods of multipling are recognized at the present time as standard methods, although the former is only employed in comparatively small exchanges.
His most important work is his standard History of English Dramatic Literature to the Age of Queen Anne (1875), re-edited after a thorough revision in three volumes in 1899.
In commercial matters, payment in kind was still common, though the contracts usually stipulate for cash, naming the standard expected, that of Babylon, Larsa, Assyria, Carchemish, &c. The Code enacted, however, that a debtor must be allowed to pay in produce according to statutory scale.
It is largely used for the purpose of making standard electric cells, such for example as the Weston cell.
One had saved a standard, another had killed five Frenchmen, a third had loaded five cannon singlehanded.
Mitchell (1803-1884), who prepared a code that was immediately adopted in Scotland as the standard laws.
If every job that could be done by a machine was done by a machine tomorrow, the standard of living of virtually everyone on the planet would rise.
In a world without abundance, socialism removes the one reliable creator of abundance—the individual profit motive—and that results in a lower standard of living for everyone.
84, 8.88 and 6.66 standard ohms per statute mile respectively.
The schools which do not obtain equality with government schools are either some of those conducted by religious orders, or else those in which a sufficient standard is not reached.
The same society which produced his infamous favourites also produced St Philip of Moscow, and by refusing to listen to St Philip Ivan sank below even the not very lofty moral standard of his own age.
The fact that small nations can adopt standard treaties, laws, currencies, and international practices of larger countries means that a small economic unit can be viable.
As a scholar he devoted his attention almost entirely to Plato; and his Phaedrus (1868) and Gorgias (1871), with especially valuable introductions, still remain the standard English editions of these two dialogues.
Men physically unfit are wholly exempted, and men who have not, at the tinie of the examination, attained the required physical standard are put back for re-examination after an interval.
The climatic conditions in the British Islands are such that it is not possible to maintain, in unfavourable weather, a higher standard than that named, which is the insulation obtained when all the insulators are in perfect condition and only the normal leakage, due to moisture, is present.
He could not have said by what standard he judged what he should or should not do, but the standard was quite firm and definite in his own mind.
Analysts declared each successive generation might be "the first to have a lower standard of living than their parents."
20, which is the most modern pattern of relay used by the British Post Office, known as the " Post Office Standard Relay."
The British army is bound by His Majesty's Rules and Regulations to play at the Philharmonic pitch, and a fork tuned to a' 452.5 in 1890 is preserved as the standard for the Military Training School at Kneller Hall.
The consideration of temperature as affecting the use of a standard pitch was not attended to when the French government issued its ordonnance.
However, notwithstanding the insistence on ritual, natural in a priest, his moral standard is high; following the prescription of Ex.
It was a rectangular platform on which the standard of the city and an altar were erected; priests held services on the altar before the battle, and the trumpeters beside them encouraged the fighters to the fray.
In Africa the Moorish prince, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Count Romanus, the military governor.
The railways are of different gauges, the standard narrow gauge of 4 ft.
_ Standard Relay.
I remember, yes, I remember you with the standard! said Kutuzov, and a flush of pleasure suffused Prince Andrew's face at this recollection.
One could already see the soldiers' shaggy caps, distinguish the officers from the men, and see the standard flapping against its staff.
In 1138 he made a truce at Roxburgh between England and Scotland, and took active part in gathering together the army which defeated the Scots at the Battle of the Standard in August 1138.
The expansion of Levantine trade which ensued in the Hellenistic age brought especial profit to Rhodes, whose standard of coinage and maritime law became widely accepted in the Mediterranean.
If you knew someone who was a good business partner, was fun to hang out with, but let one of his children starve to death so that he could enjoy a higher standard of living, what would be your opinion of this person?
"Your son," wrote Kutuzov, "fell before my eyes, a standard in his hand and at the head of a regiment--he fell as a hero, worthy of his father and his fatherland.
'Tis all one as if they should make the standard for measure the chancellor's foot."
1670 C.Meerens,proposed standard derived from c 2 512, and favoured by Boito and other Italian musicians.
There is hardly one of Wagner's orchestral innovations which is not inseparably connected with his adaptation of music to the re q uirements of drama; and modern conductors, in treating Wagner's orchestration, as the normal standard by which all previous and contemporary music must be judged, are doing their best to found a tradition which in another fifty years will be exploded as thoroughly as the tradition of symphonic additional accompaniments is now exploded in the performances of Bach and Handel.
The fundamental principle of the magneto system has been described in connexion with the " Standard board."
In essence, they would become like Japan, which exports essentially no food, imports US$44 billion in food annually, but still enjoys a high standard of living.
"Here it is!" thought he, seizing the staff of the standard and hearing with pleasure the whistle of bullets evidently aimed at him.
The next step of importance was the introduction of what was termed the " Standard board."
The standard relay will work single current with a current of 3 milliamperes, though in practice about 10 would be used.
A problem arises because of the strong correlation between standard of living and energy consumption.
1859 Paris opera 1836 Scheibler, Stuttgart, proposed standard (440 at 69° F.).
A full antipasti menu is available, along with extensive entree choices covering standard categories like chicken, veal and seafood.
We do not propose to concern ourselves here with those technical subjects which are the chief concern of standard treatises on instrumentation.
It is a willing agreement to a set of values and procedures, and a standard of conduct.
The doctrines of Presbyterianism are those generally known as evangelical and Calvinistic. The supreme standard of belief is the Word of God in the original languages.
To the public Boole was known only as the author of numerous abstruse papers on mathematical topics, and of three or four distinct publications which have become standard works.
His conduct, judged not by a modern standard, but by the ideas of his age, will be found compatible with the highest Christian charity, as that of the duke with sound political prudence.
For a long time the final result deduced by Joule by these varied and careful investigations was accepted as the standard value of the mechanical equivalent of heat.
Instrumentation is in all standard text-books treated as a technical subject, from the point of view of practical students desirous of writing for the modern orchestra.
The sizes of copper wire employed have weights of too, 150, 200 and 400 lb per statute mile, and have electrical resistances (at 60° F.) of 8.782, 5.8 55, 4.39 1 and 2.195 standard ohms respectively.
Prince Andrew again seized the standard and, dragging it by the staff, ran on with the battalion.
The canons respecting the clergy exhibit the clergy as already a special class with peculiar privileges, a more exacting moral standard, heavier penalties for delinquency.
GNP and "standard of living" measurements don't capture this.
But outsourcing to pollute, oppress workers, or have unsafe working conditions hurts the world's standard of living.
Is that your standard?
He's king of the double standard.
the holy standard, the sword and the mantle of the prophet.
The name seems to have been known before, and the banner was simply a Christianized form of the Roman cavalry standard.
A special guard of fifty soldiers was appointed to protect the sacred standard.
The derivation of the word labarum is disputed; it appears to be connected with the Basque labarva, signifying standard.
The only official standard is the French, dating from 1859, preserved by a tuning-fork vibrating 870.9 (double vib.
The increase in the numbers rejected as unfit is accounted for by the fact that if only a small proportion of the contingent can be taken for service, the medical standard of acceptance is high.
A huge car drawn by oxen, bearing the standard of the burgh, and carrying an altar with the host, this carroccio, like the ark of the Israelites, formed a rallying point in battle, and reminded the armed artisans that they had a city and a church to fight for.
The rebels were captured and shot, but the significance of the attempt lies in the fact that it was the first occasion on which north Italians (the Bandieras were Venetians and officers in the Austrian navy) had tried to raise the standard of revolt in the south.
Garibaldis volunteers raised the standard of insurrection and held the field in the region of the Italian lakes.
Like most great teachers he published a text-book, and his Traite de Chimie elementaire, theorique et pratique (4 vols., Paris, 1813-16), which served as a standard for a quarter of a century, perhaps did even more for the advance of chemistry than his numerous original discoveries.
geography, but, following the model of Strabo, described the world according to its different political divisions, and entered with great zest into the question of the productions ' Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography (2 vols., London, 1879), Muller's Geographi Graeci minores (2 vols., Paris, 1855, 1861) and Berger's Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (4 vols., Leipzig, 1887-1893) are standard authorities on the Greek geographers.
This system of geography founded a new epoch, and the book - translated into English, Dutch and French - was the unchallenged standard for more than a century.
In the East, Joseph Karo (Qaro) wrote his Beth Yoseph (Venice, 1550), a commentary on the Tur, and his Shulhan `Arukh (Venice, 1564) an halakhic work like the Tur, which is still a standard authority.
But both at Rome and at Athens we see, at a stage earlier than the final reform, an attempt to set up a standard of wealth, either instead of or alongside of the older standard of birth.
That institution at once set up a new standard of nobility, a new form of the nobility of office.
The difference between the highest and lowest price, we may observe, is a very imperfect indication of the range of movement (though, taken in conjunction with the standard deviation, it is the best at our disposal), because either of the extreme prices might be accidental and quite out of relation to all others.
They retain the old high standard of morals, and in some instances go beyond it, as in the injunctions to be kind to enemies (Prov.
Local dining options reflect the area's diversity, ranging from standard chain fare to historical taverns that bring out the region's unique identity.
The food menu is pretty standard pub fare consisting mainly of wraps, paninis and burgers, but also offers several chicken, steak, and seafood entrees.
Appetizers are standard, like egg rolls and won ton soup, but the rest of the menu includes a variety of beef, rice, and noodle soups, along with several rice dishes.
Roasted duck leg on broken rice is a top seller, along with standard fried rice dishes.
Its menu has a vast amount of options that include appetizers, pasta, baked dishes, hero sandwiches, standard and gourmet pizza, seafood and desserts.
While the pub will make reservations for those seeking special accommodations, a standard dinner service is strictly on a first come, first served basis.
You can even take a shopping tour; several companies offer standard or customized packages.
The standard authorities for the period before 1791 are: Ira Allen, Natural and Political History of the State of Vermont (London, 1898); B.
Without setting aside the Confession as the church's standard, twenty-four "Articles of the Faith" have been adopted.
The United States standard pint = 47 of a litre, 28'i cub.
In Prince Andrew's eyes Speranski was the man he would himself have wished to be--one who explained all the facts of life reasonably, considered important only what was rational, and was capable of applying the standard of reason to everything.
For us with the standard of good and evil given us by Christ, no human actions are incommensurable.
The suffrage is extended to all citizens over twenty-one years of age who can read and write and have either attained a certain standard of elementary education or are qualified by paying a rent which varies from 6 in communes of 2500 inhabitants to 16 in communes of 15p,ooo inhabitants, or, if peasant farmers, I6s.
Perhaps when it came to Elisabeth, there existed a higher standard.
General Ricotti Magnani, minister of war, therefore framed an Army Reform Bill designed to bring the Italian army as nearly as possible up to the Prussian standard.
Its provisions, real and imaginary, formed the standard towards which Englishmen must strive.
on his accession as a standard of good government.
The welding together of the great Kosala kingdom, more than twice the size of England, in the very centre of the settled country, led insensibly but irresistibly to the establishment of a standard of speech, and the standard followed was the language used at the court at Savatthi in the Nepalese hills, the capital of Kosala.
But when Pali first became known to Europeans it was already used also, by those who wrote in Pali, of the language of the later writings, which bear the same relation to the standard literary Pali of the canonical texts as medieval does to classical Latin.
At the synod of Reichenau (1495), they rejected the authority of Peter of Chelcic, and accepted the Bible as their only standard of faith and practice.
Instead of reviving Moravian orders at once, the settlers attended the Berthelsdorf parish church, regarded themselves as Lutherans, agreed to a code of "statutes" drawn up by the count, accepted the Augsburg Confession as their standard of faith, and, joining with some Lutheran settlers in a special Communion service in Berthelsdorf (Aug.
Fowler (Coleoptera of the British Islands, 5 vols., London, 1887-1891) is the standard work; and W.
The standard of teaching in the universities is on the whole very high, and may be compared to that of the German universities.
and further, it is said, established what has become the standard gauge of the world, 4 ft.
Brunel on the Great Western railway, where, however, it was abandoned after the line was converted from broad to standard gauge in 1892.
When a line has once been inspected and passed, it lies with the company to maintain it in accordance with the standard of efficiency it originally possessed, but no express statutory obligation to do so is imposed upon the company, and whether it does so or not, the Board of Trade cannot interfere.
or rather less than 6 chains; the former is reckoned easy, the latter very sharp, at least for main lines on the standard gauge.
Brunel adopted for the Great Western railway disappeared on the 20th-23rd of May 1892, when the main line from London to Penzance was converted to standard gauge throughout its length.
may be regarded as standard, since it prevails on probably three-quarters of the railways of the globe.
On the continent of Europe the standard gauge is generally adopted, though in France there are many miles of 4 ft.
Though the standard gauge is in use in Lower Egypt, the line into the Egyptian Sudan was built on a gauge of 3 ft.
Its width depends on the numbers of tracks and their gauge; for a double line of standard gauge it is about 25 ft., a space of 6 ft.
The standard specification adopted by the Pennsylvania railway in 1908 provided that in rails weighing Ioo lb to the yard 41% of the metal should be in the head, 18-6% in the web, and 40-4% in the base, while for 85 lb rails 42.2% was to be in the head, 17-8% in the web and 40.0% in the base.
The platforms on British railways have a standard elevation of 3 ft.
A " perfect engine " receiving and rejecting steam at the same temperatures as the actual engine of the locomotive, would develop about twice this power, say 1400 I.H.P. This figure represents the ideal but unattainable standard of performance.
This question of the standard engine of comparison, and the engine efficiency is considered in § 15 below, and the boiler efficiency in § It below.
20 shows the standard proportions recommended - by the committee of the Railway Mas * ter Mechanics' Association on Exhaust _ Pipes and Steam Passages (Prot.
Thus a standard of comparison for every individual engine may be obtained with which to compare its actual performance.
The standard of comparison generally adopted for this purpose is obtained by calculating the efficiency of an engine working according to the Rankine cycle.
The initial temperature of the standard engine of comparison must be the temperature of the steam taken in the steam-pipe.
For further information regarding the standard engine of comparison see the article Steam Engine and also the " Report of the Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines," Proc. Inst.
In America it is still the standard engine for passenger traffic, but for goods service it is now employed only on branch lines.
This is the standard goods engine of Great Britain and the continent of Europe.
In the United States it is the standard heavy slow-speed freight engine, and has been built of enormous size and weight.
In the United States the standard sleeping car has a central alley, and along the sides are two tiers of berths, arranged lengthwise with the car and screened off from the alley by curtains.
This construction was introduced into England from America about 1874, and has since been extensively adopted, being now indeed standard for main line stock.
On the continent of Europe the average carrying capacity is rather higher; though wagons of less than io tons capacity are in use, many of those originally rated at io tons have been rebuilt to hold 15, and the tendency is towards wagons of 15-20 tons as a standard, with others for special purposes holding 40 or 45 tons.
For years the standard freight cars have held 60,000 lb and now many carry 80,000 lb or 100,000 lb; a few coal cars have even been built to contain 200,000 lb.
Many different couplers of the Janney type are patented and made by different firms, but the tendency is to equip new cars with one of only four or five standard makes.
The Paris line is built with the standard gauge of 4 ft 82 in., but its tunnels are designedly made of such a small crosssection that ordinary main line stock cannot pass through them.
Economy in capital outlay and cheapness in construction is indeed the characteristic generally associated with light railways by the public, and implicitly attached to them by parliament in the act of 1896, and any simplifications of the engineering or mechanical features they may exhibit compared with the standard railways of the country are mainly, if not entirely, due to the desire to keep down their expenses.
Thus the gauge may be narrow, the line single, the rails lighter than those used in standard practice, while deep cuttings and high embankments may be avoided by permitting the curves to be sharper and the gradients steeper: such points conduce to cheapness of construction.
It must be understood that a railway described as " light " is not necessarily built of narrower gauge than the standard.
In regard to fencing and precautions at level-crossings, less rigid requirements may be enforced than with standard railways; and in some cases where trains are likely to be few, it has been provided that the normal position of the gates at crossings shall be across the line.
Their primary object being the development and peopling of the land, they have naturally been made as cheaply as possible; and as in such cases the cost of the land is inconsiderable, economy has been sought by the use of lighter and rougher permanent way, plant, rolling stock, &c. Such railways are not " light " in the technical sense of having been made under enactments intended to secure permanent lowness of cost as compared with standard lines.
82 in., the standard national gauge, and 1 ft.
They wasted the next few years in the attempt to win Normandy; but Earl Robert of Gloucester, the half-brother of the empress, at length induced her to visit England and raise her standard in the western shires, where his influence was supreme.
Their mental and social standard is high among Pacific peoples; they are simple, honourable, generous and hospitable, but brave fighters.
The characteristic of the 18th and 19th centuries is the endeavour, connected with the name of Moses Mendelssohn, to bring Judaism more into relation with external learning, and in using the Hebrew language to purify tend- and develop it in accordance with the biblical standard.
It became at once a codified standard of purer religious life and ultimately served as a beacon of light for the future.
On the special department of eschatology the standard works are R.
On the religion of Babylonia, Jastrow's work is the standard one.
Besides the standard general histories see O.
A shilling is token money merely, it is nominally in value the one-twentieth of a pound, but one troy pound of silver is coined into sixty-six shillings, the standard weight of each shilling being 87.27 grains.
Tyrone continued to concert measures with the Irish leaders in Munster, and issued a manifesto to the Catholics of Ireland summoning them to join his standard; protesting that the interests of religion were his first care.
standard of doctrine.
Next, the Judaean compiler regularly finds in Israel's troubles the punishment for its schismatic idolatry; nor does he spare Judah, but judges its kings by a standard which agrees with the standpoint of Deuteronomy and is scarcely earlier than the end of the 7th century B.C. (§§ 16, 20).
The law which they cherished as their standard and guide kept them united and conscious of their unity.
When in 1821 the revolution broke out in continental Greece, the Cretans, headed by the Sphakiots, after a massacre at Canea at once raised the standard of insurrection.
Venezelo raised the standard of revolt at Theriso in the White Mountains.
Hamilton's Colonial Mobile (Boston and New York, 1898), and the Colonization of the South (Philadelphia, 1904) are standard authorities for the French and English periods (1699-1781).
The coins were of standard purity (or higher); they are now very rare.
But these constitutions, several times revised, actually served only as a theoretical standard for the proprietors and were abrogated altogether in 1693, and the colonists were governed by instructions which granted them much greater privileges.
The highest land does not rise to a greater height than 10,250 ft.; the climate is well suited for agriculture, and the islands generally are fertile and fairly cultivated, though not coming up to the standard of Java either in wealth or population.
These far extensions furnish the basis for a vast amount of exploratory survey of a strictly geographical character, and they have contributed largely towards raising the standard of accuracy in Asiatic geographical surveys to a level which was deemed unattainable fifty years ago.
7) he ventured to raise the standard of revolt in Hebron, with the malcontent Judaeans as his first supporters, and the crafty Ahithophel as his chief adviser.
Accordingly, David is not to be condemned for failing to subdue the sensuality which is the chief stain on his character, but should rather be judged by his habitual recognition of a generous standard of conduct, by the undoubted purity and lofty justice of an administration which was never stained by selfish considerations or motives of personal rancour, 5 and finally by the calm 3 See Hebrew Religion, Messiah, Prophet.
The standard Life is by Sir John Barrow (1838).
The Jargonelle should be allowed to remain on the tree and be pulled daily as wanted, the fruit from standard trees thus succeeding the produce of the wall trees.
It was to prevent any falling off from this high moral standard till it should become part of his being that his father kept the boy so closely with himself.
The most able exponent of this subject in Great Britain was John Curtis, whose treatise on Farm Insects, published in 1860, is still the standard British work dealing with the insect foes of corn, roots, grass and stored corn.
At the root of all economic investigation lies the conception of the standard of life of the community.
The standard of life of the ordinary well-to-do middle class in England, for example, includes not only food, clothing and shelter of a kind different in many respects from that of a similar class in other countries and of other classes in England, but a highly complicated mechanism, both public and private, for ministering to these primary needs, habits of social intercourse, educational and sanitary organization, recreative arrangements and many other elements.
Many influences operating for a long period of time on the character and the environment of a class go to determine its standard of life.
In a modern industrial community it is possible to express this standard fairly accurately for the purposes of economic investigation in terms of money.
But it is doubtful whether the most complete investigation would ever enable us to include all the elements of the standard of life in a money estimate.
The conception of the standard of life involves also some estimate of the efforts and sacrifices people are prepared to make to obtain it; of their ideals and character; of the relative strength of the different motives which usually determine their conduct.
(6) That the local variations of wages and prices were what we should call excessive, so that the standard of comfort in one district was very different from that of others.
But these conclusions, after all, suggest more difficulties than they remove, for they show that our inquiry, instead of presenting certain well-marked features which can be readily dealt with, has to be split up into a number of highly specialized studies: the investigation of rates of wages, prices and the standard of comfort in different localities, bye-industries, regularity of employment, the organization of particular trades, the economic functions of local authorities, apprenticeship and a host of other subjects.
The bishops' Interpretations and Further Considerations, issued in 1560, tolerated a lower vestiarian standard than was prescribed by the rubric of 1559; the Advertisements, which Parker published in 1566, to check the Puritan descent, had to appear without specific royal sanction; and the Reformatio legum ecclesiasticarum, which Foxe published with Parker's approval, received neither royal, parliamentary nor synodical authorization.
at Carlisle, the younger Robert joined Sir William Wallace, who raised the standard of Scottish independence in the name of Baliol after that king had surrendered his kingdom to Edward in 1296.
Bruce with the reserve planted his standard at the Bore Stone, whence there is the best view of the field.
No traces of currency have come to light, unless certain axe-heads, too slight for practical use, had that character; but standard weights have been found, and representations of ingots.
- Ceramic art reached a specially high standard in fabric, form and decoration by the middle of the 3rd millennium B.C. in Crete.
Reckoning by that standard we might push the earliest Neolithic remains back behind io,000 B.C.; but the calculation would be worthy of little credence.
These works were not published until after his death, but Green's views were previously known indirectly through the Introduction to the standard edition of Hume's works by Green and T.
Blanford's Birds of British India (1898)(1898) remains the standard work.
The next attempt of importance appeared in the American Standard Natural History, published in Boston in 1885.
It is usually regarded as the standard Egyptian cotton; the lint is yellowish brown, the seeds black and almost smooth, usually with a little tuft of short green hairs at the ends.
The American bale has been described in a standard American book on cotton as " the clumsiest, dirtiest, most expensive and most wasteful package, in which cotton or any other commodity of like value is anywhere put up."
It is sometimes assumed that this is measured perfectly by the standard deviation,' which is obtained by taking the squares of the differences between the average and the individual prices, summing them and extracting the square root.
Expressed both absolutely and as percentages of the price averaged from the 1st of October to the 31st of July, the range of movement, standard deviation, and mean weekly movement calculated between the times mentioned above (October 1st to July 31st), after diminishing significantly for some years after the later 'sixties, have risen appreciably on the whole of late years.
gauge which is the Russian standard; but after the Russian control of the southern lines was lost the gauge was altered from that standard.
In the United Kingdom the limit has, for the purpose in question, been fixed by the legislature at 73° F., by the " Abel-test," which is the equivalent of the former standard of 100° F.
While the subject of the testing of petroleum for legislative purposes has been investigated in Great Britain by committees of both branches of the legislature, with a view to change in the law, the standard has never been raised, since such a course would tend to reduce the available supply and thus lead to increase in price or deterioration in quality.
Moreover the chief object of the Petroleum Acts passed in the United Kingdom has hitherto been to regulate storage, and it has always been possible to obtain oils either of higher or lower flash-point, when such are preferred, irrespective of the legal standard, in addition to which it may be asserted that in a properly constructed lamp used with reasonable care the ordinary oil of commerce is a safe illuminant.
In France, the standard is 35° C. (Granier tester, equivalent to 98° F.), and according to their flashpoint, liquid hydrocarbons are divided into two classes (below and above 35° C.), considered differently in regard to quantities storable and other regulations.
In Germany, the law prescribes a close-test of 21° C., equal to about 70° F., whilst in Russia the standard is 28° C., equal to 84.4° F., by the close-test; in both these countries the weights of petroleum which may be stored in specified buildings are determined by law.
As the crusaders advanced to Jerusalem, says Raymund of Agiles (c. xxxiii.), it was their rule that the first-corner had the right to each castle or town, provided that he hoisted his standard and planted a garrison there.
- The Basutos (2 vols., London, 1909), a standard history, and" Basutoland and the Basutos "in Jul.
An instrument of the latter type of considerable accuracy was designed by Lord Kelvin for the British Board of Trade Electrical Laboratory, and it is there used as the principal standard ampere balance.
The calibration of ammeters is best conducted by means of a series of standard low resistances and of a potentio meter.
Thomson), " New Standard and Inspectional Electrical Measuring Instruments," Proc. Soc. Telegraph Engineers, 1888, 17, p. 540; J.
The standard history is that by G.
The total alkali is determined by incinerating a weighed sample in a platinum dish, dissolving the residue in water, filtering and titrating the filtrate with standard acid.
Standard highwater of 1838 was 3.36 ft.
above mean level and standard low-water of 1895, 2.82 ft.
Athenian art and literature in the 4th century declined but slightly from their former standard; philosophy and oratory reached a standard which was never again equalled in antiquity and may still serve as a model.
ii., London, 1853), which remained for many years a standard work on the subject.
The college has maintained a high standard of instruction, and many of its former students have been prominent as public men, educationalists and preachers.
Stejneger (Standard Nat.
the relative weights of atoms. He took hydrogen, the lightest substance known, to be the standard.
This method is made up of three operations: - (1) preparation of a standard solution.; (2) preparation of a solution of the substance; (3) titration, or the determination of what volume of the standard solution will occasion a known and definite reaction with a known volume of the test solution.
In general analytical work the standard solution contains the equivalent weight of the substance in grammes dissolved in a litre of water.
Standard solutions are prepared by weighing out the exact amount of the pure substance and dissolving it in water, or by forming a solution of approximate normality, determining its exact strength by gravimetric or other means, and then correcting it for any divergence.
A standard sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the sulphuric acid.
(3) The titration is conducted by running the standard solution from a burette into a known volume of the test solution, which is usually transferred from the stock-bottle to a beaker or basin by means of a pipette.
The general procedure is to make a series of standard solutions containing definite quantities of the substance which it is desired to estimate; such a series will exhibit tints which deepen as the quantity of the substance is increased.
A known weight of the test substance is dissolved and a portion of the solution is placed in a tube similar to those containing the standard solutions.
To reduce these figures to a common standard, so that the volumes shall contain equal numbers of molecules, the notion of molecular volumes is introduced, the arbitrary values of the crystallographic axes (a, b, c) being replaced by the topic parameters' (x, ?i, w), which are such that, combined with the axial angles, they enclose volumes which contain equal numbers of molecules.
Rapidly as the standard of musical translations was improving before this work appeared, no one could have foreseen what has now been abundantly verified, that the Ring can be performed in English without any appreciable loss to Wagner's art.
The standard biography is that of Glasenapp (6 vols., of which five appeared between 1894 and 1909).
Alexander's gold coinage, indeed (possibly not struck till after the invasion of Asia), follows in weight that of Philip's staters; but he seems at once to have adopted for his silver coins (of a smaller denomination than the tetradrachm) the Euboic-Attic standard, instead of the Phoenician, which had been Philip's.
Gold had fallen still further from the diffusion of the Persian treasure, and Alexander struck in both metals on the Attic standard, leaving their relation to adjust itself by the state of the market.
was for a long while largely struck with Alexander's 3 own image and superscription; the gold and silver coined in the names of Antigonid and Seleucid kings and by the minor principalities of Asia, kept to the Attic standard which Alexander had established.
adopted, at first the Rhodian, and afterwards the Phoenician, standard, and on this latter standard the Ptolemaic money was struck during the subsequent centuries.
The description given by Justin of the army which Antiochus Sidetes took to the East in 130 B.C., boot-nails and bridles of gold, gives an idea of their standard of splendour (Just.
The surveyor-general issues also " sectional maps " (1:190,000 and 1:40,000) and so-called " Standard " topographical maps for the thinly peopled west, on scales of 1:250,000 and 1:500,000.
Each club has a standard of points; some hold their own shows; while others issue club gazettes.
1908), whose volumes on Modern Dogs (sporting, non-sporting and terriers) are the standard works on dogs.
After threatening an invasion in 1137, David marched into England in 1138, but sustained a crushing defeat on Cutton Moor in the engagement known as the battle of the Standard.
Friends have always held that the attempt to enforce truthspeaking by means of an oath, in courts of law and elsewhere, tends to create a double standard of truth.
The standard edition of Wesley's Journal (1909) has furnished much new material for this period of Wesley's life, the Rev. N.
All this is now seen more clearly in the standard edition of the Journal.
The scapus seems to have been a standard length of papyrus, as sold by the stationers.
He was a voluminous writer on subjects directly connected with his chair, and, besides contributing almost weekly to the technical journals, such as the Engineer, brought out a series of standard textbooks on Civil Engineering, The Steam-Engine and other Prime Movers, Machinery and Millwork, and Applied Mechanics, which have passed through many editions, and have contributed greatly to the advancement of the subjects with which they deal.
Between 1805 and 1811 he issued his Biblical Dictionary in four volumes, which still remains the standard work of its kind in Welsh.
The ethical standard of the book is high except in the bitterness displayed towards the "wicked," that is, the enemies of the Jews.
Nor do the sages go beyond the old position in their ethical theory: they have no philosophical discussion of the basis of the moral life; their standard of good conduct is existing law and custom; their motive for right-doing is individual eudaemonistic, not the good of society, or loyalty to an ideal of righteousness for its own sake, but advantage for one's self.
For history: the standard work is that of Charles E.
The condition of the working man will never permanently rise above the mere standard of living required for his subsistence, and the continued supply of his kind.
The standard editions of his works are The Writings of Henry David Thoreau, Riverside edition (II vols., Boston, 18 941895), and Manuscript edition (12 vols., ibid., 1907).
The basis of the system adopted was the double standard with a fixed relation of I to 15.09, and free coinage.
2d.) was equivalent to 100 piastres; the gold pieces struck were £T5, £T1, £T2 and £ T 4; the standard is 0.916* fine, and the weight 7.216 grammes.
The heavy depreciation in silver causing large losses to the government, free coinage was suspended in 1880, and the nominal value of the mejidie was reduced by decree to 19 piastres (105.26 piastres thus = £T1), while in the same year the debased currencies were reduced, altilik, the 6-piastre piece to 5 piastres, the 3-piastre piece to 22 piastres, the 12-piastre piece to 14 piastre; beshlik, the 5-piastre piece to 22 piastres, the 22-piastre piece to 1;-piastre; metallik, the 1-piastre piece to 2 piastre, the 2-piastre piece to 4 piastre, the *-piastre piece to a piastre - these values representing approximately the intrinsic value of the silver, at mejidie standard, contained in the debased coins.
The standard of the altilik is about 0.440 fine, that of the beshlik is 0.185 to 0.225 fine, that of the metallik is 0.170 fine.
They The struck their first blow on the 22nd of July 1908, when Niazi Bey and his troops raised the standard of 1908.
In cavalry they were weak, for the Russian does not take kindly to equitation and the horses were not equal to the accepted European standard of weight, while the Cossack was only formidable to stragglers and wounded.
Hence the extraordinary slowness of their manoeuvres, not because the Austrian infantry were bad marchers, but because the preparation and circulation of orders was still far behind the French standard.
The standard edition of the collected works will be that of O.
Cleveland is the headquarters of the largest shoddy mills in the country (value of product, 1905, $ 1, 0 84,594), makes much clothing (1905, $ 10, 4 26, 535), manu factures a large portion of the chewing gum made in the United States, and is the site of one of the largest refineries of the Standard Oil Company.
A catalogue of the printed books in the Welsh department, which soon became a standard work of reference, was published in 1898, while a calendar of the Welsh MSS.
They still maintain the high standard of honesty mentioned by historical documents, and never will take anything left in the tundra or about the houses by their neighbours.
All previous attempts had been far below the modern standard in these particulars, and Burton's history will always be memorable as marking an epoch.
A Roman named' Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army, upon which Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyons, where, through the treachery of the governor, he was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on.
If, as is now usual, we take the equivalent weight of oxygen as our standard and call it 16, the equivalent weight of hydrogen is I o08, and its electrochemical equivalent is I 044 X 5.
His standard work on algebra, written in Arabic, and other treatises of a similar character raised him at once to the foremost rank among the mathematicians of that age, and induced Sultgn Malik-Shgh to summon him in A.H.
The identities are, in particular, of service in reducing symbolic products to standard forms. A symbolical expression may be always so transformed that the power of any determinant factor (ab) is even.
For two factors the standard form is (ab) 2; for three factors (ab) 2 (ac); for four factors (ab) 4 and (ab) 2 (cd) 2; for five factors (ab) 4 (ac) and (ab) 2 (ac)(de) 2; for six factors (ab) 6, (ab) 2 (bc) 2 (ca) 2, and (ab) 2 (cd) 2 (ef) 2 .
It is, in short, applied morality; anybody is a casuist who reflects about his duties and tries to bring them into line with some intelligible moral standard.
Human nature seldom resists the charms of a fixed standard - least of all when it is applied by a live judge in a visible court.
Stark, Niobe and die Niobiden (1863), the standard work; E.
Since the poles of different magnets differ in strength, it is important to agree upon a definite unit or standard of reference in terms of which the strength of a pole may be numerically specified.
Let 0 be the angle which the standard magnet M makes with the meridian, then M'/R = sin 0, and M/R = cos 0, whence M' = M tan 0.
In practice it is usual to standardize or " calibrate " the galvanometer by causing a known change of induction to take place within a standard coil connected with it, and noting the corresponding deflection on the galvanometer scale.
Let s be the area of a single turn of the standard coil, n the number of its turns, and r the resistance of the circuit of which the coil forms part; and let S, N and R be the corresponding constants for a coil which is to be used in an experiment.
Then if a known change of induction SB a inside the standard coil is found to cause a throw of d scale-divisions, any change of induction SB through the experimental coil will be numerically equal to the corresponding throw D multiplied by snRBa/SNrd.
The deflection is indicated by a pointer upon a graduated scale, the readings being interpreted by comparison with two standard specimens supplied with the instrument.
The standard induction in reference to determinations of hysteresis is generally taken as 2500, while the loss is expressed in watts per lb at a frequency of ioo double reversals, or cycles, per second.
In order to save arithmetical labour it is convenient to be provided with conversion factors for reducing variously expressed results to the standard form.
The loss for any induction B within the range for which Steinmetz's law holds may be converted into that for the standard induction 2500 by dividing it by B 6 /2500'.
The standard force H =20 was selected as being sufficiently low to distinguish between good and bad specimens, and at the same time sufficiently high to make the order of merit the same Ss it would be under stronger forces.
Several pieces of apparatus have been invented for comparing the magnetic quality of a sample with that of a standard iron rod by a zero method, such as is employed in the comparison of electrical resistances by the Wheatstone bridge.
The standard rod and the test specimen, which must be of the same dimensions, are placed side by side within two magnetizing coils, and each pair of adjacent ends is joined by a short rectangular block or " yoke " of soft iron.
For simplicity of calculation, the clear length of each rod between the yokes is made 12.56 (=47r) centimetres, while the coil surrounding the standard bar contains 100 turns; hence the magnetizing force due to a current of n amperes will be ion C.G.S.
Suppose the switches to be adjusted so that the effective number of turns in the variable coil is loo; the magnetizing forces in the two coils will then be equal, and if the test rod is of the same quality as the standard, the flow of induction will be confined entirely to the iron circuit, the two yokes will be at the same magnetic potential, and the compass needle will not be affected.
If, however, the permeability of the test rod differs from that of the standard, the number of lines of induction flowing in opposite directions through the two rods will differ, and the excess will flow from one yoke to the other, partly through the air, and partly along the path provided by the bent bars, deflecting the compass needle.
Let m be the number of turns in use, and H 1 and H2 the magnetizing forces which produce the same induction B in the test and the standard rods respectively; then H1=H2Xm/Ioo.
[[[Magnetization: Strong Fields (B, H]]) curve for the standard, which is assumed to have been determined; and this same value corresponds to the force H in the case of the test bar.
as 0.001291 grm., 106 X 2760/0 2 for air at standard atmospheric pressure.
The natives, who are Micronesian hybrids of finer physique than their kinsmen of the Pelew Islands, have a comparatively high mental standard, being careful agriculturists, and peculiarly clever boatbuilders and navigators.
Debray (1827-1888) he worked at the platinum metals, his object being on the one hand to prepare them pure, and on the other to find a suitable metal for the standard metre for the International Metric Commission then sitting at Paris.
In historical literature Brazil has produced one writer of high standing - Francisco Adolpho Varnhagen (Visconde de Porto Seguro), whose Historia Geral do Brazil is a standard authority on that subject.
Gold is the nominal standard of value, the monetary unit being the gold milreis worth 2s.
But the Sienese people, being called to arms by the council of fifteen, made a most determined resistance, routed the imperial troops, captured the standard, and confined the emperor in the Salimbeni palace.
That is the standard by which we are to test their work.
The standard biography is that by John Morley (1881).
This book, which comes down to the year 1526 and the extinction of Czech independence,'was founded on laborious research in the local archives of Bohemia and in the libraries of the chief cities of Europe, and remains the standard authority.
In these, as in many other of the romances of Josika, a high moral standard is aimed at.
Later cadets were John, brother of the 3rd earl, who carried the standard at Crecy, became captain of Calais, and was summoned as a peer in 1350, but died unmarried; and William, brother of the 4th earl, who was distinguished in the French wars, and succeeding to the lands of the Lords Abergavenny was summoned in that barony 1392; his son was created earl of Worcester in 1420, but died without male issue in 1422; from his daughter, who married Sir Edward Neville, descended the Lords Abergavenny.
An equation of the form ax=b, where a and b do not contain x, is the standard form of simple equation.
The standard form is usually taken to be ax2+bx+c =0, from which we find, by transformation, (2 ax+b) 2 =b 2 - 4ac, 4 (}b 2 -4ac} -b and thence x = 2a (ii.) In an equation of the form Q=V, the expressions P, Q, U, V are usually numerical.
Cantor's Vorlesungen fiber Geschichte der Mathematik is the standard authority.
RATE, a general term for proportion, standard, allowance, tax (Med.
From these special studies of human structure the knowledge of the anatomy of animals has proceeded, the same investigator who had made himself acquainted with the structure of the human body desiring to compare with the standard given by human anatomy the structures of other animals.
The extreme discrepancy is that between the waves which travel through the outermost parts of the object-glass at L and L'; so that if we adopt the above standard of resolution, the question is where must P be situated in order that the relative retardation of the rays PL and PL' may on their arrival at B amount to a wave-length (X).
According to the standard adopted, the condition of resolution is therefore that AP, or s, should exceed 1X/sin a.
If we take o° C. as standard temperature, SFt=-I I tXIO-G.
According to our former standard, this gives the smallest difference of wave-lengths in a double line which can be just resolved; and we conclude that the resolving power of a grating depends only upon the total number of lines, and upon the order of the spectrum, without regard to any other considerations.
Mag., 1887) that the angular measurements present less difficulty than the comparison of the grating interval with the standard metre.
Taking as the standard phase that of the secondary wave from A, we may represent the effect of PQ by cos 27r (_) .ds, where, l = BP - AP is the retardation at B of the wave from P relatively to that from A.
BIREN (or BtHREN), Ernst Johann (1690-1772), duke of Courland, was the grandson of a groom in the service of Duke Standard Wing Bird of Paradise (Semioptera wallacei).
iii., is, up to its date (1865), the most complete, and the new edition now in preparation will doubtless prove the standard work of reference.
With the exception of a few purely local lines they are of the standard South African gauge-3 ft.
Above standard III.
Education, as need hardly be said, was in the 'sixties at a very low ebb, and nothing approaching the standard of a high school existed.
Ample facilities were given for the teaching of Dutch, but it was provided that no pupil should be promoted to a higher standard unless he (or she) was making satisfactory progress in the knowledge of English.
The history of the Peshitta rendering of the Acts and Epistles is less clear; apparently the earliest Syrian writers used a text somewhat different from that which afterwards became the standard.'
Paez raised the standard of revolt, but Monagas was completely victorious.
Disease we may define, accordingly, as any departure from the normal standard of structure or function of a tissue or organ.
They produced many eminent anatomists, but in the end seem to have become lost in theoretical subtleties, and to have maintained too high a standard of literary cultivation.
[Abulcasis'] great work, Altasrif, a medical encyclopaedia, is chiefly valued for its surgical portion, which was translated into Latin in the 16th century, and was for some centuries a standard if not the standard authority on surgery in Europe.
It was among the Benedictines that the monastic study of medicine first received a new direction, and aimed at a higher standard.
In the transitional period, when the Arabian school began to influence European medicine, but before the Salernitans were superseded, comes Nicolaus Praepositus, who wrote the Antidotarium, a collection of formulae for compound medicines, which became the standard work on the subject, and the foundation of many later compilations.
The standard of excellence in the ancient writers was indeed far above the level of the 16th century; but the fatal habit of taking at second hand what should have been acquired by direct observation retarded progress more than the possession of better models assisted it, so that the fundamental faults of medieval science remained uncorrected.
His work, entitled Observations on the Diseases of an Army, was translated into many European languages and became the standard authority on the subject.
At any rate the mean standard of health will be raised, perhaps enormously.
advantages of a gold standard, but it was not until 1897 that his scheme could be realized.
The systems of filtration employed by the different companies varied in efficacy, but both the Royal Commissions decided that water as supplied to the consumer was generally of a very high standard of purity.
Standard high water (of 1870) is 2.77 ft.
above mean sea-level, and standard low water 3.24 ft.
Standard round rope (fig.
- Standard FIG.
In spite of the discouraging conditions in which they found themselves, and of the constant annoyance suffered from hostile artillery fire, the troops were in fair heart, while the tactical efficiency of the recently created divisions, which had not been of a high standard when they arrived in the theatre of war, had appreciably progressed.
Since the advent of the British power, the immigration of Hindus with a lower standard of comfort and of Chinamen with a keener business instinct has threatened the economic independence of the Burmese in their own country.
The standard of instruction, however, is very low, consisting only of reading and writing, though this is gradually being improved in very many monasteries.
With good harvests and good markets the standard of living in Burma has much improved.
The higher castes murmured, and many of them left him, for he taught that the Brahmanical threads must be broken; but the lower orders rejoiced and flocked in numbers to his standard.
Where special statements are not made, the numbers hold for the ordinary temperature (15° to 17° or 20° C.), referred to water of the same temperature as a standard, and to hold for the natural frozen metal.
and it is of the standard South African gauge.
But the standard biographies of Ken are those of J.
Uniplanar motion alone is so far amenable to analysis; the velocity function 4 and stream function 1G are given as conjugate functions of the coordinates x, y by w=f(z), where z= x +yi, w=4-Plg, and then dw dod,y az = dx + i ax - -u+vi; so that, with u = q cos B, v = q sin B, the function - Q dw u_vi=g22(u-}-vi) = Q(cos 8+i sin 8), gives f' as a vector representing the reciprocal of the velocity in direction and magnitude, in terms of some standard velocity Q.
Astronomy was of old standing in Babylonia, and the standard work on the subject, written from an astrological point of view, which was translated into Greek by Berossus, was believed to go back to the age of Sargon of Akkad.
At this time the podestd's palace (the Bargello) was built, and the gold florin was first coined and soon came to be accepted as the standard gold piece throughout Europe.
- The best complete history of Florence is Gino Capponi's Storia della Repubblica di Firenze (2 vols., Florence, 1875), which although defective as regards the earliest times is a standard work based on original authorities; also F.
But this competition among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circulates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by apparatus in use so recently as 1885 - and this without any increase in the steam pressure.
In places where work is carried on day and night throughout the week, the standard type of evaporator lends itself more readily to cleaning operations than any other.
The standard of morality is low; women are practically slaves, and infanticide was formerly common.
South Africa, and to maintain the standard of the produce fresh supplies of seed were obtained annually from Turkey.
As modern standard works there may also be quoted Tiedemann's Geschichte des Tabaks (1856) and Wagner's Tabakcultur, Tabakand CigarrenFabrication (1884).
Bailey's Cyclopedia of American Agriculture (New York, 1907) and Standard Encyclopaedia (London, 1908), &c.
The standard edition is that of E.
was alive, and summoning the inhabitants to his standard.
The single gold standard has been in force in Peru since 1897 and 1898, silver and copper being used for subsidiary coinage.
The single standard has worked well, and has contributed much toward the recovery of Peruvian commerce and finance.
The change from the double standard was effected without any noticeable disturbance in commercial affairs, but this was in part due to the precaution of making the British pound sterling legal tender in the republic and establishing the legal equivalent between gold and silver at 10 soles to the pound.
Previous to the adoption of the single gold standard in 1897 the monetary history of Peru had been unfortunate.
Although the double standard was in force, gold was practically demonetized by the monetary reform of 1872 because of the failure to fix a legal ratio between the two metals.
The French metric system is the official standard of weights and measures and is in use in the custom-houses of the republic and in foreign trade, but the old units are still commonly used among the people.
(1734-1825), is still the standard work for that period; but its value is somewhat diminished by the author's bitterness against his opponents and the fact that he does not give chapter and verse for his statements, many of which are based on his recollection of documents seen, but not available at the time of writing.
The standard modern work on Savonarola is Pasquale Villari's, La Storia di Fra Girolamo Savonarola e de' suoi tempi (Florence, 1887) based on an exhaustive study of the original authorities and containing a number of new documents (English translation by Linda Villari, London, 1889).
He first opened an English school in which the Bible was the centre of the school work, and along with it all kinds of secular knowledge were taught from the rudiments upwards to a university standard.
We are not so unreasonable as to blame him for failing to make his pages picturesque or thrilling; we do not want sunsets and stars and roses and ecstasy; but there is a certain standard for the most serious and abstract subjects.
For many years the standard authority on the period before the ratification of the constitution was S.
Among the antiquities preserved in the museum are the epitaph of Boabdil, the last king of Granada, who died at Tlemcen in 1494, and the standard cubit measure - in marble - used in the Kissaria, bearing date A.H.
He never justified a prejudice; he never misdirected our admiration; he never hurt an innocent feeling or overbore a serious judgment; and he set up within us a standard of Christian scholarship to which it must ever exalt us to aspire.
There is undoubtedly in the lower ranks of Japanese tradesmen a comparatively large fringe of persons whose standard of commercial morality is defective.
Chamberlain, the necessity of committing to memory two syllabaries, one of which has many variant forms, and at least two or three thousand Chinese ideographs, in forms standard and cursive ideographs, too, most of which are susceptible of three or four different readings according to circuinstance,add, further, that all these kinds of written symbols are apt to be encountered pell mell on the same page, and the task of mastering Japanese becomes almost Herculean.
Standard Chinese soon became easier to understand than archaic Japanese, as the former alone was taught in the schools, and the native language changed rapidly during the century or two that followed the diffusion of the foreign tongue and civilization (CnAMBERLAIN).
It consisted of 240 volumes, and it became at once the standard in its own branch of literature.
Foreign demand has shown so little discrimination that experts, finding it impossible to obtain adequate remuneration for first-class work, have been obliged to abandon the field altogether, or to lower their standard to the level of general appreciation, or by forgery to cater for the perverted taste which attaches unreasoning value to age.
The intercolumniation is regulated by a standard of about six or seven feet, and the general result of the treatment of columns, wall-posts, &c., is that the whole mural space, not filled in with doors or windows, is divided into regular oblong panels, which sometimes receive plaster, sometimes boarding and sometimes rich framework and carving or painted panels.
The whole disposition of pillars, posts, brackets and rafters is harmonically arranged according to some measure of the standard of length.
Eisen was the first to manufacture porcelain (as distinguished from faience) in Kieto, and this branch of the art was carried to a high standard of excellence by Eiraku, whose speciality was a rich coralred glaze with finel~~ executed decoration in gold.
Spencer, however, considers that he can not only anticipate such a state of complete adjustment, but even lay down the rules obtaining in it, which will constitute the code of "Absolute Ethics" and the standard for discerning the "least wrong" actions of relative ethics.
The time was ripe for one which should be quite independent of the booksellers, and which should also aim at a higher standard of excellence.
All are illustrated, and three in particular, the Century, Scribner's and Harper's, carried the art of wood-engraving to a high"standard of excellence.
Canada Canadian periodicals have reached a higher standard than in .any other British self-governing colony.
The Sydney University Magazine (1855), again published in 1878-1879, and continued as the Sydney University Review, is the first magazine of a high literary standard.
But on the other hand the church in maintaining its place and power may condemn as heretical genuine efforts at reform by a return, though partial, to the standard set by the Holy Scriptures or the Apostolic Church.
Orthodoxy is con- Modern formity to the recognized creed or standard of public doctrine; heresy is a wilful departure from it.
For further information, the reader is referred to any standard work on organic chemistry.
There were two types of canine divinities in Egypt, their leading representatives being respectively Anubis and Ophois (W p-w;-wt, " opener of the ways"): the former type is symbolized by the recumbent animal the other by a similar animal (in a stiff standing attitude), carried as an emblem on a standard in war or in religious processions.
Virgil is the true representative poet of Rome and Italy, of national glory and of the beauty of nature, the artist in whom all the efforts of the past were made perfect, and the unapproachable standard of excellence to future times.
In the Satires we find realistic pictures of social life, and the conduct and opinions of the world submitted to the standard of good feeling and common sense.
Its purity of style and the fact that it was long a standard work entitle it to a mention here.
The quantity of alcohol present in an aqueous solution is determined by a comparison of its specific gravity with standard tables, or directly by the use of an alcoholometer, which is a hydrometer graduated so as to read per cents by weight (degrees according to Richter) or volume per cents (degrees according to Tralles).
On the other hand there are numerous methods by which the capacities of condensers may be compared and a relative measurement made in terms of some standard.
The constant co is the value of c at some standard temperature oo.
The Japanese use for ornament an alloy of gold and silver, the standard of which varies from 350 to 500, the colour of the precious metal being developed by " pickling " in a mixture of plum-juice, vinegar and copper sulphate.
Standard works on the metallurgy of gold are the treatises of T.
The burden of the new prophecy seems to have been a new standard of moral obligations, especially with regard to marriage, fasting and martyrdom.
BATTLE OF THE STANDARD, a name given to the battle of the 22nd of August 1138 near Northallerton, in which the Scottish army under King David was defeated by the English levies of Yorkshire and the north Midlands, who arrayed themselves round a chariot carrying the consecrated banners of St Peter of York, St John of Beverley, St Wilfrid of Ripon and St Cuthbert of Durham.
Until 1870 the standard work on the subject was Waterland's Critical History of the Athanasian Creed, first published in 1723.
Natural gas and oil were found here in 1899, and Chanute became one of the leaders of the Kansas independent refineries in their contest with the Standard Oil Company.
Andersson, a Swede, spent nearly a quarter of a century in their investigation, and ultimately published a monograph which is the standard authority on the subject.
For the period before the adoption of a written standard the resort was not so much to " apostles " as to " disciples " and " witnesses."
by Holtzmann, Julicher, Weiss, Zahn, Davidson, Salmon, Bacon and the standard Commentaries of Meyer and Holtzmann, the International (Bigg) and other series, contain discussions of authorship and date.
To keep alive, in a fair standard of comfort, the population of 206,690, food supplies have to be imported for nine and a half months in the year.
Though the cavalry were freely engaged, the training of both was so far beneath the standard of the present day that the most that can be credited to them in respect of results is that they from time to time averted imminent disaster, but failed altogether to achieve such a decision as was well within their potential capacities.
The result of the contest was never in doubt, however, for the geological evidence, once it had been gathered, was unequivocal; and by about the middle of the century it was pretty generally admitted that the age of the earth must be measured by an utterly different standard from that hitherto in vogue.
By this new standard the Romans seem our contemporaries in latter-day civilization; the "Golden Age" of Greece is but of yesterday; the pyramid-builders are only relatively remote.
Absolute justice is the standard which Hallam set himself and maintained.
Hallam, like Macaulay, ultimately referred all political questions to the standard of Whig constitutionalism.
In this he was helped by his legal training, and it was doubtless this fact which made the Constitutional History one of the text-books of English politics, to which men of all parties appealed, and which, in spite of all the work of later writers, still leaves it a standard authority.
The beginning of his reign was devoted to the healing of domestic discords, and the rallying of all the forces of the nation round his standard for a new policy of conquest.
densus, thick), in physics, the mass or quantity of matter contained in unit volume of any substance: this is the absolute density; the term relative density or specific gravity denotes the ratio of the mass of a certain volume of a substance to the mass of the same volume of some standard substance.
Since the weights used in conjunction with a balance are really standard masses, the word "weight" may be substituted for the word "mass" in the preceding definitions; and we may symbolically express the relations thus: - If M be the weight of substance occupying a volume V, then the absolute density O = M/V; and if m, m 1 be the weights of the substance and of the standard substance which occupy the same volume, the relative density or specific gravity S = m/m l; or more generally if m i be the weight of a volume v of the substance, and m l the weight of a volume v l of the standard, then S = mv l /m l v.
In the numerical expression of absolute densities it is necessary to specify the units of mass and volume employed; while in the case of relative densities, it is only necessary to specify the standard substance, since the result is a mere number.
In commerce, however, other expressions are met with, as, for example, "pounds per cubic foot" (used for woods, metals, &c.), "pounds per gallon," &c. The standard substances employed to determine relative densities are: water for liquids and solids, and hydrogen or atmospheric air for gases; oxygen (as 16) is sometimes used in this last case.
In expressing the absolute or relative density of any substance, it is necessary to specify the conditions for which the relation holds: in the case of gases, the temperature and pressure of the experimental gas (and of the standard, in the case of relative density); and in the case of solids and liquids, the temperature.
The relative densities of gases are usually expressed in terms of the standard gas under the same conditions.
The density gives very important information as to the molecular weight, since by the law of Avogadro it is seen that the relative density is the ratio of the molecular weights of the experimental and standard gases.
The temperature of the experimental substance may or may not be the temperature of the standard.
In the group where the principles of hydrostatics are not employed the method consists in determining the weight and volume of a certain quantity of the substance, or the weights of equal volumes of the substance and of the standard.
It consists in weighing a glass vessel (I) empty, (2) filled with the liquid, (3) filled with the standard substance.
Calling the weight of the empty vessel w, when filled with the liquid W, and when filled with the standard substance W l, it is obvious that W - w, and W1 - w, are the weights of equal volumes of the liquid and standard, and hence the relative density is (W - w)/(Wi - w).
The specific gravity bottle may be used to determine the relative density of a solid which is available in small fragments, and is insoluble in the standard liquid.
This subject owes its importance in modern chemistry to the fact that the vapour density, when hydrogen is taken as the standard, gives perfectly definite information as to the molecular condition of the compound, since twice the vapour density equals the molecular weight of the compound.
It consists of a steelyard mounted on a fulcrum; one arm carries at its extremity a heavy bob and pointer, the latter moving along a scale affixed to the stand and serving to indicate when the beam is in its standard position.
A recent standard work on the morphology of the Hemiptera by R.
The best biography is the standard work of Pasquale Villari, La Storia di Niccolo Machiavelli e de' suoi tempi (Florence, 1877-1882; latest ed., 1895 Eng.
He is the Christian emperor directly inspired by angels; his sword Joyeuse contained the point of the lance used in the Passion; his standard was Romaine, the banner of St Peter, which, as the oriflamme of Saint Denis, was later to be borne in battle before the kings of France; and in 1164 Charles was canonized at the desire of the emperor Frederick I.
All determinations must accordingly be reduced to a standard temperature for comparison.
The relations between the various conditions are set forth in the following equations where 0-o signifies the specific gravity of the sea-water in question at o° C., the standard at 4° being taken as 1000, S the salinity and Cl the chlorine, both expressed in parts by weight per mille.
The amphora was a standard measure of capacity among both Greeks and Romans, the Attic containing nearly nine gallons, and the Roman about six.
He wrote also forensic speeches; Phrynichus, in Photius, ranks him amongst the best orators, and mentions his orations as the standard of the pure Attic style.
As in the Critique of Revelation so here the rational nature of man and the conditions necessary for its manifestation or realization become the standard for critical judgment.
In Adderley Street are the customs house and railway station, the Standard bank, the general post and telegraph offices, with a tower 120 ft.
4d.) is the standard coin, with a subsidiary decimal coinage.
In June Wilson discovered a plot to revolt, and in July Mwanga fled to the south of Buddu and raised the standard of rebellion.
He succeeded not only in raising the standard of education generally in the north of Scotland, but also in forming a school of philosophy and in widely influencing the teaching of English grammar and composition.
This is the standard Catholic treatment of the Reformation, and is being supplemented by a series of monographs, Ergcinzungen zu Janssens Geschichte des deutschen Volkes, which have been appearing since 1898 and correspond with the Protestant Schriften des Vereins fur Reformationsgeschichte (1883 sqq.).
3 The issue between the two theories under this head may here be left with the remark that it is a curious comment on the logic of dualism that setting out to vindicate the reality of an objective standard of truth it should end in the most subjective of all the way a thing appears to the individual.
Under Roman supremacy in addition to earlier functions they had jurisdiction in cases of forgery, tampering with the standard measures, and probably other high crimes, the supervision of buildings, and the care of religion and of education (Cic. Fain.
Barrett, Standard Guide to the City of Mexico and Vicinity (Mexico, 1900); Thomas A.
In a gigantic system embracing hundreds of monasteries and thousands of monks, and spread over all the countries of western Europe, without any organic bond between the different houses, and exposed to all the vicissitudes of the wars and conquests of those wild times, to say that the monks often fell short of the ideal of their state, and sometimes short of the Christian, and even the moral standard, is but to say that monks are men.
He was a lifelong advocate of international peace, and made a remarkable declaration as to the Christian standard of national action when the Free Church Federation met at Leeds during the South African War in 1900.
As the standard of clerical education sank during the dark ages, the habit of using the sermons of others became almost universal.
Thirlwall's History of Greece remains a standard book.
To the ordinary men it seemed to be a reforming agency, insisting on a high moral standard, and upholding the words of Scripture against the traditions of an overgrown and worldly church.
The standard set up by eminent statisticians, therefore, may be taken to represent an ideal, not likely to be attained anywhere under present conditions, but towards which each successive census may be expected to advance.
The operations were improved and facilitated by means of an interstatal conference held before the census of 1891, at which a standard schedule was adopted and a series of general tables agreed upon, to be supplemented in greater detail according to the requirements of each state.
The standard schedule, in addition to the leading facts of sex, age, civil condition, birthplace, occupation and house-room, includes education and sickness as well as infirmities, and leaves the return of religious denomination optional with the householder.
On each occasion new areas had to be brought within the sphere of enumeration, whilst the necessity for the use in the wilder tracts of a schedule simpler in its demands than the standard, grew less as the country got more accustomed to the inquiry, and the efficiency of the administrative agency increased.
Irrespective of the large number of clerks, village scribes and state and municipal employes which can be drawn upon with but slight interruption of official routine, there is a fair supply of casual literary labour up to the moderate standard required.
The schedule adopted contains in addition to the standard subjects of sex, age, civil condition, birthplace, occupation and infirmities, columns for mother-tongue, religion and sect, and caste and sub-caste.
The popular opinion of a census, at least in the United States, depends largely upon the degree to which its figures for the population of the country, of states, and especially of cities, meet or fail to meet the expectations of the interested public. Judged by this standard, the census of 1890 was less favourably received than that of 1880.
The amount of gold in standard ounces (916.6 fine) corresponding to the " imported " bullion is thus ascertained, and on the application of the importer the gold is coined and delivered to him in the form of sovereigns and half-sovereigns at the rate of £3, 17s.
per standard ounce troy, no deduction being made for wastage, seigniorage, the purchase of alloy metal, or the expense of manufacture.
One ounce of standard silver, which contains 925 parts of silver and 75 of copper per 1000, is converted into 5s.
The ingots are valued by weighing and assaying, and a calculation is made as to the amount of copper required for melting with them to produce the standard alloy.
The two standard alloys consist respectively of gold 916.6, copper 83.3 and of silver 925, copper 75.