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stability

stability

stability Sentence Examples

  • Lori's father had remarried after her mother died and Mums was the only stability she had known.

  • You tear me away from the only stability I have in my life, expect me to change my view on the entire world overnight, reject me and now, you're asking me to take a chance on something you can't guarantee.

  • For once, Rhyn knew some sort of stability within himself, no doubt because of his bond to Katie.

  • From the dhjan came strength and stability; from the nishani, restoration and healing.

  • Her Guardian was the only stability she'd known since the world fell apart.

  • Their selection for a particular purpose depends upon some special quality which they possess; thus for brewing certain essentials are demanded as regards stability, clarification, taste and smell; whereas, in distilleries, the production of alcohol and a high multiplying power in the yeast are required.

  • These measures have served to give greater stability to the value of the circulating medium, and to prevent the ruinous losses caused by a constant fluctuation in value, but the rate established prevents the further appreciation of the currency.

  • With portable cranes means must be provided to ensure the requisite stability against overturning; this is done by weighting the tail of the revolving part with heavy weights, and in steam cranes the FIG.

  • In connexion with the stability of portable cranes, it may be mentioned that accidents more often arise from FIG.

  • Those who believe that the Italians would have gained strength by unification in a single monarchy must regret that this Gothic kingdom lacked the elements of stability.

  • The constitution of the commonwealth had slowly matured itself through a series of revolutions, which confirmed and defined a type of singular stability.

  • to his joy, of their faith, hope and love; of the order and stability of their faith; and of their reception of Christ Jesus the Lord (i.

  • Love, " Gravitational Stability of the Earth," Phil.

  • It produces an uncertainty with regard to rates which prevents stability of prices, and is apt to promote the interests of the unscrupulous speculator at the expense of those whose business methods are more conservative.

  • In the system devised by Mr Louis Brennaxi the cars run on a single rail laid on the ground, their stability being maintained by a heavy gyrostat revolving at great speed in a vacuum.

  • Its critics, however, accuse it of lack of stability, and assert that the use of large leading wheels as drivers results in rigidity and produces destructive strains on the machinery and permanent way.

  • The type has been introduced in Europe, especially in Germany, where the advantages of a partial-adhesion type in increased stability and a larger boiler are becoming appreciated.

  • 31), the earliest form, consisted of a single row of columns supporting two lines of longitudinal girders carrying the rails, the lateral stability of the structure being obtained by anchoring the feet of the columns to their foundations.

  • A weak, giddy woman of no stability of character, her success turned her head and caused her to behave with insolence and impropriety, in strong contrast with Catherine's quiet dignity under her misfortunes.

  • He obtained in 185 9 the Adams prize in Cambridge for a very original and powerful essay, " On the Stability of Saturn's Rings."

  • Assuming then the leadership of the constitutional opposition, he combated the alliance between the Di Rudini cabinet and the subversive parties, criticized the financial schemes of the treasury minister, Luzzatti, and opposed the "democratic" finance of the first Pelloux administration as likely to endanger financial stability.

  • How little this criticism was justified may be seen from the fact that Mill's inductive logic was the direct result of his aspirations after political stability as determined by the dominion of the wisest (Examiner letters).

  • The corner towards the Ponte della Puglia was also restored, and the hideous device of walling up the five last arches, adopted in the 16th century by the architect Da Ponte, was removed without prejudice to the stability of the structure.

  • Greater stability of crops in proportion to area cultivated is hoped for.

  • The peribolos, a large artificial platform supported by a retaining wall of squared Peiraic blocks with buttresses, was excavated in 1898 without important results; it is to be hoped that the stability of the columns has not been affected by the operations.

  • Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, and removes hydrogen from hydrogenized bodies, far more readily than bromine; and hydrochloric acid is a far more stable substance than hydrobromic acid, hydriodic acid being greatly inferior even to hydrobromic acid in stability.

  • The oxychloride, bromides, and other compounds were subsequently discovered; here we need only notice Moissan's preparation of the trifluoride and Thorpe's discovery of the pentafluoride, a compound of especial note, for it volatilizes unchanged, giving a vapour of normal density and so demonstrating the stability of a pentavalent phosphorus compound (the pentachloride and pentabromide dissociate into a molecule of the halogen element and phosphorus trichoride).

  • into two groups: (r) those exhibiting properties closely analogous to the aliphatic series - the polymethylenes, and (2) a series exhibiting properties differing in many respects from the aliphatic and polymethylene compounds, and characterized by a peculiar stability which is to be associated with the disposition of certain carbon valencies not saturated by hydrogen - the " aromatic series."

  • He regards the amount of deflection as a measure of the stability of the " ring."

  • This and other facts connected with the stability of benzenoid compounds are clearly shown when we consider mixed aliphatic-aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e.

  • - We have previously alluded to the relative stability of the benzene complex; consequently reactions which lead to its disruption are all the more interesting, and have engaged the attention of many chemists.

  • The stronger argument against the ethylenoid linkages demanded by Kekule's formula is provided by the remarkable stability towards oxidizing and reducing agents which characterizes all benzenoid compounds.

  • From the fact that reduction products containing either one or two double linkages behave exactly as unsaturated aliphatic compounds, being readily reduced or oxidized, and combining with the halogen elements and haloid acids, it seems probable that in benzenoid compounds the fourth valencies are symmetrically distributed in such a manner as to induce a peculiar stability in the molecule.

  • The stability of benzene is ascribed to this conjugation.'

  • Similarly a CH group may be replaced by a nitrogen atom with the production of compounds of similar stability; thus benzene gives pyridine, naphthalene gives quinoline and isoquinoline; anthracene gives acridine and a and 3 anthrapyridines.

  • Similarly, two or more methine groups may be replaced by the same number of nitrogen atoms with the formation of rings of considerable stability.

  • The second method possesses greater advantages, for rings of approximate stability come in one group, and, consequently, their derivatives may be expected to exhibit considerable analogies.

  • Systems which are generally unsaturated compounds, often of considerable stability, and behave as nuclei; these compounds constitute a well-individualized class exhibiting closer affinities to benzenoid substances than to the open-chain series.

  • In the article Thermo Chemistry a general account of heats of formation of chemical compounds is given, and it is there shown that this constant measures the stability of the compound.

  • - On the theory that crystal form and structure are the result of the equilibrium between the atoms and molecules composing the crystals, it is probable, a priori, that the same substance may possess different equilibrium configurations of sufficient stability, under favourable conditions, to form different crystal structures.

  • It is doubtful indeed whether any general conclusions can yet be drawn as to the relations between crystal structure and scalar properties and the relative stability of polymorphs.

  • The transference of the seat of government to Jibuti in May 1896 and the building of the railway to Harrar gave the protectorate a stability which it had previously lacked.

  • He hoped by these means to give a certain stability to his projected institution, and to avoid the superficiality of mere enthusiasm.

  • Milner felt that only the enfranchisement of the Uitlanders in the Transvaal would give stability to the South African situation.

  • The government of intervention at first directed its main effort simply to holding the country together, without undertaking much that could divide public opinion or seem of unpalatably foreign impulse; and later to the establishment of a few fundamental laws which, when intervention ceased, should give greater simplicity, strength and stability to a new native government.

  • This is a consequence of the false stability of portraiture, since in life the unceasing movement of light in the eyes, the mobility of the mouth, and the sympathy and sweetness which radiated from all the features, precluded the faintest notion of want of sincerity.

  • The Greeks are of an especially fine type, physical and moral, and noted all through Anatolia for energy and stability.

  • The sample, arranged as a bundle of rectangular strips, is caused to rotate about a central horizontal axis between the poles of an upright C-shaped magnet, which is supported near 'its middle upon knife-edges in such a manner that it can oscillate about an axis in a line with that about which the specimen rotates; the lower side of the magnet is weighted, to give it some stability.

  • A somewhat stronger field will deflect many of the needles beyond the limits of stability, causing them to turn round and form new stable combinations, in which the direction assumed by most of them approximates to that of the field.

  • Finally, of the grand series of researches by which the stability of the solar system was ascertained, the glory must be almost equally divided between Lagrange and Laplace.

  • But this treaty, in spite of its apparent stability, led in a few years to a fiercer struggle; for in 1258 the Florentines complained that Siena had infringed its terms by giving refuge to the Ghibellines they had expelled, and on the refusal of the Sienese to yield to these just remonstrances both states made extensive preparations for war.

  • During the last six years (1534-1540) of John's reign, his kingdom, beneath the guidance of the Paulician monk, Frater Gyorgy, or George Martinuzzi, the last great statesman of old Hungary, enjoyed a stability and prosperity marvellous in the difficult circumstances of the period, Martinuzzi holding the balance exactly between the emperor and the Porte with 3 I was kept secret for some years for fear of Turkish intervention.

  • the dark shadow of Metternich's policy of " stability " fell across the kingdom, and the forces of reactionary absolutism were everywhere supreme.

  • tionally rather than imperil the stability of the Dual Monarchy by allowing any tampering with the joint army.

  • But the issues involved affected the stability of the Dual Monarchy and its position in Europe; and neither the king-emperor nor his Austrian advisers, their position strengthened by the success of Baron Aehrenthal's diplomatic victory in the Balkans, were prepared to make any substantial concessions to the party of Independence.

  • The overwhelming victory of the government in June at the polls, produced a lull in a crisis which at the beginning of the year had threatened the stability of the Dual Monarchy and the peace of Europe; but, in view of the methods by which the victory had been won, not the most sanguine could assert that the crisis was overpassed.

  • This was the first and most important step in the establishment of the stability of the solar system.

  • It may be added that he first examined the conditions of stability of the system formed by Saturn's rings, pointed out the necessity for their rotation, and fixed for it a period (Io h 33 m) virtually identical with that established by the observations of Herschel; that he detected the existence in the solar system of an invariable plane such that the sum of the products of the planetary masses by the projections upon it of the areas described by their radii vectores in a given time is a maximum; and made notable advances in the theory of astronomical refraction (Mec. cel.

  • Abroad the new King's position was prejudiced by the hideous crime which led to his accession, but among his own people this was from the first atoned for by the introduction of a real constitutional regime and increased political stability.

  • Had the fusion of the two little republics which Pretorius sought to bring about, and from which apparently the Free State was not averse, actually been accomplished in 1860, it is more than probable that a republican state on liberal lines, with some prospect of permanence and stability, might have been formed.

  • But a narrow, distrustful, grasping policy on the part of whatever faction might be dominant at the time invariably prevented the state from acquiring stability and security at any stage of its history.

  • But it is expensive, and tin vessels have to be made very heavy to give them sufficient stability of form; hence it is generally employed merely as a protecting coating for utensils made essentially of copper or iron.

  • The relative stability is then judged by the amount of nitrogen gas collected in a certain time.

  • Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, maintained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond chemistry as chemistry beyond physics.

  • Thus endowed, the blood, unless overwhelmed by extraordinary invasions, does not fail in stability and self-purification.

  • In the same way glass can be rendered more or less fusible, and its stability can be increased both in relation to extremes of temperature and to the chemical action of solvents.

  • Further, these glasses, when made from properly proportioned materials, possess a very considerable degree of chemical stability, which is amply sufficient for most optical purposes.

  • It must be admitted that, by the aid of certain of these new constituents, glasses can be produced which, as regards purity of colour, freedom from defects and chemical stability are equal or even superior to the best of the " ordinary " glasses, but it is a remarkable fact that when this is the case the optical properties of the new glass do not fall very widely outside the limits set by the older glasses.

  • the further they depart from the ratio of refractive index to dispersive power found in the older glasses, the greater the difficulty found in obtaining them of either sufficient purity or stability to be of practical use.

  • The chemical stability, i.e.

  • the power of resisting the disintegrating effects of atmospheric moisture and carbonic acid, depends largely upon the quantity of alkalis contained in the glass and their proportion to the lead, lime or barium present, the stability being generally less the higher the proportion of alkali.

  • A high silica-content tends towards both hardness and chemical stability, and this can be further increased by the addition of small proportions of boric acid; in larger quantities, however, the latter constituent produces the opposite effect.

  • This large proportion of magnesia undoubtedly supplied the stability required to withstand the process of enamelling.

  • He was responsible, especially, for the great operation known as the opening of the Grand Livre (August 2 4), which was designed to consolidate the public debt by cancelling the stock issued under various conditions prior to the Revolution, and issuing new stock of a uniform character, so that all fund-holders should hold stock of the revolutionary government and thus be interested in its stability.

  • Equilibrium and Stability of a Ship or Floating Body.

  • In addition to satisfying these conditions of equilibrium, a ship must fulfil the further condition of stability, so as to keep upright; if displaced slightly from this position, the forces called into play must be such as to restore the ship to the upright again.

  • The stability of a ship is investigated practically by inclining it; a weight is moved across the deck and the angle is observed of the heel produced.

  • The naval architect distinguishes between the stability of form, represented by the righting couple W.BM, and the stability of ballasting, represented by W.BG.

  • Provided the ship is designed to float upright at the smallest draft with no load on board, the stability at any other draft of water can be arranged by the stowage of the weight, high or low.

  • (22) Y (F2 x2) Suppose x 3 -F is a repeated factor of X3, then y 3 = G, and X 3 = (x 3 -F)2 [P' _ P(X3+F)2+2' _ G(X +F) -G 2 ], (23) nd putting x3-F=y, (y) 2= 7'3'2- [41' r 1' F 2 -{-4 g r qFG - G2 +2 (2P'r 19F+9 r q G) y+ r y (24) o that the stability of this axial movement is secured if A = 4 P' r ?'F 2 + 4 Y q FG - G 2 (25) s negative, and then the axis makes r J l (-A)/7r nutations per second.

  • The theory preceding is of practical application in the vestigation of the stability of the axial motion of a submarine oat, of the elongated gas bag of an airship, or of a spinning rifled rojectile.

  • Table of Rifling for Stability of an Elongated Projectile, x Calibres long, giving S the Angle of Rifling, and n the Pitch of Rifling in Calibres.

  • I +W a W a), ' (k) 4 (I I) I+ w- R For a shot in air the ratio W'/W is so small that the square may be neglected, and formula (II) can be replaced for practical purpose in artillery by tan26= n2 = W i (0 - a) (k ð)7()4, (12) if then we can calculate /3, a, or (3-a for the external shape of the shot, this equation will give the value of 6 and n required for stability of flight in the air.

  • While the constitution was evolving in a manner which seemed to argue small political ability and no stability in the Florentines, the people had built up a wonderful commercial organization.

  • to give more stability to the government, the office of gonfaloniere, with the right of proposing laws to the signory, was made a life appointment.

  • The Roman empire of the German nation was indeed less universal and less theocratic under Otto, its restorer, than under Charlemagne, but what it lacked in splendour it gained in stability.

  • The prime minister, Lord Melbourne, submitted to the king a choice of names for the chancellorship of the exchequer and leadership of the House of Commons; but his majesty announced that, having lost the services of Lord Althorp as leader of the House of Commons, he could feel no confidence in the stability of Lord Melbourne's government, and that it was his intention to send for the duke of Wellington.

  • Tradition credits him with an especial genius for the delineation of animals and landscape, and commemorates his skill by a curious anecdote of a painted horse which left its frame to ravage the fields, and was reduced to pictorial stability only by the sacrifice of its eyes.

  • As a preacher, his message was apparently simple; his two great convictions were the fatherhood of God, and that all religious systems which had any stability lasted because of a portion of truth which had to be disentangled from the error differentiating them from.

  • After the Treaty of Paris stability of government developed, and many important reforms were introduced under the strong government of the masterful Sir Thomas Maitland; he acted promptly, without seeking popularity or fearing the reverse, and he ultimately gained more real respect than any other governor, not excepting the marquess of Hastings, who was a brilliant and sympathetic administrator.

  • 14, 1385) the stability of John's throne was permanently secured.

  • was at that time supreme, formed the centre of a powerful anti-Choiseul cabal, which succeeded in less than a year after the dauphin's marriage in bringing about the fall of Choiseul and seriously threatening the stability of the Austrian alliance.

  • In coming, as at a certain point in its development it does, to the consciousness of an object, the mind does not find itself in the presence of an opponent, or of anything essentially alien to itself but of that which gives content and stability to its own existence.

  • True, the stability it seems to find in it is incomplete.

  • In isolation from its object the will is as much an abstraction as though apart from the world of precepts, memories and associations which give it content and stability.

  • What prosperity or stability remains in various Cape Cod communities is largely due to foreign immigrants-especially BritishAmericans and Portuguese from the Azores; although the population remains, to a degree exceptional in northern states, of native stock.

  • AMEN, a Hebrew word, of which the root meaning is "stability," generally adopted in Christian worship as a concluding formula for prayers and hymns.

  • The stability of such structures depends on the position of the line of pressure in relation to the extrados and intrados of the arch ring.

  • The stability of such structures depends on the position of the line of pressure relatively to the intrados and extrados of the arch ring.

  • The intermediate piers should also have considerable stability, so as to counterbalance the thrust arising when one arch is loaded while the other is free from load.

  • In the Forth bridge stability is obtained partly by the great excess of dead over live load, partly by the great width of the river piers.

  • It was regarded by the followers of Quesnay as entitled to a place amongst the foremost products of human wisdom, and is named by the elder Mirabeau, in a passage quoted by Adam Smith, as one of the three great inventions which have contributed most to the stability of political societies, the other two being those of writing and of money.

  • The discovery of definite laws in this region might at first sight seem hopeless; but the argument rests on an implied postulate of stability and continuity of constitution of material substances, so that after a cycle of transformations we expect to recover them again as they were originally - on the postulate, in fact, that we do not expect them to melt out of organized existence in our hands.

  • The next ten years severely tested the stability of his great work, but it stood the test triumphantly.

  • It made for internal stability, order and economy, and enabled her to develop and husband her resources, and devote herself uninterruptedly to the now burning question of national education.

  • Thus the congress of Vienna failed to institute any new system for securing the stability of the European polity, nor did it recognize those new forces of liberty and nationality which had really caused Napoleon's downfall.

  • This union was followed by others of even less stability.

  • The country is essentially agricultural, and owes its political stability to the presence of a large class of peasant proprietors, who number more than two-thirds of the population.

  • And further, by inviting them to loosen, though not exactly to dissolve, their political allegiance - the very thing that gave them stability - it removed the foundation on which they rested.

  • In 1808 he published an Inquiry into the Extent and Stability of National Resources, a contribution to the discussion created by Bonaparte's commercial policy.

  • Under the party system in Canada cabinets changed as often as, until recently, they did in France, and the union of the two provinces did not give political stability.

  • r.-Boyle's New the plane of flotation, the stability of the instrument when floating will be diminished or destroyed.

  • To use the instrument for liquids of much greater density than water additional weights must be placed in the upper pan, and the "plongeur" is then placed in the lower pan for the purpose of giving to the instrument the requisite stability.

  • The " balance of power," which has played in the history of modern Europe such an important part, is inherent in the notion of the independence and stability of states.

  • But his substitute was his own hypothesis of panpsychism, from which he deduced a "cosmorganic " evolution from a " cosmorganic " or original condition of the world as a living organism into the inorganic, by the principle of tendency to stability.

  • though not with complete success, a reformation of ecclesiastical abuses; and it was he who assisted in restoring the Empire at last to some measure of stability.

  • Spangenberg went to Herrnhut and found amongst the Moravians his life-work, having joined them at a moment when the stability of the society was threatened.

  • At the neutral point, when the particles possessed no charge, their stability was destroyed, and they were precipitated.

  • They should be so erected as to present the smallest extent of opaque surface consistent with stability.

  • The fact that graphite may dissolve in the iron as austenite, and that when this latter again breaks up it is more likely to yield cementite than graphite, is only an apparent and not a real exception to this law of the greater stability of graphite than of cementite.

  • The remarkable stability of the mountain appears to be due to the innumerable dikes which penetrate the lava flows and tuff beds in all directions and thus bind the whole mass together.

  • It is probable that the whole phenomenon of isomerism is due to the possibility that compounds or systems which in reality are unstable yet persist, or so slowly change that practically one can speak of their stability; for instance, such systems as explosives and a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, where the stable form is water, and in which, according to some, a slow but until now undetected change takes place even at ordinary temperatures.

  • Lastly, he introduced the idea of stability, whereby monk and community were bound to each other for life, the normal thing for the Benedictine being to live and die in the monastery of his profession: thus the.

  • Pursuing the investigations of Laplace, he demonstrated with greater rigour the stability of the solar system, and calculated the limits within which the eccentricities and inclinations of the planetary orbits vary.

  • It was to give stability and true independence to the new constitution that Grattan pressed for reform.

  • The diet, then, properly controlled, was capable of being converted into an effective instrument for furthering the policy of stability which Metternich sought to impose upon Europe.

  • The special rights reserved to Bavaria and ~ Wurttemberg have not proved, as was feared, a danger to-the stability of the empire.

  • The suspicions as to the stability of the Triple Alliance ~ produced, indeed, for some years a kind of nervous ness in the attitude of the government, whose deter mination to assert for Germany a leading international role tended to isolate her in Europe.

  • It was the beginning of that policy of " stability " associated later with Metternich, which was to last till the cataclysm of 1848.

  • The triumph of Liberal principles zilch's or of national aspirations in Germany, or elsewhere Policy of in Europe, might easily, as the events of 1848 proved, stability.

  • This, then, is the explanation of the system of " stability " which Metternich succeeded in imposing for thirty years upon Europe.

  • Since the movements of the ground are frequently accompanied by a slight tilting, which would cause b or b' to swing or wander away from its normal position, a sufficient stability is given to the weights by inclining the axis of the instrument slightly forwards.

  • It was not until his report on the financial results of 1888 that Sir Evelyn Baring (afterwards Lord Cromer) was able to inform the British government that the situation was such that it would take a series of untoward events seriously to endanger the stability of Egyptian finance and the solvency of the Egyptian government.

  • With the accumulating proofs of the financial stability of the country various changes were made in connection with the debt charges.

  • The nature of the assigned revenue was altered, the land I tax being substituted for those previously assigned, that tax being chosen as it had a greater character of stability than any other source of revenue.

  • the position of England in Egypt imposed on her the duty of giving advice with the object of securing that the order of things to be established shall be of a satisfactory character and possess the elements of stability and progress.

  • When the two commissioners were assured of the security of the frontier and the good working and stability of the Egyptian government, they should present reports to their respective governments, and these should consult as to the conclusion of a convention regulating the withdrawal of the English troops.

  • Yet, throughout this chaos, one thing made for future stability, and that was the growth and consolidation of a national church, which culminated in the erection of the archbishopric of Lund (c. 1104) and the consequent ecclesiastical independence of Denmark.

  • The enormous increase of the royal revenue consequent upon the confiscation of the property of the Church could not fail to increase the financial stability of the monarchy.

  • Thiselton-Dyer has pointed out, what is called "specific stability" is a familiar obstacle to the producer of novelties, but one which he frequently succeeds in breaking down by cultural and other methods.

  • In a survey of the palaeontological history of plants and animals, it is plain that extreme stability and extreme mutability both have occurred, sometimes having persisted for untold ages, sometimes having succeeded one another for varying periods.

  • The necessity of carrying on the government of the country somehow or other had been the chief motive of his adherence to Cromwell rather than any sympathy for a republic or a military dictatorship, and his advice to Cromwell to accept the title of king was doubtless tendered with the object of giving the administration greater stability and of protecting its adherents under the Statute of Henry VII.

  • As yet neither of these movements has shown sufficient coherence or stability to establish itself as a rival to the main current of philosophy in England.

  • From his father, whose stern, somewhat pedantic nature repelled warmer feelings on the part of the children, Goethe inherited that "holy earnestness" and stability of character which brought him unscathed through temptations and passions, and held the balance to his all too powerful imagination.

  • Its stability and the necessary furtherance of commerce, usual among Oriental kings, depended upon the attitude of the maritime coast (Philistia and Phoenicia), Edom, Moab, Ammon, Gilead and the Syrian states; and the biblical and external records for the next four centuries (to 586) frequently illustrate situations growing out of this interrelation.

  • The superior stability of the village system was overlooked, and in the old provinces of Bengal and Madras the village organization has gradually been suffered to fall into decay.

  • But after 1873, in consequence of changes in the monetary systems of France and Germany, and the increased production of silver, this stability of exchange no longer continued, and the rupee sank steadily in value, till it was worth little more than half its face value.

  • Stability in this method of mounting can only be secured by excessive weight and rigidity in the support of the overhanging axis.

  • 96, pp. 735-74 1, Loewy gives an account of an instrument which he calls an "equatorial coude," designed (I) to attain greater stability and so to measure larger angles than is generally possible with the ordinary equatorial; (2) to enable a single astronomer to point the telescope and make observations in any part of the sky without changing his position; (3) to abolish the usual expensive dome, and to substitute a covered shed on wheels (which can be run back at pleasure), leaving the telescope in the open air, the observer alone being sheltered.

  • She was thus brought into line with Great Britain, whose traditional friendship with Turkey was strengthened by the rise of a new power whose rapid advance threatened the stability of British rule in India.

  • The question of the stability of these clusters is one of much interest.

  • For a very long time no care had been taken to remove the old covering when a new one was put on; and the accumulated weight caused uneasiness respecting the stability of the walls.

  • What gives stability is the insensible principle or principles which it holds, as it were, in solution.

  • By his resolute stand against the Saracens he delivered all eastern Europe from a great danger, and by his thorough-going reforms he not only saved the empire from collapse, but invested it with a stability which enabled it to survive all further shocks for a space of five centuries.

  • The mere fact that a distinguished statesman who had served the last two absolute kings of Denmark now voluntarily placed himself at the head of a ministry which included the most advanced of the popular agitators, gave the new government the hall-mark of stability and trustworthiness, whilst the fact that he still retained the ministry of finance was of itself a guarantee of security during the earlier years of a troublesome and costly war.

  • Too much stability, however, finally changed into stagnation, and decay followed.

  • On the other hand the stability of the known oxygen compounds increases with the atomic weight, thus iodine pentoxide is, at ordinary temperatures, a well-defined crystalline solid, which is only decomposed on heating strongly, whilst chlorine monoxide, chlorine peroxide, and chlorine heptoxide are very unstable, even at ordinary temperatures, decomposing at the slightest shock.

  • Stability of equilibrium.

  • The question as to stability of equilibrium belongs essentially to kinetics; but we may state by anticipation that in cases where gravity is the only force which does work, the equilibrium of a body or system of bodies is stable only if the depth of the centre of gravity be a maximum.

  • Hence for stability the upper sign must obtain in (8).

  • We may apply this to the investigation of the stability of a circular orbit.

  • It is to be remarked, however, that iii the first form of the problem the stability above investigated is practically of a, limited or temporary kind.

  • Stability of Equilibrium.

  • The coefficients c,.n c~ are called coefficients of stability.

  • The quadratic expression for T is essentially positive, and the same holds with regard to V in virtue of the assumed stability.

  • The principles of the support, as a whole, of a structure resting on the land, are so far identical with those which regulate the equilibrium and stability of the several parts of that structure that the oni principle which seems to require special mention here is one whic comprehends in one statement the power both of liquids and of loose earth to support structures.

  • This was first demonstrated in a paper On the Stability of Loose Earth, read to the Royal Society on the 19th of June s856 (Phil.

  • Stability, Stiffness and Strength.A structure may be damaged or destroyed in three ways:first, by displacement of its pieces from their proper positions relatively to each other or to the earth; secondly by disfigurement of one or more of those pieces, owing to their being unable to preserve their proper shapes under the pressures to which they are subjected; thirdly, by breaking of one or more o~ those pieces.

  • The power of resisting displacement constitutes stability, the power of each piece to resist disfigurement is its stiffness; and its power to resist breaking, its strength.

  • Stability of Position, and Stability of Frictio-n.The resistances at the several joints having been determined by the principles set forth in 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, not only under the ordinary load of the structure, but under all the variations to which the load is subject as to amount and distribution, the joints are now to be placed and shaped so that the pieces shall not suffer relative displacement under any of those loads.

  • Safety against displacement by turning is called stability of position; safety against displacement by sliding, stability of friction.

  • Condition of Stability of Position.If the materials of a structure were infinitely stiff and strong, stability of position at any joint would be insured simply by making the centre of resistance fall within the joint under all possible variations of load.

  • That least distance is called by Moseley the modulus of stability.

  • The following are some of the ratios of the modulus of stability to the depth of the joint which occur in practice :

  • Condition of Stability of FrictionIf the resistance to be N exerted at a joint is always perpendicular ~ to the surfaces which abut at and form that joint, there is no tendency of the P pieces to be displaced by sliding.

  • If the joint be provided either with projections and recesses, such as murtises and tenons, or with fastenings, such as pins or bolts, so as to resist displacement by sliding, the question of the utmost amount of the tangential resistance CQ which it is capable of exerting depends on the strength of such projections, recesses, or fastenings; and belongs to the subject of strength, and not to that of stability.

  • The condition of stability of friction is that the tangential component CQ of the resistance required shall not exceed the friction due to the normal component; that is, that CQ~f.CP,

  • consequently the condition of stability of friction is fulfilled if tht angle PCR is not greater than ~ that is to say, if the obliquity o~ the resistance required at the joint does not exceed the angle of repose and this condition ought to be fulfilled under all possible variation~ of the load.

  • It is chiefly in masonry and earthwork that stability of friction i~ relied on.

  • Stability of Friction in Earth.The grains of a mass of loosi earth are to be regarded as so many separate pieces abutting agains each other at joints in all possible positions, and depending for thei stability on friction.

  • The condition of stability is that this obliquity shall not exceed the angle of repose of the earth.

  • The consequences of this principle are developed in a paper, On the Stability of Loose Earth, already cited in 2.

  • Principle of the Transformation of Structuret.~-Here we have the following theorem: If a structure of a given figure have stability of position .inder a system of forces represented by a given system of lines, then will any structure whose figure is a parallel projection of that of the first structure have stability of position under a system of forces represented by the corresponding projection of the first system of lines.

  • If the first structure have stability of friction, the second structure will have stability of friction also, so long as the effect of the - projection is not to increase the obliquity of the resistance at an~ joint beyond the angle of repose.

  • It is usefu in practice, by enabling the engineer easily to deduce the condition of equilibrium and stability of structures of complex and unsym metrical figures from those of structures of simple and symnietrica figures.

  • The foi-m and arrangement of the pieces of the frame depend upon the arrangement and the motions of the mechanism; the dimensions of the pieces of the frame required in order to give it stability and strength are determined from the pressures applied to it by means of the mechanism.

  • It appears therefore that in general the mechanism is to be designed first and the frame afterwards, and that the designing of the frame is regtilated by the principles of the stability of structures and of the strength and stiffness of materials,care being taken to adapt the frame to the most severe load which can be thrown upon it at any period of the action of the mechanism.

  • Definition and Division of the Theory of Machines.From what has been said in the last section it appears that the department of the art of designing machines which has reference to the stability of the frame and to the stiffness and strength of the frame and mechanism js,a branch of the art of construction.

  • The Gironde red wines have sufficient body and alcohol to ensure stability without being heavy or fiery.

  • The vinification of the Burgundy wines takes place in cuves of 500 to 2000 gallons capacity, and it has for very many years been the common practice in vintages in which the must is deficient in saccharine to ensure the stability of the wine by the addition of some sugar in the cuve.

  • The practice of sugaring has ensured greater stability and keeping power to the wines, which formerly were frequently irregular in character and difficult to preserve.

  • The wines, moreover, of Algeria are on the whole of decidedly fair quality, possessing body and strength and also stability.

  • The finer wines possess great breed and distinction, coupled with a very fine and pronounced bouquet, and in addition they are endowed with the - in the case of lighter wines - rare quality of stability.

  • They display many of the features characteristic of southern wines, showing either an excessive vinosity coupled with a somewhat crude bouquet, or where the alcoholic strength is not high, a decided lack of stability.

  • Although the Columbian is not so much in demand as the Albion, it is still employed for heavy hand-work because of its greater stability and power.

  • 3 As the social order acquires more definiteness and stability, the control of life by the gods tends to become more clearly moralized.

  • The government continued to be animated by a progressive spirit: schools, railways, telegraphs were rapidly extended; a steamship mail service to Europe was subsidized, and the stability of the government enabled it to raise new foreign loans in order to extinguish the old high interest-bearing loans and to meet the expenses of public works.

  • After the accession to office of President Errazuriz there was no stability of any ministry.

  • He made considerable contributions to scientific literature, and among his publications were: An Analytical View of Newton's Principia, with Lord Brougham (1855); an Essay on the Stability of a given State of Motion, which won the Adams' prize in 1877; and treatises on the Dynamics of Rigid Bodies, on Analytical Statics, and on the Dynamics of a Particle.

  • 2 Stability - the thing which South Africa required above everything else - was unattainable so long as there were five separate governments developing different systems in all branches of public life, but no national government with power to harmonize the whole.

  • Throughout that period the monarchy had occupied a precarious position, dependent until' 1668 for its very existence, and after 1668 for its stability, on foreign support.

  • The limiting conditions of the stability of these figures have been studied both mathematically and experimentally.

  • Stability of the Cylinder.

  • But the surface-tension, acting on a cylindric column of liquid whose length exceeds the limit of stability, begins to produce enlargements and contractions in the stream as soon as the liquid has left the orifice, and these inequalities in the figure of the column go on increasing till it is broken up into elongated fragments.

  • Let us conceive an infinitely long circular cylinder of liquid, at rest (a motion common to every part of the fluid is necessarily without influence upon the stability, and may therefore be left out of account for convenience of conception and expression), and inquire under what circumstances it is stable or unstable, for small displacements, symmetrical about the axis of figure.

  • The capillary tension endeavours to contract the surface of the fluid; so that the stability, or instability, of the cylindrical form of equilibrium depends upon whether the surface (enclosing a given volume) be greater or less respectively after the displacement than before.

  • On the other hand, the more soluble gases, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide, and steam, at once caused union.] Stability of the Catenoid.

  • The condition of stability of a catenoid is therefore that the tangents at the extremities of its generating catenary must intersect before they reach the directrix.

  • We shall next consider the limiting conditions of stability of the horizontal surface which separates a heavier fluid above from a lighter fluid below.

  • The equilibrium of the fluids would now be unstable if it were not for the tension of the surface which separates them, and which, when the orifice of the vessel is not too large, continues to preserve the stability of the equilibrium.

  • Hence the condition of stability is that ?r2T (p - o-)g  :j1(2) 26 =124 + 2426 2.42 0- 0 The The least root of this equation is z=3.83171.

  • It is to be noted that in the case of bacteria we can only judge of organisms being of different species by the stability of the characters which distinguish them, and numerous examples might be given where their characters become modified by comparatively slight change in their environment.

  • Many of the earlier methods of attenuation were devised in the case of the anthrax bacillus, an organism which is, however, somewhat exceptional as regards the relative stability of its virulence.

  • During his long term of office he abolished the grist tax, extended the suffrage, completed the railway system, aided Mancini in forming the Triple Alliance, and initiated colonial policy by the occupation of Massawa; but, at the same time, he vastly increased indirect taxation, corrupted and destroyed the fibre of parliamentary parties, and, by extravagance in public works, impaired the stability of Italian finance.

  • PIERO SODERINI (1450-1513), Florentine statesman, was elected gonfalonier for life in 1502 by the Florentines, who wished to give greater stability to their republican institutions, which had been restored after the expulsion of Piero de' Medici and the martyrdom of Savonarola.

  • The post of minister of war was also offered to Cavaignac, but he refused it owing to the unwillingness of the government to quarter troops in Paris, a measure which the general held to be necessary for the stability of the new regime.

  • These models flew in a haphazard sort of a way, it being found exceedingly difficult to confer on them the necessary degree of stability fore and aft and laterally.

  • (Penaud.) _ interval, always produce increased stability.

  • They depended mainly on the utilization of natural air currents, trusting for stability and balance to movements in their own bodies, or in portions of their machines which they could control.

  • Chanute in America confined his endeavours to the production of automatic stability, and made the surfaces movable instead of the man.

  • The action is not due to any influence on the thermic centres, nor to any production of diaphoresis, but to the influence of quinine upon the stability of oxyhaemoglobin.

  • Another form is known as portal bracing; this is usually braced between adjacent columns in halls or passage-ways and extends from the foundations up from floor to floor to such a height that the stability of the building itself is sufficient to resist the assumed wind pressure.

  • In no case shall the overturning moment due to wind pressure exceed seventy-five per centum of the moment of stability of the structure.

  • In all cases it is customary to fill on top of the arches with a strong Portland cement concrete to a uniform level, generally the top of the deepest beam; the floor filling is constructed and carried to this level immediately upon the completion of each tier of beams, for the purpose not only of stiffening the frame laterally, and of adding to its stability by the imposition of a static load, but also to afford constantly safe and strong working platforms at regular and convenient intervals for use throughout the entire period of the construction.

  • These researches led to a wide discussion of the sufficiency of the law of uniformly varying stress when applied to horizontal joints as a test of the stability of dams. Professor Karl Pearson showed that the results are dependent upon the assumption that the distribution of the vertical stresses on the base of the structure also followed the law of uniformly varying stress.

  • This feature indicates that in the event of a crack occurring at the upstream toe, its extension would tend to turn downwards and follow a direction nearly parallel with the maximum pressure lines, in which direction it would not materially affect the stability of the structure.

  • As a matter of fact, the foundations of most dams are carried down in vertical trenches, the lower part only being in sound materials so that actual separation almost corresponding with the hypothetical On Some Disregarded Points in the Stability of Masonry Dams, Drapers' Company Research Memoir (London, 1904).

  • By reason of the constantly changing temperatures and the frequent filling and emptying of the reservoir, expansion and contraction, which are always at work tending to produce relative movements wherever one portion of a structure is weaker than another, must have assisted the water-pressure in the extension of the horizontal cracks, which, growing slowly during the fifteen years, provided at last the area required to enable the intrusive water to overbalance the little remaining stability of the dam.

  • This is not an infrequent occurrence, and arises from the tendency on the part of manufacturers to make balances so extremely sensitive that they are on the verge of in - stability.

  • It was obvious, however, that its stability would ultimately be determined by its financial policy.

  • And therefore, though no one had much confidence in Lord Derby~ or in the stability of his second administration, every one was disposed to acquiesce in its temporary occption of office.

  • Harcourt were too strained to ensure either the harmonious working or the stability of the administration.

  • Such works were evidently a sign that his mind was turning away from abstract speculation to the great political and economic fields, and to the more visible conditions of social stability and the growth of nations.

  • His first speech on his return to England was a warning (March 17, 1773) that the props of good government were beginning to fail under the systematic attacks of unbelievers, and that principles were being propagated that would not leave to civil society any stability.

  • "The first step to empire is revolution, by which power is conferred; the next is good laws, good order, good institutions, to give that power stability."

  • Moreover, these secondary products cannot be successfully reduced, by further heating, to simpler hydrocarbons of any high illuminating value, and such bodies as naphthalene and anthracene have so great a stability that, when once formed, they resist any efforts again to decompose them by heat, short of the temperature which breaks them up into methane, carbon and hydrogen.

  • Admission is granted to any Druse of either sex who expresses willingness to conform to the laws of the society, and during a year of probation gives sufficient proof of sincerity and stability of purpose.

  • These two books, the Vindication, published in 1835, and his speeches up to this time and a little beyond, are quite enough to show what Disraeli's Tory democracy meant, how truly national was its aim, and how exclusive of partisanship for the "landed interest"; though he did believe the stability and prosperity of the agricultural class a national interest of the first order, not on economic grounds alone or even chiefly.

  • Among these subjects were the transit of Mercury, the Aurora Borealis, the figure of the earth, the observation of the fixed stars, the inequalities in terrestrial gravitation, the application of mathematics to the theory of the telescope, the limits of certainty in astronomical observations, the solid of greatest attraction, the cycloid, the logistic curve, the theory of comets, the tides, the law of continuity, the double refraction micrometer, various problems of spherical trigonometry, &c. In 1742 he was consulted, with other men of science, by the pope, Benedict XIV., as to the best means of securing the stability of the dome of St Peter's, Rome, in which a crack had been discovered.

  • For to hold a person to be a responsible agent is to believe that he possesses a certain fixity and stability of character.

  • He first issued new interest-bearing treasury notes of small denominations, and in addition proposed the re-establishment of a national bank, by which means he expected to increase the stability and uniformity of the circulating medium, and furnish the government with a powerful engine in the upholding of its credit.

  • It was especially adapted to the tracing out of " secular inequalities," or those depending upon changes in the orbital elements of the bodies affected by them, and hence progressing indefinitely with time; and by its means, accordingly, the mechanical stability of the solar system was splendidly demonstrated through the successive efforts of Lagrange and Laplace.

  • The newly founded state did not at once become powerful: it was weakened by internal dissension and lacked the stability of a united and well-organized community.

  • This want of information was attributed by most of the Greeks to the stability of the Spartan constitution, which had lasted unchanged from the days of Lycurgus.

  • But this stability of the Roman peace had barely been realized when events began to threaten it both from within and without.

  • In the disordered state of society official stability was a valuable warrant of peace, and the administrative hierarchy, lay or spiritual, thus formed a mould for the hierarchy of feudalism.

  • This soon caused a frenzy of stock-jobbing, which disturbed the stability of private fortunes and social positions, and depraved customs and manners with the seductive notion of easily obtained riches.

  • Thus the aristocratic constitution of Sieys was transformed into an unavowed dictatorship, a public ratification of which the First Consul obtained by a third coup detat from the intimidated and yet reassured electors-reassured by his dazzling but unconvincing offers of peace to the victorious Coalition (which repulsed them), by the rapid disarmament of La Vende, and by the proclamations in which he filled the ears of the infatuated people with the new talk of stability of government, order, justice and moderation.

  • In the second place, Isidore wishes to increase the strength and cohesion of the churches; he tries to give absolute stability to the diocese and the ecclesiastical province; he reinforces the rights of the bishop and his comprovincials, while he initiates a determined campaign against the chorepiscopi; finally, as the keystone of the arch he places the papacy.

  • These circumstances fall in perfectly with the questions about which, as we have pointed out, the pseudo-Isidore was mainly concerned: the judgment of bishops, and the stability of the ecclesiastical organizations.

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