St. petersburg Sentence Examples
In the last-mentioned work he seeks to prove that the St Petersburg Codex, for so many years accepted as the genuine text of the Babylonian school, is in reality a Palestinian text carefully altered so as to render it conformable to the Babylonian recension.
Forty years later it had a market at St Petersburg and the Baltic ports, and in 1796 there were nine brewing firms in the town.
He was afterwards ambassador at Berlin and St Petersburg.
In 1858 he was sent to St Petersburg on a special mission to seek the support of Russia against Napoleon III.
One of the longest circuits upon which it has been successfully worked is that between St Petersburg and Omsk, a distance of approximately 2400 miles of iron wire, with three repeating stations.Advertisement
Since the early days of international telegraphy, conferences of representatives of government telegraph departments and companies have been held from time to time (Paris 1865, Vienna 1868, Rome 1871 and 1878, St Petersburg 1875, London 1879, Berlin 1885,1885, Paris 1891, Buda Pesth 1896, London 1903).
The patriarchate was abolished and its jurisdiction transferred by a council at St Petersburg in 1721 to a Holy Governing Synod.
This was justly regarded by him as an important service to his country and one of the triumphs of his career, and he hoped to obtain further successes with the assistance of Germany, but the cordial relations between the cabinets of St Petersburg and Berlin did not subsist much longer.
There his progress was very rapid, especially in Latin, and in 1734 he was sent from Moscow to St Petersburg.
His Ode on the Taking of Khotin from the Turks was composed in 1739, and attracted a great deal of attention at St Petersburg.Advertisement
During his residence in Germany Lomonosov married a native of the country, and found it difficult to maintain his increasing family on the scanty allowance granted to him by the St Petersburg Academy, which, moreover, was irregularly sent.
He became secretary of the embassy in London; was employed on special missions in the principalities and at St Petersburg (1848), and was sent to Egypt as special commissioner in 1851.
The Cambrian is represented by blue clays, ungulite sandstones and bituminous slates in Esthonia and St Petersburg.
Consequently there were only 87.4 and 89.8 women to every 100 men in the governments of St Petersburg and Taurida respectively, but as many as 133.8 in Yaroslavl, 119 in Tver and 117 in Kostroma.
Livonia Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nizhniy-Novgorod Novgorod Olonets Orel Orenburg Penza Perm Podolia Poltava Pskov Ryazan St Petersburg Samara Piotrkow Plock Radom St Michel Tavastehus Uleaborg Stavropol Elizavetpol Erivan Kars Saratov Simbirsk Smolensk Tambov Taurida Tula Tver Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Vologda Voronezh Vyatka Yaroslavl Siedlce Suwalki Warsaw Viborg Vasa Terek Kutais Tiflis with Zakataly Akmolinsk Semipalatinsk The Steppes Turgai Uralsk Semiryechensk Samarkand Ferghana Syr-darya The effects of emigration and immigration cannot be estimated with accuracy, because only those who cross the frontier with passports are taken account of.Advertisement
Miliukov, leader of the cadets, were both returned by the second curia of St Petersburg to the third Duma.
In this way the fundamental laws were suspended not only in Poland but in St Petersburg and other parts of the empire during the greater part of the four years succeeding the grant of the constitution.
At St Petersburg a women's medical academy, the examinations of which were even more searching than those of the ordinary academy (especially as regards diseases of women and children), was opened, but after about one hundred women had received the degree of M.D.
A list, still incomplete, of the birds of St Petersburg runs to 251 species.
For more detailed bibliographical information see Apercu des travaux zoo-ge'ographiques, published at St Petersburg in connexion with the Exhibition of 1878; and the index Ukazatel Russkoi Literatury for natural science, mathematics and medicine, published since 1872 by the Society of the Kiev University.Advertisement
The governments of St Petersburg (apart from the capital), Olonets and Archangel contain an admixture of Karelians, Samoyedes and Syryenians, the remainder being Great Russians.
When workmen from any province come, for instance, to St Petersburg to engage in the textile industries, or to work as carpenters, masons, &c., they immediately unite in groups of ten to fifty persons, settle in a house together, keep a common table and pay each his part of the expense to the elected elder of the artel.
She proclaimed, therefore, as heir-apparent the son of her deceased elder sister Anna, Charles Peter Ulrich, duke of HolsteinGottorp, a German in character, habits and religion, and tried to Russianize him by making him adopt the Eastern Orthodox faith and live in St Petersburg during the whole of her reign; but her well-meant efforts were singularly unsuccessful.
Whilst primary education was neglected, secondary schools were created in the principal towns and a Russian Academy was founded in St Petersburg.
A taste for French literature spread rapidly, and the poets and dramatists of Paris found clever imitators in St Petersburg.Advertisement
In 1773 a Don Cossack called Pugachev, who was so uneducated that he could not even sign the manifestoes written for him, declared himself to be Peter III., and announced that he was going to St Petersburg to punish his faithless wife and place his son Paul on the throne.
She waited, however, until a deputation of the malcontents, who regretted the loss of liberum veto and who were afraid that the party of reform might undertake the emancipation of the serfs, came to St Petersburg and asked for support in defence of the ancient liberties.
He had died at St Petersburg on the 2nd of March 1855 and had been succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander II.
Stamboloff, pursued systematically an anti-Russian policy, but the cabinet of St Petersburg confined itself officially to breaking off diplomatic relations and making diplomatic protests, and unofficially to giving tacit encouragement to revolutionary agitation.
With great reluctance the tsar consented to convoke a consultative chamber of deputies as a sop to public opinion, but that concession stimulated rather than calmed public opinion, and shortly after the conclusion of peace the Liberals and the Revolutionaries, combining their forces, brought about a general strike in St Petersburg together with the stoppage of railway communication all over the empire.
Ex Ploration The progress of geodetic surveys in Russia had long ago extended across the European half of the great empire, St Petersburg being connected with Tiflis on the southern slopes of the Caucasus by a direct system of triangulation carried out with the highest scientific precision.
In 1790 he conducted the military operations on the Dniester and held his court at Jassy with more than Asiatic pomp. In 1791 he returned to St Petersburg where, along with his friend Bezborodko (q.v.), he made vain efforts to overthrow the new favourite, Zubov, and in four months spent 850,000 roubles in banquets and entertainments, a sum subsequently reimbursed to him from the treasury.
He proposed in 1715 the "diffractiontheory" of the sun's corona, visited England and was received into the Royal Society in 1724, and left Paris for St Petersburg on a summons from the empress Catherine, towards the end of 1725.
The records of Delisle's observations at St Petersburg are preserved in manuscript at the Pulkowa observatory.
In his belief that he could ensnare the courts of London and St Petersburg into separate and proportionately disadvantageous treaties, he overreached himself.
But why did Napoleon fix his choice on Vienna rather than St Petersburg?
A similar bibliography of Russian ornithology by Alexander Brandt was printed at St Petersburg in 1877 or 1878.
He married in 1803 Eleanora, daughter of William Shairp, consulgeneral for Russia, and widow of Thomas Yeldham of St Petersburg.
It is the terminus of a branch line (85 m.) from the St Petersburg & Moscow railway, and is the centre of a large transit trade between Orel, Kaluga and Smolensk and the ports of St Petersburg and Riga.
In 1762 she was at St Petersburg and took a leading part, according to her own account the leading part, in the coup d'etat by which Catherine was raised to the throne.
Immediately after her return the princess was appointed "directeur" of the St Petersburg Academy of Arts and Sciences; and in 1784 she was named the first president of the Russian Academy, which had been founded at her suggestion.
In 1761 he went to St Petersburg with Gerhardt Friedrich Miller, the Russian historiographer, as Miller's literary assistant and as tutor in his family.
His Diary of his residence in St Petersburg and London was published in Philadelphia in 1892.
He remained at St Petersburg from 1781 to 1783, but was never formally received by the empress Catherine.
The failure of the campaign of 1760, so far as Russiaand France were concerned, induced the court of Versailles, on the evening of the 22nd of January 1761, to present to the court of St Petersburg a despatch to the effect that the king of France by reason of the condition of his dominions absolutely desired peace.
They were acquainted with iron, and learned from their subjects the art of bronze-casting, which they used for decorative purposes only, and to which they gave a still higher artistic stamp. Their pottery is much more perfect and more artistic than that of the Bronze period, and their ornaments are accounted among the finest of the collections at the St Petersburg museum of the Hermitage.
An amplified form of the same story is furnished by the Doctrine of Addai, an original Syriac work which survives complete in a St Petersburg MS. of the 6th century, and is also represented by fragments in other MSS.
London, Hamburg, Bremen and the chief Baltic ports as far as Riga and St Petersburg participate in the traffic on the Rhine.
His grandfather, Sir James Leighton, also a physician, was long resident at the court of St Petersburg.
It was employed in 1797 at the St Petersburg mint.
After his'return,though only twenty-four years of age, he was invited to become president of an academy then projected at Genoa; but, declining this honour, he was, in the following year, appointed professor of mathematics at St Petersburg.
He was educated at Warsaw and studied law at the university in St Petersburg before he entered the bureaucracy in the department of justice, in which he rose rapidly to be assistant solicitorgeneral in Warsaw, then solicitor-general in St Petersburg, and in 1881 director of the state police.
In Europe there are excellent collections in London, Cambridge, Paris, Berlin, St Petersburg and Prague.
He was for the ten years 1860 to 1870 secretary of embassy at London, and then, after serving at Rome and Copenhagen, was in 1880 appointed ambassador at St Petersburg.
He died _at St Petersburg on the 8th of December 1894.
A Viennese notice of his appointment as Oberka pellmeister spoke of him as " the darling of our nation," his works were reprinted or performed in every capital from Madrid to St Petersburg.
At St Petersburg the talk was not of peace but of victory, and after a period of reorganization the Russians advanced afresh to a new trial of strength.
This was contrary to his instructions, and although he was received in St Petersburg with enthusiasm, and presented with a sword of honour by the emperor, he was not again employed in the military service, and retired from it in July 1874.
He succeeded Kaufmann (q.v.) as governor of Turkestan in 1882, but his aggressive policy led to his recall two years later, when he was appointed a member of the council of war at St Petersburg.
In the spring of 1801 the new emperor Alexander summoned his friend back to St Petersburg.
The same year Czartoryski quitted St Petersburg for ever; but the personal relations between him and Alexander were never better.
In February 1769 Frederick sent Count Rochus Friedrich Lynar (1708-1783) to St Petersburg to sound the empress as to the expediency of a partition, in August Joseph II.
The first treaty of partition was signed at St Petersburg between Prussia and Russia on the 6-17th of February 1772; the second treaty, which admitted Austria also to a share of the spoil, on the 5-16th of August the same year.
The Polish universities of Warsaw and Vilna were suppressed, and the students compelled to go to St Petersburg and Kiev.
In 1874 and again in 1875, he presided over the Reunion Conferences held at Bonn and attended by leading ecclesiastics from the British Isles and from the Oriental Church, among whom were Bishop Christopher Wordsworth of Lincoln; Bishop Harold Browne of Ely; Lord Plunket, archbishop of Dublin; Lycurgus, archbishop of Syros and Tenos; Canon Liddon; and Professor Ossinine of St Petersburg.
At the age of fifteen Prince Peter Kropotkin, who had been designed by his father for the army, entered the Corps of Pages at St Petersburg (1857).
Kropotkin had never wished for a military career, but, as he had not the means to enter the St Petersburg University, he elected to join a Siberian Cossack regiment in the recently annexed Amur district, where there were prospects of administrative work.
Gertz first suggested the marriage between the duke of Holstein and the tsarevna Anne of Russia, and negotiations were begun in St Petersburg with that object.
In 1839 St Petersburg became the headquarters of an agency of the British and Foreign Bible Society, which enjoys special facilities in Russia, and now annually circulates about 600,000 copies of the Scriptures, in fifty different languages, within the Russian empire.
Russia, which had been their warmest patron, drove them from St Petersburg and Moscow in 1813, and from the whole empire in 1820, mainly on the plea of attempted proselytizing in the imperial army.
Funds were immediately raised by sympathizers for alleviating the sufferings of the starving victims. At the same time an appeal, written by Tolstoy and some of his friends, requesting the help of public opinion in favour of the oppressed Doukhobors, was circulated in St Petersburg and sent to the emperor and higher government officials.
He died at St Petersburg on the 23rd of November 1864.
He died at St Petersburg on the 2nd of February 1907.
The island thus divides the seaward approach to St Petersburg into two channels; that on the northern side is obstructed by shoals which extend across it from Kotlin to Lisynos on the Finnish mainland, and is only passable by vessels drawing less than 15 ft.
He was, indeed, received in St Petersburg with all honour; but as a diplomatist the "Iron Duke" - whom Nicholas, writing to his brother Constantine, described as "old.
In the period of thirty years during which he was heir-apparent, the moral atmosphere of St Petersburg was very unfavourable to the development of any originality of thought or character.
The second occasion was during the Franco-German War of 1870-71, when the cabinet of St Petersburg boldly declared that it considered itself no longer bound by the Black Sea clause of the treaty of Paris.
A convention for a similar union for telegraphs was signed in Paris in 1875 (revised at St Petersburg and replaced by another the same year).
Thereafter he rose rapidly, until, after a long period of service as vice-minister of foreign affairs, he was appointed to represent his country first in Peking, then in St Petersburg and finally in London, where he acted an important part in negotiating the first AngloJapanese Alliance, for which service he received the title of viscount.
Charles's "immersion in the Polish bog" (1702-1707), as Peter phrased it, enabled the tsar, not without considerable expense and trouble, to conquer Ingria and lay the foundations of St Petersburg.
The death of his mother in 1762 having deprived him of his means of support, he went in 1763 on the invitation of the pastor of the Lutheran community, Anton Friedrich Biisching, the founder of the modern historic statistical method of geography, to teach natural history in the Lutheran academy, St Petersburg.
Schiefner had begun at St Petersburg in 1849 his series of translations and researches.
During his ministry he developed the rapprochement of France with Russia - visiting St Petersburg with the president, Felix Faure - and sent expeditions to delimit the French colonies in Africa.
He drew up a form of constitution which Anne of Courland, the newly elected Russian empress, was forced to sign at Mittau before being permitted to proceed to St Petersburg.
On the following day she was formally betrothed, and was married to the archduke on the 21st of August 1745 at St Petersburg.
In July he committed the insane error of retiring with his Holsteiners to Oranienbaum, leaving his wife at St Petersburg.
He died at St Petersburg.
The line from Berlin to St Petersburg traverses the north of Suwalki for 54 m.
Mushketov, Turkestan (St Petersburg, 1886), with bibliographical references; Ivashintsev, Hydrographic Exploration of the Caspian Sea (in Russian), with atlas (2 vols., 1866); Philippov, Marine Geography of the Caspian Basin (in Russian, 1877); Memoirs of the Aral-Caspian Expedition of 1876-1877 (2 vols., in Russian), edited by the St Petersburg Society of Naturalists; Andrusov, "A Sketch of the Development of the Caspian Sea and its Inhabitants," in Zapiski of Russ.
Later, as the god of ploughing, he is confounded with Osiris, and on a vase-painting at St Petersburg he is represented leaving Egypt in his dragon-drawn chariot on his journey round the world.
After graduating as a staff officer at St Petersburg he was sent to Turkestan in 1868 and, with the exception of an interval of two years, during which he was on the staff of the grand duke Michael in the Caucasus, remained in Central Asia until 1877.
He was at once recalled to St Petersburg.
In the Greek Church the rite survives notably at Moscow, St Petersburg and Constantinople.
This was done in the teeth of the expressed wish of Russia; it roused the helpless resentment of Servia, whose economic dependence upon the Dual Monarchy was emphasized by the outcome of the war of tariffs into which she had plunged in 1906, and who saw in this scheme another link in the chain forged for her by the Habsburg empire; it 1 Alois, Count Lexa von Aerenthal, was born on the 27th of September 1854 at Gross-Skal in Bohemia, studied at Bonn and Prague, was attache at Paris (1877) and afterwards at St Petersburg, envoy extraordinary at Bucharest (1895) and ambassador at St Petersburg (1896).
At St Petersburg he met with a more cordial reception from Catherine II., and in 1787 he was permitted to return to France, though not to Paris.
He used it, in the first instance, to remove " the geographical enemy " from the gates of St Petersburg by wresting Finland from the Swedes (1809); and he hoped by means of it to make the Danube the southern frontier of Russia.
He represented the United States at the court of St Petersburg in 1832-1833, and there negotiated an important commercial treaty.
This understanding was formally ratified during a visit to St Petersburg on which he accompanied the emperor in April 1897.
The standard of measurement most in use is the St Petersburg standard, which contains 165 cubic ft.
In August 1796 his uncle the regent Charles, duke of Sudermania, visited St Petersburg for the purpose of arranging a marriage between the young king and Catherine II.'s grand- daughter, the grand-duchess Alexandra.
He arrived at St Petersburg at the psychological moment when the tsar had made up his mind to break with Napoleon.
On the outbreak of the war between the United States and England in 1812, he was still at St Petersburg.
In 1835 he served with great gallantry in the Caucasus, and on his return to St Petersburg was rewarded with a gold sword "for valour."
He was finally made bishop of Montefiascone, and settled down in that little Italian town - but not for long, for in 1798 the French drove him from his retreat, and he sought refuge in Venice and St Petersburg.
His relics, discovered in 1380, were in 1724 translated by Peter the Great from Vladimir to St Petersburg.
Hoche, he became captain again, was colonel in the Army of the Rhine in 1799-1800, and after the peace of Luneville (1801) was sent to St Petersburg to negotiate an understanding between Russia and France.
The railway connecting the town with St Petersburg was the first (1838) to be constructed in Russia.
Thus the declaration of Paris, 1856 (to which, however, the United States, Venezuela and Bolivia have not yet formally acceded), prohibits the use of privateers and protects the commerce of neutrals; the Geneva conventions, 1864 and 1906, give protection to the wounded and to those in attendance upon them; the St Petersburg declaration, 1868, prohibits the employment of explosive bullets weighing less than 400 grammes; and the three Hague declarations of 1899 prohibit respectively (I) the launching of projectiles from balloons, (2) the use of projectiles for spreading harmful gases, and (3) the use of expanding bullets.
The Pechersky monastery, close by, is archaeologically interesting; it was built in the first half of the 16th century - instead of the old monastery founded in 1330 and destroyed by a land-slip in 1596 - and has several antiquities and a library which formerly contained very valuable MSS., now at St Petersburg.
In 1876 he was transferred to St Petersburg with the rank of ambassador, in 1882 to London, and in 1885 to Vienna.
The government of the country was practically carried on by the senate, which communicated with St Petersburg through a Finnish secretary attached to the Russian government.
It is connected by rail (186 m.) with Bologoye, on the line between St Petersburg and Moscow.
Aepinus which was explained and illustrated in his Tentamen theoriae electricitatis et magnetismi, published in St Petersburg in 1759.
Reports of excavations appear in the Cornpte rendu of the Imperial Archaeological Commission of St Petersburg from 1888 and in its Bulletin.
The greater part of the traffic is up river, the amount of merchandise which reaches Astrakhan being nearly fifteen times less than that reaching St Petersburg by the Volga canals.
Dew-retting is the process by which all the Archangel flax and a large portion of that sent out from St Petersburg are prepared.
Riga and St Petersburg (including Cronstadt) are the principal ports, but flax is also exported from Revel, Windau, Pernau, Libau, Narva and Konigsberg.
The province is intersected by a railway running from St Petersburg to Reval, with branches from the latter city westwards to Baltic Port and southwards into Livonia, and from Taps south to Yuryev (Dorpat).
In 1707 Peter was ready to retrocede everything except St Petersburg and the line of the Neva, and again Charles preferred risking the whole to saving the greater part of his Baltic possessions (for details see Charles Xii.; Peter The Great).
Nothing else was done on either side for six months more; and then the Swedish generals made a " tacit truce " with the Russians through the mediation of the French ambassador at St Petersburg.
To repair the evil consequences of this act a conciliatory embassy, consisting of a young son of the crown prince and some high officers of the state, was despatched to St Petersburg.
Persia continued to increase; in December 1904 a special mission under Mirza Riza Khan was received in audience by the tsar; and in May 1905 Muzaffar-ud-Din Shah himself left Persia to visit the courts of Vienna and St Petersburg.
He died at St Petersburg on the 6th of April 1799.
He was brought up to the medical profession, and in 1862 was appointed assistant professor of chemistry at the St Petersburg academy of medicine.
During these twenty-four years he exercised considerable influence on public opinion and even on the Government, by representing with great ability the moderately Conservative spirit of Moscow in opposition to the occasionally ultra-Liberal and always cosmopolitan spirit of St Petersburg.
At the urgent entreaty of the comte d'Artois in 1791 he quitted Paris for Coblenz, accompanied Artois to Vienna, and was sent to the court of St Petersburg the same year to enlist the sympathies of Catherine II.
In the vicinity are smaller imperial palaces and summer residences of St Petersburg families.
He died on the 2nd of May 1869 at St Petersburg.
He was in consequence called to St Petersburg and given an appointment in the academy there.
The Itinerary of a Chinese Traveller (1821), a series of documents in the military archives of St Petersburg purporting to be the travels of George Ludwig von, and a similar series obtained from him in the London foreign office, are all regarded as spurious.
At Rome she painted the portraits of Princesses Adelaide and Victoria, and at Naples the "Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante" now in the collection of Mr Tankerville Chamberlayne; and then journeyed to Vienna, Berlin and St Petersburg.
Having direct railway communication with the fertile parts of southern and south-eastern Russia, Riga has become the second port for foreign trade on the Baltic, ranking next after St Petersburg.
Riga consists of four parts - the old town and the St Petersburg and Moscow suburbs on the right bank of the Dvina, and the Mitau suburb on the left bank, the two sides being connected by a floating bridge, which is removed in winter, and by a viaduct, 820 ft.
The St Petersburg suburb is the seat of the German aristocracy and merchant community.
The towns have left hardly any architectural or sculptural remains, but the numerous barrows in their neighbourhood have yielded very beautiful objects now mostly preserved in the Hermitage in St Petersburg.
Accordingly, when Lord Salisbury proposed energetic action to protect the Armenians, the cabinet of St Petersburg suddenly assumed the role of protector of the sultan and vetoed the proposal.
Unfortunately Madame Kovalevsky did not live to reap the full reward of her labours, for she died just as she had attained the height of her fame and had won recognition even in her own country by election to membership of the St Petersburg Academy of Science.
Steamers ply regularly in two directions from St Petersburg - to the monasteries of Konnevitz and Valamo, and to the mouth of the Svir, whence they go up that river to Lake Onega and Petrozavodsk; and small vessels transport timber, firewood, planks, iron, kaolin, granite, marble, fish, hay and various small wares from the northern shore to Schlusselburg, and thence to St Petersburg.
In 17 4 8 he was appointed tutor in the family of the count de Lynars, who was then going as ambassador to St Petersburg.
In 1754 he removed to GÃ¶ttingen, where in 1757 he was appointed professor of philosophy; but in 1761 he accepted an invitation to the German congregation at St Petersburg.
After the breach of diplomatic relations with Russia in 1811, Nesselrode returned to St Petersburg by way of Vienna in order to exchange views with Metternich.
He died at St Petersburg on the 23rd of March 1862.
The Porte, instigated by Napoleon's ambassador Sebastiani, resolved on Ypsilanti's deposition, but the hospodar succeeded in escaping to St Petersburg.
On the 29th of January the Rumanian agent at St Petersburg was officially informed of the intention of the Russian government to regain posses sion of the Rumanian portion of Bessarabia, i.e.
At the same time, by the advice of the younger Bernoullis, who had removed to St Petersburg in 1725, he applied himself to the study of physiology, to which he made a happy application of his mathematical knowledge; and he also attended the medical lectures at Basel.
Soon after his return to St Petersburg a cataract formed in his left eye, which ultimately deprived him almost entirely of sight.
Another task to which he set himself immediately after his return to St Petersburg was the preparation of his Lettres a une princesse d'Allemagne sur quelques sujets de physique et de philosophie (3 vols., 1768-1772).
Having engaged to furnish the Academy of St Petersburg with as many memoirs as would be sufficient to complete its Acta for twenty years after his death, he in seven years transmitted to the academy above seventy memoirs, and left above two hundred more, which were revised and completed by another hand.
His eloge was written for the French Academy by the marquis de Condorcet, and an account of his life, with a list of his works, was written by Von Fuss, the secretary to the Imperial Academy of St Petersburg.
His greatest opera, Boris Godounov, based on Pushkin's drama, was produced in St Petersburg in 1874, and on it his reputation stands as one of the finest creative composers in the ranks of the modern Russian school.
In later life he suffered much from ill-health, and died in St Petersburg on the 16th (28th) of March 1881.
But far higher honours rapidly succeeded, among which we may merely mention his election in 1837 to the president's chair in the Royal Irish Academy, and the rare distinction of being made corresponding member of the academy of St Petersburg.
He declined many offers from other Italian universities and from St Petersburg until 1768, when he accepted the invitation of Maria Theresa to the chair of natural history in the university of Pavia, which was then being reorganized.
He soon after this obtained a government appointment in connexion with the newly-acquired Polish provinces, but in consequence of the battle of Jena (1806) he lost this office, and remained in very needy circumstances until 1809, when he was summoned to St Petersburg by Alexander I., to fill the post of court councillor, and the professorship of oriental languages and philosophy at the Alexander-Nevski Academy.
In November 1820 he was appointed consistorial president of the evangelical communities at Saratov and subsequently became chief superintendent of the Lutheran communities in St Petersburg.
He died at St Petersburg on the 15th of December 1839.
Abroad, Pitts whole energies were directed to forming a fresh coalition against Bonaparte, who, on the 14th of May 1804, had proclaimed himself emperor of the French; but it was a year before Russia signed with Great Britain the treaty of St Petersburg (April ii, 1805), and the accession to the coalition of Austria, Sweden and Naples was not obtained till the following September.
Diplomacy, however, made a fresh attempt to terminate the.dispute, and in July 1853 a note was agreed upon by the four neutral powers, France, Great Britain, Austria and Prussia, which it was decided to present to Constantinople and St Petersburg.
Diplomatists, pursuing their labors at Vienna, had Crimean succeeded in drawing up a fresh notewhichtheythought might prove acceptable both at St Petersburg and at Constantinople.
This note was presented almost at the moment the tsar learned that the French and British fleets had entered the Black Sea, and the Russian government, instead of considering it, withdrew its ministers from London and Paris; the French i and British ambassadors were thereupon withdrawn from St Petersburg.
In 1757 he settled in St Petersburg as member of the imperial academy of sciences and professor of physics, and remained there till his retirement in 1798.
Aepinus is best known by his researches, theoretical and experimental, in electricity and magnetism, and his principal work, Tentamen Theoriae Electricitatis et Magnetismi, published at St Petersburg in 1759, was the first systematic and successful attempt to apply mathematical reasoning to these subjects.
He also published a treatise, in 1761, De distributione caloris per tellurem, and he was the author of memoirs on different subjects in astronomy, mechanics, optics and pure mathematics, contained in the journals of the learned societies of St Petersburg and Berlin.
After Peter the Great made St Petersburg the capital of his dominions (1702), he placed Archangel under vexatious commercial disabilities, and consequently its trade declined.
In 1710 he married Anne to Frederick William, duke of Courland, who died of surfeit on his journey home from St Petersburg.
It prepared the way for raising the rank of the representatives of Spain in Berlin, Vienna, Rome, St Petersburg and London to that of ambassadors.
In 1798 he became a councillor of state at St Petersburg.
It is the centre of an active shipping trade with the Baltic ports and with England, and of a railway system connecting it with all parts of the grand duchy and with St Petersburg.
Having reconstriicted the Piedmontese army, he took part in the war of 1859 against Austria; and in July of that year succeeded Cavour in the premiership. In 1860 he was sent to Berlin and St Petersburg to arrange for the recognition of the kingdom of Italy, and subsequently he held the offices of governor of Milan and royal lieutenant at Naples, until, in September 1864, he succeeded Minghetti as premier.
These and other antiquities collected here (1722) are preserved in museums at Kazan, Moscow and St Petersburg.
Excellent cattle are raised in the district of Kholmogory on the Dvina, veal being supplied to St Petersburg.
The funds for the erection of the theatre were raised in part by the issue of 1000 certificates of patronage (Patronatsscheine), but the bulk of the sum was raised by founding "Wagner Societies" from St Petersburg to Cairo, from London to New York; these societies sprang up with such success that the theatre was opened in the summer of 1876 with the first complete performance of Der Ring des Nibelungen.
On the r /r3th of July 1817 took place at St Petersburg his marriage to Princess Charlotte (Alexandra Feodorovna), the beginning of those intimate relations between the courts of Berlin and St Petersburg which were later to become of great international importance.
No steps were taken to open the sealed packets, and he himself took the oath to Constantine, and, with characteristic contempt for constitutional forms, usurped the functions of the senate and council of state by himself ordering its imposition on the regiments stationed in St Petersburg.
The duke of Wellington was sent to St Petersburg in 1826 to 1 Nicholas remained in Russia in 1829, and Diabitsch had a free hand.
These were performed in St Petersburg in 1909 and heard by the impresario Sergei Diaghilev.
Petro-Canada has announced plans to proceed with initial engineering studies to build a Baltic gas liquefaction terminal near St Petersburg.
The experiment, however, proved unsuccessful; the Bulgarian Liberal and Radical politicians were infuriated, and the real power fell into the hands of two Russian generals, Sobolev and Kaulbars, who had been specially despatched from St Petersburg.
It was here that he first met Prince Bismarck, with whom he formed a friendship which was afterwards renewed at St Petersburg.
It is presided over by a lay procurator, representing the emperor, and consists, for the rest, of the three metropolitans of Moscow, St Petersburg and Kiev, the archbishop of Georgia, and a number of bishops sitting in rotation.
Taking advantage of this short interregnum, some members of the secret societies, mostly officers of the Guards, organized a mutiny among the troops quartered in St Petersburg and in Podolia, with a view to effecting a political revolution, but the movement was easily suppressed, and the ringleaders, known subsequently as the Decembrists, were severely punished (see Nicholas I.).
On that occasion Bismarck helped Gorchakov to ward off the threatened intervention of France and England, and he thereby founded the cordial relations which subsisted between the cabinets of Berlin and St Petersburg down to 1878, and which contributed powerfully to the creation of the German empire by defending the Prussian cabinet against the jealousy and enmity of Austria and France.
Thereupon the British government, which had been for some time carrying on negotiations with the cabinet of St Petersburg for a delimitation of the Russo-Afghan frontier, intervened energetically and prepared for war; but a compromise was effected, and after more than two years of negotiation a delimitation convention was signed at St Petersburg on 10th July 1887.
When an influential deputation was sent from Finland to St Petersburg to represent to him respectfully that the officials were infringing the local rights and privileges solemnly accorded at the time of the annexation, it was refused an audience, and the leaders of the movement were informed indirectly that local interests must be subordinated to the general welfare of the empire.
He suggested a joint intervention of the powers; but the conference, which met at St Petersburg in April 1824, came to nothing, since Turkey and the Greeks alike refused to be bound by its decisions, and Canning would not hear of coercion being applied to either.
The result was the protocol of St Petersburg of the 4th of April 1826, by which Great Britain was empowered to offer to the Ottoman government a settlement of the Greek question based on the establishment of Greece as a vassal and tributary state.
His theory of the motion of fluids, the germ of which was first published in his memoir entitled Theoria nova de motu aquarum per canales quocunque fluentes, communicated to the Academy of St Petersburg as early as 1726, was founded on two suppositions, which appeared to him conformable to experience.
Though he received, like all the heirs-apparent to the Russian throne, a certain amount of military training, his personal tastes did not lie in that direction, nor did he show any inclination for the boisterous amusements of the jeunesse doree of St Petersburg.
He was also made corresponding member of the royal society of Turin; and, while residing at Venice, he was, through the friendly representation of Nicolaus von Fuss, admitted into the academy of St Petersburg.
In 1860 he went to Heidelberg, where he started a laboratory of his own, but returning to St Petersburg in 1861, he became professor of chemistry in the technological institute there in 1863, and three years later succeeded to the same chair in the university.
Servia received financial assistance; a large consignment of arms was sent openly from St Petersburg to the prince of Montenegro; Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria became ostensibly reconciled with the Russian emperor, and his son Boris was received into the Eastern Orthodox Church; the Russian embassy at Constantinople tried to bring about a reconciliation between the Bulgarian exarch and the oecumenical patriarch; Bulgarians and Servians professed, at the bidding of Russia, to lay aside their mutual hostility.
In 1754 he removed to GÃƒ¶ttingen, where in 1757 he was appointed professor of philosophy; but in 1761 he accepted an invitation to the German congregation at St Petersburg.