He died at Paris on the 27th of September 1660, and was buried in the church of St Lazare.
"Marriott, St. Louis?" she said with a frown.
Listen you little st...
succeeded his father in 1251, and was knighted by St Louis in 1252.
Of the numerous churches in the city the most interesting are the Stiftskirche, with two towers, a fine specimen of 15th-century Gothic; the Leonhardskirche, also a Gothic building of the 15th century; the Hospitalkirche, restored in 1841, the cloisters of which contain the tomb of Johann Reuchlin; the fine modern Gothic church of St John; the new Roman Catholic church of St Nicholas; the Friedenskirche; and the English church.
He was present at the September massacres and saved several prisoners, and on the 7th of September 1792 was elected one of the deputies from Paris to the convention, where he was one of the promoters of the proclamation of the republic. He suppressed the decoration of the Cross of St Louis, which he called a stain on a man's coat, and demanded the sale of the palace of Versailles.
The Society of St Vincent de Paul was founded by Frederic Ozanam and others in 1833, in reply to a charge brought by some free-thinking contemporaries that the church no longer had the strength to inaugurate a practical enterprise.
The church of St Lawrence has Norman portions, and an arch and window apparently of pre-Conquest date.
below St Louis, after a course of fully moo m.
above St Louis, pierces the dunes at flood time and reaches the sea, 50 m.
above St Louis.
A fierce quarrel arose over his burial between the brotherhood of St Stephen, to which he had belonged, and the university professors, who desired to escort his corpse to the grave.
He was on the way to suppress a revolt in Swabia when he was murdered on the st of May 1308, at Windisch on the Reuss, by his nephew John, afterwards called "the Parricide," whom he had deprived of his inheritance.
In great state the tribune moved through the streets of Rome, being received at St Peter's with the hymn Veni Creator Spiritus, while in a letter the poet Petrarch urged him to continue his great and noble work, and congratulated him on his past achievements, calling him the new Camillus, Brutus and Romulus.
The almshouses, known as St John's hospital, were founded in 1602; and in 1637 a free grammar school was endowed by Lady Grace Manners.
The foundation of the abbey of St Maurice (Agaunum) in the Valais is usually ascribed to Sigismund of Burgundy (515).
He is said to have been a slave and to have been appointed king at the command of St Cuthbert, who appeared to Eadred the abbot of Carlisle in a dream.
About the year 919 the country was invaded by Raegenald (Rdgnvaldr grandson of I'varr), a Norwegian king from Ireland, who seized York and occupied the lands of St Cuthbert.
The cruciform church of St Mary, with a central tower and short spire, is in great part Early English, with Perpendicular additions; but considerable traces of a Norman building were revealed during a modern restoration.
St Mary's College was in fact formally founded in 1382, and the school had been going on since 1373 (A.
He was then already beneficed, receiving a royal ratification of his estate as parson of Llanvarchell in the diocese of St Asaph on the 10th of March 1391/92 (Cal.
On the 13th of April 1396 he obtained ratification of the parsonage of St Stephen's, Walbrook, presented on the 30th of March by the abbot of Colchester, no doubt through his brother Robert, who restored the church and increased its endowment.
provided him to a prebend at Lincoln, notwithstanding he already held prebends at Salisbury, Lichfield, St Martin's-le-Grand and Abergwyly, and the living of Brington.
In the interval Chicheley found time to visit his diocese for the first time and be enthroned at St David's on the 11th of May 1411.
His first college at Oxford, in perishing, gave birth to St John's College, which now holds its site.
This was St Bernard's College, founded by Chicheley under licence in mortmain in 1437 for Cistercian monks, on the model of Gloucester Hall and Durham College for the southern and northern Benedictines.
The site was five acres, and the building is described in the letters patent " as a fitting and noble college mansion in honour of the most glorious Virgin Mary and St Bernard in Northgates Street outside the Northgate of Oxford."
and to acquire the alien priory of Merseye in Essex late belonging to St Ouen's, Rouen," as endowment.
A papal bull having also been obtained, on the 28th of August 1425, the archbishop, in the course of a visitation of Lincoln diocese, executed his letters patent founding the college, dedicating it to the Virgin, St Thomas Becket and St Edward the Confessor, and handed over the buildings to its members, the vicar of Higham Ferrers being made the first master or warden.
The only alien priories granted were Abberbury in Oxfordshire, Wedon Pinkney in Northamptonshire, Romney in Kent, and St Clare and Llangenith in Wales, all very small affairs, single manors and rectories, and these did not form a quarter of the whole endowment.
Delaware is served by the Pennsylvania, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central system), and the Hocking Valley railways, and by two interurban lines.
He was buried, with all religious honours, in the church of St Leonard, Basel.
The church of St Andrew retains some ornate Norman work, but is mainly a Perpendicular reconstruction.
In 1798, when the French occupied Rome, Consalvi was imprisoned in the castle of St Angelo, together with other papal officials, in retaliation for the murder of General Duphot; a proposal to whip him through the streets was defeated by the French general in command, but, after three months' confinement, he was deported with a crowd of galley slaves to Naples, and his property was confiscated as that of "an enemy of the Roman republic."
in St Peter's.
She has all the abandon of an Italian improvisatore, the simplicity of a Bernardin de St Pierre without his mawkishness, the sentimentality of a Rousseau without his egotism, the rhythmic eloquence of a Chateaubriand without his grandiloquence.
The pope had already authorized the extensive grant of indulgences in order to secure funds for the crusade and more particularly for the rebuilding of St Peter's at Rome.
The pope had repeatedly used the rich northern benefices to reward members of the Roman curia, and towards the close of the year 1516 he sent the grasping and impolitic Arcimboldi as papal nuncio to Denmark to collect money for St Peter's.
Giovanni on the Via Giulia after designs by Jacopo Sansovino and pressed forward the work on St Peter's and the Vatican under Raphael and Chigi.
The church of St Just, founded in the 10th century, has good wood-carving.
In 1664 he was chosen one of the directors of the imperial army raised to fight the Turk; and after the peace which followed the Christian victory at St Gotthard in August 1664, he aided the English king Charles II.
The site of the church of St Peter has long been occupied by a parish church (there was one in the 12th century, if not earlier), but the existing building dates only from 1870.
He was a student at St Andrews, 1489-1494, and thereafter, it is supposed, at Paris.
Three weeks after the battle he, still provost of St Giles, was admitted a burgess of Edinburgh, his father, the "Great Earl," being then civil provost of the capital.
Soon after the marriage she nominated him archbishop of St Andrews, in succession to Elphinstone, archbishop-designate.
But Hepburn, prior of St Andrews, having obtained the vote of the chapter, expelled him, and was himself in turn expelled by Forman, bishop of Moray, who had been nominated by the pope.
Douglas's literary work, now his chief claim to be remembered, belongs, as has been stated, to the period 1501-1513, when he was provost of St Giles.
Anyway, he expired two days later in the guardhouse of the citadel of St Petersburg, two days after the senate had condemned him to death for imagining rebellion against his father, and for hoping for the co-operation of the common people and the armed intervention of his brother-in-law, the emperor.
Agostino (1280-1298) contains a famous series of seventeen frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli, with scenes from the life of St Augustine (1463-1467).
The church of St Luke is Perpendicular, enlarged in modern times.
It is served by the Missouri Pacific, the St Louis & San Francisco, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and the Kansas City Southern railways, and by interurban electric lines.
On St Wolstan's Day, the, 9th of January 44 8 - 1 449, Waynflete was enthroned in Winchester cathedral in the presence of the king; and, probably partly for his sake, parliament was held there in June and July 1449, when the king frequently attended the college chapel, Waynflete officiating (Win.
When Jack Cade's rebellion occurred in 1450 Waynflete was employed with Archbishop Stafford, the chancellor, to negotiate with the rebels at St Margaret's church, Southwark, close to Winchester House.
on a pilgrimage to St Thomas a Becket on the 2nd of August 1451.
During York's regency, both before and after the battle of St Albans, Waynflete took an active part in the proceedings of the privy council.
With a view to an ampler site for his college, Waynflete obtained on the 5th of July 1456 a grant of the Hospital of St John the Baptist outside the east gate at Oxford and on the 15th of July licence to found a college there.
Having obtained a papal bull, he founded it by deed of the 12th of June 1458, converting the hospital into a college with a president and six fellows, to which college two days later Magdalen Hall surrendered itself and its possessions, its members being incorporated into "the New College of St Mary Magdalen."
It is certain that he took an active part in the restoration of Eton College, which Edward annexed to St George's, Windsor, in 1463, depriving it of a large part of its possessions.
In the years1471-1472to 1474 Waynflete was largely engaged in completing the church, now called chapel, at Eton, his glazier supplying the windows, and he contracted on the 15th of August 1475 for the rood-loft to be made on one side "like to the rode lofte in Bishop Wykeham's college at Winchester," and on the other like that "of the college of St Thomas of Acres in London."
The foundation is commonly dated from this year and not from 1448, when Magdalen Hall was founded, though if not dated from 1448 it surely dates from 1458, when that hall and St John's Hospital were converted into Magdalen College.
On the bank of the Tiretaine there is a remarkable calcareous spring, the fountain of St Allyre, the copious deposits of which have formed a curious natural bridge over the stream.
The church of St John the Baptist, though largely altered by modern restoration, retains Early English to Perpendicular portions, and some early monuments and brasses.
ANGRA, or Angra Do Heroismo ("Bay of Heroism," a name given it in 1829, to commemorate its successful defence against the Miguelist party), the former capital of the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores, and chief town of an administrative district, comprising the islands of Terceira, St George and Graciosa.
m.) was incorporated with the rest of Transylvania; and in 1871 effect was given to the imperial decree of 1869 by which the districts of the Warasdin regiments (St George and the Cross) and the towns of Zengg, B elovar, Ivanic, &c., were "provincialized" or incorporated with the Croatian-Slavonian crown-land.
The churches are numerous and some are particularly handsome; such as the First church, which overlooks the harbour, and is so named from its standing on the site of the church of the original settlers; St Paul's, Knox church and the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Joseph.
LOUIS PHILIPPE JOSEPH ORLEANS, DUKE OF (1747-1793), called Philippe Egalite, son of Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, and of Louise Henriette of Bourbon-Conti, was born at St Cloud on the 13th of April 1747.
On the main promontory, with Valletta, stands the suburb Floriana; Fort St Elmo, with a lighthouse, stands on the extremity of the promontory; the suburb Sliema lies on the point which encloses the Marsamuschetto harbour; Fort Ricasoli on the opposite point enclosing the east, Grand, or Great Harbour.
213, 237; see also St John Timberhill, Norwich, case, 1889 Prob.
The settlement of Fort St George or Madras, captured by force of arms, had only recently been restored in accordance with a clause of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.
East of Cape St Jacques the mountains of Annam come down close to the sea; west of that point, as far as the southern headland of Ca-Mau, the coast-line of Cochin-China runs north-east to south-west for about 160 m.
Though the bishop's see was removed to Christiansand in 1685, the Romanesque cathedral church of St Swithun, founded by the English bishop Reinald in the end of the 11th century, and rebuilt after being burned down in 1272, remains, and, next to the cathedral of Trondhjem, is the most interesting stone church in Norway.
In the old town of Bridlington the church of St Mary and St Nicholas consists of the fine Decorated and Perpendicular nave, with Early English portions, of the priory church of an Augustinian foundation of the time of Henry I.
For a short time he assisted Charles Osborne in editing the Philanthropist; in 1819 he went to St Louis, Missouri, and there in 1819-1820 took an active part in the slavery controversy; and in 1821 he founded at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, an anti-slavery paper, the Genius of Universal Emancipation.
Some see the guarantee, or at least the indication, of infallibility in the consensus of the Church (quod semper, ubique, et ab omnibus) expressed from time to time in general councils; others see it in the special grace conferred upon St Peter and his successors, the bishops of Rome, as heads of the Church; others again see it in the inspired Scriptures, God's Word.
This explains the late date at which the dogma was defined, and the assertion that the dogma was already contained in that of the papal primacy established by our Lord himself in the person of St Peter.
He acted for a short time as a private chaplain, but was appointed in 1679 to the small rectory of Ampton, near Bury St Edmunds, and in 1685 he was made lecturer of Gray's Inn.
In 725 Luidprand purchased and removed to Pavia the body of St Augustine of Hippo from Cagliari, whither it had been brought in the 6th century by the exiled bishop of Hippo.
in 1107 by the efforts of St Anselm.
His first work was an inquiry into the authorship of the Commentary on St Paul's Epistles and the Treatise on Biblical Questions, ascribed to Ambrose and Augustine respectively.
At the age of eighteen he was enrolled as a sizar at St John's College, Cambridge, whence he graduated in 1830 as fourth wrangler.
Pritchard became a fellow of New College, Oxford, in 1883, and an honorary fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, in 1886.
Among the notable buildings are the weigh-house (17th century), the bell-tower (1591), formerly attached to the town-hall before this was destroyed in the 18th century, and the church of St.
ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER SHAFTESBURY, 1ST EARL OF (1621-1683), son of Sir John Cooper of Rockbourne in Hampshire, and of Anne, the only child of Sir Anthony Ashley, Bart., and was born at Wimborne St Giles, Dorset, on the 22nd of July 1621.
His body was sent in February to Poole, in Dorset, and was buried at Wimborne St Giles.
P. St John Mildmay (1905), 7 vols.
In the last-mentioned work he seeks to prove that the St Petersburg Codex, for so many years accepted as the genuine text of the Babylonian school, is in reality a Palestinian text carefully altered so as to render it conformable to the Babylonian recension.
Two miles north-west of Callander is the Pass of Leny, "the gate of the Highlands," and farther in the same direction is Loch Lubnaig, on the shores of which stand the ruins of St Bride's chapel.
of St Paul's Cathedral, London, served by the Midland railway.
The church of St Mary is mainly Perpendicular, and contains a Norman font and monuments of the 8th century.
A breach with pope Julius followed, and at this time Maximilian appears to have entertained, perhaps quite seriously, the idea of seating himself in the chair of St Peter.
He was buried in the church of St George in Vienna Neustadt, and a superb monument, which may still be seen, was raised to his memory at Innsbruck.
Here in 1806 the remains of Nelson lay in state before their burial in St Paul's Cathedral.
The parish church of Greenwich, in Church Street, is dedicated to St Alphege, archbishop, who was martyred here by the Danes in 1012.
He himself was a prebendary of St Paul's, and was also a clerk in the service of William II.
In 1672, having finished his philosophy course, he was given a scholarship at the college of St Michel at Paris by Jean, marquis de Pompadour, lieutenant-general of the Limousin.
by bringing about the marriage of his pupil with Mademoiselle de Blois, a natural but legitimated daughter of the king; and for this service he was rewarded with the gift of the abbey of St Just in Picardy.
His portrait was thus drawn by the duc de St Simon: - "He was a little, pitiful, wizened, herringgutted man, in a flaxen wig, with a weasel's face, brightened by some intellect.
The withdrawal of Mersenne in 1614 to a post in the provinces was the signal for Descartes to abandon social life and shut himself up for nearly two years in a secluded house of the faubourg St Germain.
And so great was the influence of the Jesuits, that the congregation of St Maur, the canons of Ste Genevieve, and the Oratory laid their official ban on the obnoxious doctrines.
In the castle grounds are the remains of the ancient chapel of St John.
The free grammar-school was founded in 1548 by William Ermysted, a canon of St Paul's, London.
Order of St.
The small cathedral of St Aurea, also an early Renaissance structure, with Gothic windows, is by some ascribed to Meo del Caprina (1430-1501).
Paris is served by the Vandalia, and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central system) railways; the main line and the Cairo division of the latter intersect here, and the city is the transfer point for traffic from the E.
Before he left Paris he had thrown himself with ardour into the controversy raging between the university and the Friar-Preachers respecting the liberty of teaching, resisting both by speeches and pamphlets the authorities of the university; and when the dispute was referred to the pope, the youthful Aquinas was chosen to defend his order, which he did with such success as to overcome the arguments of Guillaume de St Amour, the champion of the university, and one of the most celebrated men of the day.
ranked the festival of St Thomas with those of the four great Latin fathers, Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome and Gregory.
In a monastery at Naples, near the cathedral of St Januarius, is still shown a cell in which he is said to have lived.
Touron, La Vie de St Thomas d'Aquin, avec un exposé de sa doctrine et de ses ouvrages (Paris, 1737); Karl Werner, Der Heilige Thomas von Aquino (1858); and R.
Vaughan, St Thomas of Aquin, his Life and Labours (London, 1872): other lives by P. Cavanagh (London, 1890); E.
C. O'Neill, New Things and Old in St Thomas Aquinas (1909), with biography.
Ivan had stopped at Tver, to murder St Philip, while on his way to destroy the second wealthiest city in his tsardom - Great Novgorod.
The same society which produced his infamous favourites also produced St Philip of Moscow, and by refusing to listen to St Philip Ivan sank below even the not very lofty moral standard of his own age.
(St Petersburg, 1895); A.
Novodvorsky, The Struggle for Livonia, 1570-1582 (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1904); K.
The church of St James dates from 1763, and the other numerous places of worship and public buildings are all modern.
On the farther side of the eastern ravine stands a smaller but very well proportioned structure, the church of St Eugenius, the patron saint of Trebizond, now the Yeni Djuma djami, or New Friday mosque.
His father, Georg Karl Benjamin Ritschl (1783-1858), became in 1810 pastor at the church of St Mary in Berlin, and from 1827 to 1854 was general superintendent and evangelical bishop of Pomerania.
Large tracts of the department are under wood; the chief forests are those of Nouvion and St Michel in the north, Coucy and St Gobain in the centre, and Villers-Cotterets in the south.
The osiers grown in the vicinity of St Quentin supply an active basket-making industry.
Its most important industrial establishments are the mirror manufactory of St Gobain and the chemical works at Chauny, and the workshops and foundries of Guise, the property of an association of workpeople organized on socialistic lines and producing iron goods of various kinds.
Aisne is divided into five arrondissements - St Quentin and Vervins in the north, Laon in the centre, and Soissons and CIA, teau-Thierry in the south - and contains 37 cantons and 841 communes.
Laon is the capital, and Soissons the seat of a bishopric of the province of Reims. Other important places are Chateau-Thierry, St Quentin and Coucy-le-Chï¿½au.
In 1316 she was married to Ulf Gudmarson, lord of Nericia, to whom she bore eight children, one of whom was afterwards honoured as St Catherine of Sweden.
Bridget's saintly and charitable life soon made her known far and wide; she gained, too, great religious influence over her husband, with whom (1341-1343) she went on pilgrimage to St James of Compostella.
It was about this time that she founded the order of St Saviour, or Bridgittines, of which the principal house, at Vadstena, was richly endowed by King Magnus II.
The church of St Mary and St Modwen is classic in style, of the 18th century, but embodies some remains of an ancient Gothic building.
Burton-upon-Trent (Burhton) is first mentioned towards the close of the 9th century, when St Modwen, an Irish virgin, is said to have established a convent on the Isle of Andressey opposite Burton.
Later charters were given by Henry II., by John in 1204 (who also granted an annual fair of three days' duration, 29th of October, at the feast of St Modwen, and a weekly market on Thursday), by Henry III.
granted a fair at the feast of St Luke, 18th of October), and by Henry VIII.
Forty years later it had a market at St Petersburg and the Baltic ports, and in 1796 there were nine brewing firms in the town.
(the Great), who was king from 1267 to 1285: to him, apparently, St Thomas dedicated his De Regimine Principum; and it is in his reign that the kingdom of Jerusalem becomes permanently connected with that of Cyprus.
St Michael's church at Hamburg, built as late as 1762 and unaltered in 1880, had a 17th-century pitch, a' 407.9.
This is about a semitone below the Diapason Normal, and a just minor third lower than the St Jacobi organ in the same city (1688), measured by Herr Schmahl, a' 489.2.
1789 Praetorius "Tertia minore" 1618 St Michael's, Hamburg..
1783 St Jacobi, Hamburg, "Tertia minore" stop..1688-1693Hofcapelle, Dresden.
1754 St Sophie, Dresden, G.
1813 Renatus Harris, St Andrew's, Undershaft..
Its church of St Mary is mainly Decorated, and a few old houses remain.
Hugh de Gurnay held a fair in Wendover on the eve, feast and morrow of St John the Baptist, granted him in 1 214.
Another fair was granted to John de Molyns in1347-1348on the eve, feast and morrow of St Barnabas, but in 1464 Edward IV.
granted two fairs to his tenants and residents in the borough, to be held on the vigils, feasts and morrows of St Matthew and of SS.
The church of St Mary and All Saints is a large and beautiful cruciform building principally of the Decorated period.
Having obtained letters for the king, he left Paris on the 31st of July 1589, and reached St Cloud, the headquarters of Henry, who was besieging Paris.
service of the East India company and sailed for Fort St David; here he showed himself very industrious, made the acquaintance of Robert Clive and rose rapidly from one position to another.
St Elias or Pentedaktylon), the highest mountain ridge in the Peloponnese, separating Laconia from Messenia.
The New Church, formerly the church of St Ursula (14th century), is the burial place of the princes of Orange.
He was now firmly established in the favour of the king, who gave him successively the abbacy of St Severin, in the diocese of Poitiers, the office of almoner to the dauphiness, and in 1685 the bishopric of Lavaur, from which he was in 1687 promoted to that of Nimes.
At the head of the Roman Catholic hierarchy are the archbishops of Scutari (with three suffragans), Prizren and Durazzo; the mitred abbot of St Alexander is the spiritual chief of the Mirdites.
The church of St Peter is Perpendicular, with a lofty tower and spire.
' For none of these can anything be said, save that it is possible that the village spring (called "St Mary's Well") is the same as that used in the time of Christ.
A picturesque avenue leads to the church of St Mary, principally Early English and Perpendicular, with remains of Norman work, having a lofty tower surmounted by a spire, and containing several fine monuments, tombs and brasses.
The cathedral church, dedicated to its founder St Colman, a disciple of St Finbar of Cork, is a plain cruciform building mainly of the 14th century, with an earlier oratory in the churchyard.
She was educated with great strictness in the convent of the Carmelites in the Rue St Jacques at Paris.
Steamers run from Grand Rapids, through Lake Winnipeg, up Red river to the city of Winnipeg, important locks having been constructed on the river at St Andrews.
The principal cities and towns are: Winnipeg (90,153), Brandon (10,408), Portage la Prairie (5106), St Boniface (5119), West Selkirk (2701), and Morden (1437).
It is, however, with the Benedictine abbey of Bury St Edmunds that he is chiefly associated.
In 1563, the year in which his mother died, he matriculated at St Salvator's College, St Andrews.
Although there is no direct evidence of the fact, there can be no doubt that he left St Andrews to complete his education abroad, and that he probably studied at the university of Paris, and visited Italy and Germany.
It has been usually supposed that John Napier was buried in St Giles's church, Edinburgh, which was certainly the burialplace of some of the family, but Mark Napier (Memoirs, p. 426) quotes Professor William Wallace, who, writing in 1832, gives strong reasons for believing that he was buried in the old church of St Cuthbert.
The church of St Mary and St German belonged to a Benedictine abbey founded under a grant from William the Conqueror in 1069 and raised to the dignity of a mitred abbey by Pope Alexander II.
At twelve the boy was placed on the foundation of St Paul's School (then in St Paul's Churchyard), and in his nineteenth year he obtained an open scholarship at Balliol.
But he never ceased to exercise an independent judgment, and his work on St Paul, which appeared in 1855, was the result of much original reflection and inquiry.
A great disappointment, his repulse for the mastership of Balliol, also in 1854, appears to have roused him into the completion of his book on The Epistles of St Paul.
The pulpit of St Mary's was no longer closed to him, but the success of Balliol in the schools gave rise to jealousy in other colleges, and old prejudices did not suddenly give way; while a new movement in favour of " the endowment of research " ran counter to his immediate purposes.
At Denver the South Platte is joined by Cherry Creek, and here in October 1858 were established on opposite sides of the creek two bitterly rival settlements, St Charles and Auraria; the former was renamed almost immediately Denver, after General J.
From 1685 till his death he was principal of St Edmund's Hall; and in 1704 he was nominated by Queen Anne to a prebendal stall in Canterbury.
St Luke iv.
A few years later Cardinal St Croix reckoned that the Huguenots were one half of the population.
The bishop of St Davids was of the same opinion.
Only in Jersey and Guernsey, whither large numbers of Huguenots had fled after the St Bartholomew massacre, was Presbyterianism fully permitted.
- The earliest Presbyterian emigration consisted of French Huguenots under the auspices of Admiral Coligny, led to Port Royal, South Carolina, by Jean Ribaut in 1562, and to Florida (near the present St Augustine) by Rene de Laudonniere in 1564, and by Ribaut in 1565.
Other educational institutions include Troy Academy (1834), a non-sectarian preparatory school; La Salle Institute (conducted by the Brothers of the Christian Schools); St Joseph's Academy (Roman Catholic) and St Peter's Academy (Roman Catholic).
building and St Paul's Episcopal, the Second Presbyterian and St Mary's (Roman Catholic) churches.
The church of St Margaret is Decorated and Perpendicular.
A weekly market on Wednesdays was granted to John, earl of Richmond, in 1308 together with an eight days' fair beginning on the vigil of St Margaret's day, and in 1445 John de la Pole, earl of Suffolk, one of his successors as lord of the manor, received a further grant of the same market and also two yearly fairs, one on the feast of St Philip and St James and the other at Michaelmas.
It stands on a wooded hill, its botanical gardens commanding a fine view westward of the bay and rock of St Michel.
The churches of Notre-Dame des Champs and St Saturnin are modern buildings in the Gothic style.
12, 13, (St Petersburg, 1895, &c.); L.
Shchepotev, A.S.Matvyeev as an Educational and Political Reformer (Rus.), (St Petersburg, 1906).
do ~ ~, St -~~: ~ ~
To the north as far as the rocky point of St Gildas, sheltering the mouth of the Loire, the shore, often occupied by salt marshes (marshes of Poitou and Brittany), is low-lying and hollowed by deep bays sheltered by large islands, those of Olron and Re lying opposite the ports of Rochefort and La Rochelle, while Noirmoutier closes the Bay of Bourgneuf.
Numerous small archipelagoes and islands, of which the chief are Belle Tie, Groix and Ushant, fringe the Breton coast.- North of the Bay of St Michel the peninsula of Cotentin, terminating in the promontories of Hague and Barfleur, juts north into the English Channel and closes the bay of the Seine on the -west.
Below Orleans it takes its course towards the south-west, and lastly from Saumtir runs west, till it reaches the Atlantic between Paimbceuf and St Nazaire.
There may also be mentioned the lakes of Bourget and Annecy (both in Savoy), St Point (Jura), Paladru (Isre) and Nantua (Am).
St Etienne - 103,229 120,300 130,940
BESANON - - Verdun, Bellay, St Die, Nancy.
BOURGE5 - - Clermont, Limoges, Le Puy, Tulle, St Flour.
CHAMBERY - Annecy, Tarentaise, St Jean-de-Maurienne.
- Quimper, Vannes, St Brieuc.
The estab lishment consists of 32 conserVators, I St E
The environs of Creil (Oise) and Chteau-Landon (Seine-et-Marne) are noted for their freestone (pierre de taille), which is also abundant at Euville and Lrouville in Meuse; the production of plaster is particularly important in the environs of Paris, of kaolin of fine quality at Yrieix (1-Jaute-Vienne), of hydraulic lime in Ardche (Le Teil), of lime phosphates in the department of Somme, of marble in the departments of HauteGaronne (St Beat), Hautes-Pyrnes (Campan, Sarrancolin), Isre and Pas-de-Calais, and of cement in Pas-de-Calais (vicinity of Boulogne) and Isre (Grenoble).
the, St Chamond 9,500 17,500
There are important zinc works at Auby and St Amand (Nord) and Viviez (Aveyron) and Noyelles-Godault (Pas-de-Calais); there are lead works at the latter place, and others of greater irirportance at Couron (Loire-Infrieure).
Another group in the north of France has its centres at Lille, Tourcoing, Roubaix, St Quentin and Amiens.
That of the Vosges, which has experienced a great extension since the loss of Alsace-Lorraine, comprises Epinal, St Die, Remiremont and Belfort.
Dunkirk, Gravelines, Boulogne and Paimpol send considerable fleets to the Icelandic cod-fisheries, and St Malo, Fcainp, Granville and Cancale to those of Newfoundland.
The canal and river system attains its greatest utility in the north, northeast and north-centre of the country; traffic is thickest along the Seine below Paris; along the rivers and small canals of the rich departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and along the Oise and the canal of St Quentin whereby they communicate with Paris; along the canal from the Marne to the Rhine and the succession of waterways which unite it with the Oise; along the Canal de lEst (departments of Meuse and Ardennes); and along the waterways uniting Paris with the Sane at Chalon (Seine, Canal du Loing, Canal de Briare, Lateral canal of the Loire and Canal du Centre) and along the Sane between Chalon and Lyons.
St Quentin (uniting Scheldt with Sonsme and Cisc) 58
Its main lines run from Paris to Calais, via Creil, Amiens and Boulogne, from Paris to Lille, via Creil and Arras, and from Paris to Maubeuge via Creil, Tergnier and St Quentin.
In the same year the other chief customs in order of importance were Tourcoing, Jetimont, Cette, St Nazaire and Avricourt.
Other important training institutions are the staff college (cole suprieure de Guerre) which trains annually 70 to 90 selected captains and lieutenants; the musketry school of Chlons, the gymnastic school at Joinville-le-Pont and the schools of St Maixent, Saumur and Versailles for the preparation.
There are two higher training colleges of primary instruction at Fontenay-aux-Roses and St Cloud for the training of mistresses and masters of training colleges and higher primary schools.
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
The hospices and hpitaux and Guadeloupe the bureaux de bienfaisance, the founda- Martinique tion of which is optional for the commune, St Pierre and Miquel are managed by committees consisting of the mayor of the municipality and six Total in Am members, two elected by the municipal council and four nominated by the prefect.
de St Genis, La Fropriiti rurale en France (Paris, 1902); H.
In his boyhood and early youth he was frequently at St Petersburg, and he accompanied his uncle, who was much attached to him, during the Bulgarian campaign of 1877.
The four Gothic churches of St Nicholas,' St Mary, with a lofty steeple, St James and The Holy Ghost, and the fine medieval town hall, dating in its oldest part from 1306 and restored in 1882, are among the more striking buildings.
William's next quarrel was with Pope Alexander III., and arose out of a double choice for the vacant bishopric of St Andrews.
There are numerous modern churches and chapels, many of them very handsome; and the former parish church of St Nicholas remains, a Decorated structure containing a Norman font and a memorial to the great duke of Wellington.
St Mary's Hall (1836) is devoted to the education of poor clergymen's daughters.
The empress also erected a large church in honour of St Stephen north of the Damascus Gate, and is believed to have been buried therein.
Amongst the more important buildings for ecclesiastical and philanthropic purposes erected to the north of the city since 1860 are the Russian cathedral, hospice and hospital; the French hospital of St Louis, and hospice and church of St Augustine; the German schools, orphanages and hospitals; the new hospital and industrial school of the London mission to the Jews; the Abyssinian church; the church and schools of the Church missionary society; the Anglican church, college and bishop's house; the Dominican monastery, seminary and church of St Stephen; the Rothschild hospital and girls' school; and the industrial school and workshops of the Alliance Israelite.
On the mount of Olives are the Russian church, tower and hospice, near the chapel of the Ascension; the French Paternoster church; the Carmelite nunnery; and the Russian church of St Mary Magdalene, near Gethsemane.
On the west side are the institution of the sisters of St Vincent; the Ratisbon school; the Montefiore hospice; the British ophthalmic hospital of the knights of St John; the convent and church of the Clarisses; and the Moravian leper hospital.
Good sketches, chiefly after Flandin, are given by C. Kossowicz, Inscriptiones palaeopersicae (St Petersburg, 1872).
To the east, on the summit of the height, is the cathedral of St Carthagh, of various dates.
A monastery founded here by St Carthagh in 633 became so celebrated as a seat of learning that it is said no fewer than twenty churches were erected in its vicinity.
JOHN MORTON (c. 1420-1500), archbishop of Canterbury, cardinal and statesman, belonged to a family which had migrated from Nottinghamshire into Dorset, and was born either at Bere Regis or Milborne St Andrew.
As an ecclesiastic Morton followed orthodox Lancastrian lines: in 1489 he obtained a papal bull enabling him to visit and reform the monasteries, and he proceeded with some vigour against the abuses in the abbey of St Albans.
He constructed "Morton's Dyke" across the fens from Wisbech to Peterborough, repaired the episcopal palace at Hatfield and the school of canon law and St Mary's Church at Oxford.
Thus for the 7th, 14th, 21 st, 28th and also the 19th days of the intercalary Elul it is prescribed that "the shepherd of many nations is not to eat meat roast with fire nor any food cooked by fire, he is not to change the clothes on his body nor put on gala dress, he may not bring sacrifices nor may the king ride in his chariot, he is not to hold court nor may the priest seek an oracle for him in the sanctuary, no physician may attend the sick room, the day is not favourable for invoking curses, but at night the king may bring his gift into the presence of Marduk and Ishtar.
It was found in some abundance at the end of the 18th century in the copper mines of the St Day district in Cornwall, and has since been found at a few other localities, for example, at Konigsberg near Schemnitz in Hungary, and in the Tintic district in Utah.
In the church of St Lars are some paintings by Per Horberg (1746-1816), the Swedish peasant artist.
Eu has three buildings of importance - the beautiful Gothic church of St Laurent (12th and 13th centuries) of which the exterior of the choir with its three tiers of ornamented buttressing and the double arches between the pillars of the nave are architecturally notable; the chapel of the Jesuit college (built about 1625), in which are the tombs of Henry, third duke of Guise, and his wife, Katherine of Cleves; and the château.
These fortifications are all the work of the Knights of St John.
The modern city of Rhodes is in general the work of the Knights of St John, and has altogether a medieval aspect.
The principal buildings which remain are the church of St John, which is become the principal mosque; the hospital, which has been transformed into public granaries; the palace of the grand master, now the residence of the pasha; and the senate-house, which still contains some marbles and ancient columns.
The foundations also of the moles that separate the harbours are of Hellenic work, though the existing moles were erected by the Knights of St John.
At the eastern entrance is the fort of St Elmo, with a lighthouse.
In 1309 it was conquered by the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem at the instigation of the pope and the Genoese, and converted into a great fortress for the protection of the southern seas against the Turks.
The same remark may be made of the rest of the sea-board; for, with the exception of Spencer Gulf, the Gulf of St Vincent and Port Phillip on the south, and Moreton Bay, Hervey Bay and Broad Sound on the east, the coast-line is singularly uniform.
Kangaroo Island, at the entrance of St Vincent Gulf, is one of the largest islands on the Australian coast, measuring 80 m.
The " Endeavour " then coasted northward, and after passing and naming Mount Dromedary, the Pigeon House, Point Upright, Cape St George and Red Point, Botany Bay was discovered on the 28th of April 1770, and as it appeared to offer a suitable anchorage, the " Endeavour " entered the bay and dropped anchor.
On the shores of the Gulf St Vincent, again, from 1835 to 1837, South Australia was created by another joint-stock company, as an experiment in the Wakefield scheme of colonization.
OLAF (II.) HARALDSSON (99510 3 0), king from 1016-1029, called during his lifetime "the Fat," and afterwards known as St Olaf, was born in 995, the year in which Olaf TryggvessOn came to Norway.
The Norwegian order of knighthood of St Olaf was founded in 1847 by Oscar I., king of Sweden and Norway, in memory of this king.
In 1858 he was sent to St Petersburg on a special mission to seek the support of Russia against Napoleon III.
to decorate the walls of his palaces at St Germain and Manly.
of the barrack field is the Royal Military Repository, within the enclosure of which is the Rotunda, originally erected in St James's Park for the reception of the allied sovereigns in 1814, and shortly afterwards transferred to its present site.
The parish church of St Mary Magdalene was rebuilt, in 1726-1729, near the site of the old one dating from before the 12th century.
Woolwich (Wulewich) is mentioned in a grant of land by King Edward in 964 to the abbey of St Peter at Ghent.
An early form of the name is Patricsey or Peter's Island; the manor at the time of the Domesday survey, and until the suppression of the monasteries, belonging to the abbey of St Peter, Westminster.
It next passed to the crown, and subsequently to the family of St John and to the earls Spencer.
In the south (of the Netherlands) Christianity was spread by the labours of devoted missionaries, foremost amongst whom were St Amandus, St Bavon and St Eligius, and bishoprics were set up at Cambrai, Tournai, Arras, Therouanne and Liege.
His labours were continued with even more striking results by another Englishman, Winfred, better known as St Boniface, the Apostle of the Germans, who suffered martyrdom at Dokkum in A.D.
Chiefly through the valour of Lamoral, count of Egmont, two great victories were won over the French IL at St Quentin (August Io, 1557) and at Gravelines (July 1 3, 1 55 8).
The primatial see was placed at Malines (Mechlin), having under it Antwerp, Hertogenbosch, Roermond, Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres constituting the Flemish province; the second archbishopric was at Cambray, with Tournay, Arras, St Omer, and Namur, - the Walloon province; the third at Utrecht, with Haarlem, Middleburg, Leeuwarden, Groningen and Deventer, - the northern (Dutch) province.
All these with the exception of Cambray and St Omer were within the boundaries of the Netherlands.
On the 9th of July William crossed the Rhine, and captured Malines, Termonde and Oudenarde, and was advancing southwards when the news reached him of the massacre of St Bartholomew, which deprived him of the promised aid of Coligny and his army of 12,000 men.
There are several old pictures of merit, and the shrine of St Eleuthere, the first bishop of Tournai in the 6th century, is a remarkable product of the silversmith's art.
The church of St Quentin in the same square as the belfry is almost as ancient as NotreDame, and the people of Tournai call it the "little cathedral."
In the church of St Brice is the tomb of Childeric discovered in 1655.
The German army invaded Italy in August 1132, and occupied Rome, all except St Peter's church and the castle of St Angelo which held out against them.
St Mary's in Builth, took its name from the ancient territorial division of Buallt in which it is situated, which was, according to Nennius, an independent principality in the beginning of the 9th century, and later a cantrev, corresponding to the modern hundred of Builth.
He was afterwards ambassador at Berlin and St Petersburg.
BELLEVILLE, a city and the county-seat of St Clair county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the S.W.
of St Louis, Missouri.
The church of St Mary and St Nicholas is a cruciform building in red sandstone, of the Decorated and Perpendicular periods, with a central octagonal tower.
In 1283 a three-days' fair to be held at the feast of St Bartholomew was granted to Robert Burnell, bishop of Bath and Wells (then holder of a share of the barony of Nantwich).
into Lake Memphremagog, the waters of which, like those of Lake Champlain, are tributary to the St Lawrence river.
Lake Champlain furnishes the only commerical fishing grounds in Vermont, with the exceptions of small catches of white fish in Lake Bomoseen, Lake St Catherine in Rutland county and Lake Memphremagog.
The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States.
The principal railways are: the lines operated by the Boston & Maine system, extending along the eastern border from Brattleboro through Bellows Falls, and St Johnsbury to the Canada boundary (Vermont Valley, Sullivan County, and Connecticut & Passumpsic Rivers railways), with a line, the St Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railway, extending across the northern part of the state from Lunenburg to Maguam Bay; the Central Vermont railway (Grand Trunk system) which crosses the state diagonally from S.E.
to N.E., connecting Burlington, Montpelier and St Albans and affording connexion to the north with Montreal and to the south over trackage shared with the Boston & Maine, with the New London Northern which is leased by this road, and the Rutland railway (New York Central system) extending along the western edge of the state and connecting Rutland with Burlington to the north and with Bellows Falls and Bennington to the south.
These railways provide outlets for through freight and passenger traffic southward to Boston and New York, and to the north to St Johns and Montreal.
Water communication is afforded by Lake Champlain to the south, for seven months of the year, by way of the Champlain canal, via Whitehall, New York, to Troy and the Hudson river and the Atlantic coast, and to the north by way of the Richelieu river and the Chambly canal to the St Lawrence.
The principal cities are Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier (the capital) and St Albans.
Young crossed the frontier from Canada and raided the town of St Albans.
St Albans was also the headquarters of an attempted Fenian invasion of Canada in 1870.
When these became law, he neglected to enforce them, and on the 1 st of September 1549 he was required by the council to maintain at St Paul's Cross that the royal authority was as great as if the king were forty years of age.
He died in the Marshalsea on the 5th of September 1569, and was buried in St George's, Southwark, at midnight to avoid the risk of a hostile demonstration.
It was provided that the hundred court of Powdershire should always be held there and two fairs at the feasts of St Peter in Cathedra and St Barnabas, both of which are still held, and a Tuesday market (now held on Friday) and that it should be a free borough rendering a yearly rent to the earl of Cornwall.
The public buildings of chief interest are the kasbah, the government offices (formerly the British consulate), the palaces of the governor-general and the archbishop - all these are fine Moorish houses; the "Grand" and the "New" Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Philippe, the church of the Holy Trinity (Church of England), and the Bibliotheque Nationale d'Alger - a Turkish palace built in 1799-1800.
The cathedral of St Philippe, built on the site of a mosque, is in the place Malakoff, next to the governor-general's palace.
The bones were interred at St Philippe.
alba, the white oak, abounding all over the eastern districts to the continent from Lake Winnipeg and the St Lawrence countries of the shores of the Mexican Gulf.
He was again later the champion of the commoners of St Ives in the Long Parliament 1 Life of Sir H.
As the cousin of Hampden and St.
A small expedition sent by Cromwell in February 1654 to capture New Amsterdam (New York) from the Dutch was abandoned on the conclusion of peace, and the fleet turned to attack the French colonies; Major Robert Sedgwick taking with a handful of men the fort of St John's, Port Royal or Annapolis, and the French fort on the river Penobscot, the whole territory from this river to the mouth of the St Lawrence remaining British territory till its cession in 1667.
Becoming interested in journalism, he purchased and for two years edited the St Louis Enquirer.
The principal buildings are the church of St Lawrence in Gothic style, erected in 1821, and the mechanics' institute, a fine building, comprising class-rooms, a library, a.
Three chapels were built on the spot, and Gregory raised his cross there and elsewhere for the people to worship, just as St Nino was doing about the same time in Georgia.
His career was thus analogous to that of St Patrick in Ireland.
distant from Cape St Roque.
Newfoundland, the West Indies, and the Falklands, and the chief oceanic islands are the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, the Cape Verde Islands, Ascension, St Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Bouvet Island.
On reaching the South American coast, the southern equatorial current splits into two parts at Cape St Roque: one branch, the Brazil current, is deflected southwards and follows Currents.
ST SIMEON STYLITES (390-459), the first and most famous of the Pillar-hermits (Gr.
This church contained some well-executed native paintings of St George and the Dragon, The Last Supper, &c. Among the religious observances of the Christians of Gondar is that of bathing in large crowds in the Gaha on the Feast of the Baptist, and again, though in more orderly fashion, on Christmas day.
This page gives an overview of all articles in the 1911 Brittanica which are alphabetized under Spl to St.
It is served by the Grand Trunk, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, and the Pennsylvania railways.
for building the basilica of St Peter's at Rome.
ST LAWRENCE (LAURENTIUS, LORENZO), Christian martyr, whose name appears in the canon of the mass, and whose festival is on the 10th of August.
Deacon of the pope (St) Sixtus (Xystus) II., he was called upon by the judge to bring forth the treasures of the church which had been committed to his keeping.
All these details of the well-known legend are already related by St Ambrose (De Offic. i.
The cult of St Lawrence has spread throughout Christendom, and there are numerous churches dedicated to him, especially in England, where 228 have been counted.
The Escurial was built in honour of St Lawrence by Philip II.
of Spain, in memory of the battle of St Quentin, which was won in 1557 on the day of the martyr's festival.
The meteorites which appear annually on or about the 10th of August are popularly known as "the tears of St Lawrence."
He was educated at St John's College, Cambridge, and successively held the livings of Islington (1662), of All-Hallows the Great, Thames Street, London (1679),(1679), and of Isleworth in Middlesex (1690).
She bore him, besides his two sons Stephen and Bela, seven daughters, of whom St Margaret was the most famous.
He emerged again in the following year, and took part in the events of the 10th of June and the 10th of August 1792, when he led the people of the faubourg St Antoine to the assault of the Tuileries.
WHITSTABLE, a watering-place in the St Augustine's parliamentary division of Kent, England, on the north coast at the east end of the Swale, 6 m.
FRANCIS (FRANCois) OF Sales, St (1567-1622), bishop of Geneva and doctor of the Church (1877), was born at the castle of Sales, near Annecy, Savoy.
St Francis, the first child of this union, was born in August 1567 when his mother was in her fifteenth year.
This must be considered the first work of St Francis.
Less favourable is the view taken by non-Catholic historians, which seems in some measure to be confirmed by St Francis himself.
The institution rapidly spread, counting twenty houses before his death and eighty before that of St Jeanne.
The important T Lents of 1617 and 1618 at Grenoble were a prelude to a still more important apostolate in Paris, "the theatre of the world," as St Vincent de Paul calls it.
St Vincent scarcely left him, and has given the most extraordinary testimonies (as yet unpublished) of his heroic virtues.
The biography of St Francis de Sales was written immediately after his death by the celebrated P. de La Riviere and Dom John de St Francois (Goulu), as well as by two other authors of less importance.
The crusaders did something to develop it by establishing a bishopric with a large church, which still exists (as a mosque); here were shown the tombs of Elisha, Obadiah and St John the Baptist.
St Mary's church was opened in 1903, but occupies a site which bore a church in Saxon times, though the previous building dated only from 1786.
1584), discoverer of the northern passage to Archangel in Russia (1553) St Bartholomew's chapel, originally attached to the hospital for lepers (one of the first in England), founded by Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, in 1070, is in part Norman.
The funds for the maintenance of the hospital were appropriated by decision of the court of chancery to the hospital of St Bartholomew erected in 1863 within the boundaries of Rochester.
The lines include the Chatham, the Royal Marine, the Brompton, the Hut, St Mary's and naval barracks; the garrison hospital, Melville hospital for sailors and marines, the arsenal, gymnasium, various military schools, convict prison, and finally the extensive dockyard system for which the town is famous.
anonymous love-tokens, written or otherwise - on St Valentine's day was fairly general.
One of the longest circuits upon which it has been successfully worked is that between St Petersburg and Omsk, a distance of approximately 2400 miles of iron wire, with three repeating stations.
Gisborne for a land line connecting St John's, Newfoundland, and Cape Ray, in the Gulf of St Lawrence, and proceeded himself to get control of the points on the American coast most suitable as landing places for a cable.
France and Great Britain jointly acquired the cables between Calais and Dover, Boulogne and Folkestone, Dieppe and Beachy Head, Havre and Beachy Head, Piron, near Coutances, and Vieux Châteaux (St Heliers, Jersey).
In 1900 direct telegraph working was established between London and Genoa, and a third cable was laid to South Africa via St Helena and Ascension.
Since the early days of international telegraphy, conferences of representatives of government telegraph departments and companies have been held from time to time (Paris 1865, Vienna 1868, Rome 1871 and 1878, St Petersburg 1875, London 1879, Berlin 1885,1885, Paris 1891, Buda Pesth 1896, London 1903).
At St John's in Newfoundland he erected a temporary receiving antenna consisting of a wire 400 ft.
The castle of Helmond, built in 1402, is a beautiful specimen of architecture, and among the other buildings of note in the town are the spacious church of St Lambert, the Reformed church and the town hall.
St Michael's church in East Teignmouth was rebuilt in 1824 in Decorated style, but retains a Norman doorway and other ancient portions; of St James', in West Teignmouth, the south porch and tower are Norman.
There are a theological college for Redemptorists, and a Benedictine convent, dedicated to St Scholastica.
Finding the usual crowd of beggars before St Peter's, he exchanged his clothes with one of them, and experienced an overpowering joy in spending the day begging among the rest.
It was now that he began to frequent the ruined little chapel of St Mary of the Angels, known as the Portiuncula, where much of his time was passed in prayer.
This enthusiastic love of poverty is certainly the keynote of St Francis's spirit; and so one of his disciples in an allegorical poem (translated into English as The Lady of Poverty by Montgomery Carmichael, 1901), and Giotto in one of the frescoes at Assisi, celebrated the "holy nuptials of Francis with Lady Poverty."
His preaching to the birds is a favourite representation of St Francis in art.
St Francis was a deacon but not a priest.
In 1212 Francis invested St Clara (q.v.) with the Franciscan habit, and so instituted the "Second Order," that of the nuns.
The sources for the life of St Francis and early Franciscan history are very numerous, and an immense literature has grown up around them.
by Sebastian Evans, 1 The Little Flowers of St Francis.
The official life of St Francis is St Bonaventura's Legenda, published in a convenient form by the Franciscans of Quaracchi (1898); Goetz's estimate of it (op. cit.) is much more favourable than Sabatier's.
Of lives of St Francis in English may be mentioned those by Mrs Oliphant (2nd ed., 1871) and by Canon Knox Little (1897).
The chapter on St Francis in Emile Gebhart's Italie mystique (ed.
REMY CEILLIER (1688-1761), Benedictine monk of the Lorraine congregation of St Vannes.
It contains an Evangelical and five Roman Catholic churches, among them that of St Michael, a fine Gothic edifice.
Paul began the famous Villa Borghese; enlarged the Quirinal and Vatican; completed the nave, facade and portico of St Peter's; erected the Borghese Chapel in Sta Maria Maggiore; and restored the aqueduct of Augustus and Trajan ("Acqua Paolina").
This great valley—one of the most considerable on the southern side of the Alps—has attracted special attention, in ancient as well as modern times, from its leading to two of the most frequented passes across the great mountain chain—the Great and the Little St Bernard—the former diverging at Aosta, and crossing the main ridges to the north into the valley of the Rhone, the other following a more westerly direction into Savoy.
above Airolo at the foot of the St Gotthard, and after flowing above 36 m.
in length) from Domodossola to Brigue, the St Gotthard from Milan to Chiasso (the tunnel is entirely in Swiss territory), the Brenner from Verona to Trent, the line from Udine to Tarvis and the line from Venice to Triest by the Adriatic coast.
Certain peculiarities introduced by St Ambrose distinguish the ritual of Milan from that of the general church.
Constitution and Government .T he - Vatican palace itself twith St Peters), the Lateran palace, and the papal villa at Castel Gandolfo have secured to them the privilege of extraterritoriality by the law of 1871.
Farther west came the roads over the higher Alpine passes the Brenner from Verona, the Septimer and the Splugen from Clavenna (Chiavenna), the Great and the Little St Bernard from Augusta Praetoria (Aosta), and the Mont Genvre from Augusta Taurinorum (Turin).
Three separate capitals must be discriminated Pavia, the seat of the new Lombard kingdom; Ravenna, the garrison city of the Byzantine emperor; and Rome, the rallying point of the old nation, where the successor of St Peter was already beginning to assume that national protectorate which proved so influential in the future.
the see of St Peter should assume.
Some Norman adventurers, on pilgrimage to St Michaels shrine on Monte Gargano, lent their swords in 1017 to the Lombard cities of Apulia against the Greeks.
Henceforth Emilia, Romagna, the March of Ancona, the patrimony of St Peter and the Campagna of Rome held of the Holy See, and not of the empire.
The first entry of any moment made by the Venetians into strictly Italian affairs was in 1336, when the republics of Florence and St Mark allied themselves against Mastino della Scala, and the latter took possession of Treviso.
While Massna pursued the Austrians into their own lands at the close of I8o5, Italian forces under Eugene and Gouvion St Cyr (q.v.) held their ground against allied forces landed at Naples.
There it was agreed that France should supply 200,000 men and Piedmont 100,000 for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, that Piedmont should be expanded into a kingdom of North Italy, that central Italy should form a separate kingdom, on the throne of which the emperor contemplated placing one of his own relatives, and Naples another, possibly under Lucien Murat; the pope, while retaining only the Patrimony of St Peter (the Roman province), would be president of the Italian confederation.
Had they succeeded, the position of the Pied- viti ntese in Romagna would have been imperilled; had they ne~ ed, the road would have been open for Garibaldi to march Rome, In the circumstances, Cavour decided that Piedmont sole, st anticipate Garibaldi, occupy Umbria and the Marches anc 1 place Italy, between the red-shirts and Rome.
His ces me, intentions in the main were still loyal, for be desired cal to capture Rome for the kingdom; and he did his tio st to avoid the regulars tardily sent against him.
from St Peters to the basilica of San Lorenzo.
of St Pap. Dorn.
Early in the 13th century Uzhitse was the seat of St Sava, the first archbishop, and the patron saint of Servia.
E.S.E., there is a 13th-century church, dedicated to St Aril, who, according to tradition, was martyred in the 9th century by unconverted Serbs.
On the 21st of March he was taken to St Mary's church, and asked to repeat his recantation in the hearing of the people as he had promised.
14, 15 - the passage already referred to, under " Natural Religion " - as asserting " Natural Law "; St Paul's words suggest that form of thought and may conceivably have been suggested by it.
It is no more than characteristic of Kant's whole speculative philosophy that he should' think the Ontological argument the one which comes nearest to st,-cess (yet the Ontological argument is held to prove - or rather to point out - not that God must exist, but that we think of him as necessary if we think of him as existing at all).
Caird (St Andrews: The Evolution of Religion; Glasgow: The Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophies) represent speculative treatment on a basis of Hegelianism.
Before this interview a national council had met at St Albans at the beginning of August 1213, and this was followed by another council, held in St Paul's church, London, later in the same month; it was doubtless summoned by the archbishop, and was attended by many of the higher clergy and a certain number of the barons.
In November he met some of his nobles at Bury St Edmunds, but as they still refused to pay the scutage no agreement was reached.
He became rector of St James's, Westminster, in 1733, and bishop of Bristol in 1735.
In 1737 he was translated to Oxford, and he received the deanery of St Paul's in 1750.
BARNET, a residential district in the mid or St Albans parliamentary division of Hertfordshire, England; ro m.
The second epithet designates its position on a hill, but the first is given it from the market granted to the abbots of St Albans to be kept there, by Henry II.
The simple form of ocellus described in the foregoing paragraph may become folded into a pit or cup, the interior of which becomes filled with a clear gelatinous secretion forming a sort of vitreous Modified after Linko, Travaux Soc. Imp. Nat., St.
s.c, Subu m bra 1 tion of the two layers; st, Stomach.
endoderm, containing the st, Stomach, which in H ac coelenteric cavity (cod), quires a secondary com while the outer layer munication with the diges furnishes the future ectotive cavity of the mother.
A-D are stages common to both; from D arises the hydrotheca (E) or the gonotheca (F); th, theca; st, stomach; 1, tentacles; m, mouth; mb, medusa-buds.
St Petersbourg, xxix.
Imp. Sci.) St Petersbourg (8) x.
Of these St Matthias in the south, now represented by a 12th-century building, has a Christian cemetery of the Roman age.
are the codex aureus, a copy of the gospels presented to the abbey of St Maximin by Ada, a reputed sister of Charlemagne, and the codex Egberti of the 10th century.
Celtic names, and St Jerome, who had lived in Trier, declares that their language in his day (c. 370) resembled that of the Galatians.
Legend associated Trier with the martyrdom of part of the Theban legion (c. 286) and with the relics found by St Helena in the Holy Land.
St Agritius (d.
It was the scene of the first banishment of St Athanasius in 336.
St Ambrose, one of the greatest sons of Trier, was born here about 340.
St Jerome's mind was first seriously directed to religion while studying at Trier about 370, and St Martin of Tours came in 385 to plead with the tryant Maximus for the lives of the heretic Priscillian and his followers.
Far more extensive was the territory under the spiritual authority of the archbishop which included the bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun, and after 1777 also those of Nancy and St Die.
The church of St Oswald at Filey is a fine cruciform building with central tower, Transitional Norman and Early English in date.
ST HILDA, strictly Hild (614-680), was the daughter of Hereric, a nephew of Edwin, king of Northumbria.
He was attacked by assassins on the steps of St Peter's and badly wounded; attendants carried him to a cardinal's house, and, fearing poison, he was nursed only by his wife and Sancha, his sister-in-law.
Leaving his aunt, Matilda, abbess of Quedlinburg, as regent of Germany, Otto, in February 99 8, led Gregory back to Rome, took the castle of St Angelo by storm and put Crescentius to death.
Passing from pride to humility he added "servant of the apostle," and "servant of Jesus Christ" to the imperial title, spent a fortnight in prayer in the grotto of St Clement and did penance in various Italian monasteries.
He was buried in St Paul's, whence his body was removed by Canute to Canterbury with all the ceremony of a great act of state in 1023.
Lives of St.
A very early example of criminal spiritual jurisdiction exercised by St Paul is found in the case of the incestuous Corinthian (1 Cor.
The theory, as expressed in legal phrase by St Cyprian in the 3rd century, was that the apostolic power of delegated sovereignty from the Lord, alike legislative and judicial, was held in joint-tenancy by the whole body of Catholic bishops.
St Cyprian, St Ambrose and St Augustine, St Paulinus of Nola and St John Chrysostom had practised law as teachers or advocates.
St Ambrose and St Paulinus had even held high administrative and judicial offices.
Leading examples may be found in the various prosecutions of St Athanasius, in whose case also there is the germ of an appeal, tanquam ab abusu.
The trial of St Athanasius led to extensions of the right of appeal.
A few years later, in 347, the council of Sardica, a council of practically the whole West save Africa, reversed Tyre and acquitted St Athanasius after a full judicial inquiry.
" Out of honour to the memory of St Peter," a condemned bishop may ask the intervention of Rome.
Edgar, in a speech to St Dunstan and the bishops in synod (in 969), said, "I hold in my hands the sword of Constantine, you that of Peter.
St Wilfrid was justified and was sent back to his see, with papal letters to the kings of Northumbria and Mercia.
There is little evidence of the imposition of fines as ecclesiastical penalties; but there are references to the practice in the epistles of St Gregory the Great, notably in his instructions to St Augustine.
copies from St Gregory I.
In England the Constitutions of Clarendon (by chap. viii.) prohibited appeals to the pope; but after the murder of St Thomas of Canterbury Henry II.
The subject was dealt with in the Constitutions of Clarendon, formally revoked after the murder of St Thomas of Canterbury.
The patriarchate was abolished and its jurisdiction transferred by a council at St Petersburg in 1721 to a Holy Governing Synod.
The governing synod now sits at St Petersburg, but appoints delegated commissions, with a portion of its jurisdiction, in Moscow and Georgia.
The most conspicuous building in the city is the cathedral of St Bavon 1 (Sint Baafs), the rich interior of which contrasts strongly with its somewhat heavy exterior.
Among the other 55 churches may be mentioned that of St Nicholas, an Early Gothic building, the oldest church in date of foundation in Ghent, and that of St Michael, completed in 1480, with an unfinished tower.
This was the centre of the life of the medieval city, the scene of all great public functions, such as the homage of the burghers to 1 Bavo, or Allowin (c. 589-c. 653), patron saint of Ghent, was a nobleman converted by St Amandus, the apostle of Flanders.
are some ruins of the ancient abbey of St Bavon and of a 12th-century octagonal chapel dedicated to St Macharius.
One of the most interesting institutions of Ghent is the great Beguinage (Begynhof) which, originally established in 1234 by the Bruges gate, was transferred in 1874 to the suburb of St Amandsberg.
Its chief remains of antiquity are a square peel-tower and the cruciform church of St Andrew, of which part of the fabric is of pre-Conquest date, though the building is mainly Early English.
Klebs, Guide to Exhibit of the German Amber Industry at World's Fair (St Louis, 1904); and abstract by G.
Scarcely a trace of the castle exists, although its site near St Clement's church is locally known as Tower Hill.
FRANCOIS DE BAR (1538-1606), French scholar, was born at Seizencourt, near St Quentin, and having studied at the university of Paris entered the order of St Benedict.
The government offices, art gallery and exchange, with St Mary's cathedral (Anglican), a building in a combination of native timbers, St Paul's and St Patrick's cathedral (Roman Catholic), are noteworthy buildings.
to prepare a scheme for the restoration of the old St Paul's.
In September of the same year (1666) the fire occurred, and the old St Paul's was completely gutted.
Wren's earlier designs have the exterior of the church arranged with one order of columns; the division of the whole height into two orders was an immense gain in increasing the apparent scale of the whole, and makes the exterior of St Paul's very superior to that of St Peter's in Rome, which is utterly dwarfed by the colossal size of the columns and pilasters of its single order.
The first stone of the new St Paul's was laid on the 21st of June 1675; the choir was opened for use on the 2nd of December 1697; and the last stone of the cathedral was set in 1710.
Wren also designed a colonnade to enclose a large piazza forming a clear space round the church, somewhat after the fashion of Bernini's colonnade in front of St Peter's, but space in the city was too valuable to admit of this.
Thus he was in some cases, as in that of St James's, Piccadilly, content to make the exterior of an almost barnlike plainness.
He occupied the post of surveyor of the royal works for fifty years, but by a shameful cabal was dismissed from this office a few years before his death He died in 1723, and is buried under the choir of St Paul's; on a tablet over the inner north doorway is the well-known epitaph - Si monumentum requiris, circumspice.
For further information the reader should consult the Parentalia, published by Wren's grandson in 1750, an account of the Wren family and especially of Sir Christopher and his works; also the two biographies of Wren by Elmes and Miss Phillimore; Milman, Annals of St Paul's (1868); and Longman, Three Cathedrals dedicated to St Paul in London (1873), pp. 77 seq.
In the library of All Souls at Oxford are preserved a large number of drawings by Wren, including the designs for almost all his chief works, and a fine series showing his various schemes for St Paul's Cathedral.
MATTHEW NEWCOMEN (c. 1610-1669), English nonconformist divine, was born about 1610 and educated at St John's College, Cambridge (M.A.
of Spain, whom he served at St Quentin and in the Netherlands.
c/i, epidermis; st stoma; me,, mesophyil; pal, palisade; spa, spongy tissue; Isp, inteicellular space; wi., water tissue; x, xylem; p/i, phioem; Phil, phloeoterma; sri, scierenchyma.
i4.Stele of mr Explanation of Lettering: st.
The Russian plant-anatomist, Russow, may be said to have founded the consideration of plant tissues from the point of view of descent (Vergleichende Untersuchungen ber die Leilbundelkryptogamen, St Petersburg, 1872; and Betrachtungen ber Leitbndel und Grundgewebe, Dorpat, 1875).
de St Petersbourg (1898); Ueber die Befruchtungsvorgnge bei einigen Dicotyledoneen, Ber.
In 1534 Jacques Cartier set out to continue the discoveries of Verazzano, and visited Newfoundland and the Gulf of St Lawrence.
In the following year he made another voyage, discovered the island of Anticosti, and ascended the St Lawrence to Hochelaga, now Montreal.
Passing through the New Hebrides group he touched at Batavia, and arrived at St Malo after an absence of two years and four months.
In June 1741 he named the magnificent peak on the coast of North America Mount St Elias and explored the Aleutian Islands.
Where the central oceanic buckle attains the water-line we have our oceanic islands, seen in our type ocean, as St Helena and the Azores.
Just south of the city is Kemper Hall, a Protestant Episcopal school for girls, under the charge of the Sisters of St Mary, opened in 1870 as a memorial to Jackson Kemper (1789-1870), the first missionary bishop (1835-1859), and the first bishop of Wisconsin (1854-1870) of the Protestant Episcopal Church.
He was buried in the chapel of the convent of St Thomas in Avila.
Columbus is an important railway centre and is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St.
Louis, the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania system), the Baltimore & Ohio, the Ohio Central, the Norfolk & Western, the Hocking Valley, and the Cleveland, Akron & Columbus (Pennsylvania system) railways, and by nine interurban electric lines.
Of the other thirty-three churches in the city those of St Foillan (founded in the 12th century, but twice rebuilt, in the 15th and 17th centuries, and restored in 1883) and St Paul, with its beautiful stained-glass windows, are remarkable.
high, and St Luke's (Protestant Episcopal) Cathedral.
Meyer, Abbildungen von Vogel-Skeletten (Dresden, 1879); St G.
16), extending between the fenestra ovalis and the tympanic membrane or drum, consists of (I) the long and slen der columella, a straight, ossified rod which fits with a disk into the fenestra r; t st ovalis; it is homologous with the stapes (m.st.), although not stirrupshaped; (2) the extra-columellar mass.
St John Chrysostom died there on the way to Constantinople from his exile at Cocysus in the Anti-Taurus.
William Howard was employed as counsel by the corporation of Lynn, and it is worthy of note that the "crosslets fitchy" in his shield of arms suggest the cross with which the dragon was discomfited by St Margaret, the patroness of Lynn.
St Rambert, in the arrondissement of Belley, besides being of industrial importance for its manufactures of silk and paper, possesses the remains of a Benedictine abbey, powerful in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.
The Gothic church of Ambronay in the arrondissement of Belley, the church of St Paul de Varax (about 9 m.
The church of St Helen stands near the river, and its fine Early English tower with Perpendicular spire is the principal object in the pleasant views of the town from the river.
The smaller church of St Nicholas is Perpendicular in appearance, though parts of the fabric are older.
The picturesque narrow-arched bridge over the Thames near St Helen's church dates originally from 1416.
St Peter's College, Radley, 2 m.
After the death of his mother in 1463, and of her principal supporter, James Kennedy, bishop of St Andrews, two years later, the person of the young king, and with it the chief authority in the kingdom, were seized by Sir Alexander Boyd and his brother Lord Boyd, while the latter's son, Thomas, was created earl of Arran and married to the king's sister, Mary.
He left three sons - his successor, James IV.; James Stewart, duke of Ross, afterwards archbishop of St Andrews, and John Stewart, earl of Mar.
Of the churches the Bovenkerk ("upper church"), or church of St Nicholas, ranks with the cathedral of Utrecht and the Janskerk at 's Hertogenbosch as one of the three great medieval churches in Holland.
EVELETH, a city of St Louis county, Minnesota, U.S.A., about 71 m.
The present parish church belonged to an abbey founded in 837 by St Bernard, bishop of Vienne.
In the modern church of St Stephen (1854) are preserved tiles from the former Cistercian abbey of Bordesley, founded in 1138, of which the site may be traced at Bordesley Park, 2 m.
1 The Christian Church, warned perhaps by the words of Christ, appears at first to have avoided a similar use of the term, while St Paul, St Peter and St John speak of their converts as spiritual children (1 Cor.
5 The term patres apostolici is due to the patristic scholars of the 17th century: see Lightfoot, St Clement of Rome, i.
- The earliest writer on patristics was Jerome, whose book De viris illustribus gives a brief account of one hundred and thirty-five Church writers, beginning with St Peter and ending with himself.
The most interesting buildings are the old fortified château of the 16th century, with its Gothic chapel restored in 1880; the church of St Bartholomew, dating in its present form from 1538; the new town hall (1894); the Griines Tor, also built in 1538; and the handsome new synagogue.
Antonio in Padua, 1452, and an altar-piece of St Luke and other saints for the church of S.
The now censorious Squarcione found much to carp at in the earlier works of this series, illustrating the life of St James; he said the figures were like men of stone, and had better have been coloured stone-colour at once.
The acts of St James and St Christopher are the leading subjects of the series.
St James Exorcizing may have been commenced by Pizzolo, and completed by Mantegna.
The Calling of St James to the Apostleship appears to be Mantegna's design, partially carried out by Pizzolo; the subjects of St James baptizing, his appearing before the judge, and going to execution, and most of the legend of St Christopher, are entirely by Mantegna.
The Madonna is here depicted with various saints, the archangel Michael and St Maurice holding her mantle, which is extended over the kneeling Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, amid a profusion of rich festooning and other accessory.
Both the 14th and 15th centuries in Spain were largely taken up with controversy, as by Isaac ibn Pulgar (about 1350), and Shem Tobh ibn Shaprut (about 1380), who translated St Matthew's gospel into Hebrew.
PASTORAL EPISTLES, the name given to St Paul's letters to Timothy and Titus.
He graduated, at West Point in 1853, served for two years in the artillery, was assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West Point in 1855-1860, and while on leave (1860-1861) was professor of physics at Washington university, St Louis.
He died at St Augustine, Florida, on the 4th of March 1906.
He approached St Faro, the bishop of Meaux, to whom he made known his desire to live a life of solitude in the forest.
St Faro assigned him a spot called Prodilus (Brodolium), the modern Breuil, in the province of Brie.
There St Fiacre built a monastery in honour of the Holy Virgin, and to it added a small house for guests, to which he himself withdrew.
Here he received St Chillen (?
Various relics of St Fiacre were given to princes and great personages.
French hackney-coaches received the name of fiacre from the Hotel St Fiacre, in the rue St Martin, Paris, where one Sauvage, who was the first to provide cabs for hire, kept his vehicles.
The church of St Michael has a Norman square embattled tower surmounted by a spire, and an apsidal chancel.
It is familiar in the titles, showing the colour of their wands of office, of the gentlemen ushers of the three principal British orders of knighthood, the ushers of the Garter and St Patrick being "Ushers of the Black Rod," and of the Thistle "Green Rod."
Though not exempt from considerable danger, he passed in safety through the troubles of St Bartholomew's eve.
It has three Evangelical churches, among them that of St Anne, built 1499-1525, a Roman Catholic church, several public monuments, among them those of Luther, of the famous arithmetician Adam Riese, and of Barbara Uttmann.
In 1821 he entered a banking-house newly established at St Petersburg, but returned two years later to Paris, where he was appointed cashier to the Caisse Hypothecaire.
of St Louis.
The public buildings include the palace of the governor-general, situated in a spacious botanical and zoological garden, the large military hospital, the cathedral of St Joseph, the Paul Bert college, and the theatre.
The chief manufactures are paper and wire, and from the quarries near the village of Lee is obtained an excellent quality of marble; these quarries furnished the marble for the extension of the Capitol at Washington, for St Patrick's cathedral in New York City and for the Lee High School and the Lee Public Library (1908).
St Michael's, the parish church, has a striking Perpendicular tower, an arch of carved oak dividing its nave and chancel, a magnificent rood-loft, and a 13th-century monument doubtfully described as the tomb of Bracton, the famous lawyer, whose birthplace, according to local tradition, was Bratton Court in the vicinity.
of Arras, on the Northern railway between that town and St Omer.
St Vaast, the principal church of Bethune, belongs to the 16th century.
He was offered the presidency of the academy of science of St Petersburg; but he declined, preferring the leisure and independence of life in Italy.
It has a town hall with handsome rooms, a library, a gymnasium, a lyceum, elementary schools, an arsenal, and eleven churches, the finest of which is St Martin's, of the 15th century, with many excellent paintings and a tower 300 ft.
This was justly regarded by him as an important service to his country and one of the triumphs of his career, and he hoped to obtain further successes with the assistance of Germany, but the cordial relations between the cabinets of St Petersburg and Berlin did not subsist much longer.
It is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central System), the Lake Erie & Western (New York Central System), the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania System) and the Vandalia (Pennsylvania System) railways.
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