How to use Spruce in a sentence
Similar preparations are in use wherever the spruce fir abounds.
The state is reforesting portions of its preserve chiefly with pine, spruce and larch.
The state's lumber trade was important until 1890, when the white pine was nearly exhausted, although there were still spruce and hemlock.
In the woods of Canada it occurs frequently mingled with the black spruce and other trees.
In the Adirondack region the trees were principally white pine, spruce, hemlock and balsam, but mixed with these were some birch, maple, beech and basswood, and smaller numbers of ash and elm; in the swamps of this region were also larch and cedar.Advertisement
Other species include - western red cedar, Engelmann spruce, alpine fir, whitebark pine, limber pine, alpine larch and occassionally western white pine.
The sprays are sometimes used for making spruce-beer and essence of spruce.
The original varieties of trees still abound, though in less numbers, on lands illadapted to agriculture, and in the Adirondack and Catskill Mountains, where the state has established forest preserves, and the Forest, Fish and Game Commissioner began reforesting in 1901, principally with pine, spruce and larch.
The most valuable trees for lumber are spruce, white pine, hemlock, cedar, white birch, ash, maple and basswood; all excepting pine and hemlock and poplar in addition are ground into wood pulp for the manufacture of paper.
The summits of some of the mountains are too high for trees and above belts of dwarf spruce, balsam and birch they are clothed chiefly with sandworts, diapensia, cassiope, rushes, sedges and lichens.Advertisement
Berg drove up to his father-in-law's house in his spruce little trap with a pair of sleek roans, exactly like those of a certain prince.
The large branches droop, like those of the Norway spruce, but the sprays are much lighter and more slender, rendering the tree one of the most elegant of the conifers, especially when young.
In the Catskills and in the farming regions the lumber product consists largely of hardwoods (mostly oak, chestnut and hickory), smaller amounts of hemlock and pine, and a very little spruce.
Near the Pacific Coast the forests consist principally of hemlock, cedar and Sitka spruce.
Paper and wood pulp, for the manufacture of which the spruce forests of the state are so largely used, increased in value from $1,282,022 in 1890 to $7,244,733 in 1900, or 465.1%, and to $8,930,291 in 1905; and this industry rose from ninth in rank in 1890 to fifth in 1900 and to fourth in 1905.Advertisement
The manufacture of lumber and timber products, one of the oldest industries of the state, ranked fifth in 1905; these products had increased in value from $5,641,445 in 1890 to $9,218,310 in 1900, or 63.4%, but decreased to $7,519,431 in 1905, the decrease being in large measure due to the great demand for spruce at the paper and pulp mills.
The Pacific coast Transition zone is noted for its forests of giant conifers, principally Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Pacific cedar and Western hemlock, Here, too, mosses and ferns grow in profusion, and the sadal (Gaultheria shailon), thimble berry (Rubus nootkamus), salmon berry (Rubus spectabilis) and devils club, (Fatsia horr-ida) are characteristic shrubs.
The waterfalls are utilized at a few points to work up into wood pulp the forests of spruce which cover much of Labrador, Quebec and Ontario.
A great development has also taken place in Ontario and the eastern provinces, through the use of spruce and other trees, long considered comparatively useless, in the manufacture of wood-pulp for paper-making.
For the export trade it is packed in square boxes made of spruce or some other odourless wood.Advertisement
The larch is said not to succeed on arable land, especially where corn has been grown, but experience does not seem to support this view; that against the previous occupation of the ground by Scotch fir or Norway spruce is probably better founded, and, where timber is the object, it should not be planted with other conifers.
About four-fifths of the park is covered with dense forests of black pine (Pinus Murrayana), balsam, fir, spruce, cedar and poplar.
In many districts where such woods once existed, their place has been occupied by the Scottish pine and spruce, which suffer less from the ravages of goats, the worst enemies of tree vegetation.
In the pine forests of the Alps the prevailing species are the common spruce and the silver fir; on siliceous soil the larch flourishes, and surpasses every other European species in height.
The western shores are well wooded, chiefly with spruce, but the northern and eastern are dreary and barren.Advertisement
The spruce timber covering much of the area is of great value, compensating for the labour of clearing the land.
All trees were long little thought of in comparison with the pine, but of late years poplar and spruce have proved of great value in the making of paper pulp, and hard-wood (oak, beech, ash, elm, certain varieties of maple) is becoming increasingly valuable for use in flooring and the making of furniture.
The Ayan spruce (Abies ayanensis), the Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalensis) and the Daurian larch are the chief trees; on the upper parts of the mountains are the Siberian rampant cedar (Cembra pumila) and the Kurilian bamboo (Arundinaria kurilense).
The white fir, or Norway spruce (Abies excelsa), is exported fro Russia, Sweden and Norway, where it grows in enormous quantit It is the tallest and straightest of European firs, growing with a slender trunk to a height of from 80 to 100 ft.
Like the northe pine, it is called by several names, such as "spruce," "while deal," "white wood," "Norway fir."Advertisement
The sugar pine, the yellow or silver pine and the Douglas spruce (considerably smaller than in Oregon and Washington), are rivals in stature and nobility, all attaining 200 ft.
Above the firs come the tamarack, constituting the bulk of the lower Alpine forest; the hardy long-lived mountain pine; the red cedar or juniper, growing even on the baldest rocks; the beautiful hemlock spruce; the still higher white pine, nut pine, needle pine; and finally, at io,000 to 12,000 ft., the dwarf pine, which grows in a tangle on the earth over which one walks, and may not show for a century's growth more than a foot of height or an inch of girth.
The surface of the islands is generally sandy, the soil thin and the climate keen; yet Scotch fir, spruce and birch are grown; and rye, barley, flax and vegetables are produced in sufficient quantity for the wants of the people.
The principal trees, after the yellow and lodgepole pines, are the red-fir, so-called hemlock and cedar, the Engelmann spruce, the cottonwood and the aspen (Populus tremuloides).
The chief varieties of timber are the red fir, Engelmann's spruce and yellow pine.Advertisement
These instances, so well stated by Spruce, seem to demonstrate the complete acclimatization of Spaniards in some of the hottest parts of South America.
The observations of Spruce are of themselves almost conclusive as to the possibility of Europeans becoming acclimatized in the tropics; and if it is objected that this evidence applies only to the dark-haired southern races, we are fortunately able to point to facts, almost equally well authenticated and conclusive, in the case of one of the typical Germanic races.
The fir (Pinus sylvestris) and pine (Pinus abies) are the predominating trees Spruce is common, and even predominates in the higher parts (between the great valleys and immediately below the birch-belt) in the north of Norrland.
In Germany, both on the mountains and the sandy plains, woods of " kiefer" are frequent and widely spread, while vast forests in Russia and Poland are chiefly compqsed of this species; in many northern habitats it is associated with the spruce and birch.
The inner bark is twisted into ropes, and, like that of the spruce, is kiln dried, ground up, and mixed with meal in times of scarcity; in Kamchatka it is macerated in water, then pounded, and made into a kind of substitute for bread without any admixture of flour.Advertisement
The head is of a pyramidal form, the lower branches drooping like those of a Norway spruce; its foliage is of a light bright green colour.
The tamarack and cedar swamps now have a growth, especially on their edges, of spruce, balsam, white pine, soft maple, ash and aspens.
Red oak, birch, elm, ash, white cedar, hemlock, basswood, spruce, poplar, balsam, fir and several other kinds of trees are found in many sections; but a large portion of the merchantable timber, especially in the lower peninsula, has been cut.'
The rock formations are of sand stone and limestone, while the forests are either a tangled growth of pine and spruce or a scattered growth of small trees on a sandy soil.
Far the most abundant are coast and Alpine hemlocks and the tide-land or Sitka spruce.Advertisement
Next in importance after spruce, in the interior, is birch, and then balsam poplar.
Thickets of alders and willows in wet places and new-made land, aspens and large cottonwoods west of the characteristic spruce area (as on Seward Peninsula), are also common.
Maine was formerly covered with forests, principally of white pine and spruce, but mixed with these were some hemlock, tamarack, cedar, and, on the south slope, birch, poplar, oak, maple and beech.
The tendency is for this area to increase, for the establishment between 1890 and 1900 of large paper and pulp mills on some of the principal rivers of the south slope greatly increased the value of forests, especially those of spruce and poplar.
Good spruce, which is by far the most valuable timber in the state and is used most largely for the manufacture of paper and pulp, stands in large quantities in the St John, Penobscot, Androscoggin and Kennebec basins.Advertisement
The first cotton mill was built at Brunswick on the Androscoggin about 1809, and from 1830 the development of cotton manufacturing was rapid; woollen mills followed, and late in the 19th century were erected some of the largest paper and pulp mills in the country, which are run by water power from the rivers, and use the spruce and poplar timber in the river basins.
The higher plateaus, the Uinta and Wasatch mountains, bear forests of fir, spruce and pine, and the lower slopes are dotted with piiion, juniper, and scrub cedar.
In northern Europe this belt is characterized by such species as Picea excelsa (spruce), which extends south to the mountains of the Mediterranean region; Pinus sylvestris (Scottish fir), reaching from the far north to western Spain, Persia and Asia Minor; Juniperus communis, &c. In north Siberia Pinus Cembra (Cembra or Arolla Pine) has a wide range; also Abies sibirica (Siberian silver fir), Larix sibirica and Juniperus Sabina (savin).
In the North American area Picea alba, P. nigra, Larix americana, Abies balsamea (balsam fir), Thuja canadensis (hemlock spruce), Pinus Strobus (Weymouth pine), Thuja occidentalis (white cedar), Taxus canadensis are characteristic species.
From the coast to the eastern base of the Cascade Mountains the state is heavily timbered, except in small prairies and clearings in the Willamette and other valleys, and the most important tree is the great Douglas fir, pine or spruce (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), commonly called Oregon pine, which sometimes grows to a height of 300 ft., and which was formerly in great demand for masts and spars of sailing-vessels and for bridge timbers; the Douglas fir grows more commercial timber to the acre than any other American variety, and constitutes about five-sevenths of the total stand of the state.
About 60% (both in quantity and value) of the lumber sawed in 1905 was white pine; next in importance were hemlock (more than one-fourth in quantity), basswood (nearly 4%) and, in smaller quantities, birch, oak, elm, maple, ash, tamarack, Norway pine, cedar and spruce.
Next to white pine (used largely in shipbuilding) in value in 1908 were red or Norway pine (used in house building), hemlock (used for lumber and wood pulp) and white spruce, a very valuable lumber tree.
The supply of timber (pine, fir, spruce and birch) is unlimited.
On the mountains the trees are chiefly pines, firs, spruce and hemlock.
I'll just pick up around here, spruce it up like the preacher's coming to call.
Spruce is a member of the pine family and contains some natural antiseptics in the resins.
Fieldwork is carried out at Radnor Forest in Wales, where Forestry Commission research into the green spruce aphid is already established.
Among these are the great spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans) and defoliating insects such as the European sawfly (Gilpinia hercyniae ).
These woods include cedar, cherry, eucalyptus, fir, plum, plywood or spruce.
The spruce, however, so favored by our foresters on economic grounds, is alien to our moorland cloughs.
The spruce firs, too, are very fine.
Surrounded by birch and spruce forest, Murmansk is almost halfway between Moscow and the North Pole.
His old soldiers, once so hale and spruce, were little more than skeletons.
Suitable conifers include Scots pine, and introduced species such as Sitka spruce, European larch and hybrid larch.
The dominant species are Sitka spruce and lodgepole pine although there is some Norway spruce.
The species are larch, norway and sitka spruce, douglas fir and scots pine.
Give preference where appropriate to those species of tree which deer prefer to browse or fray, such as Norway spruce and Lodgepole pine.
The ingedients include Spruce rosin, red and white pine rosin, Gomma Congo, Gomma and Pine Cone Extract.
Here we find a variety of habitats including salt marsh, Acadian and red spruce forest and tidal mudflats.
The QIC includes details of the hosts, description and life cycle, damage, sources and pest status of the European spruce sawfly.
Steel tube frames, spruce spars and ribs, covered with fabric.
The wings had spruce spars (either laminated or in one piece ).
This was altered in 1928 to the current spruce Bermudan rig with the symmetric spinnaker being adopted in 1969.
Sitka spruce is the dominant species with Norway spruce, lodgepole pine and Japanese larch also common.
Bt genes have been engineered into a wide range of species, including poplar, European larch, white spruce and walnut.
They are all new and boxed Grade " AA " solid spruce top Flame Maple Back and Sides Rosewood fingerboard with 20 frets.
The bus looks very spruce, only spoilt by the silver rear wheel, somewhat not in keeping.
A bald eagle swoops across the bay and perches on a tall spruce.
Deficient in resin, the wood is more perishable than that of the spruce fir when exposed to the air, though it is said to stand well under water.
The flora of the Hudsonian and the Canadian zone consists largely of white and black spruce, tamarack, canoe-birch, balsam-poplar, balsam-fir, aspen and grey pine.
Of deciduous trees the sycamore, wych-elm, horse-chestnut, beech, lime, plane and poplar may be used, - the abele or white poplar, Populus alba, being one of the most rapidgrowing of all trees, and, like other poplars, well suited for nursing other choicer subjects; while of evergreens, the holm oak, holly, laurel (both common and Portugal), and such conifers as the Scotch, Weymouth and Austrian pines, with spruce and (South.) silver firs and yews, are suitable.
We find the living British species of Rhamnus, maple, sloe, hawthorn, apple, white-beam, guelder-rose, cornel, elm, birch, alder, hornbeam, hazel, oak, beech, willow, yew and pine, and also the spruce.
The wings had spruce spars (either laminated or in one piece).
Here too, and on Claife Heights, are the spruce plantations.
Imagine views of Mont Blanc and skiing through spruce forests from your own Alpine home.
They will then decorate a spruce tree in the home.
This is where dense spruce forests cloak the sheer canyons for which the Park is famous.
He should not have built the fire under the spruce tree.
You feel the tension of energy in the rare alpine spruce top.
People in the Elswick Triangle area will have just four days to spruce up the gardens in their neighborhood.
The conifer forests are largely of Sitka and Norway spruce with some lodgepole pine.
Otherwise if the color or finish isn't right simple spruce it up with paint or refinished with furniture stain.
For fast, no mess clean up, spruce up furniture with spray paint.
Looking to spruce up your front lawn with a flamingo, dwarf or jockey, or perhaps something a little different?
Slower growing trees that still fall in the fast-growing category are the tulip poplar, which makes flowers that look sort of like tulips in the late spring, Norway spruce, autumn purple ash and the quaking aspen.
Plants are a wonderful way to spruce up both the inside and outside of your home.
Spruce almost any bouquet up with Baby's Breath or autumn leaves and you'll have a season-appropriate arrangement.
Douglas fir is the most popular wood used, but Sitka Spruce can also be used.
With no tools needed, the wooden foundation that the CoolMax sits on is made from solid spruce.
Using a pay later program, you can purchase a special outfit, replace a dying computer or spruce up your home with new decorative accents.
If this is the case with you and you've got some old webbed lawn furniture hanging around, why not try to spruce it up and bring it back to life?
So if you have some old webbed furniture that could use some repair, try to spruce it up and bringing it back to life rather than throwing it away.
To spruce up your lawn furniture without spending a lot of money, try purchasing discount cushions for outdoor furniture.
Whether you use it to entertain guests or to sit by yourself and unwind after a long day, having an outdoor seating area is a great way to spruce up the area and make sure you spend as much time outdoors as possible.
In our research, LoveToKnow Interior Design found this unique way to use wall appliqués - as a way to spruce up a piece of old furniture.
Even ceiling tiles with a subtle design can spruce up your room, or you can go all out and opt for eye catching styles to make your ceiling truly distinct.
Whether you are looking for a fun teddy bear stencil for your child's nursery, or a sophisticated French border for your living room, there are many options for finding the perfect stencil to spruce up your home interior design.
The catalog first came on the scene in 1991 and offers an array of furniture, decorative items, and art to spruce up any space for maximum impact.
You can spruce up your kitchen cabinets with the perfect stenciling.
Simply swapping out some pillows and blankets can spruce up your room for a new season or holiday.
Painting over kitchen tiles is also common and a great way to spruce up the busiest room in the house.
Don't worry, there are plenty of things that can be done to spruce up this small but essential space.
There are many things that can be done to freshen and spruce up the busiest room in your home.
If you're looking to spruce them up with some country-style charm, you're in luck.
All of these meats will make great burgers and they'll spruce up what might be an otherwise indifferent hamburger.
It's the time of year when many people are looking for new Thanksgiving dinner ideas to spruce up their fabulous holiday affair.
This elaborate scrapbook paper collection is guaranteed to spruce up your layouts.
If you're looking for free elements to spruce up your scrapbook, these resources have a wealth of options.
Chose from the many Disney papers available, and spruce up your selection with a quote or two.
Looking for teenage bedroom designs to spruce up a teen bedroom?
You can spruce it up with extras like sequins, buttons, or other accessories.
You can easily spruce up what you already have by really focusing on one color and using it as much as possible.
Today, lucky bamboo is a popular plant for both experienced and novice growers, as well as anyone simply interested in a beautiful living plant to spruce up their décor.
Another way to spruce up a birdcage is to add birds.
Whether you accent with pumpkins or make them the main focus, they are sure to spruce up any autumn wedding.
Designer shower curtains can help to spruce up a dated bathroom, finish the re-design of a remodeling project or complete the final touches to new construction.
It's certainly not unusual to spruce up the house during the holiday season.
Halloween cake toppers are simple ways to spruce up basic confections that don't have other overwhelming Halloween decorations.
Hemlock Spruce (Tsuga Canadensis) - A forest tree sometimes over 100 feet high, with a diameter of 4 feet in the trunk, inhabiting very cold northern regions from Nova Scotia to Minnesota and southwards along the mountains.
I have seen a very pretty hedge of the Hemlock Spruce near Philadelphia.
Sieboldi, is as graceful in growth as the Canadian Hemlock Spruce and fully as hardy.
Spruce Fir (Picea) - Usually stately evergreen cone-bearing trees of the northern world and mountains, including among them the common Norway Spruce and the Douglas Fir, usually doing best in moist valley soils.
Picea Sitchensis - In places where this Spruce thrives it is a very beautiful tree, because of the bluish silvery-grey tone of its needle-like leaves.
Picea Pungens - An American Spruce most valuable for this country, hardy, standing exposure in high places better than any other.
With so many creative possibilities from one simple circle, a wreath is an outstanding way to spruce up any home or garden.
The Insect Control should not be applied to blue spruce foliage as the canola oil may degrade the oil that gives the foliage its blue color.
If you're looking for ideas to spruce up the winter landscape, think beyond flowers.
Holly's variegated foliage and berries and the many shades of green, ranging from light green to the blue green of spruce trees ensures color in the landscape among the snow drifts and gray winter skies.
The 210-CE-G has a solid spruce top, a cutaway body design so you can really reach those high notes, and Taylor's famous integrated electronics.
This guitar has all the features of guitars that cost much more, like a Sitka spruce top, East Indian rosewood back and sides, and a Fishman sound reinforcement system that will make your guitar sing when it's pulgged in.
The D25/SR has a sleek, cutaway design with a spruce top and rosewood back and sides.
This guitar has a spruce top with mahogany back and sides and a black glossy finish.
With a spruce top and rosewood sides, a cutaway neck and a high gloss natural finish, it's a stunner to look at.
Seeing the before and after photos of projects that are similar to your project can get your creative juices flowing and help you figure out ways to creatively spruce up your own home.
It's also the easiest way to spruce up the outside of your home.
If you really want to spruce things up you might want to consider purchasing new hardware as well.
If you are looking to expand your horizons in this department, start out by purchasing a few versatile, sexy pieces that can spruce up not only your self-esteem, but your love life as well.
Whether you want to try a completely different look, or just want to spruce up a current one, a fake colored contact lens may be the way to go!
Tom gives you seven plants and orders you to plant them around his store to spruce things up.
I guess Phantagram didn't want to pay the programmers to spruce this part up.
Spruce up a bedroom in a few different ways and see if the girl who has to sleep there likes it.
There are 125 motor home sites at the resort, from which owners and guests can enjoy views of the resort's maple and spruce tree forests, flowing streams, ponds, and other scenery.
Spruce up around entrance doors and keep pathways free of debris.
The company offers services to spruce up your resume, help you with job interviews and assist in finding you additional training if you feel you're underqualified.
Pretty origami flowers offer a lovely way to spruce up your home or office space.
Green such as Ivy, Hemlock, or Blue Spruce can add interest to your candle ring.
Other fragrances in this collection include "Christmas Tree", "Pomegranate Ice", "Snowberry", "Cozy Fireside", "Winter Wonderland", "Spruce Citrus", "Holiday Kiss", and "Red Chili Masala".
They could easily spruce up a wall sconce or candelabra with their bright shades.
Norway spruce make wonderful cut Christmas trees, but the needles to not retain water very well and they may dry out during their time indoors.
Norway Spruce, Scotch Pine, Aspen Silver Fir, and more are in the collection, along with coordinating garlands.
It can be a family event to pick out just the right pine, spruce or fir for your home.
The current National Christmas Tree is a blue spruce that was planted in 1978.
If you have never taken the time to spruce up your bedroom, try it this year to create the mood.
Even if you have a quality dining table, you may still want to spruce it up a bit for your dinner.
Take a boring outfit and spruce it up with these trendy shoes.
One of the best, and most popular, of these is White Pine National Golf Course, in nearby Spruce Michigan.
Another consideration to keep in mind when you purchase new tires for your SUV is that you have an opportunity to spruce up the appearance of your SUV.
By picking out the right free clipart, coaches and squad members alike can easily spruce up the look of their website, posters, or other media.
Take time to spruce up the school, assigning each class a job, such as planting flowers, painting a mural on a wall or decorating the hallways with school colors.
Spruce up a picnic or patriotic party with a few homemade red, white, and blue creations.
Danny Elfman, a veteran soundtrack and score composer who has worked on such classics as Batman, Spider Man, Men In Black I & II, and many, many more was enlisted to spruce up the old theme from the original films.
Spruce it up with all the flash and panache you or your bakery can muster.
The main types of wood they handle are spruce, fir, pine, hemlock, and cedar.
Whether your goal is to improve the health of your nails or spruce them up for a party, you can achieve it with the right products from this ever-growing line.
Spruce it up a little with the thousands of layouts and themes that you can find across the Internet.
Icons - Used for interface design or just to spruce up your desktop, these free icons are usually gotten by right-clicking and saving the images to your desktop in .ico, .bmp, or .gif format.
By simply tweaking a few of the codes, or adding new sections (using the CSS "div" code) with their own background colors, you can really spruce up your listing and make it a style that's completely your own.
In the area of the Newer Appalachian Mountains, the eastern Panhandle region has a forest similar to that of the plateau district; but between these two areas of hardwood there is a long belt where spruce and white pine cover the mountain ridges.
The name has a curious origin, which explains also the particular meaning of the adjective "spruce," neatly dressed, smart in appearance, fine.
Vermont (vert mont), the Green Mountain State, was so named from the evergreen forests of its mountains, whose principal trees are spruce and fir on the upper slopes and white pine and hemlock on the lower.
Vermont was heavily forested with white pine, spruce and hemlock, and, in the southern part of the state and along the shore of Lake Champlain, with some hard woods.
The oak requires shelter in the early stages of growth; in England the Scotch pine is thought best for this purpose, though Norway spruce answers as well on suitable ground, and larch and other trees are sometimes substituted.
All of the species of pine and of magnolia, and nearly all of the species of oak, of hickory and of spruce, indigenous to the United States, are found in North Carolina.
Several other pines are found, and among the less important timber trees are black spruce, Carolina balsam, beeches, ashes, sycamore or button wood, sweet gum and lindens.
In the spruce firs (Picea), the cones are pendent when mature and their scales persistent; the leaves are arranged all round the shoots, though the lower ones are sometimes directed laterally.
The most important of the firs, in an economic sense, is the Norway spruce (Picea excelsa), so well known in British plantations, though rarely attaining there the gigantic height and grandeur of form it often displays in its native woods.
The boughs and their side-branches, as they increase in length, have a tendency to droop, the lower tier, even in large trees, often sweeping the ground - a habit that, with the jagged sprays, and broad, shadowy, wave-like foliage-masses, gives a peculiarly graceful and picturesque aspect to the Norway spruce.
Great tracts of low country along the southern shores of the Baltic and in northern Russia are covered with forests of spruce.
Hemlock Spruce (Tsuga caibu.ac usw).
In the most prevalent variety of the Norway spruce the wood is white, apt to be very knotty when the tree has grown in an open place, but, as produced in the close northern forests, often of fine and even grain.
A variety of the spruce, abounding in some parts of Nor way, produces a red heartwood, not easy to distinguish from that of the Norway B pine (Scotch fir), and imported with it into England as "red deal" or "pine."
The wood of the spruce is also employed in the manufacture of wood-pulp for paper.
The resinous products of the Norway spruce, though yielded by the tree in less abundance than those furnished by the pine, are of considerable economic value.
By the peasantry of its native countries the Norway spruce is applied to innumerable purposes of daily life.
The Norway spruce seems to have been the "Picea" of Pliny, but is evidently often confused by the Latin writers with their "Abies," the Abies pectinate of modern botanists.
The spruce bears the smoke of great cities better than most of the Abietineae; but in suburban localities after a certain age it soon loses its healthy appearance, and is apt to be affected with blight (Eriosoma), though not so much as the Scotch fir and most of the pines.
The black spruce (Picea nigra) is a tree of more formal growth than the preceding.
The trees usually grow very close together, the slender trunks rising to a great height bare of branches; but they do not attain the size of the Norway spruce, being seldom taller than 60 or 70 ft., with a diameter of 12 or 2 ft.
The American "essence of spruce," occasionally used in England for making spruce-beer, is obtained by boiling the shoots and buds and concentrating the decoction.
The white spruce (Picea alba), sometimes met with in English plantations, is a tree of lighter growth than the black spruce, the branches being more widely apart; the foliage is of a light glaucous green; the small light-brown cones are more slender and tapering than in P. nigra, and the scales have even edges.
The hemlock spruce (Tsuga canadensis) is a large tree, abounding in most of the north-eastern parts of America up to Labrador; in lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia it is often the prevailing tree.
The Douglas spruce (Pseudo-tsuga Douglasii), one of the finest conifers, often rises to a height of 200 ft.
Introduced into Britain at the beginning of the 17th century, the silver fir has become common there as a planted tree, though, like the Norway spruce, it rarely comes up from seed scattered naturally.
It may here be remarked that the name "European frankincense" is applied to Pinus Taeda, and to the resinous exudation ("Burgundy pitch") of the Norwegian spruce firs (Abies excelsa).
The Puget Sound Basin and the neighbouring slopes of the Cascade and Olympic Mountains are noted for their forests, consisting mainly of giant Douglas fir or Oregon pine (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), but containing also some cedar, spruce and hemlock, a smaller representation of a few other species and a dense undergrowth.
The principal merchantable timber of the state is red spruce, and this is found chiefly in the virgin forests which remain in the north, especially in those on the steep mountain slopes between elevations of 1800 ft.
Most of the virgin forests of the northern section were cut in the latter half of the 19th century, while abandoned farms in the south were becoming reforested, and the value of the state's lumber and timber products increased from $1,099,492 in 1850 to $4,286,142 in 1870, and to $9,218,310 in 1900 and then decreased to $7,519,431 in 1905; since 1890 large quantities of wood, chiefly spruce, have also been used in the manufacture of paper and wood pulp. In 1909 a forestry commission was established.
The region is heavily forested with spruce, pine and broad-leaved trees.
Here goes lumber from the Maine woods, which did not go out to sea in the last freshet, risen four dollars on the thousand because of what did go out or was split up; pine, spruce, cedar--first, second, third, and fourth qualities, so lately all of one quality, to wave over the bear, and moose, and caribou.
In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.
Originally white pine was the principal timber of the Adirondacks, but most of the merchantable portion has been cut, and in 1905 nearly one-half of the lumber product of this section was spruce, the other half mainly hemlock, pine and hardwoods (yellow birch, maple, beech and basswood, and smaller amounts of elm, cherry and ash).
Most of the forest consists of yellow pine, but the spruce, aspen, white birch, bur oak, box elder, red cedar, white elm and cottonwood are among the other varieties found.