The Russian Captain Vassili Chitschakov in 1765 and 1766 made two persevering attempts to penetrate the ice north of Spitsbergen, and reached 80° 30' N., while Russian parties twice wintered at Bell Sound.
Still, Lake Baikal has a seal (Phoca vitulina, Phoca baikalensis of Dybowski) quite akin to the seals of Spitsbergen, marine sponges, polychaetes, a marine mollusc (ancilodoris), and some marine gammarids.
Norway, Scotland, British Columbia 5 and Alaska, Patagonia and Chile, and even Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, whose west coasts are far more indented than their east ones.
Feilden notes as suggestive that, though the explorers have not met with this formation on the northern shores of Greenland, yet it was observed that a continuation of the direction of the known strike of the limestones of Feilden peninsula, carried over the polar area, passes through the neighbourhood of Spitsbergen, where the formation occurs, and contains certain species identical with those of the Grinnell Land rocks of this horizon.
Vessels set out to the fisheries, as far as Spitsbergen and the Kara Sea; and trade is brisk, not only Norwegian and Danish but British, German and particularly Russian vessels engaging in it.
M.) with depths down to 2200 fathoms. A rise between Spitsbergen and Greenland separates the Norwegian Trough (greatest depth 2005 fathoms in 68° 21' N., 2° 5' W.) which in turn is divided from the Atlantic by the Wyville Thomson Ridge which runs between the Faeroe and Shetland islands and is covered by only 314 fathoms of water at the deepest point.
Following the suggestion of Cavendish, Irving made observations of deep temperature on Phipps's Spitsbergen voyage of 1773 with a valved water-bottle, insulated by non-conducting material.
In other enclosed seas which are shut off from the ocean by a very shallow sill the rule holds good that the homothermic water below the level of the sill is at the lowest temperature reached by the surface water in the coldest season of the year, provided always that the stratification of salinity is such as to permit of convection being set up. To this group belongs the Arctic Sea; the Norwegian Sea is homothermic below J50 fathoms at 29.8° F., but this cold water does not penetrate into the Arctic Basin on account of the ridge between Spitsbergen and Greenland, and there the water below 1400 fathoms has a temperature of 30 6° to 30.7° F.
Northward it established itself about 1838 on Myggenaes Holm, one of the Faeroes, while it has several stations off the coast of Iceland and Spitsbergen, as well as at Bear Island.
Two typical species are Lychnis apetala, which extends to Spitsbergen, and the well-known edelweiss.
The Swedish Expedition (17) of 1899-1902, engaged in measuring an arc of the meridian in Spitsbergen, were unusually well provided spectrographically, and succeeded in taking photographs of aurora in conjunction with artificial lines-chiefly of hydrogen-which led to results claiming exceptional accuracy.
C. C. Baly (21), making use of the observations of the Russian expedition in Spitsbergen in 1899, accepts as the wave-lengths of the three principal auroral lines 557 o, 4276 and 3912; and he identifies all three and ten other auroral lines ranging between 5570 and 3707 with krypton lines measured by himself.
BARENTS SEA, that part of the Arctic Ocean which is demarcated by the north coast of Europe, the islands of Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land and Spitsbergen, and smaller intervening islands; it was named after the Dutch navigator.
Of Spitsbergen and N.
Further light was thrown on the relations of Franz Josef Land and Spitsbergen during 1897 by the discoveries of Captain Robertson of Dundee, and Wyche's Land was circumnavigated by Mr Arnold Pike and Sir Savile Crossley.
The " Maud " may be expected to emerge between Greenland and Spitsbergen not later than 1923.
The Supreme Council in 1919 conferred the sovereignty of Spitsbergen and Bear I.
Nansen, " Spitsbergen Waters," Videnskabs.
Novaya Zemlya is colder than Spitsbergen (which lies more to the N.) as in some degree it shares in the continental conditions of northern Russia and Siberia.
8) may be cited as the two most important types, both as regards geographical and geological range, of this Mesozoic family; these ferns are recorded from England, France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Portugal, Poland and Italy (Map B, M 1), also from Greenland (Map B, M2), Spitsbergen (Map B, M3), and Persia (Map B, M 4).
(Cretaceous-Tertiary) (Tertiary, Alaska); (Cretaceous-Tertiary); (Jurassic); (Jurassic, Spitsbergen); (Jurassic. Franz Josef Land).
Fossil wood of the Pinites type (Pityoxylon) has been described from England, France, Germany, Sweden, Spitsbergen, North America and elsewhere; some of the best British examples have been obtained from the so-called Pine-raft, the remains of water-logged and petrified wood of Lower Greensand age, seen at low water near Brook Point in the Isle of Wight.
Pinites Dunkeri, P. Solmsi, &c.; specimens of seeds and vegetative shoots are recorded also from Spitsbergen and other regions.
To this view of the Miocene age of the plant-bearing strata in Greenland and Spitsbergen there are serious objections, which we will again refer to when the flora has been described.
78° in Spitsbergen Heer records 136 species of fossil plants.
Mr Gardner suggests, therefore, that the plant-beds of Greenland and Spitsbergen represent the period of greatest heat, and are therefore wrongly referred to the Miocene.
Over 200 species are now distinguished, from the Carboniferous of Europe and North America, the Permian of Spitsbergen, Europe, North America and South Africa, and the Trias of Europe, America, South Africa, India and Australia.