Spirits sentence example
Neither of them had been in high spirits yesterday.
Nicholas was in such good spirits that this merely amused him.
His health is ever good, his lungs are sound, his spirits never flag.
Today he is cheerful and in good spirits, but that is the effect of your visit--he is not often like that.
It greatly improved Dean's frame of mind and he was in fine spirits when he reached his desk.Advertisement
The dead were buried, and their spirits believed to travel to a world entered by a pool at the western extremity of Savaii.
This is the so-called c narion, or pineal gland, where in a minimized point the mind on one hand and the vital spirits on the other meet and communicate.
I don't believe in white-sheeted spirits that scare little boys or drag chains around or only come out in cemeteries on Halloween.
I won't ask any more favors, she said, spirits rising.
The characteristic flavour and odour of wines and spirits is dependent on the proportion of higher alcohols, aldehydes and esters which may be produced.Advertisement
It banished the spirits and genii, to which even Kepler had assigned the guardianship of the planetary movements; and, if it supposes the globular particles of the envelope to be the active force in carrying the earth round the sun, we may remember that Newton himself assumed an aether for somewhat similar purposes.
But, on the other hand, the vital spirits cause a movement in the gland by which the mind perceives the affection of the organs, learns that something is to be loved or hated, admired or shunned.
In calling upon dangerous blacks at night they pretended to be the spirits of dead Confederates, "just from Hell," and to quench their thirst would pretend to drink gallons of water which was poured into rubber sacks concealed under their robes.
We may add that according to this view nothing is real but the living spirit of God and the world of living spirits which He has created; the things of this world have only reality in so far as they are the appearance of spiritual substance, which underlies everything.
Brugnatelli, who found in 1798 that if silver be dissolved in nitric acid and the solution added to spirits of wine, a white, highly explosive powder was obtained.Advertisement
The emergence of Satan as a definite supernatural personality, the head or prince of the world of evil spirits, is entirely a phenomenon of post-exilian Judaism.
Do you think,"he had said," that the spirits of such base, mean fellows will ever be able to encounter gentlemen that have honour and courage and resolution in them?
The Arunta hold that the spirits of kangaroos are expelled by human blood from certain rocks.
By 1913, the post office was closed and the town had dwindled to two dozen remaining souls, and before long, it was left to indigenous wildlife and the spirits of a boisterous past.
The so-called "Gothenburg System" of municipal control over the sale of spirits was actually devised at Falun as early as 1850.Advertisement
He regarded the world as formed by inferior spirits who are out of harmony with the supreme unity, knowledge of which is the true Gnosis.
His spirits rose at the prospect of rejoining the army.
Prince Andrew did not laugh and feared that he would be a damper on the spirits of the company, but no one took any notice of his being out of harmony with the general mood.
She said she thought Bird Song held spirits, too.
He gives various methods of prayer; methods of making an election; his series of rules for the discernment of spirits; rules for the distribution of alms and the treatment of scruples; tests of orthodoxy.Advertisement
Here her unrestrainable high spirits and levity gave great offence to the citizens.
Her residence was at Rhenen near Arnheim, where she received many English visitors and endeavoured to maintain her spirits and fortitude, with straitened means and in spite of frequent disappointments.
Ardent spirits craved the martyr's crown, and to confess Christ in persecution was to attain a glory inferior only to that won by those who actually died.
Froissart relates that he was burned to death through his bedclothes catching fire; Secousse says that he died in peace with many signs of contrition; another story says he died of leprosy; and a popular legend tells how he expired by a divine judgment through the burning of the clothes steeped in sulphur and spirits in which he had been wrapped as a cure for a loathsome disease caused by his debauchery.
Rohde (Rheinisches Museum, i., 1895) regards them as spirits of the storm, which at the bidding of the gods carry off human beings alive to the under-world or some spot beyond human ken.Advertisement
They agreed to raise an annual sum of £200 for the expenses of their commonwealth; they assigned their governor a salary of £20; they prohibited the sale of ardent spirits to the Indians and imprisonment for debt.
The heterodox movements in Italy in the 13th and 14th centuries, such as those of the Segarellists, Dolcinists, and Fraticelli of every description, were penetrated with Joachimism; while such independent spirits as Roger Bacon, Arnaldus de Villa Nova and Bernard Dblicieux often comforted themselves with the thought of the era of justice and peace promised by Joachim.
The most striking difference between Zoroaster's doctrine of God and the old religion of India lies in this, that while in the Avesta the evil spirits are called daeva (Modern Persian div), the Aryans of India, in common with the Italians, Celts and Letts, gave the name of deva to their good spirits, the spirits of light.
In the more recent hymns of the Rig-Veda and in later India, on the other hand, only evil spirits are understood by asuras, while in Iran the corresponding word ahura was, and ever has continued to be, the designation of God the Lord.
In the later, developed system the daevas are the evil spirits in general, and their number has increased to millions.Advertisement
Both spirits possess creative power, which manifests itself positively in the one and negatively in the other.
Until then the two spirits had counterbalanced one another.
Not that the two spirits carry on the struggle in person; they leave it to be fought out by their respective creations and creatures which they sent into the field.
Paper, spirits, wire and nails, leather and tiles are the chief products of the manufactures.
Its ten Sephiroth are made up of the grosser elements of the former three worlds; they consist of material substance limited by space and perceptible to the senses in a multiplicity of forms. This world is subject to constant changes and corruption, and is the dwelling of the evil spirits.Advertisement
There are fertile valleys in the vicinity which provide the city's markets with fruit and vegetables, while the vineyards of Camargo (formerly known as Cinti), in the southern part of the department, supply wine and spirits of excellent quality.
But while Struve, and to a less degree Plekhanov, were induced by this admission to seek an affiance with Liberal intellectuals in their struggle against Tsarism, Lenin (as he had taken to calling himself), together with Martov, Axelrod and other fiery spirits, forsook the Liberal platform and strove for a violent outbreak of a downright class war.
Lenin was one of the leading spirits of the Zimmerwald and Kienthal meetings, and urged a general revolt of the workmen of all countries against the war.
In the second were comprised tithes, mine-royalties, forests and domains, customs, sheep-tax, tobacco, salt, spirits, stamps and " various.
Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.Advertisement
They are said to be disappearing owing to the use of ardent spirits.
The religion of Cambodia is Buddhism, and involves great respect towards the dead; the worship of spirits or local genii is also wide-spread, and Brahmanism is still maintained at the court.
In the blessing of the holy water (cap. ii.), the essential instrument of all benedictions, the object is clearly to establish its potency against evil spirits.
Even the best-intentioned government measures, such as the importation of corn, the prohibition of the sale of spirits, and so on, became new sources of oppression.
The trade with the natives continues to be mainly the sale of spirits.Advertisement
Because light is accompanied by heat, he was the god of vegetation and increase; he sent prosperity to the good, and annihilated the bad; he was the god of armies and the champion of heroes; as the enemy of darkness and of all evil spirits, he protected souls, accompanying them on the way to paradise, and was thus a redeemer.
The bull was to be sacrificed to Mithras, who was to mingle its fat with consecrated wine and give to drink of it to the just, rendering them immortal, while the unjust, together with Ahriman and his spirits, were to be destroyed by a fire sent from Heaven by Ormazd.
An outlawed Englishman, Hereward by name, fortified the Isle of Ely and attracted a number of desperate spirits to his side; amongst others came Morcar, formerly earl of Northumbria, who had been disappointed in the hopes which he based on William's personal favour.
In the spring he returned to Copenhagen with recovered health and spirits, and worked quietly at his protean literary labours until the great fire of 1728.
But now bolder spirits arose who did not shrink from applying the distinctions of their human wisdom to the mysteries of theology.
Apart from this general question, a difficulty arises on the Thomist theory in regard to the existence of spirits or disembodied personalities.
The system continued steadily down to 1899, by which time railways, dynamite, spirits, iron, sugar, wool, bricks, jam, paper and a number of other things were all of them articles of monopoly.
Of this group of people, among whom may be named the Yao, Yao Yin, Lanten, Meo, Musur (or Muhso) and Kaw, perhaps the best known and most like the Lao are the Lu - both names meaning originally "man" - who have in many cases adopted a form of Buddhism (flavoured strongly by their natural respect for local spirits as well as tattooing) and other relatively civilized customs, and have forsaken their wandering life among the hills for a more settled village existence.
By that time the Syracusans were both in better spirits and better prepared; their troops were better organized, and they had built a wall from north to south across Epipolae, taking in Tyche and Temenites, so as to screen them from attack on the side of Epipolae on the north-west.
But this example, combined with the Cartesian principles, set many active and ingenious spirits to work to reconstruct the whole of medicine on a physiological or even a mechanical basis - to endeavour to form what we should now call physiological or scientific medicine.
In nervous diseases disturbances of the vital "spirits" were most important.
With the melting of the ice the more daring spirits dashed into the new current with such ardour that for them all traditions, all institutions, were thrown into hotchpot; even elderly and sober physicians took enough of the infection to liberate their minds, and, in the field of the several diseases and in that of post-mortem pathology, the hollowness of classification by superficial resemblance, the transitoriness of forms, and the flow of processes, broke upon the view.
In the fourth book he discusses the Epicurean doctrine of the images, which are cast from all bodies, and which act either on the senses or immediately on the mind, in dreams or waking visions, as affording the explanation of the belief in the continued existence of the spirits of the departed.
At marriage they burn benzoin with nim seeds (Melia Azadirachta, Roxburgh) to keep off evil spirits, and prepare the bride-cakes by putting a quantity of benzoin between layers of wheaten dough, closed all round, and frying them in clarified butter.
Temesvar is the most important centre of commerce and industry of south Hungary, and carries on a brisk trade in grain, flour, spirits and horses.
It concludes with an imaginary vision of a beautiful world of spirits who have stripped off the fetters of earthly cares and sorrows and revel in the pure light of divine wisdom and love.
The island imports wines, spirits, tissues, clothing and ironmongery; and exports ores, nickel, cobalt and chrome (which represent over three-quarters of the total exports in value), preserved meats and hides, coffee, copra and other colonial produce.
Manufactures include cotton and woollen fabrics, tobacco, spirits, soap and tiles.
On the eve of the fray Papineau sought safety in flight, followed by the leading spirits of the movement.
The manufacturing industries of Peru are confined chiefly to the treatment of agricultural and mineral products - the manufacture of sugar and rum from sugar cane, textiles from cotton and wool, wine and spirits from grapes, cigars and cigarettes from tobacco, chocolate from cacao, kerosene and benzine from crude petroleum, cocaine from coca, and refined metals from their ores.
Besides the wine industry, an irregular though important industry is the manufacture of artificial or counterfeit spirits and liqueurs in Callao and Lima.
The technology of distillation is best studied in relation to the several industries in which it is employed; reference should be made to the articles COAL-TAR, GAS, PETROLEUM, SPIRITS, NITRIC ACID, &c. (C. E.*)
The heroes are spirits of the dead, not demi-gods; their position is not intermediate between gods and men, but by the side of these they exist as a separate class.
Again, side by side with gods of superior rank, certain heroes were worshipped as protecting spirits of the country or state; such were the Aeacidae amongst the Aeginetans, Ajax son of Oileus amongst the Epizephyrian Locrians and Hector at Thebes.
He grew less than ever willing to come forward and face the world; his health became "variable and his spirits indifferent."
In 1891 it was observed that he had wonderfully recovered the high spirits of youth, and even a remarkable portion of physical strength.
The leading industries are manufactures of linen and cotton goods, especially canvas and tarpaulin, and of soap, paper, chemicals, starch, glass, leather, spirits and flour.
By the treaty under which Baden had become an integral part of the German empire, he had reserved only the exclusive right to tax beer and spirits; the army, the post-office, railways and the conduct of foreign relations were placed under the effective control of Prussia.
He paid no attention to the distinction of day and night, and sometimes lay for days together in a trance, while his servants were often disturbed at night by hearing what he called his conflicts with evil spirits.
But his intercourse with spirits was often perfectly calm, in broad daylight, and with all his faculties awake.
At last the power and influence of the spirits of darkness, with whom man associates himself by his sin, became so great that the existence of the human race was threatened, and Jehovah was necessitated to descend into nature to restore the connexion between Himself and man.
The principal exports are wines, especially champagne, spirits, hay, straw, wool, potatoes, woven goods, fruit, glass-ware, lace and metal-ware.
The jungles afford good pasturage in the hot weather, and abound in lac, silk cocoons, catechu, resin and the mahud fruit, which is both used as fruit and for the manufacture of spirits.
The reaction against scholasticism was still in full tide; it was the transition time between the old and the new, when the eager and forwardlooking spirits had first of all to do battle with scholastic Aristotelianism.
In Kudanzaka Park is the Yasukuni Temple, popularly known by the name of Shokonsha, and consecrated to the spirits of departed heroes who fell in war.
Manzanares has manufactures of soap, bricks and pottery, and an active trade in wheat, wine, spirits, aniseed and saffron.
The reign of Domitian, although it silenced the more independent spirits of the time, Tacitus and Juvenal, witnessed more important contributions to Roman literature than any age since the Augustan, - among them the Institutes of Quintilian, the Punic War of Silius Italicus, the epics and the Silvae of Statius, and the Epigrams of Martial.
Commercial alcohol or "spirits of wine" contains about 90% of pure ethyl alcohol, the remainder being water.
Reference should be made to the reports of these committees for a full account of the use, manufacture and statistics of "denaturized" spirits in various European countries.
The duty-free "denaturized" spirits may be divided into two groups - "completely denaturized" and "incompletely denaturized."
The second category, or "incompletely denaturized" spirits, include numerous mixtures.
This reduction of the temperature, carried to an undesirable extreme, is the reason why the man who has copiously consumed spirits "to keep out the cold" is often visited with pneumonia.
No doubt the later indigitamenta (" bidding-prayers") which give us detailed lists of the spirits which preside over the various actions of the infant, or the stages in the marriage ceremony, or the agricultural operations of the farmer, are due in a large measure to deliberate pontifical elaboration, but they are a true indication of the Roman attitude of mind, which reveals itself continually in the analysis of the cults of the household or the festivals of the agricultural year.
The "powers" (numina, not dei), which thus become the objects of worship, are spirits specialized in function and limited in sphere.
The primary attitude of man to the numina seems clearly to be one of fear, which survives prominently in the "impish" character of certain of the spirits of the countryside, such as Faunus and Inuus, and is always seen in the underlying conception of religio, a sense of awe in the presence of a superhuman power.
The worship centres round certain numina, the spirits indwelling in the sacred places of the original round hut in which the family lived.
The family meal is sanctified by the offering of a portion of the food to the household numina (spirits).
In other cases it allows restless spirits who have failed at home to try again elsewhere.
The people nominally profess the Buddhist religion, but in reality their religious exercises are confined to the propitiation of evil spirits, and the mechanical recital of a few sacred sentences.
The principal trade is in horses, corn and other agricultural produce, and spirits.
The pipette having been carefully dried, the process is repeated with pure alcohol or with proof spirits, and the strength of any admixture of water and spirits is determined from the corresponding number of drops, but the formula generally given is not based upon sound data.
Although punishment by whipping and by standing in the pillory was prohibited by an act of Congress in 1839, in so far as the Federal government had jurisdiction, both these forms of punishment were retained in Delaware, and standing in the pillory was prescribed by statute as a punishment for a number of offences, including various kinds of larceny and forgery, highway robbery, and even pretending " to exercise the art of witchcraft, fortune-telling or dealing with spirits," at least until 1893.
Their religion is the worship of spirits, ancestral and otherwise, accompanied by a vague and undefined belief in a Supreme Being, generally regarded as indifferent to the doings of the people.
Until recent years the Baganda and most of the other Bantu peoples of the protectorate worshipped ancestral and nature spirits who had become elevated to the rank of gods and goddesses.
The manufacture of machinery, amber articles, tobacco and cigars, and bricks, with some iron-founding, linen-weaving, and salmon-fishing in the Stolpe, are the chief industrial occupations of the inhabitants, who also carry on trade in grain, cattle, spirits, timber, fish and geese.
The spirits which take possession of man or animal can equally take possession of a material substance, and even replace the substance, leaving the outward accidents of colour, shape and size unchanged.
The consecration of material objects and in general their use in religion and cult was consistently avoided by the Manicheans; not because they failed to share the universal belief of earlier ages that spirits can be inducted by means of fitting prayers and incantations into inanimate things, but because the external material world was held to be the creation of an evil demiurge and so incapable of harbouring a pure spirit.
Among the principal imports are cocoa, coffee, grain (including Indian corn), fruit, provisions (including butter, eggs and potatoes from France and the Channel Islands), wines and spirits, sugar, wool, and other foreign and colonial produce.
Indeed, Holland became the home of modern religious liberty, the haven of innumerable free spirits, and the centre of activity of printers and publishers, who asked for no other imprimatur than the prospect of intelligent readers.
Taking for granted the unity of the world idealism is committed to interpret it as spiritual as a unity of spirits.
These experiments resulted in the legislation of 1855, when the use of duty-free alcohol mixed with 10% by volume of wood naphtha, known as methylated spirits, was authorized for manufacturing purposes only.
From 1861-91 methylated spirits prepared in this way were allowed to be sold by retail in Great Britain in small quantities for domestic purposes such as cleaning, heating and lighting; but use in large quantities, or in manufacture, was only possible under special authority and under excise supervision.
In the United States the tax on distilled spirits was repealed in 1817, but was reimposed at the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, and it was not until 1907 that denatured alcohol became tax-free for general purposes.
There is a considerable trade in cattle, grain and other agricultural produce, and in timber and spirits.
The Jews and Armenians are engaged in a brisk trade with Odessa, to which they send corn, wine, spirits and timber, floated down from Galicia, as well as with the interior, to which they send manufactured wares imported from Austria.
Barley is now chiefly cultivated for malting to prepare spirits and beer, but it is also largely employed in domestic cookery.
The latter have been connected by Ewald and others with the later doctrine of seven chief angels 25, parallel to and influenced by the Ameshaspentas (Amesha Spenta), or seven great spirits of the Persian mythology, but the connexion is doubtful.
Small pieces of cork put in the jar will be found to dance about during the continuance of the sound; water or spirits of wine poured into the glass will, under the same circumstances, exhibit a ruffled surface.
This sortie raised the spirits of the Russians to the highest pitch.
But her frank recklessness, her generosity, her invariable good temper, her ready wit, her infectious high spirits and amazing indiscretions appealed irresistibly to a generation which welcomed in her the living antithesis of Puritanism.
Native spirits are distilled from the palm, salt is made and fish caught.
The revenue of Penang, that is to say, not only of the island but of the entire settlement, amounted in 1906 to $6,031,917, of which $2,014,033 was derived from the revenue farms for the collection of import duties on opium, wine and spirits; $160,047 from postal revenue; $119,585 from land revenue; $129,151 from stamps.
His figure is that of a grotesque mountebank, intended to inspire joy or drive away pain and sorrow, his hideousness being perhaps supposed actually to scare away the evil spirits.
Previous to the war the present Czechoslovak territories were responsible for 92% of the sugar produced by Austria-Hungary, for 46% of the spirits, beer 57%, malt 87%, foodstuffs 50%, chemicals 75%, metals 60%, porcelain too %, glass 90%, cotton goods 75%, woollen goods 80%, jute 90%, leather 70%, gloves 90%, boots 75%, paper 60%.
The agriculture of the republic supplies the material for several important industries, including the production of sugar, beer and spirits, starch (120 factories), syrup, glucose, chicory, coffee substitutes from rye and barley, jams. Alcohol and spirits are distilled in 1,100 distilleries employing 18,000 workmen and producing annually some.
Industries include the manufacture of agricultural machinery, spirits, furniture and sugar, also milling and brewing.
In that treaty the concessions made to France were the reduction by Great Britain of duties on wines and spirits, and the admission, free of duty, of some important French products, notably silk manufactures, gloves, and other products in which the French had superiority.
A very few articles (spirits, beer, wine, tobacco, tea, coffee, cocoa) yield practically all of the customs revenue, and, so far as these articles are produced within the country, they are subject to an excise duty, an internal tax precisely equal to the import duty.
Next the internal taxes were gradually done away with, until nothing was left except the excise on beer, spirits and tobacco.
His constitution was far from robust, and throughout his life he suffered from feeble health and low spirits.
There are manufactures of sugar, spirits and beer.
It has important fisheries and manufactures of spirits, beer and tobacco.
The mullahs or priests enjoy very great influence, but the people are very superstitious, believing in witchcraft, omens, spirits and the evil eye.
In nearly all the Gnostic systems the doctrine of the seven world-creating spirits is given an anti-Jewish tendency, the god of the Jews and of the Old Testament appearing as the highest of the seven.
The imports largely consist of railway material, industrial machinery, cotton, woollen and linen textiles and yarns for national factories, hardware, furniture, building material, mining supplies, drugs and chemicals, wines and spirits, wheat, Indian corn, paper and military supplies and e9uipment.
The sale of spirits to natives is forbidden.
At Porto Novo, in French West Africa, twins have tutelary spirits in the shape of small monkeys.
Not only human beings but animals and objects are seen in dreams; and the conclusion would be that they too have souls; the same conclusion may have been reached by another line of argument; primitive psychology posited a spirit in a man to account, amongst other things, for his actions; a natural explanation of the changes in the external world would be that they are due to the operations and volitions of spirits.
Forest trees, no less than cereals, have their indwelling spirits; the fauns and satyrs of classical Literature were goat-footed and the tree spirit of the Russian peasantry takes the form of a goat; in Bengal and the East Indies wood-cutters endeavour to propitiate the spirit of the tree which they cut down; and in many parts of the world trees are regarded as the abode of the spirits of the dead.
Just as a process of syncretism has given rise to cults of animal gods, tree spirits tend to become detached from the trees, which are thenceforward only their abodes; and here again animism has begun to pass into polytheism.
Side by side with the doctrine of separable souls with which we have so far been concerned, exists the belief in a great host of unattached spirits; these are not immanent souls which have become detached from their abodes, but have every appearance of independent spirits.
Thus, animism is in some directions little developed, so far as we can see, among the Australian aborigines; but from those who know them best we learn that they believe in innumerable spirits and bush bogies, which wander, especially at night, and can be held at bay by means of fire; with this belief may be compared the ascription in European folk belief of prophylactic properties to iron.
The term may, however, be conveniently used to describe the early stage of religion in which man endeavours to set up relations between himself and the unseen powers, conceived as spirits, but differing in many particulars from the gods of polytheism.
As an example of this stage in one of its aspects may be taken the European belief in the corn spirit, which is, however, the object of magical rather than religious rites; Dr Frazer has thus defined the character of the animistic pantheon, "they are restricted in their operations to definite departments of nature; their names are general, not proper; their attributes are generic rather than individual; in other words, there is an indefinite number of spirits of each class, and the individuals of a class are much alike; they have no definitely marked individuality; no accepted traditions are current as to their origin, life and character."
This stage of religion is well illustrated by the Red Indian custom of offering sacrifice to certain rocks, or whirlpools, or to the indwelling spirits connected with them; the rite is only performed in the neighbourhood of the object, it is an incident of a canoe or other voyage, and is not intended to secure any benefits beyond a safe passage past the object in question; the spirit to be propitiated has a purely local sphere of influence, and powers of a very limited nature.
With the rise of a belief in departmental gods comes the age of polytheism; the belief in elemental spirits may still persist, but they fall into the background and receive no cult.
They may, it is true, be associated with ghost gods, but in Australia it cannot even be asserted that the gods are spirits at all, much less that they are the spirits of dead men; they are simply magnified magicians, super-men who have never died; we have no ground, therefore, for regarding the cult of the dead as the origin of religion in this area; this conclusion is the more probable, as ancestor-worship and the cult of the dead generally cannot be said to exist in Australia.
The more general view that polytheistic and other gods are the elemental and other spirits of the later stages of animistic creeds, is equally inapplicable to Australia, where the belief seems to be neither animistic nor even animatistic in character.
Its modern prosperity is traced to about the year 1750, when a colony of English settled here and established a trade in woollens, leather, wine and spirits.
Massillon enjoyed in the 18th century a reputation equal to that of Bossuet and of Bourdaloue, and has been much praised by Voltaire, D'Alembert and kindred spirits among the Encyclopaedists.
Manresa has important iron-foundries and manufactures of woollen, cotton and linen goods, ribbons, hats, paper, soap, chemicals, spirits and flour.
In the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-5 the greatest incentive to deeds of patriotic valour was for Japanese soldiers the belief that the spirits of their ancestors were watching them; and in China it is not the man himself that is ennobled for his philanthropic virtues or learning, but his ancestor.
No more solemn duty weighs upon the Chinaman than that of tending the spirits of his dead forefathers.
Confucius, it is recorded, sacrificed to the dead, as if they were present, and to the spirits, as if they were there.
In view of such Chinese sacrifices the names of the dead are inscribed on wooden plaques called spirit-tablets, into which the spirits are during the ceremony supposed to enter, having quitted the very heaven and presence of God in order to commune with posterity.
Now in this second month of spring, in reverent observance of the old statutes, with victims, silks, spirits, and fruits, I offer sacrifice to thee.
For the lemures were, like our unlaid ghosts, unburied, mischievous or inimical spirits, and these three days were nefasti or unlucky, because their malign influence was abroad..
The Aruntas among them are said to have no idea of paternity, but believe that local spirits of tree, rock or stream enter women as they pass by their haunts.
During the five years 1900 to 1904 inclusive, the average value of Guatemalan imports, which consisted chiefly of textiles, iron and machinery, sacks, provisions, flour, beer, wine and spirits, amounted to £776,000; about one-half came from the United States, and nearly one-fourth from the United Kingdom.
It possesses in the sun and moon, which are in their nature almost quite pure, large reservoirs, in which the portions of light that have been rescued are stored up. In the sun dwells the primal man himself, as well as the glorious spirits which carry on the work of redemption; in the moon the mother of life is enthroned.
It is significant of the materialistic and pessimistic character of the system that, while the formation of the world is considered as a work of the good spirits, the creation of man is referred to the princes of darkness.
But if the first human beings thus stood entirely under the dominion of the devil, the glorious spirits took them under their care from the very outset, sending aeons down to them (including Jesus), who instructed them regarding their nature, and in particular warned Adam against sensuality.
In the course of history the demons sought to bind men to themselves by means of sensuality, error and false religions (among which is to be reckoned above all the religion of Moses and the prophets), while the spirits of light carried on their process of distillation with the view of gaining the pure light which exists in the world.
But these good spirits can only save men by imparting to them the true gnosis concerning nature and her forces, and by calling them away from the service of darkness and sensuality.
Precious stones ($43,620,591); fruits and nuts; copper, iron and steel; tobacco (leaf $25,897,650; manufactured, $4,138,521); tin; spirits, wines and liquors; oils, paper, works of art, tea and leather ($16,270,406), being the remaining items in excess of $15,000,000 each.
Woollen cloth, machinery and spirits are manufactured; there is an extensive salt-mine in the neighbouring Zillenberg; the salmon and lamprey fisheries are important; and a fair amount of commercial activity is maintained.
The upper part of this wire is filed flat on one side, for the stem of the hydrometer, with a mark at m, to which it sinks exactly in proof spirits.
Thus deprived of its additional weight it may be used for spirits.
The hydrometer intended for densities less than that of water, or the hydrometer for spirits, is constructed on a similar principle.
William Speer was supervisor and chief assayer of spirits in the port of Dublin.
It will thus be seen that the whole length of the stem corresponds to a difference of density of about 04, and one division to about 00074, indicating a difference of little more than a% in the strength of any sample of spirits.
The best instruments are now constructed for revenue purposes of silver, heavily gilded, because it was found that saccharic acid contained in some spirits attacked brass behind the gilding.
The specific gravity of any sample of spirits thus determined, when multiplied by ten, gives the weight in pounds per imperial gallon, and the weight of any bulk of spirits divided by this number gives its volume at once in imperial gallons.
For the testing of spirits in bulk no more convenient instrument has been devised, but where very small quantities are available more suitable laboratory methods must be adopted.
The essence of the answer is that the universe is inconceivable apart from mind - that existence, as such, denotes conscious spirits and the objects of consciousness.
He professed to have discovered the philosopher's stone, and by his assistance Dee performed various incantations, and maintained a frequent imaginary intercourse with spirits.
They professed to raise spirits by incantation; and Kelly dictated the utterances to Dee, who wrote them down and interpreted them.
A manuscript of Dee's, relating what passed for many years between him and some spirits, was edited by Meric Casaubon and published in 1659.
Having recovered his health and spirits by care and foreign travel, and having taken his degree and left Oxford, Ruskin set to work steadily at Herne Hill on the more elaborate defence of Turner, which was to become his first work.
Thus, in an age of strife and polemics, it seemed to afford a refuge for quiet, gentle spirits, and meditative temperaments.
Particular sites, rivers, springs, hills, meadows, caves, rocks, trees or groves, are holy and from time immemorial have been so, as the natural homes or haunts of gods or spirits.
Their babies are incarnations of spirits which quitted a bush or rock passed by the mothers at the moment of conception.
Most birds for the primitive man are souls, and the Polynesians hold that birds convey from and into their idols the spirits which live therein.
Spirits capable of being confined in matter and made useful are in various ways sung or coaxed into the tenements prepared for them.
Thus Christ ousted in the stocks and stones the old evil spirits that tenanted them, and took their place.
Human sacrifices were slain on several occasions, and vast offerings presented to the spirits supposed to preside over the volcanoes, especially during the periods of actual eruptions.
The lowwr orders expected to be slowly devoured by evil spirits, or to dwell with the gods in burning mountains.
A law prohibiting drunkenness (1835) was followed in 1838 by a licence law and in 1839 by a law prohibiting the importation of spirits and taxing wines fifty cents a gallon; in 1840 another prohibitory law was enacted; but licence laws soon made the sale of liquor common.
Such mentally endowed substances might be called souls; but, as he distinguished between perception and apperception or consciousness, and considered that perceptions are often unconscious, he preferred to divide monads into unconscious entelechies of inorganic bodies, sentient souls of animals, and rational souls, or spirits, of men; while he further concluded that all these are derivative monads created by God, the monad of monads.
Having, however, in consequence, lost his professorship at Jena, he gradually altered his views, until at length he decided that God is not mere moral order, but also reason and will, yet without consciousness and personality; that not mankind but God is the absolute; that we are only its direct manifestations, free but finite spirits destined by God to posit in ourselves Nature as the material of duty, but blessed when we relapse into the absolute; that Nature, therefore, is the direct manifestation of man, and only the indirect manifestation of God; and, finally, that being is the divine idea or life, which is the reality behind appearances.
His fourth point was connected with this inclusion of personal spirits in higher spirits and in the highest.
But by the hypothesis of the inclusion of spirit in spirit, he was further able to hold that what is unconscious in one spirit is conscious in a higher spirit, while everything whatever is in the consciousness of the highest spirit of God, who is the whole of reality of which the spirits are parts, while the so-called physical world is merely outer appearance of one spirit to another.
By this ingenious suggestion of the membership of one spirit in another, Fechner's " day-view " also puts Nature in a different position; neither with Hegel sublimating it to the thought of God's mind, nor with Lotze degrading it to the phenomena of our human minds, but identifying it with the outer appearance of one spirit to another spirit in the highest of spirits.
Not so Ward, who proceeds to a Natural Theology, on the ground that " from a world of spirits to a Supreme Spirit is a possible step."
The trade is very largely centred in the export of palm oil and palm kernels and the import of cotton goods and spirits, mostly gin.
Cotton and woollen goods of all kinds are also made in large quantities, and among the other industrial products are beetroot sugar, spirits, chemicals, tobacco, starch, paper, pottery, and "Bohemian glass."
Like many of the finest spirits under the early empire, Pliny was an adherent to the Stoics.
In the heyday of his youth his high spirits and passion for adventure enabled him to surmount every obstacle with elan.
If a man dies without being wounded he is considered to be the victim of the sorcerers and the evil spirits with which they consort.
Even to-day the ignorant peasantry of many European countries, Russia, Galicia and elsewhere, believe that all disease is the work of demons, and that medicinal herbs owe their curative properties to their being the materialized forms of benevolent spirits.
The savage explains the processes of inanimate nature by assuming that living beings or spirits, possessed of capacities similar to his own, are within the inanimate object.
An active trade is carried on in agricultural produce, wood, wool, cattle and spirits.
The industries of the town include sugar-refining, steam mills, brewing, and the manufacture of starch, syrup, spirits, potash and tin ware.
According to his own account, the expostulations as to her past conduct which preceded his admonitions for the future were received with tears, confessions and attempts at extenuation or excuse; but when they parted next day on good terms she had regained her usual spirits.
The Araucanians believe in a supreme being, and in many subordinate spirits, good and bad.
Other articles of manufacture are leather, tobacco, porcelain, cement, spirits, lead pencils (Nuremberg), plate-glass, sugar, matches, aniline dyes, straw hats and baskets.
The chief exports are grain and other agricultural produce, live stock, spirits, wood and wool; the chief imports are colonial produce, iron, coal, salt, wine, beer and tobacco.
Ball thinks that the former legend originated in the Indian practice of sacrificing cattle to the evil spirits when a new mine is opened; birds of prey would naturally carry off the flesh, and might give rise to the tale of the eagles carrying diamonds adhering to the meat.
Early voyagers to West Africa applied this term to the wooden figures, stones, &c., regarded as the temporary residence of gods or spirits, and to charms. There is no reason to suppose that the word feitico was applied either to an animal or to the local spirit of a river, hill or forest.
The local industries include manufactures of paper, woollen goods and spirits.
The potato is largely cultivated, not merely for food, but for distillation into spirits.
The Saxons and the Thuringians were soon in arms, and they were joined by those warlike spirits of Germany to whom an age of peace brought no glory and an age of prosperity brought no gain.
This episode, derided at first at Rome as the act of an obscure Augustinian friar intent on scoring a point in a scholastic disputation, was in reality an event of vast significance, for it brought to the front, as the exponent of the national sentiment, one of the mightiest spirits whom Germany has produced.
Hence Rothe, unlike Schleiermacher, lays great stress, for instance, on the personality of God, on the reality of the worlds of good and evil spirits, and on the visible second coming of Christ.
After an analysis of the religious consciousness, which yields the doctrine of an absolute personal and spiritual God, Rothe proceeds to deduce from his idea of God the process and history of creative development, which is eternally proceeding and bringing forth, as its unending purpose, worlds of spirits, partially self-creative and sharing the absolute personality of the Creator.
When the movement of modern spiritualism first reached Europe from America in the winter of 1852-3, the most popular method of consulting the "spirits" was for several persons to sit round a table, with their hands resting on it, and wait for the table to move.
Whilst by many the movements were ascribed to the agency of spirits, two investigators - count de Gasparin and Professor Thury of Geneva - conducted a careful series of experiments by which they claimed to have demonstrated that the movements of the table were due to a physical force emanating from the bodies of the sitters, for which they proposed the name "ectenic force."
The general public were content to find the explanation of the movements in spirits, animal magnetism, odic force, galvanism, electricity, or even the rotation of the earth.
By believers the table was made to serve as a means of communicating with the spirits; the alphabet would be slowly called over and the table would tilt at the appropriate letter, thus spelling out words and sentences.
Nor would the cruelties inflicted on the bolder spirits who dared to preach reform, which made the Austrian government a by-word among the nations, alone have excited the passionate spirit of revolt which carried all before it in 1848.
The younger and more ardent spirits, however, found it difficult to work in harmony with the older constitutional leaders.
The Poles were always ready to support the govenment; among the Young Czechs the more moderate had already attempted to restrain the wilder spirits of the party, and they were quite prepared to enter into negotiations.
The principal imports are cotton goods, spirits, building material, firearms, hardware and salt.
Revenue is raised chiefly by customs dues on spirits and tobacco and a general io% ad valorem duty on most goods.
The principal imports are cotton goods (nearly all from the United Kingdom), and in the southern region spirits - gin and geneva - almost wholly from Holland and Germany, salt, rice and other provisions, tobacco, hardware, cutlery and building material, &c., mostly from the United Kingdom.
Trade steadily developed, and owing to the large sums paid as duty on imported spirits, the revenue of the protectorate was sufficient to cover the expenditure.
The importation or possession of arms of precision is forbidden, except by permits in conformity with the Brussels Act, and in further application of that act the importation of spirits for sale to natives is wholly prohibited.
Among the Egyptians, as in other lands,, llnesses were supposed to be due to evil spirits or the ghosts of lead men who had taken up their abode in the body of the fufferer, and they could only be driven thence by charms and;pells.
The spirits of the deceased kings were honored respectively as the jackal-headed spirits of Nekhen and the hawk-headed spirits of Pc. As we hear also of the spirits of On it is probable that Heliopolis was at one time capital of a kingdom.
In connexion with the cultivation of potatoes, factories are established for making spirits, treacle, potato-meal, and straw-paper.
They believe in a better life hereafter, but have no idea of a hell or a devil, their evil spirits only tormenting them in the present state.
Pure ethyl alcohol intoxication, indeed, is rarely seen, being modified in the case of spirits by the higher alcohols contained in fusel oil.
Richet considers that the fusel oil contained in spirits constitutes the chief danger in the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
The expert can immediately detect the peculiarly virulent characters of the mixed intoxication due to the consumption of spirits containing a large percentage of fusel oil.
In his own country, all orders of men, from the emperor Maximilian down, delighted to honour him; and he was the familiar companion of chosen spirits among the statesmen, humanists and reformers of the new age.
For small articles, shellac dissolved in spirits of wine is a very convenient cement.
He had written to the Waldenses that it is better not to baptize at all than to baptize little children; now he was cautious, would not condemn the new prophecy off-hand; but advised Melanchthon to treat them gently and to prove their spirits, less they be of God.
On the 6th of March Luther returned, interviewed the prophets, scorned their " spirits," forbade them the city, and had their adherents ejected from Zwickau and Erfurt.
The chief sources of revenue were licences (which include the farms let for the collection of import duties in opium, wine and spirits) $4,248,856, nearly half the revenue of the settlement; post and telegraphs $424,645; railway receipts $196,683; and land revenue $104,482.
The port is a free port, import duties being payable only on opium, wines and spirits.
To these spirits is attributed a Being without Becoming, an individuality without change, a beginning without an end.
The gods of clans were probably the spirits of the ancestors in their own line.
But in all cases the material objects were regarded simply as the abodes of the immaterial spirits of the gods.
When the spirit leaves the body it is conveyed by waiting spirits to the abode of spirits.
In some, however, the spirits are said to live again after being eaten.
Some speak of the abode of spirits as being in darkness; but usually the condition of things is similar to that which exists upon earth.
Amongst all the people it is believed that the spirits of the dead are able to revisit the scenes of their earthly life.
As it was supposed by some that the spirits of the dead were eaten by the gods, the bodies of those slain in battle may have been eaten by their victors in triumph.
In 1872 appeared Love is Enough, structurally the most elaborate of his poems for its combination of the epic and dramatic spirits; and in the autumn he began to translate the shorter Icelandic sagas, to which his enthusiasm had been directed by two inspiring journeys to Iceland..
The trade of Budapest is mainly in corn, flour, cattle, horses, pigs, wines, spirits, wool, wood, hides, and in the articles manufactured in the town.
Soon after he left England for the East, in order to recruit his spirits and restore his health.
The scribes from Jerusalem offered a more sinister explanation, saying that He was possessed by the prince of the devils, and that this was why He was able to control all the evil spirits.
They enforced, when necessary, the alien acts (EmIXacrla), negotiated with foreign ambassadors, instructed generals, sent out expeditions and were the guiding spirits of the Spartan confederacy.
Broken in health and spirits by the incessant labours of the time when he did "half the work of the Reichstag," he went in 1883 for a tour in America, and died suddenly in New York on the 5th of January 1884.
Crabbe was torn to pieces - presumably by the familiar spirits of the Monk - and the fragments were scattered over the water.
The boy varied the monotony of his studies by pranks which revealed his unbalanced character, including an attempt to raise spirits with the aid of Dr Faust's Hallenzwang.
Among his many theological works may be mentioned An Exposition of the Epistles to the Seven Churches of Asia (1877), The Spirits in Prison (1884), "The Book of Proverbs" (which he annotated in the Speaker's Commentary), the "Synoptic Gospels, Acts, and II.
The Berbers, if irreligious, are very superstitious, never leaving their homes without exorcizing evil spirits, and have a good and evil interpretation for every day of the week.
Howe's eloquence, and still more his unfailing wit and high spirits, made him for many years the idol of his province.
The lipad, owing to its heavy nauseous odour, is believed to keep off evil spirits.
The right to manufacture and the right to retail are both monopolies of government permitted to private individuals only upon terms. Distillation of country spirits is allowed according to two systems - either to the highest bidder under strict supervision, or only upon certain spots set apart for the purpose.
Apart from spirits, excise duties are levied upon the sale of a number of intoxicating or stimulant drugs, of which the most important are opium, bhang, ganja and charas.
In1907-1908the total gross revenue from excise amounted to £6,214,000, of which more than two-thirds was derived from spirits and toddy.
But to the Europeans of the i 5th century India was practically an unknown land, which powerfully attracted the imagination of spirits stimulated by the Renaissance and ardent for discovery.
Like other spirits of the woods and fields, he possesses the power of inspiration and prophecy, in which he is said to have instructed Apollo.
His diary shows that in the outward journey Scott's mind was full of care and anxiety, while the disappointment of finding by Amundsen's record that he was not first to reach the Pole was a shock from which his spirits seemed never to recover.
The party therefore camped on the drifting floe, keeping up scientific observations and maintaining their health and spirits though in continual danger from the floes ridging up or cracking asunder.
But when the revolution of 1848 broke out he threw himself heart and soul into the fray, and became one of the leading spirits of the insurrection against the Austrians, known as the Five Days of Milan (March 18-2 2, 1848).
Other industrial products are machinery, enamelled tinware, leather, alum, paper, earthenware, stoves and spirits, while a tolerably brisk trade is carried on in wool, feathers, cattle and horses.
Berkeley, though at length the notions of spirits, acts and relations 6 give him pause, prefers the formula which Hume expresses in the phrase that " some ideas are particular in their nature but general in their representation," 7 and the afterhistory of " abstraction " is a discussion of the conditions under which one idea " stands for " a group. Not from those for whom general ideas mean schematic concepts, not imageable.
A dog is brought in to take a last look at his inanimate master in order to drive away the evil spirits.
The principal imports are cotton goods, of which 80% come from Great Britain, rice, kola nuts, chiefly from Liberia, spirits, tobacco, building material, and arms and ammunition, chiefly "trade guns."
He denounced the massacres of September - their inception, their horror and the future to which they pointed - in language so vivid and powerful that it raised for a time the spirits of the Girondists, while on the other hand it aroused the fatal opposition of the Parisian leaders.
To this new residence he went in high spirits with his success, "fully determined to write as hard as could be," seeing no reason why he should not give the public two volumes of Shandyism every year and why this should not go on for forty years.
The letters of abraxes, in the Greek notation, make up the number 365, and the Basilidians gave the name to the 365 orders of spirits which, as they conceived, emanated in succession from the Supreme Being.
These orders were supposed to occupy 365 heavens, each fashioned like, but inferior to that above it; and the lowest of the heavens was thought to be the abode of the spirits who formed the earth and its inhabitants, and to whom was committed the administration of its affairs.
According to primitive thought, rivers, lakes, springs and wells are commonly inhabited by spirits which readily assume human or animal form.
In Annam where water spirits may take the form of serpents or of human beings, two deified heroes were said to have been serpents born of a childless woman, who drank from a bowl of water into which a star had fallen.
Among the Arunta of Central Australia, the ghosts of the dead haunt certain localities, and, entering the bodies of passing women, are constantly reincarnated; the Black-snake clan of the Warramunga tribe embodies the spirits which the original ancestor had deposited by a certain creek.'
The principal sources of revenue are the licences granted for the importation and retailing of opium, wine and spirits, which are in the hands of Chinese; a customs duty of 5% on imports; an export tax of 5 70 on jungle produce; a poll-tax sanctioned by ancient native custom; and a stamp duty.
The sale of Nicaraguan spirits is a state monopoly.
Other industries include manufactures of leather, boots and shoes, furniture, bricks and pottery, cigars and cigarettes, beer, wine and spirits, candles and soap. The largest and most numerous commercial firms are German, but there are also French, British, and even Chinese establishments, although the immigration of Chinese is prohibited by law.
The principal imports are cotton and woollen goods, machinery and hardware, flour, beer, wine, spirits and drugs.
The spirits also sometimes inhabit certain birds or fishes, which are then taboo, as food, to the family; but they will help to catch them for others.
The bodies of the dead, and sometimes even of the sick, are despatched to sea westwards, with certain rites; those of the chiefs, however, are buried, for the order has something essentially divine about it; their bodies therefore are sacred, and their spirits naturally assume the position above described.
Such a belief greatly strengthened the king's authority, for the spirits of his ancestors were necessarily more powerful than any other spirits.
As a physician he seems to have done little, and lived poorly on a pension given him by some Dutch merchants and money which he earned from distillers for advocating the use of spirits.
It is thus used figuratively of the lowest depth of a person's spirits or the lowest point in a career.
Even granting the reasonableness of the triple manifestation of the Divine Spirit, how is one to reconcile all these idolatrous practices, this worship of countless gods and godlings, demons and spirits indwelling in every imaginable object round about us, with the pantheistic doctrine of the Ekam Advitiyam," the One without a Second "?
He had a rare power of attracting to himself the finest spirits, a power which lay not so much in his ability or his genius as in his character, so simple, so humble, so pure, so unworldly, yet wanting not that severity which can stand by principle and maintain what he holds to be the truth.
About the same time, and partly stimulated by Keble's sermon, some leading spirits in Oxford and elsewhere began a concerted and systematic course of action to revive High Church principles and the ancient patristic theology, and by these means both to defend the church against the assaults of its enemies, and also to raise to a higher tone the standard of Christian life in England.
It was the resurrection of the mightiest spirits of the past.
The inhabitants (Little Russians) are mostly employed in agriculture and gardening; but sugar and tobacco are manufactured and spirits distilled.
The variation from year to year in the quantity of wine produced in individual countries is, of course, far greater than that observed in the case of beer or spirits.
The art of wine-making is, compared with the manufacture of beer or spirits, both in principle and in practice a relatively simple operation.
The fermenting operations in wine-making differ radically from those obtaining in the case of beer or of spirits in that (if we except certain special cases) no yeast is added from without.
The result is that - as compared with beer or spirits - the fermentation at first is relatively slow, but it rapidly increases in intensity and continues until practically the whole of the sugar is converted.
It is equally a soul or spirit in wine which inspires the intoxicated; the old Egyptian kings avoided wine at table and in libations, because it was the blood of rebels who had fought with the gods, and out of whose rotting bodies grew the vines; to drink the blood was to imbibe the soul of these rebels, and the frenzy of intoxication which followed was held to be possession by their spirits.
It was only when convinced that parliamentary reform and Catholic emancipation were not to be obtained by constitutional methods, that he reluctantly engaged in treasonable conspiracy; and in opposition to bolder spirits like Lord Edward Fitzgerald, he discountenanced the taking up of arms until help should be obtained from France.
A Leyden jar was charged at the key, and by the electric fire thus obtained spirits were inflamed, and many other experiments performed which had been formerly made by excited electrics.
The various agricultural products, cattle and mules, cheese, wines and spirits, silk cocoons and gypsum make up the bulk of the exports.
All tithes have been abolished, except those on cereals, carobs, silk cocoons, and, in the form of to% ad valorem export duties, those on cotton, linseed, aniseed and raisins (all other export duties and a fishing tax have been abolished); (4) sheep, goat, and pig tax; (5) an excise on wine, spirits and tobacco; (6) import duties; (7) stamps, court fees, royalties, licenses, &c.; (8) salt monopoly.
If we take it strictly to mean the belief in ghosts or spirits having the " vaporous materiality " proper to the objects of dream or hallucination, it is certain that the agency of such phantasms is not the sole cause to which all mystic happenings are referred (though ghosts and spirits are everywhere believed in, and appear to be endowed with greater predominance as religious synthesis advances amongst primitive peoples).
In the former class he places supernatural beings (including men with man y as well as ghosts and spirits), blood, new-born children with their mothers, and corpses; which list might be considerably extended, for instance, by the inclusion of natural portents, and animals and plants such as are strikingly odd, dangerous or useful.
The ancient ritual (Chow Li) carefully graded the right of sacrifice from the viceroys of provinces down to the humblest district-superintendent who offered to the spirits of his district, the hills, lakes and grains.
With these spirits ranged in feudal order in two vast groups beneath Heaven and Earth is associated a third class, those of human beings.
Just as the emperor is kami, and provincial officers of rank, so also mountains, rivers, the sea, thunder, winds, and even animals like the tiger, wolf or fox, are all kami.7 The spirits of the dead also become kami, of varying character and position; some reside in the temples built in their honour; some hover near their tombs; but they are constantly active, mingling in the vast multitude of agencies which makes every event in the universe, in the language of Motowori (1730-1801), the act of the Kami.
The process of enrolling the spirits of the dead in the ranks of what may be more or less definitely called " gods " may be seen in the popular usages of India at the present day, or traced in the pages of the Peking Gazette under the direction of the Board of Rites, one of the most ancient branches of Chinese administration.
Broadly speaking it may be said that a distinction may be drawn between " spirits " and " gods," but it is a distinction of degree rather than of kind, obvious enough at the upper end, yet shading off into manifold varieties of resemblance in the lower forms. Some writers only recognize friendly agencies as gods; but destructive powers like the volcano, or the lords of the underworld, cannot be regarded as the protectors of the life of man, yet they seem in many mythologies to attain the full personalised stature of gods with definite names.
The ancient Indian ritual for the sacrifice to the Fathers required the officiating priest to turn away with bated breath that he might not see the spirits engaged upon the rice-balls laid out for them.
The spirits can pass swiftly through the air or the water; they can enter the stone or the tree, the animal or the man.
This is the beginning of the species-god, and implies a step of thought comparable to the production in language of general terms. These protecting spirits were free beings, having form and shape, but not individualized; while above them rose the higher deities like the forest-god Tapio and his maiden Hillervo, protectress of herds, or Ahto the water-god who gradually took the place of Vesi, the actual element originally conceived as itself divine, and ruled over the spirits of lakes and rivers, wells and springs.
The Yoruba-speaking peoples generalized the spirits of mountain and hill into Oke, god of heights; and the multitude of local sea-gods on the western half of the slave coast was fused into one god of the Ocean, Olokun.
The Celts who saw the world peopled with the spirits of trees and animals, rocks, mountains, springs and rivers, grouped them in classes like the Dervonnae (oak-spirits), the Niskai (water-spirits), the Proximae; the Matronae (earthgoddesses) 9 and the like.
Below the small band of Teutonic divinities were the elves of forest and field, the water-elves or nixes and spirits of house and home.
They are just at the point of transition from the ranks of spirits to the higher classes of the gods.
Through the dream the living was put into communication with the dead, which sometimes embodied itself in peculiar and pathetic literary forms, such as the Icelandic dream-verses imparted by the spirits of those who had been lost at sea or overwhelmed by the snow; and a whole series of steps leads up from necromancy to prophecy and oracle, .?
Rohde sees in them the spirits of the dead, the angry souls of murdered men.
So Peter also seemed to have thought, for though Mons was decapitated and his severed head, preserved in spirits, was placed in the apartments of the empress, she did not lose Peter's favour, attended him during his last illness, and closed his eyes when he expired (February 28, 1725).
For this reason the catechumens are anointed with holy oil both before and after baptism; the one act (of eastern origin) assists the expulsion of the evil spirits, the other (of western origin), taken in conjunction with imposition of hands, conveys the spirit and retains it in the person of the baptized.
About 1830 this evil reached its highest development, and it is estimated that nine gallons of spirits were then consumed annually per head of the population.
The temperance movement has had its reward; the average of consumption of beer and spirits in Sweden is considerably lower than in Europe as a whole, though the effect of intoxicants is sometimes very apparent.
These are taken with bread and butter and a glass of spirits.
The principal sources of income in the ordinary revenue are railways, forests, telegraphs and rent from Crown lands; and those in the revenue voted (bevillningar), which is about seven-eighths of the whole, customs, the taxes on spirits and beetsugar, and income from the post office.
The greater proportion of communal revenue comes from income and property tax, the sale of spirits under the Gothenburg System, and contributions from the treasury.
The new taxes, together with an increase of the excise duty on spirits, soon brought a surplus into the state coffers.
Christ then proceeded to the underworld to deliver the spirits of the departed.
Sometimes the patient is put to bed and the circulation is encouraged, especially on the surface of the body, by the use of hot spirits and water, or opium and ipecacuanha, while the outside of the nose is protected to a certain extent from loss of heat, and consequent irritation, by smearing it with a tallow candle or rubbing some ointment over the skin.
The imports are chiefly textiles, food and spirits.
Since 1901 the government has provided separate schools for Muslims. Revenue is largely derived from customs, especially from the duties levied on spirits.
His one great economic blunder was the attempt to make the sale of spirits a government monopoly, which was an obvious infringement upon the privileges of the estates.
The industries include machine shops, breweries, and the manufacture of spirits, linen, damask, cloth, hosiery, beads and leather.