Such is the present spirit of my nation.
During all the terrible winter which followed, his energy and spirit never failed him.
To the translation and interpretation of the Scriptures men might bring a fallible judgment, but this would be assisted by the direct action of the Spirit of God in proportion to their faith.
Maybe some spirit is trying to contact us to set things straight.
Maybe some spirit is trying to contact us to set things straight.
It pained Dean to see her 30 pounds thinner, wearing an ill fitting wig in place of her waist-length ebony hair, but her indomitable spirit continued to leave him in awe.
No woman had given birth in many sun-cycles, because the planet's spirit was severed without the dhjan and the nishani.
They claimed to have done so in the spirit of good will and a desire to protect the privacy of the tipster.
Under the Restoration he became a peer of France, but protested against the reactionary spirit of the government, and remained in opposition.
I love your spirit and your strength and that look you give me when I say stupid shit.
And don't tell me a divine spirit of sorts.
It is the same spirit that makes people fanatical about a certain sports team, regardless of the players or the score.
From 1760 owing to the gradual spread of the sceptical spirit and the teaching of Voltaire more tolerant views prevailed.
While Martha is my kindred spirit, Quinn and I always got along fairly well the few times we're all gotten together.
During the month that the French troops were pillaging in Moscow and the Russian troops were quietly encamped at Tarutino, a change had taken place in the relative strength of the two armies--both in spirit and in number--as a result of which the superiority had passed to the Russian side.
Body, soul, spirit, everything.
Body, soul, spirit, everything.
Katie chuckled, and he was almost relieved at the sight of her smile. Her features had grown paler and gaunter under his watch. He feared the underworld would sink her spirit, too. One of them had to have some sort of hope they'd make it out alive.
That Douglas undertook this work and that he makes a plea for more accurate scholarship in the translation have been the basis of a prevalent notion that he is a Humanist in spirit and the first exponent of Renaissance doctrine in Scottish literature.
She was quiet for a moment, and then asked, with spirit: How do you know that I cannot understand?
This can-do, care-for-our-own spirit permeated the nation.
In India, too, a dead person treated with funeral honours becomes a guardian spirit - if neglected, a tormenting demon.
From her early years she showed great aptitude for study, an ardent and enthusiastic spirit, and unquestionable talent.
From her early years she showed great aptitude for study, an ardent and enthusiastic spirit, and unquestionable talent.
Gabe hated her yet couldn't escape the memory of the compassion and spirit that made him take a stranger to bed last night.
Whatever the madman Arnie had in his hand had provoked her gentle spirit into action he would not otherwise think her capable of.
"Which one has the most spirit," Rob said with a wink.
Vico has been generally described as a solitary soul, out of harmony with the spirit of his time and often directly opposed to it.
Frazer formerly held Virbius to be a wood and tree spirit, to whom horses, in which form tree spirits were often represented, were offered in sacrifice.
In earlier life he had been a zealous student of Kant and Hegel, and to the end he never ceased to cultivate the philosophic spirit; but he had little confidence in metaphysical systems, and sought rather to translate philosophy into the wisdom of life.
The beautiful truth burst upon my mind--I felt that there were invisible lines stretched between my spirit and the spirits of others.
The newspapers caught Mr. Anagnos's spirit and exaggerated a hundred-fold.
She even enters into the spirit of battle; she says, "I think it is right for men to fight against wrongs and tyrants."
He paused and said a silent prayer for the spirit of this person who had brought so much grief to Bird Song and his previously contented life.
"They pretend," as I hear, "that the verses of Kabir have four different senses; illusion, spirit, intellect, and the exoteric doctrine of the Vedas"; but in this part of the world it is considered a ground for complaint if a man's writings admit of more than one interpretation.
But this formal agreement includes material differences, and the spirit which breathes in Lotze's writings is more akin to the objects and aspirations of the idealistic school than to the cold formalism of Herbart.
This spirit might easily be confounded with the sun, whose power was supposed to be stored up in the warmthgiving tree.
In her latest works she went back to her earlier themes of romantic and unchartered love, but the scene is shifted from Berri, which she felt she had exhausted, to other provinces of France, and instead of passionate manifestos we have a gallery of genre pictures treated in the spirit of Francois le champi.
Irritated with her spirit, Taran leapt from the horse and pursued, his long strides quickly cutting the distance between them.
It would signify somewhat, if, in any earnest sense, he slanted them and daubed it; but the spirit having departed out of the tenant, it is of a piece with constructing his own coffin--the architecture of the grave--and "carpenter" is but another name for "coffin-maker."
To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.
In her eagerness to feed his desire to control, she had been willing to give up the independent spirit he found attractive.
I admire your spirit and your passion.
In the language of the Christian Church the word " infallibility " is used in a more absolute sense, as the freedom from all possibility of error guaranteed by the direct action of the Spirit of God.
At the same time he reproduces their scandalous anecdotes in a quite uncritical spirit, and accepts unquestioningly the 4th-century tradition.
That unknown quantity is the spirit of the army, that is to say, the greater or lesser readiness to fight and face danger felt by all the men composing an army, quite independently of whether they are, or are not, fighting under the command of a genius, in two--or three-line formation, with cudgels or with rifles that repeat thirty times a minute.
Or maybe, he wanted to get rid of his own regret at the idea of taking such a sweet soul, someone who might've been a kindred spirit in a different time and place.
The spirit in the Old Testament is a refined material thing that may come or be poured out on men.
She was the guiding spirit of the first Fronde, when she brought over Armand, Prince de Conti, her second brother, and her husband to the malcontents, but she failed to attract Conde himself, whose loyalty to the court overthrew the first Fronde.
Of the seventy-eight resolutions none is in any sense epoch-making, and their spirit is that of the traditional Anglican via media.
He became (1756-1759) the leading spirit of Nicolai's important literary undertakings, the Bibliothek and the Literaturbriefe, and ran some risk (which Frederick's good nature obviated) by somewhat freely criticizing the poems of the king of Prussia.
All the generals, officers, and soldiers of the French army knew it could not be done, because the flagging spirit of the troops would not permit it.
The spirit of an army is the factor which multiplied by the mass gives the resulting force.
The Albanian leaders, however, soon displayed a spirit of independence, which proved embarrassing to Turkish diplomacy and caused alarm at Constantinople; their forces came into conflict with a Turkish army under Dervish Pasha near Dulcigno (November 1880), and eventually the league was suppressed.
Dr. Howe was an experimental scientist and had in him the spirit of New England transcendentalism with its large faith and large charities.
The French, retreating in 1812--though according to tactics they should have separated into detachments to defend themselves--congregated into a mass because the spirit of the army had so fallen that only the mass held the army together.
Only a few of them still move, rise, and feebly fly to settle on the enemy's hand, lacking the spirit to die stinging him; the rest are dead and fall as lightly as fish scales.
We may add that according to this view nothing is real but the living spirit of God and the world of living spirits which He has created; the things of this world have only reality in so far as they are the appearance of spiritual substance, which underlies everything.
We may add that according to this view nothing is real but the living spirit of God and the world of living spirits which He has created; the things of this world have only reality in so far as they are the appearance of spiritual substance, which underlies everything.
The more the Russian army retreated the more fiercely a spirit of hatred of the enemy flared up, and while it retreated the army increased and consolidated.
I could see the way Ginger looked; all her beauty gone, her beautiful arched neck drooping, all the spirit gone out of her flashing eyes, all the playfulness gone out of her manner.
According to ' Yahweh's spirit, thought of as Yahweh's vital principle, as man's spirit is man's vital principle, is to be breathed into them, as, in Gen.
But teacher came to me and taught my little fingers to use the beautiful key that has unlocked the door of my dark prison and set my spirit free.
A field of water betrays the spirit that is in the air.
It is the one thing we are interested in here, said the spirit of the place.
"I guess you could say I'm a divine spirit of sorts," he said, guarded once more.
" What ever was perfect under the sun," ask the translators of the Authorized Version (1611) in their preface, " where apostles and apostolick men, that is, men endued with an extraordinary measure of God's Spirit, and privileged with the privilege of infallibility, had not their hand?"
I feel in Diana's posture the grace and freedom of the forest and the spirit that tames the mountain lion and subdues the fiercest passions.
From the letters after the year 1892 I have culled in the spirit of one making an anthology, choosing the passages best in style and most important from the point of view of biography.
The army is burning with a spirit of heroism and the leaders, so to say, have now assembled in council.
But in general I can tell you, Papa, that such a heroic spirit, the truly antique valor of the Russian army, which they--which it" (he corrected himself) "has shown or displayed in the battle of the twenty-sixth-- there are no words worthy to do it justice!
Sweet Rebecca, with her strong, brave spirit, and her pure, generous nature, was the only character which thoroughly won my admiration.
They love the soil which makes their graves, but have no sympathy with the spirit which may still animate their clay.
The kidnapper was the child's mother, a drug addict, who no longer had custody and tried to spirit her daughter away.
Her beautiful, unselfish spirit shines out like a bright star in the night of a dark and cruel age.
Her whimsical and adventuresome spirit puts her so much on her mettle that she makes rather a poor subject for the psychological experimenter.
She does not, it would seem, prove the existence of spirit without matter, or of innate ideas, or of immortality, or anything else that any other human being does not prove.
He tried equally to avoid thinking about his wife, and about Natasha and Prince Andrew; and again everything seemed to him insignificant in comparison with eternity; again the question: for what? presented itself; and he forced himself to work day and night at masonic labors, hoping to drive away the evil spirit that threatened him.
She shared with all her heart in the prayer for the spirit of righteousness, for the strengthening of the heart by faith and hope, and its animation by love.
In the middle of the room a short handsome general with a red face was dancing the trepak with much spirit and agility.
I divined his noble, resolute, self-sacrificing spirit too, she said to herself.
I personally think the establishment of charitable organizations was driven by the same spirit that drove the creation of new businesses.
My fingers and head ached; but Helen was as fresh and full of spirit as when we left home.
On the 1st of April it rained and melted the ice, and in the early part of the day, which was very foggy, I heard a stray goose groping about over the pond and cackling as if lost, or like the spirit of the fog.
Drooping in spirit and closing their eyes before the menacing cloud of death that overhung them, they dared not look life in the face.
The name Manitoba sprang from the union of two Indian words, Manito (the Great Spirit), and Waba (the " narrows " of the lake, which may readily be seen on the map).
Dear child, her restless spirit gropes in the dark.
His work in founding the kingdom was a personal vocation, the spirit of which He communicates to believers, "thus, as exalted king," sustaining the life of His Kingdom.
It seemed as if the spirit of spring had passed through the summer-house.
The lecture-halls seemed filled with the spirit of the great and the wise, and I thought the professors were the embodiment of wisdom.
My spirit could not reach up to his, but he gave me a real sense of joy in life, and I never left him without carrying away a fine thought that grew in beauty and depth of meaning as I grew.
That word startled my soul, and it awoke, full of the spirit of the morning, full of joyous, exultant song.
Look then at thy inner self with the eyes of the spirit, and ask thyself whether thou art content with thyself.
The candles were then extinguished and some spirit lighted, as Pierre knew by the smell, and he was told that he would now see the lesser light.
The bandage was taken off his eyes and, by the faint light of the burning spirit, Pierre, as in a dream, saw several men standing before him, wearing aprons like the Rhetor's and holding swords in their hands pointed at his breast.
Christ, the Holy Spirit, Him!...
But the spirit and the movements were those inimitable and unteachable Russian ones that "Uncle" had expected of her.
The mother's wounded spirit could not heal.
The writings of Thomas are of great importance for philosophy as well as for theology, for by nature and education he is the spirit of scholasticism incarnate.
I think if this sorrow had come to me when I was older, it would have broken my spirit beyond repairing.
How ridiculous it is to say I had drunk so copiously of the noble spirit of Dr. Howe that I was fired with the desire to rescue from darkness and obscurity the little Alabamian!
And Fedya, with his noble spirit, loved him and even now never says a word against him.
His guard hadn't lowered; it crashed as he let himself experience every part of her body, her cries and the passionate spirit that held him captive on the beach.
Not that kind of spirit.
She yielded, fitting against him in a way that made him more possessive of her petite frame and fiery spirit.
Carmen was small and delicately built, but she had spirit.
It was probably a mistake, but he truly admired her spirit.
Annie is a guest, at least in spirit!
And there was no sign of Jeffrey Byrne, in person, in conversation or in spirit.
Halfway through his beer the sports argument became spirited enough that Dean took the opportunity to rise and cross to the payphone behind him.
Claire had your spirit.
It was a connection – a joining of spirit.
Because our glance can easily be turned outwards and survey the exterior world but it is far harder to turn the mind's eye inwards and contemplate the world of the spirit.
Hegelianism attempts to squeeze all life into the categories of logic: Aristotelianism deals with "things in general" and ignores the radical distinction between nature and spirit.
Peter and his chancellor de Mezieres represent the last flicker of the crusading spirit.
The battle ended in the disastrous defeat of the provincial forces; General Mitre used his victory in a spirit of moderation and sincere patriotism.
Beetroot, molasses and grain are the chief sources of spirit.
It thus abundantly appears that Pheidias was closely connected with Pericles, and a ruling spirit in the Athenian art of the period.
As early as 1866, tannic acid, gallic acid, wood spirit, acetic acid, essential oil and eucalyptol were produced from various species of eucalyptus, and researches made by Australian chemists, notably by Messrs.
She was at first a benevolent spirit, the counterpart of Hulda in North German myth.
Nowhere was the call responded to with greater zeal than in the Netherlands, and nowhere had the spirit of adventure and the stimulus to enterprise, which was one of the chief fruits of the crusades, more permanent effects for good.
But the very horrors of Don Frederick's advance roused a spirit of indomitable resistance in Holland.
At Strassburg began his intimacy with Caspar Schwenkfeld, a congenial spirit.
Franck combined the humanist's passion for freedom with the mystic's devotion to the religion of the spirit.
The pre-Socratics may be classed as naïve materialists in this sense; though, as at that early period the contrast between matter and spirit had not been' fully realized and matter was credited with properties that belong to life, it is usual to apply the term hylozoism to the earliest stage of Greek metaphysical theory.
But, from the national distrust of system, it has not been elaborated into a consistent metaphysic, but is rather traceable as a tendency harmonizing with the spirit of natural science.
He summoned experienced teachers, Protestant as well as Catholic, from Germany, established middle and higher schools in all parts of the empire, superseded the antiquated textbooks and methods of instruction, and encouraged the formation of learned societies and the growth of a professional spirit and independence among the teachers.
In both sacraments the death-bed baptism of an earlier age seems to survive, and they both fulfil a deep-seated need of the human spirit.
A spirit has been distilled from acorns in process of germination, when the saccharine principle is most abundant.
This stroke, which would most probably have given the victory to the king, was prevented by the "Eastern Association," a union of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire, constituted in December 1642 and augmented in 1643 by Huntingdonshire and Lincolnshire, of which Cromwell was the leading spirit.
You must get men of a spirit that is likely to go as far as gentlemen will go or you will be beaten still."The royalists were fighting for a great cause.
With Cromwell as with Burke the question was "whether the spirit of the people of this nation is prepared to go along with it."
to demonstrate that military government had given place to civil; for he approached his task in the same spirit that had prompted his declaration to the Little Parliament of his wish "to divest the sword of all power in the Civil administration."
On the 31st of August he seemed to rally, and one who slept in his bedchamber and who heard him praying, declared, "a public spirit to God's cause did breathe in him to the very last."
It was some time before he realized the spirit of cavalry tactics, of which he was later so complete a master.
Cromwell shares with Frederick the Great the credit of founding the modern cavalry spirit.
The professional soldiers of the Continent could rarely be brought to force a decision; but the English, contending for a cause, were imbued with the spirit of the modern "nation in arms"; and having taken up arms wished to decide the quarrel by arms. This feeling was not less conspicuous in the far-ranging rides, or raids, of the Cromwellian cavalry.
If the Rump or the Little Parliament had in a business-like spirit assumed and discharged the functions of a constituent assembly, such a foundation might have been provided.
Yet he cannot deny that "he had some virtues which have caused the memory of some men in all ages to be celebrated"; and admits that "he was not a man of blood," and that he possessed "a wonderful understanding in the natures and humour of men," and "a great spirit, an admirable circumspection and sagacity and a most magnanimous resolution."
As no one could curse Jesus except under the influence of a devilish afflatus, so none could say "Jesus is Lord" except he was inspired by the Holy Spirit.
So at Pentecost on the occasion of the first outpouring of the Spirit the saints were by the bystanders accused of being drunk (Acts ii.
They were wont to cry out, each of himself, "I am God; I am the Son of God; or I am the divine Spirit."
18 Paul contrasts the being filled with the Spirit with the foolishness of intoxication with wine, and remarks that those filled with the Spirit speak to themselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs and give thanks always for all things.
The genius of the modern pianoforte is to produce richness by depth and variety of tone; and players who cannot find scope for such genius in the real part-writing of the 18th century will not get any nearer to the 18th-century spirit by sacrificing the essentials of its art to an attempt to imitate its mechanical resources by a modern tour de force.
The invention of the damper-pedal in the pianoforte epitomizes the difference between polyphony and symphonic art, for it is the earliest device by which sounds are produced and prolonged in a way contrary to the spirit of "real" part-writing.
"He led them forth like sheep," in Israel in Egypt, and the music of the Witch of Endor, and the appearance of Samuel's spirit in Saul) are as modern as Gluck's.
In recent apparatus, to enable it to be used on board ship, a hydrogeneous spirit is used which is fed drop by drop into the chamber in which the arc is worked.
This enthusiastic love of poverty is certainly the keynote of St Francis's spirit; and so one of his disciples in an allegorical poem (translated into English as The Lady of Poverty by Montgomery Carmichael, 1901), and Giotto in one of the frescoes at Assisi, celebrated the "holy nuptials of Francis with Lady Poverty."
The circumstances under which, at an extraordinary general chapter convoked by him shortly after his return, he resigned the office of ministergeneral (September 1220) are explained in the article Franciscans: here, as illustrating the spirit of the man, it is in place to cite the words in which his abdication was couched: "Lord, I give Thee back this family which Thou didst entrust to me.
He was a leader of those who contended for reform in municipal government, was conspicuous for his public spirit, and exerted a great influence for good not only in New York City but in the state and nation.
Among the centrifugal forces which determined the future of the Italian race must be reckoned, first and foremost, the new spirit of municipal independence.
With unbroken spirit, though the objects of his life were unattained, though Italy and Europe had been thrown into confusion, and the issue of the conflict was still doubtful, Gregory expired in 1085 with these words on his lips: I loved justice, I hated iniquity, therefore in banishment I die.
The greatest of the popes thus breathed his last; but the new spirit he had communicated to the papacy was not destined to expire with him.
Having ruined his rebellious city, but not tamed her spirit, Frederick withdrew across the Alps.
Their mutual jealousies, combined with the prestige of the empire, and possibly with the selfishness of the pope, who had secured his own position, and was not likely to foster a national spirit that would have threatened the ecclesiastical supremacy, deprived the Italians of the only great opportunity they ever had of forming themselves into a powerful nation.
In 1243 a new pope, Innocent IV., was elected, who prosecuted the war with still bitterer spirit.
of literature, a founder of universities, he anticipated the spirit of the Renaissance.
As the companies grew in size and improved their discipline, it was seen by the Italian nobles that this kind of service offered a good career for men of spirit, who had learned the use of arms. To leave so powerful and profitable a calling in the hands of foreigners seemed both dangerous and uneconomical.
Nor were the people only enfeebled for resistance to a real foe; the whole political spirit of the race was demoralized.
Once seated in the duchy of Milan, he displayed rare qualities as a ruler; for he not only entered into the spirit of the age, which required humanity and culture from a despot, but he also knew how to curb his desire for territory.
The losses of men and money which the war of Chioggia, as it was called, entailed, though they did not immediately depress the spirit of the Genoese republic~ signed her naval ruin.
They gradually entered into the spirit of their age, assumed the style of despots and made use of the humanistic movement, then at its height, to place themselves in a new relation to Italy.
Italy, intellectually first among the peoples, was now politically and practically last; and nothing to her historian is more heartrending than to watch the gradual extinction of her spirit in this age of slavery.
A fortnight later his consort Caroline arrived, and soon showed a vigour and restlessness of spirit which frequently clashed with the dictates of her brother, the emperor and the showy, unsteady policy of her consort.
The masses were still more or less indifferent, but among the nobility and the educated middle Secret classes, cut off from all part in free political life, there societies, was developed either the spirit of despair at Italys The Car..
Calderai, who may be compared to the Black Hundreds of modern Russia, the revolutionary spirit continued to grow, but it was not at first anti-dynastic. The granting of the Spanish constitution of 1820 proved the signal for the beginning of the Italian.
Cavour, on the other hand, while anxious to deal irously with the Garibaldians, recognized the impossibility of such urse, which would not only have offended the conservative spirit :he Piedmontese military caste, which disliked and despised 101am troops, but would almost certainly have introduced into the y an element of indiscipline and disorder.
This was a violation of the letter as well as of the spirit of the September convention, and a stronger and more straightforward statesman than Rattazzi would have declared Italy absolved from its provisions.
For Attitude a few weeks the relations between the Curia and the ~ Italian authorities were marked by a conciliatory spirit.
Practically, therefore, the law has remained a one-sided enactment, by which Italy considers herself bound, and of which she has always observed the spirit, even though the exigencies of self-defence may have led in some minor respects to non-observance of the letter.
Reduced in number to less than one hundred, and radically changed in spirit and composition, the Right gave way, if not to despair, at least to a despondency unsuited to an opposition party.
More important than all was the interest of the Roman curia, composed almost exclusively of Italians, to retain in its own hands the choice of the pontiff and to maintain the predominance 01 the Italian element and the Italian spirit in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.
At the same time he mitigated the Francophil tendencies of some of his colleagues, accompanied King Humbert and Queen Margherita on their visit to Homburg in September 1897, and, by loyal observance of the spirit of the triple alliance, retained for Italy the confidence of her allies without forfeiting the goodwill of France.
The spirit of indiscipline had begun to reach the lower classes of state employees, especially the school teachers and the postal and telegraph clerks, and at one time it seemed as though the country were about to face a situation similar to that which arose in France in the spring of 1909.
As a general rule the annalists wrote in a spirit of uncritical patriotism, which led them to minimize or gloss over such disasters as the conquest of Rome by Porsena and the compulsory payment of ransom to the Gauls, and to flatter the people by exaggerated accounts of Roman prowess, dressed up in fanciful language.
The spirit of Vedic worship is pervaded by a devout belief in the efficacy of invocation and sacrificial offering.
The Brahman priest (brahma) being thus the recognized head of the sacerdotal order (brahma), which itself is the visible embodiment of sacred writ and the devotional spirit pervading it (brahma), the complete realization of theocratic aspirations required but a single step, which was indeed taken in the theosophic speculations of the later Vedic poets and the authors of the Brahmanas (q.v.), viz.
By this means the very name of this god expressed the essential oneness of his nature with that of the divine spirit as whose manifestation he was to be considered.
Why should not God, a spirit like our own, though greater, speak to us in this language ?
He was in many ways the leading spirit of the Girondists, who were also known as Brissotins.
At the same time the world as a developed whole is regarded as an organism which is permeated with the divine Spirit, and so we may say that the world-process is a self-realization of the divine Being.
- Another writer of this transition period deserves a passing reference here, namely, Jacob Boehme the mystic, who by his conception of a process of inner diremption as the essential character of all mind, and so of God, prepared the way for later German theories of the origin of the world as the self-differentiation and self-externalization of the absolute spirit.
treated the subject of man's development in a thoroughly naturalistic spirit.
Only spirit has a history; in nature all forms are contemporaneous.2 Hegel's interpretation of mind and history as a process of evolution has more scientific interest than his conception of nature.
So, too, some of his conceptions respecting the development of art and religion (the absolute spirit) lend themselves to a similar interpretation.
writings of Spencer embody the spirit of Descartes in the knowledge of our own day, and may be regarded as the Principes de la philosophic of the 19th century; while, whatever hesitation may not unfrequently be felt by less daring minds in following Haeckel in many of his speculations, his attempt to systematize the doctrine of evolution and to exhibit its influence as the central thought of modern biology, cannot fail to have a far-reaching influence on the progress of science.
Still examination must be had whether persons have been expelled from the congregation by any episcopal small-mindedness (µucpokxia), or contentious spirit, or such-like harshness (evibia).
The wealth of the burghers during this period was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds were frequent, - against the rival city of Bruges, against the counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and the patrician governing class.
The citizens, however, retained their turbulent spirit.
The government continued to struggle against this spirit of defiance; proclamations of James I.
His purpose is to restore in the hearts of the readers the joy of the Spirit, by making them see that Christ fulfils every need.
The Holy Spirit, we are told, rested on him, drawn to him by the usual means of the mysticsself-flogging, ablutions and penance.
The terrible losses sustained by whole communities of farmers, planters, foresters, &c., from plant diseases have naturally stimulated the search for remedies, but even now the search is too often conducted in the spirit of the believer in quack medicines, although the agricultural world is awakening to the fact that before any measures likely to be successful can be attempted, the whole chain of causation of the disease must be investigated.
The discoveries of Columbus awakened a spirit of enterprise in Spain which continued in full force for a century; adventurers flocked eagerly across the Atlantic, and discovery followed Sp aniards discovery in rapid succession.
It was the spirit of the age; and England, English and Holland and France were fired by it.
The highlander and viking, products of the valleys raised high amid the mountains or half-drowned in the sea, are everywhere of kindred spirit.
It is noticeable that the patriotic spirit is strongest in those places where people are brought most intimately into relation with the land; dwellers in the mountain or by the sea, and, above all, the people of rugged coasts and mountainous archipelagoes, have always been renowned for love of country, while the inhabitants of fertile plains and trading communities are frequently less strongly attached to their own land.
He acted in the same spirit a few months later, when (about July 1839), understanding that the authorities intended to prevent the despatch of emigrants to New Zealand, he hurried them off on his own responsibility, thus compelling the government to annex the country just in time to anticipate a similar step on the part of France.
To foreigners, especially Christians, he showed a spirit of tolerance; two Englishmen, Sir Anthony and Sir Robert Shirley, or Sherley, were admitted to his confidence.
He was the son of a merchant, and was himself trained for the pursuits of commerce, in which, by his abilities and enterprising spirit, he attained a conspicuous position.
During the revolution of 1848-1849, Eger was remarkable for the patriotic spirit displayed by its inhabitants; and it was here that the principal campaigns against the Austrians were organized.
This spirit of do ut des will be found to go closely with the gift-theory of sacrifice, and to be especially characteristic of those religions of middle grade that are given over to sacrificial worship as conducted in temples and by means of organized priesthoods.
In advanced religion, indeed, prayer is the chosen vehicle of the free spirit of worship. Its mechanism is not unduly rigid, and it is largely autonomous, being rid of subservience to other ritual factors.
When we come to consider the moral quality of the act of prayer, this contrast between the spirit of public and private religion is fundamental for all but the most advanced forms of cult.
A favourite contrast for which there is more to be said is that drawn between the m k agico-religious spell-ritual, that says in effect, "My will be done," and the spirit of "Thy will be done" that breathes through the highest forms of worship. Such resignation in the face of the divine will and providence is, however, not altogether beyond the horizon of primitive faith, as witness the following prayer of the Khonds of Orissa: "We are ignorant of what it is good to ask for.
Somewhat earlier in the 13th century lived Judah al-IIarizi, who belongs in spirit to the time of Ibn Gabirol and Judah ha-levi.
In his Me'or t Enayim (Mantua, 1573) Dei Rossi endeavoured to investigate Jewish history in a scientific spirit, with the aid of non-Jewish authorities, and even criticizes Talmudic and traditional statements.
It was Moses Mendelssohn's German translation of the Pentateuch (1 7 80 - 1 793) which marked the new spirit, while the views of his opponents belong to a bygone age.
One of these was appointed to rule the earth, but died and became a spirit.
During his term of office he appeared in a case before the United States Supreme Court, where his knowledge of civil law so strongly impressed Edward Livingston, the secretary of state, who was himself an admirer of Roman Law, that he urged Legare to devote himself to the study of this subject with the hope that he might influence American law toward the spirit and philosophy and even the forms and processes of Roman jurisprudence.
In 1890 he tells us how a grievous error had been committed in one of the first steps, and pathetically adds, "My spirit in the work was broken, and I have never heartily proceeded with it since."
As the name is etymologically the same, so the people are by descent the same, and they are still led by the old spirit of war and adventure.
With the zeal of new converts they set forth on their new errand very much in the spirit of their heathen forefathers.
The same spirit of enterprise which brought the Northmen into Gaul seems to carry the Normans out of Gaul into every corner of the world.
He foretold the outbreak of the revolutionary spirit in Germany and Austria, and was credited with counselling the abdication of Ferdinand in favour of Francis Joseph.
The idea laid hold of him of reviving the spirit of his countrymen by imbuing them with the thoughts of the great Greek writers.
Three of them express in the strongest language the orthodox faith of the church in opposition to the Arian heresy, and these three put in unmistakable language the procession of the Holy Spirit from both Father and Son.
But they undoubtedly maintained the spirit of Antisthenes unimpaired and held an honourable place in Roman thought.
Other apologies are by Aristides (recently recovered in translation), Athenagoras (" elegant "), Eusebius of Caesarea, Cyril of Alexandria; in Latin by Minucius Felix, Tertullian (a masculine spirit and phrase-coiner like T.
But in its cool spirit it forecasts the coming age, whose master is John Locke.
More distinguished sympathizers are Edward Gibbon, who has the deistic spirit, and David Hume, the historian and philosophical sceptic, who has at least the letter of the deistic creed (Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion), and who uses Pascal's appeal to " faith " in a spirit of mockery (Essay on Miracles).
In France the new school found powerful speaking-trumpets, especially Voltaire, the idol of his age - a great denier and scoffer, but always sincerely a believer in the God of reason - and the deeper but wilder spirit of J.
Abbott [Christianity supernatural and divine, but not miraculous], Through Nature to Christ (1877), The Kernel and the Husk (1886), The Spirit on the Waters (1897), &c., or A.
The whole Ritschl movement is apologetic in spirit; best English account in A.
Since 1879 their leading doctrines have been formulated as follows: (I) the total depravity of man; (2) the real Godhead and real humanity of Christ; (3) justification and redemption through the sacrifice of Christ; (4) work of the Holy Spirit; (5) good works as fruits of the Spirit; (6) fellowship of believers; (7) second coming of Christ; (8) resurrection of the dead to life or judgment.
8 In spite of these restrictions and of an electoral system which tended to make these assemblies as strait-laced and reactionary as any government bureau, the zemstvos did good work, notably educational, in those provinces where the proprietors were inspired with a more liberal spirit.
It is this political rather than religious spirit which also underlies the repressive attitude of the government, and of the Orthodox Church as the organ of the government, towards the various dissident sects (Raskolniki, from raskol, schism), which for more than two centuries past have played an important part in the popular life of Russia, and, since the political developments of the end of the 19th and early years of the zoth century, have tended to do so more and more.
The Incarnation was no isolated historical occurrence, but it is repeated over and over again in the faithful, each one of whom is in a certain sense God, by virtue of the indwelling Spirit.
The co-operative spirit of the Great Russians shows itself in another sphere in the artel, which has been a prominent feature of Russian life since the dawn of history.
Accompanied by these so-called Oprichniki, who have been compared to the Turkish Janissaries of the worst period, he ruthlessly devastated large districts - with no other object apparently than that of terrorizing the population and rewarding his myrmidons - and during a residence of six weeks in Novgorod, lest the old turbulent spirit of the municipal republic should revive, he massacred, it is said, no less than 60,000 of the inhabitants, including many women and children.
Within a few months of her accession, having heard that the publication of the famous French Encyclopedie was in danger of being stopped by the French government on account of its irreligious spirit, she proposed to Diderot that he should complete his great work in Russia under her protection.
A certain amount of local self-government was entrusted to the nobles and the burghers, and the judicial administration was thoroughly reorganized in an enlightened and humane spirit.
The authorities began to exhibit something of their old spirit.
Nor had it exhibited by any means a wholly docile spirit.
18 3 9) discovered that the cause of the sounds was intelligent and would make raps as requested, and, communication being established, the rapper professed to be the spirit of a murdered pedlar.
The "spiritualistic" movement spread like an epidemic. "Spirit circles" were soon formed in many families.
Such intelligences are not supposed to be infallible, but to have the knowledge of spirit.
In France the doctrine of successive reincarnations with intervals of spirit life promulgated by Allan Kardec (L.
Probably it would be impossible to unite spiritualists in any creed, which,, besides the generally accepted belief in God and immortality, should postulate more than the progress of the spirit after death, and the power of some of the dead to communicate with the living by means of mediums.
Hare, Experimental Investigations of the Spirit Manifestations (New York, 1856); Allan Kardec, Livre des esprits (1st ed., 1853); Mrs De Morgan, From Matter to Spirit (London, 1863), with preface by Professor De Morgan; Alfred Russel Wallace, Miracles and Modern Spiritualism (1876); W.
(Oxon.)], Spirit Identity and Spirit Teaching; Zbllner, Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (the part relating to spiritualism has been translated into English under the title Transcendental Physics by C. C. Massey); Report of the Seybert Commission on Spiritualism (Philadelphia, 1887); Professor Th.
Robertson Smith, on the other hand, a new era was reached, in which the recently recognized existence of Totemism was made the basis of an attempt to give a 1 Scipione de Ricci, bishop of Pistoia from 1780 to 1791, on the ex-Jesuits requesting him to consecrate a bell dedicated to this object, issued a pastoral letter (3rd June 1784) in which he pointed out that the spirit of true religion was "far removed from fetichism," and warned his flock against "cardiolatry."
soothed, so that it might be more acceptable to the gods and less likely to do an injury after its death, when its spirit was set free.
The cord was drawn tight and the victim ceased to breathe; its spirit passed into the world of the gods.
Where the victim is an animal specially associated with a god (the most conspicuous case is perhaps that of the corn spirit), it may be granted that the god is eaten; but precisely in these cases there is no custom of giving a portion of the victim to the god.
(b) In parts of North America the nagual or manitu animal, of which the Indian dreams during the initiation fast and which is to be his tutelary spirit, is killed with certain rites.
(6) But, since the divine injunction had been" Do this in remembrance of me,"the sacrifice was immediately followed by a commemoration of the passion of Christ, and that again by an invocation of the Holy Spirit (epiclesis) that He would make the bread and wine to become the body and blood of Christ.
These, however, belong in spirit to the previous century.
The necromancer of ba`al 'obh was held to be possessed of the spirit who spoke through him with a hollow voice.
Indeed both necromancer and the spirit that possessed him were sometimes identified, and the former was simply called obh.
The strong impress of Hebrew prophecy is to be found in the deeply marked ethical spirit of the Deuteronomic legislation.
It should be noted, however, that the spirit of brotherly love was confined within national barriers.
3 (c) Prophetic religion was a religion of the spirit which came to the messenger (Isa.
We also read of the " evil spirit " that came upon Saul.
In later Jewish literature we meet with further examples of similar hypostases in the form of Memra, Metatron, Shechinah, Holy Spirit and Bath kol.
These writings bear the mark of a clear mind and a moderate and gentle spirit.
It was a characteristic of equal importance that Dr Lightfoot, like Dr Westcott, never discussed these subjects in the mere spirit of controversy.
Without any marked originality, his writings are distinguished by lucidity of exposition and genuine philosophic spirit.
At the festival Chthonia, a cow (representing, according to Mannhardt, the spirit of vegetation), which voluntarily presented itself, was sacrificed by three old women.
In short, the country was already thoroughly democratic in spirit, while Federalism stood for obsolescent social ideas and was infected with political "Toryism" fatally against the times.
Charles, in a spirit of the most vindictive cruelty, had large numbers of Conradin's barons put to death and their estates confiscated, and the whole population of several towns massacred.
He distinguished between an outward word of God and an inward, the former being the Scriptures and perishable, the latter the divine spirit and eternal.
Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.
Nomadic life is recognized by Arabian writers themselves as possessing a relative superiority, and its characteristic purity of manner and its reaction against corruption and luxury are not incompatible with a warlike spirit.
It is a gratuitous assumption that the history of (north) Israel ceased with the fall of Samaria or that Judah then took over Israelite literature and inherited the old Israelite spirit: the question of the preservation of earlier writings is of historical importance.
The post-exilic priestly spirit represents a tendency which is absent from the Judaean Deuteronomic book of Kings but is fully mature in the later, and to some extent parallel, book of Chronicles (q.v.).
They could be, and indeed had been made more edifying; but the very noteworthy conservatism of even the last compiler or editor, in contrast to the re-shaping and re-writing of the material in the book of Jubilees, indicates that the Priestly spirit was not that of the whole community.
The scribes through the synagogues preserved the national spirit and directed it towards the religious life which was prescribed by Scripture.
It is in Spain that above all the new spirit manifested itself.
But the reconquest of Andalusia by the Christians associated towards the end of the 15th century with the establishment of the Inquisition, introduced a spirit of intolerance which led to the expulsion of the Jews and Moors.
In the early 14th century, the age of Dante, the new spirit of the Renaissance made Italian rulers the patrons of art and literature, and the Jews to some extent shared in this gracious change.
At the age of fourteen he found his way to Berlin, where Frederick the Great, inspired by the spirit of Voltaire, held the maxim that " to oppress the Jews never brought prosperity to any government."
In general the Cretan constitution is characterized by a conservative spirit, and contrasts with the ultra-democratic systems. established in Greece and the Balkan States.
During the next four years party spirit ran high; in the spring of 1904 a deputation of chiefs and politicians addressed a protest to the prince, and early in the following year a band of armed malcontents under M.
The first Christians continued to observe the Jewish festivals, though in a new spirit, as commemorations of events which those festivals had foreshadowed.
About forty years later (197) the question was discussed in a very different spirit between Victor, bisho p of Rome, and Polycrates, metropolitan of proconsular Asia.
The first dictator is said to have been created in 501 B.C.; the last of the " administrative " dictators belongs to the year 216 B.C. It was an office that was incompatible both with the growing spirit of constitutionalism and with the greater security of the city; and the epoch of the Second Punic War was marked by experiments with the office, such as the election of Q.
Most frequently it appears historically, in relation to some definite system of belief, as a reaction of the spirit against the letter.
the influence of the pseudo-Dionysian writings were transmitted to the West in the 9th century by Erigena, in whose speculative spirit both the scholasticism and the mysticism of the middle ages have their rise.
Mysticism first appears in the medieval Church as the protest of practical religion against the predominance of the dialectical spirit.
a peculiarly fruitful soil for mysticism, and, in connexion either with the Beguines or the Church organization, a number of women appear about this time, combining a spirit of mystical piety and asceticism with sturdy reformatory zeal directed against the abuses of the time.
Joachim had proclaimed the doctrine of three world-ages--the kingdom of the Father, of the Son, and of the Spirit.
The reign of the Spirit was to begin with the year 1260, when the abuses of the world and the Church were to be effectually cured by the general adoption of the monastic life of contemplation.
His followers held a progressive revelation of God in the ages of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Just as the Mosaic dispensation came to an end with the appearance of Christ, so the sacraments of the new dispensation have lost their meaning and efficacy since the incarnation of God as Holy Spirit in the Amalricans.
With this opposition to the Church they combine a complete antinomianism, through the identification of all their desires with the impulses of the divine Spirit.
The sect of the New Spirit, or of the Free Spirit as it was afterwards called, spread widely through the north of France and into Switzerland and Germany.
They were especially numerous in the Rhineland in the end of the 13th and during the 14th century; and they seem to have corrupted the originally orthodox communities of Beghards, for Beghards and Brethren of the Free Spirit are used henceforward as convertible terms, and the same immoralities are related of both.
The gloom and harshness of these Spanish mystics are absent from the tender, contemplative spirit of Francois de Sales (1567-1622); and in the quietism Fof Mme Guyon (1648-1717) and Miguel de Molinos (1627-1696) there is again a sufficient implication of mystical doctrine to rouse the suspicion of the ecclesiastical authorities.
The religiosity of the Quakers, with their doctrines of the " inner light " and the influence of, the Spirit, has decided affinities with mysticism; and the autobiography of George Fox (1624-1691), the founder of the sect, proceeds throughout on the assumption of supernatural guidance.
The spirit of the Chinese polity is self-contained, anti-military and anti-sacerdotal.
xviii., Saul's jealousy leaped at once to the conclusion that David's ambition would not stop short of the kingship. Such a suspicion would be intelligible if we could suppose that the king had heard something of the significant act of Samuel, which now stands at the head of the history of David in witness of that divine election and unction with the spirit of Yahweh on which his whole career hung (xvi.
At another time Saul actually gave commands to assassinate his son-in-law, but the breach was made up by Jonathan, whose chivalrous spirit had united him to David in a covenant of closest friendship (xix.
David's daring spirit might very well lead him to visit his wife even after his first flight.
The transcendental deduction, or proof from the possibility of experience in general, which forms the vital centre of the Kantian scheme, is wanting in Reid; or, at all events, if the spirit of the proof is occasionally present, it is nowhere adequately developed.
In 1870 he published a volume of criticism, The Poetry of the Period, which was again conceived in a spirit of satirical invective, and attacked Tennyson, Browning, Matthew Arnold and Swinburne in no half-hearted fashion.
25 in one self-existing supreme ruler of the Universe - the Divine Godhead - the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit - the tripersonality."
His work is always vigorous, but he imputes motives in the spirit of a partisan who never pauses to weigh the evidence or to take a comprehensive view of the situation.
In the spirit of his age he denounced the relics of medieval institutions, such as entails and tenures in mortmain.
In 1649 he published the complete edition of his Apology for authorized and set forms of Liturgy against the Pretence of the Spirit, as well as his Great Exemplar.
The controversy on this question was waged with spirit on both sides; but in the end Pasteur came off victorious, and in a series of the most delicate and most intricate experimental researches he proved that when the atmospheric germs are absolutely excluded no changes take place.
Nevertheless the spirit of resistance in these stubborn mountaineers was not finally broken until 1864, when the Russians eventually stifled all opposition in the difficult valleys and glens of the western Caucasus.
In this he has anticipated the spirit and method as well as many of the results of Reid and the Scottish school.
Their own Reform Bill came soon after and it is again characteristic of Mill - at once of his enthusiasm and of his steady determination to do work that nobody else seemed able or willing to do - that we find him in the heat of the struggle in 1831 writing: to the Examiner a series of letters on "The Spirit of the Age" which drew from Carlyle the singular exclamation "Here is a new mystic!"
The essays on Bentham and Coleridge constituted the first manifesto of the new spirit which Mill sought to breathe into English Radicalism.
And in the same spirit Mill desired, whilst incorporating all the results arrived at in the special science by Smith's successors, to exhibit purely economic phenomena in relation to the most advanced conceptions of his own time in the general philosophy of society, as Smith had done in reference to the philosophy of his century.
It is a panegyric; but history has not refused to accept it as a genuine representation of the character of the great king, in spirit, if not in every detail.
Mary of Lorraine broke the spirit of this agreement by garrisoning Perth with Scottish troops in the pay of France.
But the spirit of investigation impelled him to devote himself to the highest studies, philosophy and the exegesis of the sacred Scriptures.
Origen's apologetic is most effective when he appeals to the spirit and power of Christianity as an evidence of its truth.
"The soul is trained as it were to behold itself in a mirror, it shows the divine spirit, if it should be found worthy of such fellowship, as in a mirror, and thus discovers the traces of a secret path to participation in the divine nature."
The objects of religious knowledge are beyond the plane of history, or rather - in a thoroughly Gnostic and Neo-Platonic spirit - they are regarded as belonging to a supra-mundane history.
From this follows the necessity for the created spirit, after apostasy, error and sin, to return always to its origin in God.
He holds that freedom is the inalienable prerogative of the finite spirit; and this is the second point that distinguishes his theology from the heretical Gnosticism.
The doctrine of the restoration appeared necessary because the spirit, in spite of its inherent freedom, cannot lose its true nature, and because the final purposes of God cannot be foiled.
Moreover the end is not conceived as a transfiguration of the world, but as a liberation of the spirit from its unnatural union with the sensual.
With respect to other doctrines also, such as those of the Holy Spirit and the incarnation of Christ, &c., Origen prepared the way for the later dogmas.
Napoleon intended it as a protest against the spirit of equality which pervaded revolutionary thought.
We detect the dawn of that spirit which afterwards animated Hellenic art.
The art of all the area gives evidence of one spirit and common models; in religious representations it shows the same anthropomorphic personification and the same ritual furniture.
They crushed a civilization already hard hit; and it took two or three centuries for the artistic spirit, instinct in the Aegean area, and probably preserved in suspended animation by the survival of Aegean racial elements, to blossom anew.
peri, " the great fruit"), associated with whom, and forming a triad with him, are the primal aeons Ayar ziva rabba, " the great shining aether," and Mana rabba d'ekara, " the great spirit of glory," usually called simply Mana rabba.
Primal Life, who is properly speaking the Mandaean god, has the same predicates as the primal spirit, and every prayer, as well as every section of the sacred books, begins by invoking him.
He created Adam and Eve, but was unable to make them stand upright, whereupon Hibil, Shithil and Anosh were sent by the First Life to infuse into their forms spirit from Mana rabba himself.
This Raba., the mother of falsehood and lies, of poisoning and fornication is an anti-Christian parody of the Ruha d'Qudsha (Holy Spirit) of the Syriac Church.
Of the names of the planets Estera (Ishtar Venus, also called Ruha d'Qudsha, "holy spirit"), Enba (Nebo, Mercury), Sin (moon), Kewan (Saturn), Bil (Jupiter), and Nirig (Nirgal, Mars) reveal their Babylonian origin; Il or Il Il, the sun, is also known as Kadush and Adunay (the Adonai of the Old Testament); as lord of the planetary spirits his place is in the midst of them; they are the source of all temptation and evil amongst men.
The United States was, at this time, drawn into the vortex of European complications, and Adams, instead of taking advantage of the militant spirit which was aroused, patriotically devoted himself to securing peace with France, much against the wishes of Hamilton and of Hamilton's adherents in the cabinet.
The revival of learning was at hand, and William Turner, a Northumbrian, while residing abroad to avoid persecution at home, printed at Cologne in 1544 the first commentary on the birds mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny conceived in anything like the spirit that moves modern naturalists.'
Both his work and that of Gesner were illustrated with woodcuts, many of which display much spirit and regard to accuracy.
It has passed through a far greater number of editions than any other work on natural history in the whole world, and has become emphatically an English classic - the graceful simplicity of its style, the elevating tone of its spirit, and the sympathetic chords it strikes recommending it to every lover of Nature, while the severely scientific reader can scarcely find an error in any statement it contains, whether of matter of fact or opinion.
This, having been closely, though by no means in a hostile spirit, criticized by Strickland (Ann.
New spirit was given to it.
Often the ass was a mere incident in the Feast of Fools; but sometimes he was the occasion of a special festival, ridiculous enough to modern notions, but by no means intended in an irreverent spirit.
DEMONOLOGY (DaL j ow, demon, genius, spirit), the branch of the science of religions which relates to superhuman beings which are not gods.
The so-called Spectre Huntsman of the Malay Peninsula is said to be a man who scours the firmament with his dogs, vainly seeking for what he could not find on earth - a buck mouse-deer pregnant with male offspring; but he seems to be a living man; there is no statement that he ever died, nor yet that he is a spirit.
- According to a conception of the world frequently found among peoples of the lower cultures, all the affairs of life are supposed to be under the control of spirits, each ruling a certain element or even object, and themselves in subjection to a greater spirit.
Every cove of the seashore, every point, every island and prominent rock has its guardian spirit.
enacted that all persons invoking an evil spirit or consulting, covenanting with, entertaining, employing, feeding or rewarding any evil spirit should be guilty of felony and suffer death.
moer, spirit, elf) preserves for us a record of this form of belief, which is found right down to the lowest planes of culture.
(g) Corresponding to the personal tutelary spirit (supra, b) we have the genii of buildings and places.
The assignment of genii to buildings and gates is connected with an important class of sacrifices; in order to provide a tutelary spirit, or to appease chthonic deities, it was often the custom to sacrifice a human being or an animal at the foundation of a building; sometimes we find a similar guardian provided for the frontier of a country or of a tribe.
The house spirit is, however, not necessarily connected with this idea.
In Russia the domovoi (house spirit) is an important personage in folk-belief; he may object to certain kinds of animals, or to certain colours in cattle; and must, generally speaking, be propitiated and cared for.
Especially prominent in Europe, classical, medieval and modern, and in East Asia, is the spirit of the lake, river, spring, or well, often conceived as human, but also in the form of a bull or horse; the term Old Nick may refer to the water-horse Nok.
Outside the European area vegetation spirits of all kinds seem to be conceived, as a rule, as anthropomorphic; in classical Europe, and parts of the Slavonic area at the present day, the tree spirit was believed to have the form of a goat, or to have goats' feet.
Of special importance in Europe is the conception of the so-called "corn spirit"; W.
The corn spirit is also said to be hiding in the barn till the corn is threshed, or it may be said to reappear at midwinter, when the farmer begins to think of his new year of labour and harvest.
Side by side with the conception of the corn spirit as an animal is the anthropomorphic view of it; and this element must have predominated in the evolution of the cereal deities like Demeter; at the same time traces of the association of gods and goddesses of corn with animal embodiments of the corn spirit are found.
Occam's dictum "Entia non multiplicanda sunt praeter necessitatem" was inspired by a spirit similar to that of Bacon.
(1802-1803); Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit (1777), and various essays and letters on necessarianism.
After his death a succession of volumes, representing his various courses of lectures, appeared (1856-1864), in addition to the Lectures on the History of Dogma (Theologische Vorlesungen), admirable in spirit and execution, which were edited by J.
Ragozin states in his work on the petroleum industry that Johann Lerche, who visited the Caspian district in 1735, found that the crude Caucasian oil required to be distilled to render it satisfactorily combustible, and that, when distilled, it yielded a bright yellow oil resembling a spirit, which readily ignited.
In most petroleum-producing countries, however, and particularly where the product is abundant, the crude oil is fractionally distilled, so as to separate it into petroleum spirit of various grades, burning oils, gas oils, lubricating oils, and (if the crude oil yields that product) paraffin.
In the United States a horizontal cylindrical still is usually employed in the distillation of the spirit and kerosene, but what is known as the " cheese-box " still has also been largely used.
Petroleum spirit is tested for specific gravity, range of boilingpoints, and results of fractional distillation.
The earliest form of testing instrument employed for this purpose was that of Giuseppe Tagliabue of New York, which consists of a glass cup placed in a copper water bath heated by a spirit lamp. The cup is filled with the oil to be tested, a thermometer placed in it and heat applied, the temperatures being noted at which, on passing a lighted splinter of wood over the surface of the oil, a flash occurs, and after further heating, the oil ignites.
The oil-cup is supported in a bath or heating-vessel, consisting of two flat-bottomed copper cylinders, to contain water, heated by a spirit lamp, and provided with an air-space between the water-vessel and the oil-cup. Thermometers are placed in both oil-cup and waterbath, the temperature of the latter being raised to 130° at the commencement of the test, while the oil is put in at about 60° F.
The use of petroleum as liquid fuel is dealt with under Fuel, as is the employment of its products in motors, which has greatly increased the demand for petroleum spirit.
The more recent legislation with regard to " petroleum spirit " relates mainly to the quantity which may be stored for use on " light locomotives."
By analogy the term "crusade" is also given to any campaign undertaken in the same spirit.
Considered as holy wars the Crusades must be interpreted by the ideas of an age which was dominated by the spirit of otherworldliness, and accordingly ruled by the clerical power which represented the other world.
Alexius may almost be compared to a magician, who has uttered a charm to summon a ministering spirit, and is surrounded on the instant by legions of demons.
Thus it was on a kingdom of crusaders who had lost the crusading spirit that a new Crusade swept down; and Saladin's army in 1187 had the spirit and the fire of the Latin crusaders of 1099.
It was indeed in the spirit of a king of Sicily, and not in the spirit - though it was in the role - of a king of Jerusalem, that Frederick had acted.
Negotiating in the spirit of a Frederick II., and acting not as a Crusader but as a king of Sicily, he not only wrested a large indemnity from the bey for himself and the new king of France, but also secured a large annual tribute for his Sicilian exchequer.
18 the theorists who speculated and wrote on the Crusades), he attempted to revive the old crusading spirit throughout the west of Europe.
3 "Don Henrique's scheme," it has been said, "represents the final effort of the crusading spirit; and the naval campaigns against the Moslem in the Indian seas, in which it culminated, forty years after Don Henrique's death, may be described as the last Crusade."
The spirit of Nathan der Weise may not have been exactly the spirit engendered by the Crusades; and yet it is not without reason that Lessing stages the fable which teaches toleration in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.
While a new spirit which compares and tolerates thus sprang from the Crusades, the large sphere of new knowledge and experience which they gave brought new material at once for scientific thought and poetic imagination.
New poems in abundance dealt with the history of the Crusades, either in a faithful narrative, like that of the Chanson of Ambroise, which narrates the Third Crusade, or in a free and poetical spirit, such as breathes in the Chanson d'Antioche.
The Crusades afforded new details which might be inserted into old matters, and a new spirit which might be infused into old subjects; and a crusading complexion thus came to be put upon old tales like those of Arthur and Charlemagne.
The ages were not dark in which Christianity could gather itself together in a common cause, and carry the flag of its faith to the grave of its Redeemer; nor can we but give thanks for their memory, even if for us religion is of the spirit, and Jerusalem in the heart of every man who believes in Christ.
The Christians constitute the educated portion of the Syrian people; but the spirit of rivalry has produced stimulative effects on the Mahommedans, who had greatly fallen away from that zeal for knowledge which characterized the earlier centuries of their faith.
1 They are, like mountaineers generally, of a sturdy, independent spirit, and are given to the free expression of their views, generally stated with good sense and moderation.
The last and the worst of the Cid ballads are those which betray by their frigid conceits and feeble mimicry of the antique the false taste and essentially unheroic spirit of the age of Philip II.
Damas Hinard has published the poem, with a literal French translation and notes, and John Hookham Frere has rendered it into English with extraordinary spirit and fidelity.
He was thus able to throw himself into the spirit of modern experimental science.
One of these, the Dialogue against Hypocrites, was aimed in a spirit of vindictive hatred at the vices of ecclesiastics; another, written at the request of Nicholas V., covered the anti-pope Felix with scurrilous abuse.
These legends show how closely the heroine is associated with the cult of Artemis, and with the human sacrifices which accompanied it in older times before the Hellenic spirit had modified the barbarism of this borrowed religion.
He now saw, however, that the spirit of the age was against him, and hopelessly given over to the belief of what he had combated as a delusion.
He dwelt strongly on the importance of men looking away from the externals of the sacrament to the spirit of love and piety.
But the spirit of the evangelists was unquenchable.
His conclusion is that men should do now with all their might what they have to do; the future of man's vital part, the spirit, is wholly uncertain.
21 (" who knows whether the spirit of man goes upward ?"), and it seems to be from another hand than that of the author of the original book.
For an English appreciation of the philosophical spirit of Ibn Khaldun see R.
Chaucer, Chanouns Yemannes Tale, where, however, mercury figures both as a spirit and a body: " The firste spirit quik-silver called is, The second orpiment, the thridde ywis Sal armoniak, and the ferthe brimstoon."
He was a man of strong mind, honourable spirit and affectionate disposition, energetic both in speech and in writing.
Conceived in the Hildebrandine spirit, his reforms led by a natural sequence to strained relations between Church and State; the equilibrium which he established was unstable, and depended too much upon his personal influence with the Conqueror.
The sensuality which characterized the period appears in it, but in a less coarse form than in the great work of Rabelais; and there is 'a poetical spirit which, except in rare instances, is absent from Pantagruel.
But Henry and Marguerite still continued friends; she still bore the title of queen; she visited Marie de' Medici on equal terms; and the king frequently consulted her on important affairs, though his somewhat parsimonious spirit was grieved by her extravagance.
But a spirit of harmony and energy now breathed within the nation, and in the ensuing wars Athens worsted powerful enemies like Thebes and Chalcis (506).
The law established the ancient customs, at the same time eliminating anything that was contrary to the spirit of Christianity; it proclaimed the peace of the churches, whose possessions it guaranteed and whose right of asylum it recognized.
Both his name and his exploits remind us of the woodland spirit Robin Goodfellow and his merry pranks.
Robin Hood is Hod, the god of the wind, a form of Woden; Maid Marian is Morgen, the dawn-maiden; Friar Tuck is Toki, the spirit of frost and snow."
In the hands of Parmenides this spirit of free thought developed on metaphysical lines.
Atlanta is widely known for its public spirit and enterprise, to which the expositions of 1881, 1887 and 1895 bear witness.
A similar spirit appears among the prophecies ascribed to Balaam: "Amalek, first (or chief) of nations, his latter end [will be] destruction" (Num.
This spirit gave way to the physicians, who regarded " chemistry as the art of preparing medicines," a denotation which in turn succumbed to the arguments of Boyle, who regarded it as the " science of the composition of substances," a definition which adequately fits the science to-day.
The clarification and spirit of research so clearly emphasized by Robert Boyle in the middle of the 17th century is reflected in the classification of substances expounded by Nicolas Lemery, in 1675, in his Cours de chymie.
A new and energetic spirit was introduced by Scheele; among other discoveries this gifted experimenter isolated and characterized many organic acids, and proved the general occurrence of glycerin (Olsiiss) in all oils and fats.
Scheele enriched the knowledge of chemistry by an immense number of facts, but he did not possess the spirit of working systematically as Bergman did.
Lachmann, Spirit of Organic Chemistry; J.
This arouses his spirit of contradiction; and he tells them that they might have won it from him by coaxing, but never by threats, and that he values his life no more than the stone he tosses away as he speaks to them.
German literature tells of several literary schools, or groups of writers animated by the same ideas, and working in the spirit of the same principles and by the same poetic methods.
It may be prepared by the general methods, and occurs in fusel oil, especially in potato spirit.
It has many breweries and distilleries, and the spirit known by its name, which is a coarse gin, has a certain reputation throughout Belgium.
YOGI, a Hindu religious ascetic. The word yoga means union, and first occurs in the later Upanishads; and yogi means one who practises yoga, with the object of uniting his soul with the divine spirit.
They would never have died out, however, had not circumstances altered, and a new mental attitude been taken up. The spirit of philosophical and theological speculation and of ethical reflection, which began to spread through the churches, did not know what to make of the old hopes of the future.
After the death of any of his favourite disciples he would hold a dog to the mouth of the man in order to receive the departing spirit, saying that there was no animal which could perpetuate his virtues better than that quadruped.
The operation of the Spirit was in no way limited to time, or individual or place.
The appointment of one man to preach, to the exclusion of others, whether he feels a divine call so to do or not, is regarded as a limitation of the work of the Spirit and an undue concentration of that responsibility which ought to be shared by a wider circle.
From the beginning Friends have not practised the outward ordinances of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, even in a nonsacerdotal spirit.
They believe that an experience of more than 250 years gives ample warrant for the belief that Christ did not command them as a perpetual outward ordinance; on the contrary, they hold that it was alien to His method to lay down minute, outward rules for all time, but that He enunciated principles which His Church should, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, apply to the varying needs of the day.
Friends have always held that war is contrary to the precepts and spirit of the Gospel, believing that it springs from the lower impulses of human nature, and not from the seed of divine life with its infinite capacity of response to the Spirit of God.
They believe that the same Spirit who gave forth the Scriptures still guides men to a right understanding of them.
Can you set to your seal that they are true by the work of the same spirit in you that gave them forth in the holy ancients ?
Bible teaching is the central part of the school session: the lessons are mainly concerned with life's practical problems. The spirit of brotherliness which prevails is largely the secret of the success of the movement.
The celebrated " homo sum " is a translation from Alexis, and the spirit of it breathes in many passages of the Greek drama.
Doubtless there was often genuine mutual affection; slaves sometimes, as in noted instances during the civil wars, showed the noblest spirit of devotion to their masters.
The great motor of the parallel effort in England was the Christian spirit; in France it was the enthusiasm of humanity which was associated with the revolutionary movement.
They roused a determined spirit of opposition, founded on deep-seated convictions.
Wesley s spirit at this time is seen from his sermon on "The Circumcision of the Heart," preached before the university on the 1st of January 1733.
He inspired his preachers and his people with his own spirit and made everything subordinate to his overmastering purpose, the spread of scriptural holiness throughout the land.
5), he defines as the age of the Law, or of the Father; the age of the Gospel, or of the Son; and the age of the Spirit, which will bring the ages to an end.
The initiation period of the third age begins with St Benedict, while the actual age of the Spirit is not to begin until 1260, the Church- mulier amicta sole (Rev. xii.
The first age was the age of the Letter, the second was intermediary between the Letter and the Spirit, and the third was to be the age of the Spirit.
In the age of the Father all that was necessary was obedience; in the age of the Son reading is enjoined; but the age of the Spirit was to be devoted to prayer and song.
Gherardo, however, did not say, as has been supposed, that Joachim's books were the new gospel, but merely that the Calabrian abbot had supplied the key to Holy Writ, and that with the help of that intelligentia mystica it would be possible to extract from the Old and New Testaments the eternal meaning, the gospel according to the Spirit, a gospel which would never be written; as for this eternal sense, it had been entrusted to an order set apart, to the Franciscan order announced by Joachim, and in this order the ideal of the third age was realized.
In the Gathas the Good Spirit of Mazda and the Evil Spirit are the two great opposing forces in the world, and Ormazd himself is to a certain extent placed above them both.
Later the Holy Spirit is made directly equivalent to Ormazd; and then the great watchword is: "Here Ormazd, there Ahriman!"
The essence of the wicked spirit is falsehood: and falsehood, as the embodiment of the evil principle, is much more frequently mentioned in the Gathas than Ahriman himself.
The ultimate triumph of the good spirit is an ethical demand of the religious consciousness and the quintessence of Zoroaster's religion.
The evil spirit with his wicked hosts appears in the Gathas much less endowed with the attributes of personality and individuality than does Ahura Mazda.
Armaiti searches, following thy spirit, where errors are found."
Fravashi properly means "confession of faith," and when personified comes to be regarded as a protecting spirit.
For attaching it to the paper a strong mucilage of gum tragacanth, containing an eighth of its weight of spirit of wine, answers best.
Everything, spirit as well as body, must return to the source whence it emanated (Zohar, ii.
He alone constitutes the world of pure spirit, and is the garment of Shaddai, i.e.
The prince of this region of darkness is Samael, the evil spirit, the serpent who seduced Eve.
(I) The Spirit (neshamah), which is the highest degree of being, corresponds to and is operated upon by the Crown, which is the highest triad in the Sephiroth, and is called the Intellectual World; (2) the Soul (rah), which is the seat of the moral qualities, corresponds to and is operated upon by Beauty, which is the second triad in the Sephiroth, and is called the Moral World; and (3) the Cruder Soul (nephesh), which is immediately connected with the body, and is the cause of its lower instincts and the animal life, corresponds to and is operated upon by Foundation, the third triad in the Sephiroth, called the Material World.
Jewish orthodoxy found itself attacked by the more revolutionary aspects of mysticism and its tendencies to alter established customs. While the medieval scholasticism denied the possibility of knowing anything unattainable by reason, the spirit of the Kabbalah held that the Deity could be realized, and it sought to bridge the gulf.
Yet, with this adoption of the Greek point of view, the tone and spirit of this literature remain Hebrew.
Mechanics (including dynamical astronomy) is that subject among those traditionally classed as "applied" which has been most completely transfused by mathematics - that is to say, which is studied with the deductive spirit of the pure mathematician, and not with the covert inductive intention overlaid with the superficial forms of deduction, characteristic of the applied mathematician.
In the next and last period the progress of pure mathematics has been dominated by the critical spirit introduced by the German mathematicians under the guidance of Weierstrass, though foreshadowed by earlier analysts, such as Abel.
The plum-orchards of the Posavina furnish prunes and a spirit called slivovica, shlivovitsa or sliwowitz.
So also did the " Midhat Constitution " promulgated by Abd-ul-Hamid almost immediately after his accession to the throne, owing largely to the reactionary spirit at that time of the' Ulema and of the sultan's immediate advisers, but almost, if not quite, in equal measure to the scornful reception of the Constitution by the European powers.
Until quite recent times the conservative and fanatical spirit of the 'Ulema had been one of the greatest obstacles to progress and reform in a political system in which spiritual and temporal functions were intimately interwoven.
The enthusiastic spirit of reform which heralded the accession of the latter sultan never altogether died out, and from about the last decade of the 19th century has been rapidly and effectively growing in force and in method.
The kharaj, the jiziye, and the whole feudal system disappeared in theory, although its spirit, and indeed in some respects its practice, still exists in fact, during the reforming period initiated by Sultan Selim III., culminating in the Tanzimat-i-Khairiye (1839) of Abd-ul-Mejid, and the Hatt-iHumayun issued by the same sultan (1856).
The first revenue specified among these in the budget is that accruing from the wine and spirit duties, which is again among those assigned to the Public Debt, £T283,079.
Urquhart, The Spirit of the East (2 vols., 1838); A.
Bayezid's proud spirit could not endure his fall, and he died eight months later at.
This was notably the case in Servia, where the temporary domination of Austria, to which the treaty of Sistova (1791) put an end, had had the effect of awakening the national spirit of the people.
This concession, given under strong pressure from Russia, aroused the deepest resentment of the Greeks, and was the principal factor in the awakening of the Bulgarian national spirit which subsequent events have done so much to develop. Russian influence at Constantinople had been gradually increasing, and towards the end of 1870 the tsar took advantage of the temporary disabling of France to declare himself no longer bound by those clauses of the Treaty of Paris which restricted Russia's liberty of possessing warships on the Black Sea.
On the other hand, the Russians, once their fatherland was invaded, became dominated by an ever-growing spirit of fanaticism, and they were by nature too obedient to their natural leaders, and too well inured to the hardships of campaigning, to lose their courage in a retreat.
As the news of the destruction of the 'Grande Armee spread, and the appearance of countless stragglers convinced the Prussian people of the reality of the disaster, the spirit generated by years of French domination burst out.
If it was due to Livius that the forms of Latin literature were, from the first, moulded on those of Greek literature, it was due to Naevius that much of its spirit and substance was of native growth.
A strong spirit of partisanship is recognized in more than one of the fragments; and this spirit is thoroughly popular and adverse to the senatorial ascendancy which became more and more confirmed with the progress of the second Punic war.
vigorous representative of the bold combative spirit of the ancient Roman commons.
As a dramatist he worked more in the spirit of Plautus than of Ennius, Pacuvius, Accius or Terence; but the great Umbrian humorist is separated from his older contemporary, not only by his breadth of comic power, but by his general attitude of moral and political indifference.
His draughtsmanship is better than that of Jacques, whom he did not, however, rival in spirit, colour or composition.
The settlements bordering on the Indian reservations had experienced more or less trouble with the Sioux for several years, the most serious outbreak having occurred in March 1857, when Ink-pa-du-ta led his band to massacre the settlers at Spirit Lake.
Father Fitzherbert, who is described as "a person of excellent parts, a notable politician, and of graceful behaviour and generous spirit," wrote many controversial works, a list of which is given in the article on him by Mr Thompson Cooper in the Dictionary of National Biography, together with authorities for his life.
There are numerous breweries, producing annually about 24,000,000 gallons of beer, spirit distilleries and factories of artificial.
150 that the true Hellenic spirit begins to appear.
The present article can only give a brief outline of a subject as intricate as it is vast, frequently also extremely obscure, and rendered still more obscure by the fact that those who have applied themselves to it have too often done so in anything but a scientific spirit.
In England red vestments are worn at the mass (of the Holy Spirit) attended by the Roman Catholic judges and barristers at the opening of term, the so-called "Red Mass."
In this he criticizes the bishops' Report in a sympathetic spirit, but points out how intimately the symbolism of the vestments had become associated with the doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass, and how logical was the action of the Reformers in rejecting certain of these vestments.
He directs this spirit of revolt also against the sources of his own inspiration; he turns bitterly against Wagner, whose intimate friend and enthusiastic admirer he had been, and denounces him as the musician of decadent emotionalism; he rejects his "educator" Schopenhauer's pessimism, and transforms his will to live into a "Will to Power."
Men of Pinckney's type were not in sympathy with the progressive democratic spirit of America, and they began to withdraw from politics after about 1800.
Basing their views on the synoptic Gospels, and tracing descent from the obscure sect of the Alogi, the Adoptianists under Theodotus of Byzantium tried to found a school at Rome c. 185, asserting that Jesus was a man, filled with the Holy Spirit's inspiration from his baptism, and so attaining such a perfection of holiness that he was adopted by God and exalted to divine dignity.
At a later period there was an open and continuous sale of spiritual offices by the Roman curia which contemporary writers attacked in the spirit of Dante.
They came principally from the provincial intendants, or from the tours des aides, which were animated by a liberal spirit.
His versatility is further shown by the fact that he drew rough caricatures and other sketches with some spirit.
The closing verses strike that deep note of absolute dependence on God, which is the glory of the religion of the Old Testament and its chief contribution to the spirit of the Gospels.
None of these political changes weakened the independent spirit of the Bearnais.
The abbe's central position, that our Lord himself held the proximateness of His second coming, involves the loss by churchmen of the prestige of directly divine power, since Church and Sacraments, though still the true fruits and vehicles of his life, death and spirit, cannot thus be immediately founded by the earthly Jesus himself.
They decided each problem on its merits, looking more to the spirit than to the letter, and often showing a practical sagacity worthy of Johnson himself.
Quite in the great doctor's spirit is Cicero's counsel to his son, to hear what the philosophers had to say, but to decide for himself as a man of the world.
These deal with the casuists of the Counter - Reformation in the spirit of Milton, laying especial stress on the artificiality of their methods and the laxity of their results.
But they were drawn, almost to a man, from Italy or Spain, the two countries least alive to the spirit of the.
It is in practical affairs that the eclectic or undogmatic spirit is most valuable, and also least dangerous.
In the last stage of Greek philosophy the eclectic spirit produced remarkable results outside the philosophies of those properly called eclectics.
The calling up of the spirit of Samuel by the Witch at Endor when consulted by Saul is the classical example (I Sam.
The maceration of the soft parts of a scorpion preserved in weak spirit and the cleaning of the chitinized in-grown 1nus cuticle give rise to the false appearance of a limb axis carrying the lamellae.
Russell spoke with spirit and dignity in his own defence, and, in especial, vehemently denied that he had ever been party to a design so wicked and so foolish as those of the murder of the king and of rebellion.
He presupposes a nation of Yahweh-worshippers, whose religion has its centre in the temple and priesthood of Zion, which is indeed conscious of sin, and needs forgiveness and an outpouring of the Spirit, but is not visibly divided, as the kingdom of Judah was.
33) shall be fully realized in the outpouring of the Spirit on all the Jews and even upon their servants (Isa.
To the south of the cantonment is situated the park, created by the taste and public spirit of Lord Wellesley.
The naval revolt of 1893-1894, however, had aroused the spirit of militarism in the ruling classes, and the effort to perfect the organization and equipment of the army, strengthen the fortifications of Rio de Janeiro, and increase the navy, have kept expenditures in excess of the revenues.
But it was on the part of the Dutch that the most skilful and pertinacious efforts were made for securing a footing in Brazil; and they alone of all the rivals of the Portuguese have left traces of their presence in the national spirit and institutions of Brazil.
The Portuguese government, under the administration of Carvalho, afterwards marquis of Pombal, attempted to extend to Brazil the bold spirit of innovation which directed all his efforts.
The Brazilian Company founded by Vieyra, which so materially contributed to preserve its South American possessions to Portugal, had been abolished in 1721 by John V.; but such an instrument being well suited to the bold spirit of Pombal, he established a chartered company again in 1755, to trade exclusively with Maranhao and Para; and in 1759, in spite of the remonstrance of the British Factory at Lisbon, formed another company for Parahyba and Pernambuco.
Still the progress of the republican spirit in Brazil caused Dom Joao to send to Portugal for bodies of picked troops, which were stationed throughout the provincial capitals.
In Rio, the Portuguese troops with which the king had surrounded himself as the defence against the liberal spirit of the Brazilians, took up arms on the 26th of February 1821, to force him to accept the system proclaimed in Portugal.
As the king could not abandon Portugal to itself he determined at first to send the prince thither as regent, but Dom Pedro had acquired such popularity by his conduct in the revolution, and had exhibited such a thirst for glory, that the king feared to trust his adventurous spirit in Europe, and decided to go himself.
Negotiations were set on foot, and finally by treating the matter in a give-and-take spirit a settlement was reached and a treaty for an amicable exchange of territories in the district in question, accompanied by a pecuniary indemnity, was signed by President Alves at Petropolis on the 17th of November 1903.
In the House he showed an extraordinary, sometimes an excessive zeal for public business, speaking on all subjects with practical sense, but on none with eloquence or spirit.
Intended to evolve a history of jurisprudence from the truthful portraits of England's greatest lawyers, it merely exhibits the ill-digested results of desultory learning, without a trace of scientific symmetry or literary taste, without a spark of that divine imaginative sympathy which alone can give flesh and spirit to the dead bones of the past, and without which the present 1 See thereon J.
Next, it must be carefully remembered that the early church was, in a sense hard for us even to understand, ruled and edified by the direct action of the Holy Spirit.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.