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spiral

spiral

spiral Sentence Examples

  • She tucked the pencil in the spiral part of her tablet.

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  • panded spiral bands.

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  • A spiral stairway leads from the base of this pedestal to the torch.

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  • He looked up to see the boy standing above him, holding out a small spiral notebook.

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  • Many of them were ones he had suggested – like the size of the fireplace and replacing the stairs with a spiral staircase.

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  • William Gilpin calls the cypress an architectural tree: "No Italian scene," says he, "is perfect without its tall spiral form, appearing as if it were but a part of the picturesquely disposed edifices which rise from the middle ground against the distant landscape."

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  • It now seems probable that the spiral nebula is the fittest illustration of the transformation of a diffused nebula into a system of sun and planets.

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  • F, Fixed coil; D, Movable coil; S, Spiral spring; T, Torsion head; MM, Mercury cups; I, Index needle.

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  • These were very numerous, for the place was thickly inhabited, and a large group of the queer people clustered near, gazing sharply upon the strangers who had emerged from the long spiral stairway.

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  • also bears tubers; the D, Spore showing the two spiral vegetative shoots have bands of the perinium.

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  • also bears tubers; the D, Spore showing the two spiral vegetative shoots have bands of the perinium.

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  • In the one the pattern consists of narrow vertical stripes, and in the other of longitudinal or obliquely longitudinal stripes, which, on the sides of the body, tend to assume a spiral or sub-circular arrangement characteristic of the blotched tabby.

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  • Each strand of spiral or annular first-formed tracheids is called a protoxylem strand, as distinct from the metaxylem or rest of the xylem, which consists of thick-walled tracheids, the pits of which are often scalariform.

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  • 14) the slide, and b, b the spiral springs.

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  • In one heavy thunder-shower the lightning struck a large pitch pine across the pond, making a very conspicuous and perfectly regular spiral groove from top to bottom, an inch or more deep, and four or five inches wide, as you would groove a walking-stick.

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  • Club-shaped hydranths with numerous tentacles, generally scattered irregularly, sometimes with a spiral arrangement, or in whorls (" verticillate ").

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  • Shell spiral; four cephalic tentacles; eyes absent; two pedal appendages.

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  • bengalensis), in some of which an incipient spiral arrangement of the markings may be noticed on the shoulder.

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  • In Paludina the whorls of the spiral are very prominent; the genus is viviparous.

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  • The steady downward spiral of snowflakes was mesmerizing, peaceful.

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  • This body has been called a blepharoplast, and in the Pteridophytes, Cycads and Ginkgo it gives rise to the spiral band on which the cilia are formed.

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  • At the present day when the nebulae that are spiral in form have been shown to be so numerous, next to the fixed stars themselves, our view of the nebular theory has been somewhat modified.

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  • In a dextral Gastropod the shell is coiled in a right-handed spiral from apex to mouth, and the spiral also projects to the right of the median plane of the animal.

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  • with sinistral spiral; pallial cavity dorsal.

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  • In England the word "snail" in popular language is associated with Gasteropods which inhabit land or fresh water, and which possess large conspicuous spiral shells; terrestrial Gasteropods, in which the shell is rudimentary and concealed, are distinguished as "slugs."

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  • The steady downward spiral of snowflakes was mesmerizing, peaceful.

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  • This body has been called a blepharoplast, and in the Pteridophytes, Cycads and Ginkgo it gives rise to the spiral band on which the cilia are formed.

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  • with sinistral spiral; pallial cavity dorsal.

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  • The thin-walled spiral or annular tracheae of the protoxylem allow of longitudinal stretching brought about by the active growth in length of the neighboring living parenchymatous cells of a growing organ.

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  • spiral, with short spire.

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  • Our greatest Champion, Overman-Anu, once climbed the spiral stairway and fought nine days with the Gargoyles before he could escape them and come back; but he could never be induced to describe the dreadful creatures, and soon afterward a bear caught him and ate him up.

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  • He had the letter taken from his pocket and the table--on which stood a glass of lemonade and a spiral wax candle--moved close to the bed, and putting on his spectacles he began reading.

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  • Shell largely chitinous, not spiral, its calcareous apex projecting through a small hole in the mantle.

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  • When a current is passed through the coil it rotates in the field and displaces the index over the scale against the control of a spiral spring like the hairspring of a watch.

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  • This second coil is suspended by a number of silk fibres, and to the coil is also attached a spiral spring the other end of which is fastened to a torsion head.

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  • The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral.

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  • After having previously roasted the tube and copper oxide, and reduced the copper spiral a, the weighed calcium chloride tube and potash bulbs are put in position, the boat containing the substance is inserted (in the case of a difficultly combustible substance it is desirable to mix it with cupric oxide or lead chromate), the copper spiral (d) replaced, and the air and oxygen supply connected up. The apparatus is then tested for leaks.

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  • If all the connexions are sound, the copper oxide is gradually heated from the end a, the gas-jets under the spiral d are lighted, and a slow current of oxygen is passed through the tube.

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  • The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.

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  • The paper cables consist of a number of wires, each enveloped in a loose covering of well-dried paper, and loosely laid up together with a slight spiral " lay " in a bundle, the whole being enclosed in a stout lead pipe.

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  • The apex in this case will describe a circle, or rather a spiral, as it is elongating all the time, pointing to all points of the compass in succession.

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  • Shell conical, not spiral; inferior pallial lobe transformed into a branchia.

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  • He is credited with the invention of the anchor escapement for clocks, and also with the application of spiral springs to the balances of watches, together with the explanation of their action by the principle Ut tensio sic vis (1676).

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  • Occupying the axis, and exposed by the section, is seen the "columella " or spiral pillar.

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  • The chitinous layer is usually strengthened by thread like thickenings which, in the region close to the outer opening of the tube, form a network enclosing polygonal areas, but which, through most of the tracheal system, are arranged spirally, the strengthening thread not forming a continuous spiral, but being interrupted after a few turns around the tube.

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  • It projects horizontally forwards from the head in the form of a cylindrical or slightly tapering, pointed tusk, composed of ivory, with a central cavity reaching almost to the apex, without enamel, and with the surface marked by spiral grooves and ridges, running in a sinistral direction.

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  • P, Part of spiral hydroid (tracheid) of Phanerogam (Flowering Plant).

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  • It is thickened more in some places than in others, and thus are formed the spiral, annular and other markings, as well as the pits which occur on various cells and vessels.

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  • Cases of complete fusion occur in the formation of laticiferous vessels, and in the spiral, annular and reticulate vessels of the xylem.

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  • Internally they are found to consist of a lamina twisted upon itself, and externally they generally exhibit a tortuous structure, produced, before the cloaca was reached, by the spiral valve of a compressed small intestine (as in skates, sharks and dog-fishes); the surface shows also vascular impressions and corrugations due to the same cause.

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  • Cuculus canorus and trogons, is often lined with the broken-off hairs of these caterpillars, which, penetrating the cuticle, assume a regular spiral arrangement, due to the rotatory motion of the muscles of the gizzard.

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  • They derive this moisture from the air by means of aerial roots, developed from the stem and bearing an outer spongy structure, or velamen, consisting of empty cells kept open by spiral thickenings in the wall; this sponge-like tissue absorbs dew and rain and condenses the moisture of the air and passes it on to the internal tissues.

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  • When the shell is sinistral the asymmetry of the organs is usually reversed, and there is a complete situs inversus viscerum, the direction of the spiral of the shell corresponding to the position of the organs of the body.

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  • The cylinder contains towards n a sliding rod, and towards 0 a compressed spiral spring.

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  • Such a vascular cylinder is called a haplostele, and the axis containing it is said to be haplostelic. In the stele of the root the strands of tracheids along the lines where the xylem touches the pericycle are spiral or annular, and are the xylem elements first formed when the cylinder is developing.

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  • During the process the thin walls are stretched and the turns of the spiral become pulled apart without rupturing the wall of the tracheid or vessel, If the pitted type of tracheal element were similarly stretched its continuously thickened walls would resist the stretching and eventually break.

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  • The two ambones in the cathedral of Salerno, which are different in design, are magnificent in effect and are enriched with sculpture as well as with mosaic. In the gospel ambo in the cathedral of Ravello (1272), and also in that of the convent of the Trinita della Cava near Salerno, the spiral columns inlaid with mosaic stand on the backs of lions.

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  • Neither the rotation of the shell as a whole nor its helicoid spiral coiling is the immediate cause of the torsion of the body in the individual, for the direction of the torsion is indicated in the segmentation of the ovum, in which there is a complete A B From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.

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  • Two spiral springs underneath press the plate Br with its agate end-bearing against the rounded end of the screw S.

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  • A curious ridge (spiral ?

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  • Shell semi-globular, with short spire; operculum calcareous, not spiral.

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  • (Spiral and V Systems.) FIG.

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  • 2); the spiral system, in which a series of spiral grooves are cut all round the trunk, by which means virtually the entire area of the trunk is tapped.

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  • The V-system is the oldest, but is being largely superseded by the herring-bone; the spiral system is more recent and is still on trial.

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  • The tree is tapped either in the same manner as the Hevea, or by encircling the tree with a simple spiral cut at an inclination of 45°, or by two parallel spirals if the tree be large.

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  • At the bottom of the spiral an iron spout about 4 in.

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  • Others have arranged a means of obtaining high conductivity wire from cathode-copper without fusion, by depositing the metal in the form of a spiral strip on a cylinder, the strip being subsequently drawn down in the usual way; at present, however, the ordinary methods of wire production are found to be cheaper.

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  • Dorsal valve, showing calcareous spiral coils.

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  • (A portion of the fringe of cirri is removed to show the brachial membrane and a portion of the spiral extremities of the arms.) FIG.

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  • His invention of the spiral watch-spring was explained in the Journal des savants (Feb.

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  • A wire carrying an electric current is surrounded by a magnetic field, and if the wire is bent into the form of an elongated coil or spiral, a field having certain very useful qualities is generated in the interior.

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  • A little instrument, supplied by Hartmann and Braun, contains a short length of fine bismuth wire wound into a flat double spiral, half an inch or thereabouts in diameter, and attached to a long ebonite handle.

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  • Unfortunately the effects of magnetization upon the specific resistance of bismuth vary enormously with changes of temperature; it is therefore necessary to take two readings of the resistance, one when the spiral is in the magnetic field, the other when it is outside.

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  • An oblong coil about an inch in length is suspended from each end by thin strips of rolled German silver wire, one of which is connected with a spiral spring for regulating the tension, the other being attached to a torsion-head.

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  • The wire is subject to two superposed magnetizations, the one longitudinal, the other circular, due to the current traversing the wire; the resultant magnetization is consequently in the direction of a screw or spiral round the wire, which will be right-handed or left-handed according as the relation between the two magnetizations is right-handed or left-handed; the magnetic expansion or contraction of the metal along the spiral lines of magnetization produces the Wiedemann twist.

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  • Iron (moderately magnetized) expands along the lines of magnetization, and therefore for a right-handed spiral exhibits a right-handed twist.

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  • At constant temperature the resistance increased with the field; the changes in the resistance of the spiral when the temperature was 18° C. are indicated in the annexed table, from which it will be seen that in the strongest transverse field reached the resistance was increased more than threefold.

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  • Of these by far the most remarkable is the Scott monument in East Princes Street Gardens, designed by George Meikle Kemp (1795-1844); it is in the form of a spiral Gothic cross with a central canopy beneath which is a seated statue of Scott with his dog " Maida " at his side, by Sir John Steell, the niches being occupied by characters in Sir Walter's writings.

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  • The origin of co-ordinates 0 corresponds to v = 0; and the asymptotic points J, J', round which the curve revolves in an ever-closing spiral, correspond to v= =co .

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  • The distinctive feature is the spiral arrangement of the garment,the body being wrapped to a greater or less extent with a bandage of varying length in more or less parallel stripes.

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  • Quite distinct from the spiral is the old Babylonian cloak, which was thrown over the left shoulder, passed under the right 1 See e.g.

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  • On the Aegean dress (whether a development from spiral swathes or perhaps rather from a series of skirts one above the other), see the discussion of the Aegean loin-cloth by D.

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  • During excavations in Broad Street in 1874 many fragments of glass were found.; amongst them were part of a wine-glass, a square scent-bottle and a wine-glass stem containing a spiral thread of white enamel.

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  • 9), containing spiral threads of air, or of white or coloured enamel.

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  • For example, a pair of equal opposite vortices, moving on a line parallel to a plane boundary, will have a corresponding pair of images, forming a rectangle of vortices, and the path of a vortex will be the Cotes' spiral r sin 20 = 2a, or x-2+y-2=a-2; (io) this is therefore the path of a single vortex in a right-angled corner; and generally.

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  • if the angle of the corner is jr/n, the path is the Cotes' spiral r sin n0=na.

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  • They are weighed and then dumped into a washing machine, consisting of a large horizontal cage, submerged in water, in which revolves a horizontal shaft carrying arms. The arms are set in a spiral form, so that in revolving they not only stir the roots, causing them to rub against each other, but also force them forward from the receiving end,of the cage to the other end.

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  • (I) Let a spiral line be drawn on a right circular cylinder; a screw surface is then obtained by drawing lines from every point of this spiral perpendicular to its axis.

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  • (2) A right cylinder having for its base an Archimedean spiral is intersected by a right circular cone which has the generating line of the cylinder passing through the initial point of the spiral for its axis.

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  • This elaborate type of scolex appears to be an adaptation to grasp the spiral intestinal valve of sharks and rays.

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  • In the males the horns are usually compressed and triangular, with transverse ridges or knobs, and either curving backwards or spiral.

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  • The cigar is then rolled in the hand to consolidate the tobacco and bring it into proper shape, after which it is wrapped in the outer cover, a shaped piece made to enclose the whole in a spiral manner, beginning at the thick end of the cigar and working down to the pointed end, where it is dexterously finished by twisting to a fine point between the fingers.

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  • The twist of the horns varies to a great extent locally, the spiral being most open and corkscrew-like in the typical Astor animal, and closest and most screw-like in the race (C. falconeri jerdoni) inhabiting the Suleiman and adjacent ranges.

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  • For more efficient condensation - and also for shortening the apparatus - the central tube may be flattened, bent into a succession of V's, or twisted into a spiral form, the object in each case being to increase the condensing surface.

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  • Of other common types of condenser, we may notice the "spiral" or "worm" type, which consists of a glass, copper or tin worm enclosed in a vessel in which water circulates; and the ball condenser, which consists of two concentric spheres, the vapour passing through the inner sphere and water circulating in the space between this and the outer (in another form the vapour circulates in a shell, on the outside and inside of which water circulates).

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  • Of the third type is the Warren column consisting of a spiral kept at a constant temperature by a liquid bath.

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  • The lower (or modern) town is connected by a curious spiral street with the upper (or old) town.

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  • The science of mechanics might perhaps suggest a means, namely, a strong spiral spring.

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  • raised above it, is an impossible attitude, nor do snakes ever climb trees in spiral fashion, the classical artistic mode of representation.

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  • It has been shown that this behaviour of dielectrics can be imitated by a mechanical model consisting of a series of perforated pistons placed in a tube of oil with spiral springs between each piston.

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  • Both sexes carry horns, which are ringed and form an open spiral.

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  • Upon leaving the head they:were directed at first downwards, and outwards, then upwards and finally inwards at the tips, and generally with a tendency to a spiral form not seen in other elephants.

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  • They are fleshy shrubs, with rounded, woody stems, and numerous succulent branches, composed in most of the species of separate joints or parts, which are much compressed, often elliptic or suborbicular, dotted over in spiral lines with small, fleshy, caducous leaves, in the axils of which are placed the areoles or tufts of barbed or hooked spines of two forms. The flowers are mostly yellow or reddish-yellow, and are succeeded by pear-shaped or egg-shaped fruits, having a broad scar at the top, furnished on their soft, fleshy rind with tufts of small spines.

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  • In his investigations respecting cycloidal lines and various spiral curves, his attention was directed to the loxodromic and logarithmic spirals, in the last of which he took particular interest from its remarkable property of reproducing itself under a variety of conditions.

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  • Like another Archimedes, he requested that the logarithmic spiral should be engraven on his tombstone, with these words, Eadem mutata resurgo.

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  • In the interior the sculptured triforium (15th century), the spiral staircase in the transept and a Holy Sepulchre are of interest.

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  • The brine is cooled in a tank filled with spiral pipes, in which anhydrous ammonia, previously liquefied by compression, is vaporized in vacuo at the atmospheric temperature by the sensible heat of the returncurrent of brine, whose temperature has been slightly raised in its passage through the circulating tubes.

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  • By the use of the spiral guide casing and the chimney the velocity of the effluent air is gradually FIG.

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  • The same thing can be effected in a more perfect manner by the use of spiral or scroll drums, in which the rope is made to coil in a spiral groove upon the surface of the drum, which is formed by the frusta of two obtuse cones placed with their smaller diameters outwards.

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  • 99, p. 167), using Froude's turbine to obtain the highly resisting spiral vortices, and arranging passages in the casing for the entry of water at the hub of the wheel and its exit at the circumference.

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  • Webb to measure the tractive resistance of trains on the London & North-Western railway, a tractive pull or push compresses two spiral springs by a definite amount, which is recorded to scale by a pencil on a sheet of paper, drawn continuously from a storage drum at the rate of 3 in.

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  • Such a mass of imaginary matter as we are now considering may be compared to a collection of heavy particles held in position relatively to one another by a system of light spiral springs, one spring being supposed to connect each pair of adjacent particles.

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  • The king bird of paradise (Cicinnurus regius) is one of the smallest and most brilliant of the group, and is specially distinguished by its two middle tail feathers, the ends of which alone are webbed, and coiled into a beautiful spiral disk of a lovely emerald green.

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  • The harnessed antelopes, or bushbucks, are closely allied to the kudus, from which they chiefly differ by the spiral formed by the horns generally having fewer turns.

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  • In the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), which is a distinct species common to North Africa and Syria, the ringed horns form an open spiral ascending in the plane of the face, and there is long, shaggy, dark hair on the fore-quarters in winter.

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  • but sometimes spiral.

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  • Another illustration is afforded by a long spiral of wire with coils, say 2 in.

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  • According to Heron and Geminus they were discussed under the name spire by Perseus (c. 200-100 B.C.), their sections were termed spiral sections, and are probably the same as the hippopede of Eudoxus.

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  • The doorway was flanked with columns of alabaster, with rich spiral ornament, now in the British Museum; and the rest of the facade was very richly decorated, as may be seen from Chipiez's fine restoration.

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  • On the ground that after the virtues of courage and valour and fearlessness have been taught in the lower stages of evolution, the virtue of gentle humane ness and extended sympathy for all that can suffer should be taught in the higher cycles of the evolutionary spiral.

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  • 97 Ursae majoris is of the planetary type; the earl of Rosse observed two spiral condensations turning in opposite directions, - hence its name, - the " Owl nebula."

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  • In the centre of the tomb are two vaulted chambers, reached by a spiral passage or gallery 62 ft.

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  • The movable coil of the wattmeter is normally suspended so that its axis is at right angles to that of the fixed coil, and is constrained by the torsion of a spiral spring.

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  • When the currents flow through the two coils, forces are brought into action compelling the coils to set their axes in the same direction, and these forces can be opposed by another torque due to the control of a spiral spring regulated by moving a torsion head on the instrument.

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  • It is true that many tame goats show spirally twisted horns recalling those of the under-mentioned Asiatic markhor; but in nearly all such instances it will be found that the spiral twists in the opposite direction.

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  • The horns are somewhat erect and spiral, with an outward bend.

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  • The horns of the male differ from those of the female, being directed vertically and in shape spiral, whilst in the female they have a horizontal tendency, somewhat like those of a ram.

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  • The horns are very erect, and sometimes slightly spiral, inclining inwards and to such an extent in some cases as to cross.

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  • The horns, however, are more spiral.

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  • This motion is resisted by the torsion of a spiral spring resembling the hair-spring of a watch having one end fixed to the coil axis, and there is therefore a definite position of the needle on the scale corresponding to each potential difference between the terminals, provided it is within the range of the control.

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  • Caprinidae.-Shell inequivalve; fixed valve spiral or conical; free valve coiled or spiral; Cretaceous.

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  • Monopleuridae.-Shell very inequivalve; fixed valve conical or spiral; free valve operculiform; Cretaceous.

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  • Interesting objects in this portion of the heavens are: the famous spiral nebula first described by Lord Rosse; a-Canum Venati-.

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  • Salet observed that iodine gives a spectrum of bright bands when in contact with a platinum spiral made white hot by an electric current, and J.

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  • Thomson 6 places spherical bulbs inside thick spiral conductors through which the oscillating discharge of a powerful battery is led.

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  • Pappus turns then to a consideration of certain properties of Archimedes's spiral, the conchoid of Nicomedes (already mentioned in book i.

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  • The rest of the book treats of the trisection of an angle, and the solution of more general problems of the same kind by means of the quadratrix and spiral.

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  • Its characteristics were a flamboyant and fantastic treatment of plant and animal (though not of human) forms, a free use of the geometrical device called the " returning spiral," and much skill in enamelling.

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  • One way in which this has been secured is by obtaining the under cooling by temporary cooling of the air space by a spiral tube in which ether may be evaporated, the outer vessel being filled with ice in contact with a solution of equivalent concentration to that within.

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  • In the case of a culvert the circumferential rods are sometimes laid continuously in the form of a spiral as in the Bordenave system.

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  • B, The spiral archicarp (as), w, Parietal cells.

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  • It is ascended by a broad inclined spiral way, up which Peter the Great is said to have driven in a carriage and four.

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  • high, ascended by an external spiral staircase.

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  • In a regularlyformed straight branch covered with leaves, if a thread is passed from one to the other, turning always in the same direction, a spiral is described, and a certain number of leaves and of complete turns occur before reaching the leaf directly above that from which the enumeration commenced.

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  • If this arrangement is expressed by a fraction, the numerator of which indicates the number of turns, and the denominator the number of internodes in the spiral cycle, the fraction will be found to represent the angle of divergence of the consecutive leaves on the axis.

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  • 31, a, b, the spiral is 4, i.e.

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  • But the divergence between leaf and leaf 2 is equal to tths of the circumference, and the same is the case between 2 and 3, 3 and 4, &c. The divergence, then, is and from this we learn that, starting from any leaf on the axis, we must pass twice round the stem in a spiral through five leaves before reaching one directly over that with which we started.

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  • The; line which, winding round an axis either to the right or to the left, passes through the points of insertion of all the leaves on the axis is termed the genetic or generating spiral; and that margin of each leaf which is towards the direction from which the spiral proceeds is the kathodic side, the other margin facing the point whither the spiral passes being the anodic side.

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  • In cases where the internodes are very short and the leaves are closely applied to each other, as in the house-leek, it is difficult to trace the generating spiral.

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  • 34 there are thirteen leaves which are numbered in their order, and five turns of the spiral marked by circles in the centre (1.5 g indicating the arrangement); but this could not be detected at once.

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  • 35), which are composed of scales or modified leaves, the generating spiral cannot be determined easily.

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  • Cherry with six leaves, the sixth The spiral is not always conbeing placed vertically over the stant throughout the whole first, after two turns of the spiral.

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  • This change showing the points of insertion can brought about by arrest of the leaves and their spiral development, by increased development of individual parts or by a torsion of the axis.

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  • In the bud of the screw-pine the leaves are arranged in three orthostichies with the phyllotaxis but by torsion the developed leaves become arranged in three strong spiral rows running round the stem.

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  • a, The branch with the leaves numbered in their order, n being the node and m the internode; b is a magnified representation of the branch, showing the points of insertion of the leaves and their spiral arrangement, which is expressed by the fraction or one turn of the spiral for two internodes.

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  • The primitive or generating spiral may pass either from right to left or from left to right.

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  • This arrangement often continues during the life of the plant, but at other times it changes, passing into distichous and spiral forms. Some tribes of plants are distinguished by their opposite or ver ticillate, others by their alternate, leaves.

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  • The circles in the centre indicate a rectilinear series of indicate the five turns of the spiral, scales and two lateral secondand show the insertion of each of the ary spirals, one turning from leaves.

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  • At other times they are at different levels, and are applied over each other, so as to be imbricated, as in lilac, and in the outer scales of sycamore; and occasionally the margin of one leaf overlaps that of another, while it in its turn is overlapped by a third, so as to be twisted, spiral or contortive.

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  • (The architect being at that time also the contractor.) The chapters are -- (1) on various machines, such as scaling-ladders, windmills, &c.; (2) on windlasses, axles, pulleys and cranes for moving heavy weights, such as those used by Chersiphron in building the great temple of Diana at Ephesus, and on the discovery by a shepherd of a quarry of marble required to build the same temple; (3) on dynamics; (4) on machines for drawing water; (5) on wheels for irrigation worked by a river; (6) on raising water by a revolving spiral tube; (7) on the machine of Ctesibius for raising water to a height; (8) on a very complicated water engine, the description of which is not intelligible, though Vitruvius remarks that he has tried to make the matter clear; (9) on machines with wheels to register the distance travelled, either by land or water; (10) on the construction of scorpiones for hurling stones; (11) and (12) on balistae and catapults; (13) on battering rams and other machines for the attack of a fortress; (14) on shields (testudines) to enable soldiers to fill up the enemy's ditches; (15) on other kinds of testudines; (16) on machines for defence, and examples of their use in ancient times.

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  • The thread was secured by a spiral notch in the stick.

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  • These were used to wind round glass vases, to form lips, handles, &c.; and to twist together for spiral patterns.

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  • In Ulva and Mesocarpus the chromatophore is a single plate, which in the latter genus places its edge towards the incident light; in Spirogyra they are spiral bands embedded in the primordial utricle; in Zygnema they are a pair of stellate masses, the rays of which branch peripherally; in Oedogonium they are longitudinally-disposed anastomosing bands; in Desmids plates with irregular margins; in Cladophora polyhedral plates; in Vaucheria minute elliptical bodies occurring in immense numbers.

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  • Spiral >>

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  • His spiral horns, twisted for three or four turns like a corkscrew, often reach the length of 30 in.

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  • The heated products of combustion from the burner B impinge on a metal box H, through which water is circulating, and then pass downwards and outwards through a spiral cooler which reduces them practically to the atmospheric temperature.

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  • flows through the spiral coolers N and M, and finally through the box H, where it is well mixed before passing the outflow thermometer P. As soon as a steady state is reached, the difference of temperature between the outflow and inflow thermometers, multiplied by the current of water in grammes per minute gives the heat per minute supplied by combustion.

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  • In Diameter, Coiled In A Short Spiral Inside The Vacuum Jacket.

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  • Spiral nebulae have the remarkable characteristic of avoiding the galactic plane, and it has been suggested that the space outside the limits of the stellar universe is filled with them.

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  • It does not, however, seem probable that their apparent anti-galactic tendency has such a significance; in the Magellanic Clouds spiral nebulae are very abundant, a fact which shows that there is no essential antipathy between the stars and the spiral nebulae.

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  • to add to the fairly uniform distribution of stars between two planes a gigantic cluster of an annular or spiral form, also lying between the planes and completely surrounding the sun.

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  • In India the serpent-godlings are very often associated with water, and, even at the digging of a well,worship is paid to the ` ` world serpent," and the Salagrama (spiral ammonite), sacred to Vishnu, is solemnly wedded to the Tulasi or basil plant, representative of the garden which the pool will fertilize.

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  • The vertical oscifiations of a weight which hangs from a fixed point by a spiral spring come under this case.

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  • Thus in the case of a weight hanging by a spiral spring the work required to increase the length by x is Vf~Kxdx = 4Kx, whence 3/4Muf + 4Kxi=const., as is easily verified from preceding results.

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  • Tait that a similar representation of the type (30) is obtained if we replace the circle by an equiangular spiral described, with a constant angular velocity about the pole, in the direction of diminishing radius vector.

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  • Again, in the equiangular spiral we have p =r sin a, and therefore P = u/ri, if u =hh/sinh a.

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  • But since an equiangular spiral having a given pole is completely determined by a given point and a given tangent, this type of orbit is not a general one for the law of the inverse cube.

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  • In order that the spiral may be described it is necessary that the velocity of projection should be adjusted to make h=iju.

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  • If A or B vanish we have an equiangular spiral, and the velocity at infinity is zero.

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  • the orbit is therefore a reciprocal spiral, except in the special case of A=o, when it is a circle.

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  • where m=4(3n), except in the case 11=3, when the orbit is an equiangular spiral.

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  • The slightest frictional forcessuch as the resistance of the aireven if they act in lines through the centre of the rolling sphere, and so do not directly affect its angular momentum, will cause the centre gradually to descend in an ever-widening spiral path.

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  • This it enters head-foremost from the rear, while "hermits" in general are forced to go backwards into their spiral or tapering shelters by the front.

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  • Ampere had already previously shown that a spiral conductor or solenoid when traversed by an electric current possesses magnetic polarity, and that two such solenoids act upon one another when traversed by electric currents as if they were magnets.

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  • On the return of the bar the platen is raised by a spiral spring, placed in a box and fixed at the head of the press.

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  • The fibre passes between a series of fluted rollers, each pair of which is kept in contact by spiral springs as shown in the figure.

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  • (The three machines shown in this article are made by Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd., Dundee.) flutes, some being straight, and others spiral, and each pair may or may not contain the same number of flutes.

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  • push-bar or slide, rotary, spiral, ring, open-link or chain, the spiral being generally used for the second drawing.

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  • Curved and spiral forms. Any of the elongated forms described above may be curved or sinuous or twisted into a corkscrewlike spiral instead of straight.

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  • If the sinuosity is slight we have the Vibrio form; if pronounced, and the spiral winding well marked, the forms are known as Spirillum, Spirochaete, &c. These and similar terms have been applied partly to individual cells, but more often to filaments consisting of several cells; and much confusion has arisen form the difficulty of defining the terms themselves.

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  • In 1834 he continued and extended his researches "On the Influence of a Spiral Conductor in increasing the Intensity of Electricity from a Galvanic Arrangement of a Single Pair," a memoir of which was read before the American Philosophical Society on the 5th of February 1835.

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  • In none of Leonardo's manuscripts, however, and in none of his figures, is the slightest hint given of his having any knowledge of the spiral movements made by the wing in flight or of the spiral structure of the wing itself.

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  • The neurae are arranged at the axis of the wing after the manner of a fan or spiral stair - the anterior one occupying a higher position than that farther back, and so of the others.

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  • In this case the wing, in virtue of its being carried forward by the body in motion, describes an undulating or spiral course, as shown in fig.

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  • This twisting is in a great measure owing to the manner in which the bones of the wing are twisted upon themselves, and the spiral nature of their articular surfaces - the long axes of the joints always intersecting each other b FIG.

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  • The wing of the bird may therefore be compared to a huge gimlet or auger, the axis of the gimlet representing the bones of the wing, the flanges or spiral thread of the gimlet the primary and secondary feathers " (figs.

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  • That this shape is intimately associated with flight is apparent from the fact that the rowing feathers of the wing of the bird are every one of them distinctly spiral in their nature; in fact, one entire rowing feather is equivalent - morphologically and physiologically - to one entire insect wing.

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  • The movement of the bat's wing in extension is a spiral one, the spiral running alternately from below upwards and forwards and from above downwards and backwards.

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  • 33 shows the Spiral Elastic Wings of the Gull.

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  • After Pettigrew enunciated his views (1867) as to the screw configuration and elastic properties of natural wings, and more especially after his introduction of spiral, elastic artificial wings, and elastic screws, a great revolution took place in the construction of flying models.

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  • - Elastic Spiral Wing, its action, to form a mobile heli vibrate by a direct piston action, propelled vertically, horizontally a b, Anterior margin of wing, to which the neurae or ribs are affixed.

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  • An ingenious attempt has been made to prove, in the absence of records, that the famous spiral staircase at Blois was also of his designing.

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  • This thread gives rise to a spiral ciliated band lying in a depression on the body of each spermatozoid; the large spermatozoids eventually escape from the pollen-tube, and are able to perform ciliary movements in the watery liquid which occurs between the thin papery remnant of nucellar tissue and the archegonial necks.

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  • A leaf-trace, as it passes through the cortex, has a collateral structure, the protoxylem being situated at the inner edge of the xylem; when it reaches the leaf-base the position of the spiral tracheids is gradually altered, and the endarch arrangement (protoxylem internal) gives place to a mesarch structure (protoxylem more or less central and not on the edge of the xylem strand).

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  • The roots of many conifers possess a narrow band of primary xylem-tracheids with a group of narrow spiral protoxylem-elements at each end (diarch).

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  • In Taxus, Torreya (California and the Far East) and Cephalotaxus the absence of resin-canals and the presence of spiral thickeningbands on the tracheids constitute well-marked characteristics.

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  • It may be prepared by passing hydrogen gas and bromine vapour through a tube containing a heated platinum spiral.

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  • _Their action depends upon the extension of one or more spiral springs, and as the extension is proportionate to the weight which causes it the graduation is very simple.

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  • It is found that when a spiral spring is extended by a weight it has a tendency to turn a little round its axis.

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  • To correct this tendency the spring is usually made half with right-hand spiral and half with lefthand spiral.

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  • The extension of a spiral spring is given by the formula: Extension =W4n1VÆ r 4, in which W = weight causing extension, in lbs; n = number of coils; R = radius of spring, from centre of coil to centre of wire, in inches; r = radius of wire of which the spring is made, in inches; E = coefficient of elasticity of wire, in lbs per square inch.

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  • At each end of the drum casing is attached a vertical spiral spring, and by the extension of these springs the weighing of the goods is effected.

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  • The horizontal bar which receives the pull of the load is connected at its ends with the two spiral springs and pulls verti - cally upon them.

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  • These rods pass through holes in the front and back plates of the box, and are furnished with spiral springs, which (when the rods are forced back by hand) are in compression between the back plate of the box and shoulders on the rods.

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  • Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, he was appointed in 1865 assistant to the Earl of Rosse's observatory at Parsonstown, and whilst there he discovered four spiral nebulae.

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  • This self-guiding property may be explained by the tendency which a flat band has, when running upon a conical pulley in a direction normal to its axis, to describe a spiral path as it wraps on to the surface because of the lateral stiffness of the material; the advancing side therefore tends to rise towards the highest part of the cone.

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  • They are directed outwards, and curve in an open spiral, with the tips directed outwards.

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  • The spiral horns are low at the crown, with a clear space between the roots, and sweep in a wide curve, sloping slightly backwards, and clear of the cheek.

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  • The outermost layer of the cell-wall of the ripe spore splits along spiral lines, giving rise to the elaters; these two long strips of wall, attached by their middle points to the spore, tend to straighten out in dry, and close round the spore in damp air.

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  • The antheridia are deeply sunk in the tissue; the spermatozoids consist of a spiral of two or three coils, the numerous cilia being attached to the pointed anterior end.

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  • In Sigillaria the latter form vertical rows, while in Lepidodendron the arrangement is a complicated spiral.

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  • In these forms the chitinous lining of the tubes is thickened by a closeset spiral ridge similar to the spiral thickening of the cellulose wall of the spiral vessels of plants.

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  • It is a noteworthy fact that other tubes in these same terrestrial Arthropoda - namely, the ducts of glands - are similarly strengthened by a chitinous cuticle, and that a spiral or annular thickening of the cuticle is developed in them also.

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  • With the characters of the grade: add the presence within the body of fine unbranched tracheal tubes, devoid of spiral thickening, opening to the exterior by numerous irregularly scattered tracheal pits.

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  • Tracheae are developed which are dendriform and with spiral thickening of their lining.

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  • in diameter, which afforded the first indications of the spiral structure shown in recent photographs to be the most prevalent char- Lord acteristic of nebulae.

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  • After pollination the female flower becomes drawn below the surface by the spiral contraction of the long stalk, and the fruit ripens near the bottom.

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  • Skeat takes the ultimate root to be kar, to move, especially in a circular motion, seen in "curve," "circle," &c. The word "worm" is applied to many objects resembling the animals in having a spiral shape or motion, as the spiral thread of a screw, or the spiral pipe through which vapour is passed in distillation.

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  • With two plates of equal thickness and of opposite rotations, the pattern consists of a series of circles and of four similar spirals starting from the centre, each spiral being turned through 90° from that adjacent to it.

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  • Reusch has shown that a packet of identical inactive plates arranged in spiral fashion gives an artificial active system, and the behaviour of certain pseudosymmetric crystals indicates a formation of this character.

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  • In the Spanish ibex (C. pyrenaica) the horns fare flattened, with ill-defined knobs, and a spiral twist.

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  • The Bad Lands and the Arikaree are famous fossil fields, the latter being the source of the Daemonelix, or " Devil's cork-screw," a large spiral fossil, apparently a lacustrine alga.

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  • tr, Tracheae, showing rudimentary spiral fibre; tr.c, Cells resembling those lining the tracheal pits, which occur at intervals along the course of the tracheae; tr.o, Tracheal stigma; tr.p, Tracheal pit.

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  • The tracheae are minute tubes exhibiting a faint transverse striation which is probably the indication of a spiral fibre.

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  • The embryo has now lost its spiral curvature, and becomes completely doubled upon itself, the hind end being in contact with the mouth (fig.

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  • The column A contains a powerful spiral spring, which exercises a strong pressure on the plate F fixed to the carrier B.

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  • - Peduncle of Fig It is sometimes succulent, as in Carica), ending in a the cashew, in which it forms the receptacle, enclosing large coloured expansion supnumerous male and female porting the nut; spiral, as in flowers.

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  • In this case the axes are not arranged in two rows along one side of the false axis, but are placed at regular intervals, so as to form an elongated spiral round it.

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  • Helicoid Cyme (axes forming a spiral).

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  • In plants, as Nymphaea alba, where a spiral arrangement of the floral leaves occurs, it is not easy to say where the calyx ends and the corolla begins, as these two whorls pass insensibly into each other.

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  • Flowers which are cyclic at one portion and spiral at another, as in many Ranunculaceae, are termed hemicyclic. In spiral flowers the distinction into series is by no means easy, and usually there is a gradual passage from sepaloid through petaloid to staminal parts, as in the water-lily family, Nymphaeaceae (figs.

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  • - Diagram to illustrate the quincuncial aestivation, in which the parts of the flower are arranged in a spiral cycle, so that I and 2 are wholly external, 4 and 5 are internal, and 3 is partly external and partly overlapped by 1.

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  • But in spiral flowers we have a different arrangement; thus the leaves of the calyx of Camellia japonica cover each other partially like tiles on a house.

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  • 47 a section is given of the bud of Antirrhinum majus, showing the imbricate spiral arrangement.

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  • - Diagram to illustrate imbricated aestivation, in which the parts are arranged in a spiral cycle, following the order indicated by the figures I, 2, 3, 4, 5.

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  • In Convolvulaceae, while the corolla is twisted, and has its parts arranged in a circle, the calyx is imbricate, and exhibits a spiral arrangement.

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  • The circular aestivation is generally associated with a regular calyx and corolla, while the spiral aestivations are connected with irregular as well as with regular forms.

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  • The filament is generally continuous from one end to the other, but in some cases it is bent or jointed, becoming geniculate; at other times, as in the pellitory, it is spiral.

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  • have a spiral, annular, or reticulated thickening of the wall.

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  • in a verticil, or at different heights in a spiral cycle.

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  • 89) the separate carpels are numerous and are arranged in a spiral cycle upon an elongated axis or receptacle.

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  • The body is bounded by a firm pellicle, often supplemented by an armour (" lorica ") of cuticular cellulose plates, with usually a marked longitudinal groove from which the anterior flagellum springs, and an oblique or spiral transverse groove for the second flagellum.

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  • The stem is traversed by a single stele, with solid wood, without pith; the primary xylem is triangular in section, the spiral elements forming one or two groups at each angle, while the phloem occupied the bays, so that the structure resembles that of a triarch root.

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  • - The genus Lepidodendron, with very numerous species, ranging from the Devonian to the Permian, consisted of trees, with a tall upright shaft, bearing a dense crown of dichotomous branches, clothed with simple narrow leaves, ranged in some complex spiral phyllotaxis.

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  • The primary wood of Lepidodendron forms a continuous cylinder, not broken up into distinct bundles; its development was clearly centripetal, the spiral elements forming more or less prominent peripheral groups.

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  • There is evidence that the stem in some species was a climbing one; the pinnate leaves, arranged on the stem in a two-fifths spiral, were dimorphic, the sterile fronds resembling some forms of (From a drawing by Mrs D.

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  • The leaf-traces, where they traverse the cortex, have the structure of the foliar bundles in Cycads, for they are of the collateral type, and their xylem is mesarch, the spiral elements lying in the interior of the ligneous strand.

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  • In those stems which have been referred with certainty to the Cordaiteae there is no centripetal wood; the spiral elements are adjacent to the pith, as in a recent Conifer or Cycad; certain stems, however, are known which connect this type of structure with that of the Lyginodendreae; this, for example, is the case in the Permian genus Poroxylon, investigated by Bertrand and Renault, which in general structure has much in common with Cordaiteae, but possesses strands of primary wood, mainly centripetal, at the (After Grand' Eury, modified.

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  • The inflorescence is usually a spike bearing lateral cones or catkins, arranged sometimes distichously, sometimes in a spiral order.

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  • She tucked the pencil in the spiral part of her tablet.

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  • Many of them were ones he had suggested – like the size of the fireplace and replacing the stairs with a spiral staircase.

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  • He looked up to see the boy standing above him, holding out a small spiral notebook.

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  • Our Galaxy has spiral arms in its disk - these spiral arms are regions of active star formation.

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  • For the rest of the 1950s, Regent sold a single spiral bound Atlas of Great Britain at 10 miles to the inch.

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  • Click Spiral small backpack for more information about Spiral small backpack Fusion large backpack The bigger outdoor bag.

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  • Note: Spiral staircase has rope banister, which may be unsuitable for the less mobile.

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  • Title: Bodiam Castle Description: The ultimate fairytale castle with spiral staircases and medieval battlements.

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  • Because there is not spiral angle and no additional developed thrust these gears can be used as direct replacements for straight bevel gears.

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  • Fortunately I had already ordered three sets of these spiral bevels to be cut from the blanks I supplied.

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  • bindw for Christmas 2006 is a spiral bound edition to keep your hands free for conducting or playing.

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  • Among the spiral arms are bright, luminous, slightly pink blobs.

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  • cantilevered spiral staircase - the best feature I think.

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  • In the Coolidge tube, the bulb could be completely evacuated and electrons were liberated from a heated spiral cathode.

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  • The ham and cheese rolled inside these flattened chicken breasts make an attractive spiral pattern when the chicken is sliced.

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  • creaking wooden timbers, I headed up a flight of spiral steps.

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  • But alcohol and drugs can be very useful accomplices for depression, with their physiologically depressant effects giving a boost to the depression spiral.

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  • South wall:- doorway leads to spiral staircase, with one worn step in the tower.

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  • dormitory style accommodation in the spiral house itself, or camping.

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  • dusty spiral galaxy.

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  • elliptical orbits into spiral arms.

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  • The cochlea consists of a spiral canal, set in bone and filled with a fluid called endolymph.

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  • equinoctial sun pierce the two spiral carvings with daggers of light.

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  • Deflation effectively made debt more expansive and, as Fisher explained, this reinforced deflation again in a vicious spiral.

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  • The fourth mission has the player fight a number of enemies that spiral toward the player shooting fireballs.

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  • The dark brown bark has deep vertical fissures which often spiral up the trunk.

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  • spiral flexures - These are flat springs with high radial stiffness allowing maintenance of the close tolerances required for the clearance seals.

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  • focal point, in the shape of a large spiral.

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  • The exhibit had at its center a tall focal point, in the shape of a large spiral.

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  • It will lead to mortgage foreclosures and negative equity, leading to more foreclosures, feeding the downward spiral still more.

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  • full story of the Spiral sessions take a look at our Harry Roche page.

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  • We chose to observe NGC 253, which at a distance of 10 million light years is the nearest starburst spiral galaxy.

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  • NGC 300 is a spiral galaxy similar to our own Milky Way.

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  • Jennie and Spiral wasted no time in having a good gander, peaking into cupboards and doors, presumably looking for more secret passages.

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  • The overall length of the cochlea is shorter in Down's syndrome and the spiral ganglion cell population is reduced.

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  • gastropod shells are of special interest due to the often elegant internal spiral structure of their shells.

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  • A tantalizing glimpse of the axed V&A Spiral in the form of samples of the fractal tiles which would have covered the building.

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  • A new wrought iron handrail crafted locally was fitted to the double spiral staircase, completing the restoration.

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  • Then the marvelous rising spiral traverse like climbing a double DNA helix around it an insane position on the overhanging North face.

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  • The main advantage of this construction method is that it reduces the series inductance because the capacitor plates are not rolled into a spiral.

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  • At the center of the receive coil is an 18 turn spiral inductor, with an innermost diameter of approximately 46mm.

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  • Predisposing factors: H. pylori infection: A gram negative spiral microaerophilic bacillus specific for human gastric mucosa.

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  • inflationary rent spiral.

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  • Its 3 speed gearbox had right hand control and along with the spiral bevel rear axle was designed and manufactured in-house.

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  • practically inventing the independent record scene with their seminal self-financed EP Spiral Scratch, Buzzcocks instantly forged a unique relationship with their public.

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  • ivory tusk finial from the Congo has figures seated in separate rows, rather than a spiral.

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  • The three basic options are; not to do it at all, to use spiral lacing or to use sail ties.

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  • It starts with the octagonal lantern topped by a gallery, then follows the spiral.

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  • Fred's usual work was to mill the spiral sectors on cams for the automatic lathes in next door's factory.

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  • A black ley line will tune into a black spiral and a white ley will tune into a white spiral.

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  • lilye spiral is usually covered during mid June with peachy colored flowers, flanked by the foxtail lilies.

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  • lilye spiral is usually covered during mid June with peachy colored flowers, flanked by the foxtail lilies.

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  • loose-leaf format in a spiral ring binder, allowing details of new reserves to be easily inserted.

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  • We have also found a spiral fracture on what is possibly a deer bone, opened by a Neanderthal to extract the marrow.

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  • Hence, there is a case for the spiral maze theory which archeologists are willing to entertain.

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  • The library mezzanine floor was put in by our vendors; we'll have a cast iron spiral staircase joining the two.

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  • The latter sponsored the construction of the Great Mosque of Samarra with its unique spiral minaret, built in 847.

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  • I looked at Hubble's greatest hits: nebulae, spiral galaxies, planets, star clusters, gaseous nebulae.

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  • Historical No-one before Hubble imagined that the spiral nebulae might be other galaxies.

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  • ninetythen comes the nineties, a decade where it all starts to spiral back to the beginning of Lancaster University.

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  • I started the habit with pencil and spiral paper notebooks.

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  • Explaining the basics of DNA and Genetics Human DNA contains 3 billion nucleotides and is wound up into a tight double helix spiral.

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  • Access is by an outside door opening onto a stone spiral staircase.

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  • These density waves are twisted by the elliptical orbits into spiral arms.

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  • Among the pieces missing was the lower spiral bevel pinion.

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  • Both Rams head and Spiral wedging involve the folding of the clay on itself too build up an ever tightening spiral of clay platelets.

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  • spiral platers are used predominately to count bacteria in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and water.

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  • The exhibit had at its center a tall focal point, in the shape of a large spiral.

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  • A possible polymorph (not synthesized to date) would have a spiral channel system.

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  • The standard binding for an assignment is a colored assignment folder which holds the work together with metal prongs or a spiral binding.

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  • radiatears fall along spokes radiating from the center of the spiral.

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  • The WSRT was the first radio telescope to detect and map the spiral arms of another galaxy, M 51.

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  • The spiral ramp to allow vehicle access to all three levels of the complex the blast door is behind the photographer.

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  • They were caught in what Quandt and Selznick (1984) describe as the downward spiral of low self-concept and reading failure.

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  • Southern Water Project Manager Ron Lake, said: " The spiral separator is vital for improving the quality of treatment at Motney Hill.

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  • Bedroom A spiral staircase leads to an upstairs bedroom with twin beds and single bed settee.

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  • With the oven ready, the friends created chocolate spiral shortbread, macaroons and Baci Di Dama biscuits.

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  • shorthand notebook: tear them out, or remove the spiral.

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  • shrine room was apparently keeping the unhealthy spiral at bay.

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  • spiral into oblivion as surely as the unreformed alcoholic.

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  • spiral bound, maps, full route details, points of interest, history, photos.

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  • Thus, whole communities were caught in a never-ending spiral of debt.

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  • Rather than paving a smooth path to the court, it was causing an escalating spiral of partisan warfare and personal attack.

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  • Many go into a wretched downward spiral, passed from owner to owner.

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  • Such places benefit from a virtuous circle, or upward spiral, whereby talent attracts talent.

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  • It is a vicious spiral, which the current approach to health care is incompetent to solve.

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  • It could also lead to an inflationary rent spiral.

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  • Japan is now caught in the same sort of deflationary spiral which gripped the world economy during the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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  • I have used only one of these on an unhealthy spiral.

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  • spiral staircase inside the main church door to a small ringing chamber.

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  • spiral galaxy similar to our own Milky Way.

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  • spiral bevel rear axle was designed and manufactured in-house.

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  • spiral stair to an area of branching passage ways where a young, slender elf was waiting.

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  • spiral stairway, down into the church.

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  • spiral nebulae, in the nearby Virgo cluster of galaxies (AAO photo ).

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  • Wages may rise in response to this triggering off the possibility of a wage-price spiral.

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  • Through an extraordinary chance alignment, a face-on spiral galaxy lies precisely in front of another larger spiral.

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  • A depression habit spiral I liked to switch off the lights when I was alone in the house and put the saddest music on.

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  • The more strategies you try, the more chance you have of finding what works for you in turning the depression spiral around.

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  • It is believed that the LMC was once a barred spiral galaxy that was disrupted by the Milky Way to become somewhat irregular.

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  • spiral galaxyd spiral arms of normal spiral galaxies, like our own Milky Way, appear flat when viewed edge-on.

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  • The beautiful galaxy NGC 3982 is a typical spiral galaxy and looks similar to our own galaxy, the Milky Way.

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  • We chose to observe NGC 253, which at a distance of 10 million light years is the nearest starburst spiral galaxy.

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  • spiral galaxy galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn.

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  • spiral galaxy with a companion on its north edge that appears to be colliding with M51.

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  • Through an extraordinary chance alignment, a face-on spiral galaxy lies precisely in front of another larger spiral.

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  • He led them down a spiral stair to an area of branching passage ways where a young, slender elf was waiting.

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  • Connected to top floor by a wrought-iron spiral staircase.

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  • descending a steep, spiral staircase, one comes across an uncompromising sign in Latin: " Stop!

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  • Of particular note is the striking vaulted living room with open tread spiral staircase.

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  • Access via spiral staircase inside the main church door to a small ringing chamber.

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  • Classic oak wood spiral staircase leading to 2nd floor.

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  • Across to the tight spiral stairway, down into the church.

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  • The flowering stem has twisted, lance shaped leaves arranged in a spiral or scattered around the stem.

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  • For the full story of the Spiral sessions take a look at our Harry Roche page.

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  • Two of the best candidates are a shock wave from a nearby supernova or from the passage through a spiral arm.

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  • Even a usually supine Washington press has commented on how the two are locked together into a spiral of decline.

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  • swirly spiral designs.

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  • In the middle the light expands to produce a golden tendril, or downwards decreasing spiral.

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  • Fibril -- spiral wall thickenings in the hyaline cells.

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  • Visitors walk up a spiral ramp to view displays of the marque including its sedans, engines, motorcycles, racing thoroughbreds and prototypes.

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  • Spiral Passage used to be one of the more obscure passages in the system, but it is now rapidly becoming a major thoroughfare.

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  • The deep spiral groove means that waste is removed quickly and the center screw thread helps the drill to pull itself into the material.

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  • Spiral computed tomography of the pancreas showed a 3 x 2.5 cm mass in the region of the tail of the pancreas.

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  • trapped in this spiral and his character deteriorates.

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  • tread spiral staircase.

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  • In this paper we hypothesized that invasive trophoblast released vasodilators which would dilate spiral arteries as an initial step in the physiology of transformation.

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  • The third smaller ivory tusk finial from the Congo has figures seated in separate rows, rather than a spiral.

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  • twirls about on a spiral course but is destined for bigger moments as this is the infant River Severn.

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  • unhealthy spiral feeds from waves on either side.

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  • For medium head schemes runners are mounted in a spiral casing with internal adjustable guide vanes.

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  • vicious spiral ' of further cancelations.

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  • Now we can spiral toward the 21st Century in an orgy of fiery guitar virtuosity.

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  • virtuous circle, or upward spiral, whereby talent attracts talent.

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  • virtuous spiral where better merchandising creates a better basis for forward planning.

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  • A vortex is a rapidly whirling spiral, a body of fluid or gas rotating around its own center.

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  • Whorl Generally speaking a whorl Generally speaking a whorl is a circular or spiral feature, like a whorl of hair, or the spiral pattern in fingerprints.

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  • The channeled wrack colonizes higher up the shore than the spiral wrack.

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  • This remark applies to the finding of the area of a parabolic segment (mechanical solution) and of a spiral, the surface and volume of a sphere and of a segment thereof, and the volume of any segments of the solids of revolution of the second degree.

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  • Propositions I-II are preliminary, 13-20 contain tangential properties of the curve now known as the spiral of Archimedes, and 21-28 show how to express the area included between any portion of the curve and the radii vectores to its extremities.

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  • Two pins q, r, with spiral springs coiled round them, pass loosely through holes in the forks k, 1, and keep the bearings of the heads in and n firmly pressed against the ends of the micrometer box.

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  • A spiral spring, coiled round the cylinder y, resting one end on the shoulder formed by the difference of the diameters of the cylinders (3 and -y and the other on the inside of the web-frame, presses the latter continuously towards y.

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  • The cylinder contains towards n a sliding rod, and towards 0 a compressed spiral spring.

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  • 14) the slide, and b, b the spiral springs.

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  • Two spiral springs underneath press the plate Br with its agate end-bearing against the rounded end of the screw S.

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  • panded spiral bands.

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  • In the one the pattern consists of narrow vertical stripes, and in the other of longitudinal or obliquely longitudinal stripes, which, on the sides of the body, tend to assume a spiral or sub-circular arrangement characteristic of the blotched tabby.

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  • bengalensis), in some of which an incipient spiral arrangement of the markings may be noticed on the shoulder.

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  • The paper cables consist of a number of wires, each enveloped in a loose covering of well-dried paper, and loosely laid up together with a slight spiral " lay " in a bundle, the whole being enclosed in a stout lead pipe.

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  • The Fleming closed circuit wave meter, called by him a cymometer, consists of a sliding tube condenser and a long helix of wire forming an inductance; these are connected together and to a copper bar in such a manner that by one movement of a handle the capacity of the tubular condenser is altered in the same proportion as the amount of the spiral inductance which is included in the circuit.

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  • Club-shaped hydranths with numerous tentacles, generally scattered irregularly, sometimes with a spiral arrangement, or in whorls (" verticillate ").

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  • P, Part of spiral hydroid (tracheid) of Phanerogam (Flowering Plant).

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  • consist of woody substance) and are irregularly but thickly studded with simple pits (see CYTOLOGY), which are usually arranged in spirals running round the cells, and are often elongated in the direction of the spiral (fig.

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  • The hydroid of a Pteridophyte or of a Phanerogam is characteristically a dead, usually elongated, cell containing air and water, and either thin-walled with lignified (woody) spiral (fig.

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  • Such a vascular cylinder is called a haplostele, and the axis containing it is said to be haplostelic. In the stele of the root the strands of tracheids along the lines where the xylem touches the pericycle are spiral or annular, and are the xylem elements first formed when the cylinder is developing.

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  • Each strand of spiral or annular first-formed tracheids is called a protoxylem strand, as distinct from the metaxylem or rest of the xylem, which consists of thick-walled tracheids, the pits of which are often scalariform.

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  • The thin-walled spiral or annular tracheae of the protoxylem allow of longitudinal stretching brought about by the active growth in length of the neighboring living parenchymatous cells of a growing organ.

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  • During the process the thin walls are stretched and the turns of the spiral become pulled apart without rupturing the wall of the tracheid or vessel, If the pitted type of tracheal element were similarly stretched its continuously thickened walls would resist the stretching and eventually break.

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  • The apex in this case will describe a circle, or rather a spiral, as it is elongating all the time, pointing to all points of the compass in succession.

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  • It is thickened more in some places than in others, and thus are formed the spiral, annular and other markings, as well as the pits which occur on various cells and vessels.

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  • In Characeae and Muscineae they are of elongate spiral form, and consist of an elongate dense nucleus and a small quantity of - cytoplasm.

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  • .;.:~~: cilia are grouped along .~ the cytoplasmic anterior D portion of the spiral In Zamia (fig 4 A), Cycas and Ginkgo they consist of large spherical or oval cells with a coiled band of cilia at one end, and ~ ~ a large nucleus which nearly fills the cell They are carried by the pollen tube to the apex of the prothallus, where they are extruded, and by means of their ciba swim through a small quantity .D of liquid, contained in a slight depression to the oosphere.

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  • Cases of complete fusion occur in the formation of laticiferous vessels, and in the spiral, annular and reticulate vessels of the xylem.

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  • Internally they are found to consist of a lamina twisted upon itself, and externally they generally exhibit a tortuous structure, produced, before the cloaca was reached, by the spiral valve of a compressed small intestine (as in skates, sharks and dog-fishes); the surface shows also vascular impressions and corrugations due to the same cause.

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  • Cuculus canorus and trogons, is often lined with the broken-off hairs of these caterpillars, which, penetrating the cuticle, assume a regular spiral arrangement, due to the rotatory motion of the muscles of the gizzard.

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  • The two ambones in the cathedral of Salerno, which are different in design, are magnificent in effect and are enriched with sculpture as well as with mosaic. In the gospel ambo in the cathedral of Ravello (1272), and also in that of the convent of the Trinita della Cava near Salerno, the spiral columns inlaid with mosaic stand on the backs of lions.

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  • William Gilpin calls the cypress an architectural tree: "No Italian scene," says he, "is perfect without its tall spiral form, appearing as if it were but a part of the picturesquely disposed edifices which rise from the middle ground against the distant landscape."

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  • At the present day when the nebulae that are spiral in form have been shown to be so numerous, next to the fixed stars themselves, our view of the nebular theory has been somewhat modified.

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  • It now seems probable that the spiral nebula is the fittest illustration of the transformation of a diffused nebula into a system of sun and planets.

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  • They derive this moisture from the air by means of aerial roots, developed from the stem and bearing an outer spongy structure, or velamen, consisting of empty cells kept open by spiral thickenings in the wall; this sponge-like tissue absorbs dew and rain and condenses the moisture of the air and passes it on to the internal tissues.

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  • In a dextral Gastropod the shell is coiled in a right-handed spiral from apex to mouth, and the spiral also projects to the right of the median plane of the animal.

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  • When the shell is sinistral the asymmetry of the organs is usually reversed, and there is a complete situs inversus viscerum, the direction of the spiral of the shell corresponding to the position of the organs of the body.

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  • Neither the rotation of the shell as a whole nor its helicoid spiral coiling is the immediate cause of the torsion of the body in the individual, for the direction of the torsion is indicated in the segmentation of the ovum, in which there is a complete A B From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.

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  • A curious ridge (spiral ?

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  • Shell semi-globular, with short spire; operculum calcareous, not spiral.

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  • Behind the penis on the same side is the hook-like columella muscle, a development of the retractor muscle of the foot, which clings to the spiral column or columella of the shell (see fig.

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  • Shell spiral; four cephalic tentacles; eyes absent; two pedal appendages.

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  • ' Shell globular and ventricose; aperture oval and canaliculated; operculum spiral.

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  • Occupying the axis, and exposed by the section, is seen the "columella " or spiral pillar.

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  • The members of the order present the same wide range of superficial appearance as do the Pectinibranchiate Streptoneura, forms carrying well-developed spiral shells and large mantle-skirts being included in the group, together with flattened or cylindrical slug-like forms. But in respect of the substitution of other parts for the mantle-skirt and for the gill which the more degenerate Opisthobranchia exhibit, this order stands alone.

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  • The shell of the Pulmonata, though always light and delicate, is in many cases a well-developed spiral " house," into which the creature can withdraw itself; and, although the foot possesses no operculum, yet in Helix the aperture of the shell is closed in the winter by a complete lid, the " hybernaculum," more or less calcareous in nature, which is secreted by the froot.

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  • The increase of the visceral dome, its spiral twisting, and the gradual closure of the space overhung by the mantle-skirt so as to v / FIG.

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  • Shell conical, not spiral; inferior pallial lobe transformed into a branchia.

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  • Shell largely chitinous, not spiral, its calcareous apex projecting through a small hole in the mantle.

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  • Shell external, spiral, generally ornamented with ribs; borders of aperture thin and not reflected; radula with square teeth; genital ducts without accessory organs.

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  • spiral, with short spire.

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  • The spiral, however, it must be confessed, occurs so often in natural objects (e.g.

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  • The chitinous layer is usually strengthened by thread like thickenings which, in the region close to the outer opening of the tube, form a network enclosing polygonal areas, but which, through most of the tracheal system, are arranged spirally, the strengthening thread not forming a continuous spiral, but being interrupted after a few turns around the tube.

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  • He is credited with the invention of the anchor escapement for clocks, and also with the application of spiral springs to the balances of watches, together with the explanation of their action by the principle Ut tensio sic vis (1676).

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  • When a current is passed through the coil it rotates in the field and displaces the index over the scale against the control of a spiral spring like the hairspring of a watch.

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  • This second coil is suspended by a number of silk fibres, and to the coil is also attached a spiral spring the other end of which is fastened to a torsion head.

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  • F, Fixed coil; D, Movable coil; S, Spiral spring; T, Torsion head; MM, Mercury cups; I, Index needle.

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  • In England the word "snail" in popular language is associated with Gasteropods which inhabit land or fresh water, and which possess large conspicuous spiral shells; terrestrial Gasteropods, in which the shell is rudimentary and concealed, are distinguished as "slugs."

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  • In Paludina the whorls of the spiral are very prominent; the genus is viviparous.

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  • The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral.

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  • After having previously roasted the tube and copper oxide, and reduced the copper spiral a, the weighed calcium chloride tube and potash bulbs are put in position, the boat containing the substance is inserted (in the case of a difficultly combustible substance it is desirable to mix it with cupric oxide or lead chromate), the copper spiral (d) replaced, and the air and oxygen supply connected up. The apparatus is then tested for leaks.

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  • If all the connexions are sound, the copper oxide is gradually heated from the end a, the gas-jets under the spiral d are lighted, and a slow current of oxygen is passed through the tube.

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  • The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.

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  • It projects horizontally forwards from the head in the form of a cylindrical or slightly tapering, pointed tusk, composed of ivory, with a central cavity reaching almost to the apex, without enamel, and with the surface marked by spiral grooves and ridges, running in a sinistral direction.

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  • (Spiral and V Systems.) FIG.

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  • 2); the spiral system, in which a series of spiral grooves are cut all round the trunk, by which means virtually the entire area of the trunk is tapped.

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  • The V-system is the oldest, but is being largely superseded by the herring-bone; the spiral system is more recent and is still on trial.

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  • The tree is tapped either in the same manner as the Hevea, or by encircling the tree with a simple spiral cut at an inclination of 45°, or by two parallel spirals if the tree be large.

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  • At the bottom of the spiral an iron spout about 4 in.

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  • Others have arranged a means of obtaining high conductivity wire from cathode-copper without fusion, by depositing the metal in the form of a spiral strip on a cylinder, the strip being subsequently drawn down in the usual way; at present, however, the ordinary methods of wire production are found to be cheaper.

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  • Dorsal valve, showing calcareous spiral coils.

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  • (A portion of the fringe of cirri is removed to show the brachial membrane and a portion of the spiral extremities of the arms.) FIG.

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  • His invention of the spiral watch-spring was explained in the Journal des savants (Feb.

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  • A wire carrying an electric current is surrounded by a magnetic field, and if the wire is bent into the form of an elongated coil or spiral, a field having certain very useful qualities is generated in the interior.

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  • A little instrument, supplied by Hartmann and Braun, contains a short length of fine bismuth wire wound into a flat double spiral, half an inch or thereabouts in diameter, and attached to a long ebonite handle.

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  • Unfortunately the effects of magnetization upon the specific resistance of bismuth vary enormously with changes of temperature; it is therefore necessary to take two readings of the resistance, one when the spiral is in the magnetic field, the other when it is outside.

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  • An oblong coil about an inch in length is suspended from each end by thin strips of rolled German silver wire, one of which is connected with a spiral spring for regulating the tension, the other being attached to a torsion-head.

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  • The wire is subject to two superposed magnetizations, the one longitudinal, the other circular, due to the current traversing the wire; the resultant magnetization is consequently in the direction of a screw or spiral round the wire, which will be right-handed or left-handed according as the relation between the two magnetizations is right-handed or left-handed; the magnetic expansion or contraction of the metal along the spiral lines of magnetization produces the Wiedemann twist.

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  • Iron (moderately magnetized) expands along the lines of magnetization, and therefore for a right-handed spiral exhibits a right-handed twist.

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  • Mag., 1894, 38, 488) used a little spiral of the pure electrolytic bismuth wire prepared by Hartmann and Braun; this was placed between the pole-pieces of an electromagnet and subjected to fields of various strengths up to nearly 39,000 units.

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  • At constant temperature the resistance increased with the field; the changes in the resistance of the spiral when the temperature was 18° C. are indicated in the annexed table, from which it will be seen that in the strongest transverse field reached the resistance was increased more than threefold.

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  • Of these by far the most remarkable is the Scott monument in East Princes Street Gardens, designed by George Meikle Kemp (1795-1844); it is in the form of a spiral Gothic cross with a central canopy beneath which is a seated statue of Scott with his dog " Maida " at his side, by Sir John Steell, the niches being occupied by characters in Sir Walter's writings.

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  • The origin of co-ordinates 0 corresponds to v = 0; and the asymptotic points J, J', round which the curve revolves in an ever-closing spiral, correspond to v= =co .

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  • The distinctive feature is the spiral arrangement of the garment,the body being wrapped to a greater or less extent with a bandage of varying length in more or less parallel stripes.

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  • Not seldom it is difficult to distinguish between the true spiral garment and a dress with parallel horizontal stripes, and, i?iiii iiu?i u?i?!N???iiii?

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  • Egypt furnishes admirable painted and sculptured representations of the forms taken by the Semitic spiral dress in the XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties; the highly-coloured and gay apparel of Palestine and Syria standing in the strongest contrast to the plain, simple and often scanty garments of the Egyptians (fig.

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  • Quite distinct from the spiral is the old Babylonian cloak, which was thrown over the left shoulder, passed under the right 1 See e.g.

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  • On the Aegean dress (whether a development from spiral swathes or perhaps rather from a series of skirts one above the other), see the discussion of the Aegean loin-cloth by D.

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  • " Openrunning " fans have no peripheral casing, and discharge freely throughout their entire circumference; in " closed " fans the revolving part is completely enveloped by a spiral casing opening at one point into a discharge chimney.

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  • During excavations in Broad Street in 1874 many fragments of glass were found.; amongst them were part of a wine-glass, a square scent-bottle and a wine-glass stem containing a spiral thread of white enamel.

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  • 9), containing spiral threads of air, or of white or coloured enamel.

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  • For example, a pair of equal opposite vortices, moving on a line parallel to a plane boundary, will have a corresponding pair of images, forming a rectangle of vortices, and the path of a vortex will be the Cotes' spiral r sin 20 = 2a, or x-2+y-2=a-2; (io) this is therefore the path of a single vortex in a right-angled corner; and generally.

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  • if the angle of the corner is jr/n, the path is the Cotes' spiral r sin n0=na.

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  • They are weighed and then dumped into a washing machine, consisting of a large horizontal cage, submerged in water, in which revolves a horizontal shaft carrying arms. The arms are set in a spiral form, so that in revolving they not only stir the roots, causing them to rub against each other, but also force them forward from the receiving end,of the cage to the other end.

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  • (I) Let a spiral line be drawn on a right circular cylinder; a screw surface is then obtained by drawing lines from every point of this spiral perpendicular to its axis.

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  • (2) A right cylinder having for its base an Archimedean spiral is intersected by a right circular cone which has the generating line of the cylinder passing through the initial point of the spiral for its axis.

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  • This elaborate type of scolex appears to be an adaptation to grasp the spiral intestinal valve of sharks and rays.

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  • In the males the horns are usually compressed and triangular, with transverse ridges or knobs, and either curving backwards or spiral.

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  • The cigar is then rolled in the hand to consolidate the tobacco and bring it into proper shape, after which it is wrapped in the outer cover, a shaped piece made to enclose the whole in a spiral manner, beginning at the thick end of the cigar and working down to the pointed end, where it is dexterously finished by twisting to a fine point between the fingers.

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  • The twist of the horns varies to a great extent locally, the spiral being most open and corkscrew-like in the typical Astor animal, and closest and most screw-like in the race (C. falconeri jerdoni) inhabiting the Suleiman and adjacent ranges.

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  • For more efficient condensation - and also for shortening the apparatus - the central tube may be flattened, bent into a succession of V's, or twisted into a spiral form, the object in each case being to increase the condensing surface.

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  • Of other common types of condenser, we may notice the "spiral" or "worm" type, which consists of a glass, copper or tin worm enclosed in a vessel in which water circulates; and the ball condenser, which consists of two concentric spheres, the vapour passing through the inner sphere and water circulating in the space between this and the outer (in another form the vapour circulates in a shell, on the outside and inside of which water circulates).

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  • Of the third type is the Warren column consisting of a spiral kept at a constant temperature by a liquid bath.

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  • The lower (or modern) town is connected by a curious spiral street with the upper (or old) town.

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