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spines

spines Sentence Examples

  • they are composed of only from ' six to nine segments, which are beset with prominent spines, some of the latter appearing to be organs of special sense.

  • There is also the Moloch horridus of South and Western Australia, covered with tubercles bearing large spines, which give it a very strange aspect.

  • The cuticle is frequently prolonged into spines and papillae, which are especially developed at the anterior end of the body.

  • The lid is especially attractive to insects from its bright colour and honey secretion; three wings lead up to the mouth of the pitcher, on the inside of which a row of sharp spines points downwards, and below this a circular ridge (r, fig.

  • The gentle lemurs (Hapalemur) have a rounder head, with smaller ears and a shorter muzzle, and also a bare patch covered with spines on the fore-arm.

  • Zeisig and Zeising), long known in England as a cage-bird called by dealers the Aberdevine or Abadavine, names of unknown origin, the Fringilla spines of Linnaeus, and Carduelis spines of modern writers, belongs to the Passerine family Fringillidae.

  • 18, 21 b); the body shortened, with the abdomen swollen, but protected with tubercles and spines, and with longish legs adapted for an active life, as in the predaceous larvae of ladybirds; the body soft-skinned, swollen and caterpillar-like, with legs well developed, but leading a sluggish underground life, as in the grub of a chafer; the body soft-skinned and whitish, and the legs greatly reduced in size, as in the wood-feeding grub of a longhorn beetle.

  • size.) a, Mouth, surrounded by spines.

  • Aridity has favoured the production of spines as a defence from external attack, sharp thorns are frequent, and asperities of various sorts predominate.

  • It is almost made up of fragments of spines, teeth and scales of ganoid fish.

  • - " Errant" Polychaetes with well-marked prostomium possessing tentacles and palps with evident and locomotor parapodia, supported (with few exceptions) by strong spines, the aciculi; muscular pharynx usually armed with jaws; septa and nephridia regularly metameric and similar throughout body; free living and predaceous.

  • they are named " spines " or " spurs."

  • There are two dorsal fins, the anterior near the head, composed of 11-14 feeble spines, the second near the tail with all the rays soft except the first, and behind the second dorsal five or six finlets.

  • Others again, like Gasteracantha and Acrosoma, belonging to the Argyopidae, are armed with sharp and strong abdominal spines, and these spiders are hard-shelled like beetles and are spotted with black on a reddish or yellow ground, their spines shining with steel-blue lustre.

  • The body is ringed, and often has circles of spines, which are continued into the slightly protrusible pharynx.

  • The anterior edge of the dorsal fin is furnished with a row of small rounded horny spines or, rather, tubercles, of variable number.

  • Some species of Strophalosia and Productus seem also to have been moored during life to the sandy or muddy bottoms on which they lived, by the means of tubular spines often of considerable length.

  • The agreement of the grouping of the somites, of the form of the parapodia (appendages, limbs) in each region, of the position of the genital aperture and operculum, of the position and character of the eyes, and of the powerful post-anal spines not seen in other Arthropods, is very convincing as to the affinity wise suppressed praegenital somite.

  • 38), like that of Limulus and Scorpio, and that lateral spines on the pleura of the somites are frequent as in Limulus, and that neither metasomatic fusion of somites nor post-anal spine, nor lateral pleural spines are found in any Crustacean, nor all three together in any Arthropod besides the trilobites and Limulus - the claim of the trilobites to be considered as representing one order of a lower grade of Arachnida, comparable to the grade Entomostraca of the Crustacea, seems to be established.

  • - Comparison of the sixth prosomatic limb of a recent scorpion (B), of Palaeophonus (C), and of Limulus (A), showing their agreement in the number of segments; in the existence of a movable spine, Sp, at the distal border of the fifth segment; in the correspondence of the two claws at the free end of the limb of Scorpio with two spines similarly placed in Limulus; and, lastly, in the correspondence of the three talon-like spines carried on the distal margin of segment six of recent scorpions with the four larger but similarly situated spines on the leg of Limulus; s, groove dividing the ankylosed segments 4 and 5 of the Limulus leg into two.

  • of the Old World; it has a short creeping rhizome, from which springs a slender, herbaceous or woody, often very much branched, erect or climbing stem, the ultimate branches of which are flattened or needle-like leaf-like structures (cladodes), the true leaves being reduced to scales or, in the climbers, forming short, hard more or less recurved spines.

  • Having no spines to their fins, the Gadids used, in Cuvierian days, to be associated with the herrings, Salmonids, pike, &c., in the artificially-conceived order of Malacopterygians, or soft-finned bony fishes.

  • Fins without spines; caudal fin, if present, without expanded hypural, perfectly symmetrical, and supported by the neural and haemal spines of the posterior vertebrae, and by basal bones similar to those supporting the dorsal and anal rays.

  • Unlike sloths, the megatherium has seven cervical vertebrae; and the spines of all the trunk-vertebrae incline backwards.

  • The body is enveloped by a thick striated protective cuticle which is frequently raised into hooks or spines.

  • In all these families spines and glandular papillae may be super-added.

  • The evolution of the arrangements for protruding the polypide seems to have proceeded along several distinct lines: (i.) In certain species of Membranipora the "frontal membrane," or membranous free-wall, is protected by a series of calcareous spines, which start from its periphery and arch inwards.

  • In Cribrilina similar spines C FIG.

  • As indications that the conditions described in Membranipora and Cribrilina are of special significance may be noted the fact that the ancestrula of many genera which have well-developed compensation-sacs in the rest of their zooecia is a Membranipora-like individual with a series of marginal calcareous spines, and the further fact that a considerable proportion of the Cretaceous Cheilostomes belong either to the Membraniporidae or to the Cribrilinidae.

  • The arrangement is perhaps derivable from a Cribrilina-like condition in which the outer layer of the spines has become membranous while the spines themselves are laterally united from the first.

  • sp, Anchoring spines of the statoblast.

  • The food of sea-snakes consists entirely of small fish; among them species with very strong spines.

  • As all these animals are killed by the poison of the snake before they are swallowed, and as their muscles are perfectly relaxed, their armature is harmless to the snake, which begins to swallow its prey from the head, and depresses the spines as deglutition proceeds.

  • The first dorsal fin and the ventrals are transformed into pointed formidable spines, and joined to firm bony plates of the endoskeleton.

  • The development of its scutes and spines varies exceedingly, and specimens may be found without any lateral scutes and with short spines, others with only a few scutes and moderately sized spines, and again others which possess a complete row of scutes from the head to the caudal fin, and in which the fin-spines are twice as long and strong as in other varieties.

  • The ten-spined stickleback (Gastrosteus pungitius) is so called from the number of spines usually composing its first dorsal fin, which, however, may be sometimes reduced to eight or nine or increased to eleven.

  • The sea-stickleback (Gastrosteus spinachia or Spinachia vulgaris) attains to a length of 7 in., and is armed with fifteen short spines on the back.

  • The body is enclosed in a stout cuticle, prolonged in places into spines and bristles.

  • Macmillan & Co., Ltd.) b, bristle; cs, caudal spine; ph, pharynx; s s', the spines on the two segments of the proboscis; sg, salivary glands; st, stomach.

  • round the proboscis and in the two posterior caudal spines.

  • The external openings in the male are armed with a pair of hollowed spines.

  • The Cacti may be described in general terms as plants having a woody axis, overlaid with thick masses of cellular tissue forming the fleshy stems. These are extremely various in character and form, being globose, cylindrical, columnar or flattened into leafy expansions or thick joint-like divisions, the surface being either ribbed like a melon, or developed into nipple-like protuberances, or variously angular, but in the greater number of the species furnished copiously with tufts of horny spines, some of which are exceedingly keen and powerful.

  • high, the surface divided into numerous furrows like the ribs of a melon, with projecting angles, which are set with a regular series of stellated spines - each bundle consisting of about five larger spines, accompanied by smaller but sharp bristles - and the tip of the plant being surmounted by a cylindrical crown 3 to 5 in.

  • - This genus, which comprises nearly 300 species, mostly Mexican, with a few Brazilian and West Indian, is called nipple cactus, and consists of globular or cylindrical succulent plants, whose surface instead of being cut up into ridges with alternate furrows, as in Melocactus, is broken up into teat-like cylindrical or angular tubercles, spirally arranged, and terminating in a radiating tuft of spines which spring from a little woolly cushion.

  • The spines are variously coloured, white and yellow tints predominating, and from the symmetrical arrangement of the areolae or tufts of spines they are very pretty objects, and are hence frequently kept in drawing-room plant cases.

  • These large plants have from 40 to 50 ridges, on which the buds and clusters of spines are sunk at intervals, the aggregate number of the spines having been in some cases computed at upwards of 50,000 on a single plant.

  • These spines are used by the Mexicans as toothpicks.

  • which grow out at right angles from the main stem, and then curve upwards and continue their growth parallel to it; these stems have from twelve to twenty ribs, on which at intervals of about an inch are the buds with their thick yellow cushions, from which issue five or six large and numerous smaller spines.

  • In the allied genus Echinocereus, with 25 to 30 species in North and South America, the stems are short, branched or simple, divided into few or many ridges all armed with sharp, formidable spines.

  • pectinatus produces a purplish fruit resembling a gooseberry, which is very good eating; and the fleshy part of the stem itself, which is called cabeza del viego by the Mexicans, is eaten by them as a vegetable after removing the spines.

  • Pilocereus, the old man cactus, forms a small genus with tallish erect, fleshy, angulate stems, on which, with the tufts of spines, are developed hair-like bodies, which, though rather coarse, bear some resemblance to the hoary locks of an old man.

  • The plants are nearly allied to Cereus, differing chiefly in the floriferous portion developing these longer and more attenuated hair-like spines, which surround the base of the flowers and form a dense woolly head or cephalium.

  • They are fleshy shrubs, with rounded, woody stems, and numerous succulent branches, composed in most of the species of separate joints or parts, which are much compressed, often elliptic or suborbicular, dotted over in spiral lines with small, fleshy, caducous leaves, in the axils of which are placed the areoles or tufts of barbed or hooked spines of two forms. The flowers are mostly yellow or reddish-yellow, and are succeeded by pear-shaped or egg-shaped fruits, having a broad scar at the top, furnished on their soft, fleshy rind with tufts of small spines.

  • The Tenthredinidae, or true saw-flies, are distinguished by two spines on each fore-shin, while the larvae are usually caterpillars, with three pairs of thoracic legs, and from six to eight pairs of abdominal prolegs, the latter not possessing the hooks found on the pro-legs of lepidopterous caterpillars.

  • In Halohates a comb-like series of sharp spines on the fore-shin can be drawn across a set of blunt processes on the shin of the opposite leg.

  • Males of the little water-bugs of the genus Corixa make a shrill chirping note by drawing a row of teeth on the flattened fore-foot across a group of spines on the haunch of the opposite leg.

  • Green mud differs to a greater extent from the blue mud, and owes its characteristic nature and colour to the presence of glauconite, which is formed inside the cases of foraminifera, the spines of echini and the spicules of sponges in a manner not yet understood.

  • Of the Ceylonese galls, " some are as symmetrical as a composite flower when in bud, others smooth and spherical like a berry; some protected by long spines, others clothed with yellow wool formed of long cellular hairs, others with regularly tufted hairs."

  • They are all stout, heavily-built animals, with blunt rounded heads, fleshy mobile snouts, and coats of thick cylindrical or flattened spines, which form the whole covering of their body, and are not intermingled with ordinary hairs.

  • The genus Atherura includes the brush-tailed porcupines which are much smaller animals, with long tails tipped with bundles of flattened spines.

  • The spines are mixed with long soft hairs.

  • They include three genera, of which the first is represented by the Canadian porcupine (Erethizon dorsatus), a stout, heavily-built animal, with long hairs almost or quite hiding its spines, four frontand five hind-toes, and a short, stumpy tail.

  • They are of a lighter build than the ground-porcupines, with short, close, many-coloured spines, often mixed with hairs, and prehensile tails.

  • The pollen grain bears numerous spines, the dark spots indicate thin places in the outer wall.

  • The body-wall is highly muscular and, except in a few probably specialized cases, possesses chitinous spines, the setae, which are secreted by the ectoderm and are embedded in pits of the skin.

  • The " postabdomen," marked off by the two postabdominal setae, usually has teeth or spines, and ends in two denticulate or ciliate claws, or it may be rudimentary, as in Polyphemus.

  • These have the furcal branches broad, lamellar, with at least three pairs of strong spines or ungues.

  • in diameter, and distinguished by the presence of spines along the ribs of the shell.

  • The skin is devoid of ossifications, but large and numerous cutaneous spines are often present, especially on the head and on the tail.

  • Their scales are mixed with larger prominent spines, which in some species are particularly developed on the tail, and disposed in whorls.

  • The body is uniformly covered with granular scales, whilst the short, strong tail is armed with powerful spines disposed in whorls.

  • Among the ammonites the loss of power to coil the shell is one feature of racial old age, and in others old age is accompanied by closer coiling and loss of surface ornamentation, such as spines, ribs, spirals; while in other forms an arresting of variability precedes extinction.

  • Beecher (1856-1905) has pointed out (1898), many animals possessing hard parts tend toward the close of their racial history to produce a superfluity of dead matter, which accumulates in the form of spines among invertebrates, and of horns among the land vertebrates, reaching a maximum when the animals are really on the down-grade of development.

  • (b) Triarthridae; body with a pair of long cervical spines pointing distally and serving for leaping movements or to extend the body and make it too big for small enemies to swallow; Pedetes Gosse (no median spines); Triarthra Ehr., one postero-ventral spine; Tetramastix Zacharias, two unequal median spines.

  • Spondylus; shell with spiny ribs, adherent by the spines.

  • In most species there are three circumvallate papillae at the base, and the apical portion is generally covered with small, thread-like papillae, some of which in the porcupines become greatly enlarged, forming toothed spines.

  • There are generally nineteen dorso-lumbar vertebrae (thirteen thoracic and six lumbar), the form of which varies in different genera; in the cursorial and leaping species the lumbar transverse processes are generally very long, and in the hares there are large compressed inferior spines, or hypapophyses.

  • The fur varies exceedingly in character, - in some, like the chinchillas and hares, being fine and soft, while in others it is more or less replaced by spines on the upper surface, as in spiny rats and porcupines; these spines in several genera, as Xerus, Acomys, Platacanthomys, Echinothrix, Loncheres and Echinomys, being flattened.

  • Perognathus and Heteromys have rooted molars; the latter genus is distinguished by the presence of flattened spines among the fur, and has species extending into South America.

  • In some cases there may be spines among the fur.

  • The spiny mice, Acornys (or Acanthomys), of Western Asia, Cyprus and Africa, take their name from the fur being almost entirely replaced by flattened spines, and are further distinguished by the rudimentary coronoid process of the lower jaw.

  • leucura, being about the size of the common rat, with its fur thickly mixed with spines, a native of Celebes.

  • The Old World porcupines, constituting the family Hystricidae, are terrestrial, stoutly built rodents, with limbs of subequal length in front and behind, and the skin covered with strong spines.

  • is represented in all the three great continents of the Old World, and extends as far east as Flores and Celebes, the skull is swollen and convex, the spines are cylindrical, and the tail is short and covered with spines and slender-stalked open quills.

  • In Atherura fasciculata of the Malay Peninsula the spines are flattened, and the tails long and scaly, with a tuft of compressed bristles.

  • 15), represents a genus in which the whole upper surface of the body is protected by long white-tipped spines; Chaetomys subspinosus is clothed with strong wavy bristles.

  • The second group of the family is formed by the genera Loncheres, Dactylomys, Echi[nolmys, Proechimys and a few others, the members of which are rat-like rodents, with long scaly or furry tails, and frequently flattened spines mingled with the fur of the back.

  • It is frequently armed with spines, hooks or stylets, and is further complicated by the addition of a nutritive secretion (the prostate gland) which may open at its base or pass separately by a special duct to the exterior.

  • The almost spherical head is covered by a hood which can be retracted; it bears upon its side a number of sickle-shaped, chitinous hooks and one or more short rows of low 89 spines - both of these features are used in characterizing the various species.

  • The weevers are poisonous and the venom is concentrated principally in the six spines of the first dorsal fin.

  • These spines are sharp and connected by a black membrane which projects, when the fish is disturbed, as a danger singal, it is believed, above the surface of the sand in which the fishes lie hid awaiting prey.

  • The males are without these protective spines and are exposed to special dangers as they wander in search of the webs of the females.

  • A third species, the common sloe or blackthorn, P. spinosa, has stout spines; its flowers expand before the leaves; and its fruit is very rough to the taste, in which particulars it differs from the two preceding.

  • About 700 species of Carboniferous fish have been described largely from teeth, spines and dermal ossicles.

  • Fishes were abundant, many of the smaller ganoids are beautifully preserved in an entire condition, other larger forms are represented by fin spines, teeth and bones; Ctenodus, Uronemus, Acanthodes, Cheirodus, Gyracanthus are characteristic genera.

  • The tongue is long and flat, and remarkable for the development of the papillae of the anterior part of the dorsal surface, which (except near the edge) are modified so as to resemble long, compressed, recurved, horny spines or claws, which, near the middle line, attain the length of one-fifth of an inch.

  • In some leaves, as in the barberry, the veins are hardened, producing spines without any parenchyma.

  • But the way in which they usually diverge just over and in front of the eye has suggested the more probable idea, that they serve to guard these organs from thorns and spines while hunting for fallen fruits among the tangled thickets of rattans and other spiny plants.

  • The exospore often bears spines or warts, or is variously sculptured, and the character of the markings is often of value for the distinction of genera or higher groups.

  • high, the branches often ending in single sharp spines.

  • The species are small trees or shrubs, armed with sharp, straight, or hooked spines, having alternate leaves, and fruits which are in most of the species edible, and have an agreeable acid taste; this is especially the case with those of the two species mentioned above.

  • The plants often bear spines, especially those growing in arid districts in Australia or tropical and South Africa.

  • As the leaves unfold from the centre of the rosette the impression of the marginal spines is very conspicuous on the still erect younger leaves.

  • The Scotch fir is a very variable tree, and certain varieties have acquired a higher reputation for the qualities of their timber than others; among those most prized by foresters is the one called the Braemar pine, the remaining fragments of the great wood in the Braemar district being chiefly composed of this kind; it is mainly distinguished by its shorter and more glaucous leaves and ovoid cones with blunt recurved spines, and especially by the early horizontal growth of its ultimately drooping boughs; of all varieties this is the most picturesque.

  • in diameter; the short dark-green leaves are in thick tufts, contrasting with the pale yellowish, usually clustered cones, the scales of which are furnished with small curved spines.

  • P. canariensis, which forms forests on the mountains of Grand Canary and Teneriffe, growing at an elevation of 6000 ft., also belongs to this group. The leaves are long, lax, and of a bright green tint; the cone-scales are without spines; the trunk attains a large size, and yields good and durable timber.

  • The spines and pods of the plant are often mixed with it.

  • In most cases, however, the palp loses its exopodite and it often disappears altogether, while the coxal segment forms the body of the mandible, with a masticatory edge variously armed with teeth and spines.

  • In a few Entomostraca (some Phyllopoda and Ostracoda) the chitinous lining of the fore-gut develops spines and hairs which help to triturate and strain the food, and among the Ostracods there is occasionally (Bairdia) a more elaborate armature of toothed plates moved by muscles.

  • As in many other " pelagic " organisms, spines and processes from the surface of the body are often developed, which are probably less important as defensive organs than as aids to flotation.

  • Perhaps the most striking example is the zoea-like larva of the Sergestidae, known as Elaphocaris, which has an extraordinary armature of ramified spines.

  • In many bamboos they are long and spreading or drooping and copiously ramified, in others they are reduced to hooked spines.

  • In Setaria and allied genera the spikelet is subtended by an involucre of bristles or spines which represent sterile branches of the inflorescence.

  • The appendages of the second pair are large and prehensile, as in scorpions, but are armed with spines, to impale and hold prey.

  • Protection is afforded to some species, like Heteropteryx grayi from Borneo, by sharp thornlike spines.

  • Favosites hemisphaerica a number of radial spines, projecting into the cavity FIG.

  • (5) The costae, longitudinal ribs or rows of spines on the outer surface of the theca.

  • As growth proceeds, and parent and bud become separated farther from one another, the edge-zone forms a sheet of soft tissue, X 0 3 bridging over the space between the two, and resting upon projecting spines of the corallum.

  • This margin is normally furnished with a perpendicular spine (virgella) and occasionally with two shorter lateral spines or lobes.

  • The thecae in several of the families are occasionally provided with spines or lateral processes: the spines are especially conspicuous at the base in some biserial forms: in the Lasiograptidae the lateral processes originate a marginal meshwork surrounding the polypary.

  • To render the organization of this creature perfect in relation to its wants, it is provided with three long filaments inserted along the middle of the head, which are, in fact, the detached and modified three first spines of the anterior dorsal fin.

  • (After Jaekel.) The short spines which were attached to the tubercles are not drawn.

  • It is spheroidal, with the mouth and anus at opposite poles; there are five ambulacra, and the ambulacral plates are large, simple and alternating, each being pierced by two podial pores which lie in a small oval depression; the ambulacrals next the mouth form a closed ring of ten plates; the interambulacrals lie in single columns between the ambulacra, and are separated from the mouth-area by the proximal ambulacrals just mentioned, and sometimes by the second set of ambulacrals also; the ambulacra end in the five oculars or terminals, which meet in a ring around the anal area and have no podial pores, but one of them serves as a madreporite; within this ring is a star-shaped area filled with minute irregular plates, none of which can safely be selected as the homologues of the so-called basals or genitals of later forms; within the ring of ambulacrals around the mouth are five somewhat pointed plates, which Jaekel regards as teeth, but which can scarcely be homologous with the interradially placed teeth of later echinoids, since they are radial in position; small spines are present, especially around the podial pores.

  • 12, B); the rays as a rule pass gradually into the disk, and contain both genital glands and caecal extensions of the digestive system; an anus usually present; respiration is by tubular extensions from the body-cavity (papulae); skeletal appendages, in addition to small spines, are either small grasping organs (pedicellariae), or clumped spines (paxillae), or branched spines bearing a membrane.

  • Perrier, at first laying greater stress on the nature of the pedicellariae and afterwards on the form of the mouth-skeleton, has gradually perfected a scheme of five orders: (I) Forcipulata, with pedicellariae stalked, and straight or crossed; (2) Spinulosa, with pedicellariae sessile and forcipiform; (3) Velata, with membraniferous spines; (4) Paxillosa, pedicellariae represented by an ossicle of the test and the spines covering it, the whole forming a paxilla; (5) Valvata or Granulosa, with pedicellariae sessile and valvular or salt-cellar shaped.

  • abruptly from the disk and contain neither genital glands nor digestive caeca; no anus; respiration may be through clefts at the bases of the rays, but not by papulae; skeletal appendages confined to spines, usually of simple structure.

  • - Spines short, simple, pointing towards the end of the arm.

  • - Spines may be variously elaborated and are set more at right angles to the arm-axis.

  • Skeletal appendages are spines (radioles), pedicellariae, and, in some forms, minute sense-organs called sphaeridia.

  • - Ambulacrals simple, with two pores juxtaposed, dorsal podia respiratory; interambulacrals bearing numerous small spines, none resorbed; mouth central or shifted forwards, with no jaws or external gills, sphaeridia numerous; anus exocyclic. As the mouth moves forward and the anus downward, the posterior interambulacrals between them are enlarged and strengthened so as to form a sternum.

  • Such hairs, either upon different parts of the skin of the same species, or in different species, assume very diverse forms and are of various sizes and degrees of rigidity - as seen in the fur of the mole, the bristles of the pig, and the spines of the hedgehog and porcupine, which are all modifications of the same structures.

  • Though usually more or less cylindrical or circular in section, hairs are often elliptical or flattened, as in the curly-haired races of men, the terminal portion of the hair of moles and shrews, and conspicuously in the spines of the spiny squirrels of the genus Xerus and those of the mouse-like Platacanthomys.

  • The ventral fin is also elongated, and all the fins are destitute of spines.

  • Many of these are of curious form, with remarkable developments of the plates of the head and projecting horns and spines.

  • The neural laminae are broad, the spines almost obsolete, except in the seventh, and the transverse processes not largely developed.

  • The cuticle is a thin layer, of which the spines, jaws and claws are special developments.

  • In size and appearance it bears a considerable resemblance to the hedgehog, its upper surface being covered over with strong spines directed backwards, and on the back inwards, so as to cross each other on the middle line.

  • The spines in the neighbourhood of the tail form a tuft sufficient to hide that almost rudimentary organ.

  • When attacked it seeks to escape either by rolling itself into a ball, its erect spines proving a formidable barrier to its capture, or by burrowing into the sand, which its powerful limbs enable it to do with great celerity.

  • In all the spines are mixed with hair; in the Tasmanian race they are nearly hidden by the long harsh fur.

  • marked by a longitudinal series of six pairs of immovable spines or processes.

  • Spherical sacs, bearing forked spines, described by Williamson under the name of Zygosporites, are frequent, usually in an isolated state.

  • In some species of the South American frogs of the genus Leptodactylus the breast and hands are armed with very large spines, which inflict deep wounds on the female held in embrace.

  • actin in the spines is atypical.

  • Many catfish and some other species have sharp spines (often barbed) on their fins.

  • bristly spines over the dorsal surface.

  • Slightly larger flagellates and small ciliates prompt the spines to bend and curl so as to entangle the prey more thoroughly.

  • creased spines and yellowing pages.

  • Extent and Medium 6 volumes; paper; The spines of many of the volumes are damaged and in some cases are completely detached.

  • elongated first dorsal fin spines are not always present.

  • The branches bear horrific sharp axillary spines, as is suggested by the specific epithet (Gibson 1999 ).

  • Slightly larger flagellates and small ciliates prompt the spines to bend and curl so as to entangle the prey more thoroughly.

  • grindse were sawn off from large spines into thin disks, which were then finely ground down to very thin sections.

  • largish area of spines from my back.

  • New spines continued to grow in hedgehogs affected by mange and ringworm respectively.

  • papery spines have the ability to absorb water.

  • The palps are developed into strong pincers equipped with sharp teeth and spines, which are used for catching and crushing prey.

  • Ok, back to spines, excuse the pun... ... ... .

  • This statement sent quivers down most of the players ' spines.

  • sea urchin spines.

  • silvery with a black venomous fin and spines.

  • It appears that the elongated first dorsal fin spines are not always present.

  • As dendrites form the predominant elements in neurons, so dendritic spines form the dominant component of many types of dendritic trees.

  • When using frames that support the anterior superior iliac spines, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh may be compressed and stretched.

  • The central non-articular area comprises the tibial spines with the anterior cruciate ligament taking origin from the anterior spine.

  • Not all urchin spines are suitable for this work.

  • Apex somewhat sunken, more or less covered by the wool and spines from youngest areoles, however hardly completly enclosed.

  • urchin spines are suitable for this work.

  • In coastal areas there can also be painful results from standing on sea urchins or contact with the spines of certain fish.

  • The spines can be a problem in gardens as they can inflict wounds.

  • they are composed of only from ' six to nine segments, which are beset with prominent spines, some of the latter appearing to be organs of special sense.

  • But the legs carry peculiar spines, and the terminal tarsal segment is cup-shaped at the end; from this hollow a delicate bladder (fig.

  • There is also the Moloch horridus of South and Western Australia, covered with tubercles bearing large spines, which give it a very strange aspect.

  • The cuticle is frequently prolonged into spines and papillae, which are especially developed at the anterior end of the body.

  • The lid is especially attractive to insects from its bright colour and honey secretion; three wings lead up to the mouth of the pitcher, on the inside of which a row of sharp spines points downwards, and below this a circular ridge (r, fig.

  • Again, the spines arising from the basal crust of ??'

  • The gentle lemurs (Hapalemur) have a rounder head, with smaller ears and a shorter muzzle, and also a bare patch covered with spines on the fore-arm.

  • Zeisig and Zeising), long known in England as a cage-bird called by dealers the Aberdevine or Abadavine, names of unknown origin, the Fringilla spines of Linnaeus, and Carduelis spines of modern writers, belongs to the Passerine family Fringillidae.

  • 18, 21 b); the body shortened, with the abdomen swollen, but protected with tubercles and spines, and with longish legs adapted for an active life, as in the predaceous larvae of ladybirds; the body soft-skinned, swollen and caterpillar-like, with legs well developed, but leading a sluggish underground life, as in the grub of a chafer; the body soft-skinned and whitish, and the legs greatly reduced in size, as in the wood-feeding grub of a longhorn beetle.

  • size.) a, Mouth, surrounded by spines.

  • Aridity has favoured the production of spines as a defence from external attack, sharp thorns are frequent, and asperities of various sorts predominate.

  • It is almost made up of fragments of spines, teeth and scales of ganoid fish.

  • - " Errant" Polychaetes with well-marked prostomium possessing tentacles and palps with evident and locomotor parapodia, supported (with few exceptions) by strong spines, the aciculi; muscular pharynx usually armed with jaws; septa and nephridia regularly metameric and similar throughout body; free living and predaceous.

  • they are named " spines " or " spurs."

  • There are two dorsal fins, the anterior near the head, composed of 11-14 feeble spines, the second near the tail with all the rays soft except the first, and behind the second dorsal five or six finlets.

  • Others again, like Gasteracantha and Acrosoma, belonging to the Argyopidae, are armed with sharp and strong abdominal spines, and these spiders are hard-shelled like beetles and are spotted with black on a reddish or yellow ground, their spines shining with steel-blue lustre.

  • The body is ringed, and often has circles of spines, which are continued into the slightly protrusible pharynx.

  • The anterior edge of the dorsal fin is furnished with a row of small rounded horny spines or, rather, tubercles, of variable number.

  • Some species of Strophalosia and Productus seem also to have been moored during life to the sandy or muddy bottoms on which they lived, by the means of tubular spines often of considerable length.

  • The agreement of the grouping of the somites, of the form of the parapodia (appendages, limbs) in each region, of the position of the genital aperture and operculum, of the position and character of the eyes, and of the powerful post-anal spines not seen in other Arthropods, is very convincing as to the affinity wise suppressed praegenital somite.

  • 38), like that of Limulus and Scorpio, and that lateral spines on the pleura of the somites are frequent as in Limulus, and that neither metasomatic fusion of somites nor post-anal spine, nor lateral pleural spines are found in any Crustacean, nor all three together in any Arthropod besides the trilobites and Limulus - the claim of the trilobites to be considered as representing one order of a lower grade of Arachnida, comparable to the grade Entomostraca of the Crustacea, seems to be established.

  • - Comparison of the sixth prosomatic limb of a recent scorpion (B), of Palaeophonus (C), and of Limulus (A), showing their agreement in the number of segments; in the existence of a movable spine, Sp, at the distal border of the fifth segment; in the correspondence of the two claws at the free end of the limb of Scorpio with two spines similarly placed in Limulus; and, lastly, in the correspondence of the three talon-like spines carried on the distal margin of segment six of recent scorpions with the four larger but similarly situated spines on the leg of Limulus; s, groove dividing the ankylosed segments 4 and 5 of the Limulus leg into two.

  • of the Old World; it has a short creeping rhizome, from which springs a slender, herbaceous or woody, often very much branched, erect or climbing stem, the ultimate branches of which are flattened or needle-like leaf-like structures (cladodes), the true leaves being reduced to scales or, in the climbers, forming short, hard more or less recurved spines.

  • Having no spines to their fins, the Gadids used, in Cuvierian days, to be associated with the herrings, Salmonids, pike, &c., in the artificially-conceived order of Malacopterygians, or soft-finned bony fishes.

  • Fins without spines; caudal fin, if present, without expanded hypural, perfectly symmetrical, and supported by the neural and haemal spines of the posterior vertebrae, and by basal bones similar to those supporting the dorsal and anal rays.

  • Unlike sloths, the megatherium has seven cervical vertebrae; and the spines of all the trunk-vertebrae incline backwards.

  • The body is enveloped by a thick striated protective cuticle which is frequently raised into hooks or spines.

  • In all these families spines and glandular papillae may be super-added.

  • The evolution of the arrangements for protruding the polypide seems to have proceeded along several distinct lines: (i.) In certain species of Membranipora the "frontal membrane," or membranous free-wall, is protected by a series of calcareous spines, which start from its periphery and arch inwards.

  • In Cribrilina similar spines C FIG.

  • As indications that the conditions described in Membranipora and Cribrilina are of special significance may be noted the fact that the ancestrula of many genera which have well-developed compensation-sacs in the rest of their zooecia is a Membranipora-like individual with a series of marginal calcareous spines, and the further fact that a considerable proportion of the Cretaceous Cheilostomes belong either to the Membraniporidae or to the Cribrilinidae.

  • The arrangement is perhaps derivable from a Cribrilina-like condition in which the outer layer of the spines has become membranous while the spines themselves are laterally united from the first.

  • sp, Anchoring spines of the statoblast.

  • The food of sea-snakes consists entirely of small fish; among them species with very strong spines.

  • As all these animals are killed by the poison of the snake before they are swallowed, and as their muscles are perfectly relaxed, their armature is harmless to the snake, which begins to swallow its prey from the head, and depresses the spines as deglutition proceeds.

  • The first dorsal fin and the ventrals are transformed into pointed formidable spines, and joined to firm bony plates of the endoskeleton.

  • The development of its scutes and spines varies exceedingly, and specimens may be found without any lateral scutes and with short spines, others with only a few scutes and moderately sized spines, and again others which possess a complete row of scutes from the head to the caudal fin, and in which the fin-spines are twice as long and strong as in other varieties.

  • The ten-spined stickleback (Gastrosteus pungitius) is so called from the number of spines usually composing its first dorsal fin, which, however, may be sometimes reduced to eight or nine or increased to eleven.

  • The sea-stickleback (Gastrosteus spinachia or Spinachia vulgaris) attains to a length of 7 in., and is armed with fifteen short spines on the back.

  • The body is enclosed in a stout cuticle, prolonged in places into spines and bristles.

  • Macmillan & Co., Ltd.) b, bristle; cs, caudal spine; ph, pharynx; s s', the spines on the two segments of the proboscis; sg, salivary glands; st, stomach.

  • round the proboscis and in the two posterior caudal spines.

  • The external openings in the male are armed with a pair of hollowed spines.

  • The Cacti may be described in general terms as plants having a woody axis, overlaid with thick masses of cellular tissue forming the fleshy stems. These are extremely various in character and form, being globose, cylindrical, columnar or flattened into leafy expansions or thick joint-like divisions, the surface being either ribbed like a melon, or developed into nipple-like protuberances, or variously angular, but in the greater number of the species furnished copiously with tufts of horny spines, some of which are exceedingly keen and powerful.

  • high, the surface divided into numerous furrows like the ribs of a melon, with projecting angles, which are set with a regular series of stellated spines - each bundle consisting of about five larger spines, accompanied by smaller but sharp bristles - and the tip of the plant being surmounted by a cylindrical crown 3 to 5 in.

  • - This genus, which comprises nearly 300 species, mostly Mexican, with a few Brazilian and West Indian, is called nipple cactus, and consists of globular or cylindrical succulent plants, whose surface instead of being cut up into ridges with alternate furrows, as in Melocactus, is broken up into teat-like cylindrical or angular tubercles, spirally arranged, and terminating in a radiating tuft of spines which spring from a little woolly cushion.

  • The spines are variously coloured, white and yellow tints predominating, and from the symmetrical arrangement of the areolae or tufts of spines they are very pretty objects, and are hence frequently kept in drawing-room plant cases.

  • These large plants have from 40 to 50 ridges, on which the buds and clusters of spines are sunk at intervals, the aggregate number of the spines having been in some cases computed at upwards of 50,000 on a single plant.

  • These spines are used by the Mexicans as toothpicks.

  • which grow out at right angles from the main stem, and then curve upwards and continue their growth parallel to it; these stems have from twelve to twenty ribs, on which at intervals of about an inch are the buds with their thick yellow cushions, from which issue five or six large and numerous smaller spines.

  • In the allied genus Echinocereus, with 25 to 30 species in North and South America, the stems are short, branched or simple, divided into few or many ridges all armed with sharp, formidable spines.

  • pectinatus produces a purplish fruit resembling a gooseberry, which is very good eating; and the fleshy part of the stem itself, which is called cabeza del viego by the Mexicans, is eaten by them as a vegetable after removing the spines.

  • Pilocereus, the old man cactus, forms a small genus with tallish erect, fleshy, angulate stems, on which, with the tufts of spines, are developed hair-like bodies, which, though rather coarse, bear some resemblance to the hoary locks of an old man.

  • The plants are nearly allied to Cereus, differing chiefly in the floriferous portion developing these longer and more attenuated hair-like spines, which surround the base of the flowers and form a dense woolly head or cephalium.

  • They are fleshy shrubs, with rounded, woody stems, and numerous succulent branches, composed in most of the species of separate joints or parts, which are much compressed, often elliptic or suborbicular, dotted over in spiral lines with small, fleshy, caducous leaves, in the axils of which are placed the areoles or tufts of barbed or hooked spines of two forms. The flowers are mostly yellow or reddish-yellow, and are succeeded by pear-shaped or egg-shaped fruits, having a broad scar at the top, furnished on their soft, fleshy rind with tufts of small spines.

  • The Tenthredinidae, or true saw-flies, are distinguished by two spines on each fore-shin, while the larvae are usually caterpillars, with three pairs of thoracic legs, and from six to eight pairs of abdominal prolegs, the latter not possessing the hooks found on the pro-legs of lepidopterous caterpillars.

  • In Halohates a comb-like series of sharp spines on the fore-shin can be drawn across a set of blunt processes on the shin of the opposite leg.

  • Males of the little water-bugs of the genus Corixa make a shrill chirping note by drawing a row of teeth on the flattened fore-foot across a group of spines on the haunch of the opposite leg.

  • Green mud differs to a greater extent from the blue mud, and owes its characteristic nature and colour to the presence of glauconite, which is formed inside the cases of foraminifera, the spines of echini and the spicules of sponges in a manner not yet understood.

  • Of the Ceylonese galls, " some are as symmetrical as a composite flower when in bud, others smooth and spherical like a berry; some protected by long spines, others clothed with yellow wool formed of long cellular hairs, others with regularly tufted hairs."

  • They are all stout, heavily-built animals, with blunt rounded heads, fleshy mobile snouts, and coats of thick cylindrical or flattened spines, which form the whole covering of their body, and are not intermingled with ordinary hairs.

  • The genus Atherura includes the brush-tailed porcupines which are much smaller animals, with long tails tipped with bundles of flattened spines.

  • The spines are mixed with long soft hairs.

  • They include three genera, of which the first is represented by the Canadian porcupine (Erethizon dorsatus), a stout, heavily-built animal, with long hairs almost or quite hiding its spines, four frontand five hind-toes, and a short, stumpy tail.

  • They are of a lighter build than the ground-porcupines, with short, close, many-coloured spines, often mixed with hairs, and prehensile tails.

  • Insect-pollinated, Entomophilae, a very large class characterized by sticky pollen grains, the surface of which bears spines, warts or other projections (fig.

  • The pollen grain bears numerous spines, the dark spots indicate thin places in the outer wall.

  • The body-wall is highly muscular and, except in a few probably specialized cases, possesses chitinous spines, the setae, which are secreted by the ectoderm and are embedded in pits of the skin.

  • The " postabdomen," marked off by the two postabdominal setae, usually has teeth or spines, and ends in two denticulate or ciliate claws, or it may be rudimentary, as in Polyphemus.

  • These have the furcal branches broad, lamellar, with at least three pairs of strong spines or ungues.

  • The second legs are sometimes wanting, sometimes pediform and locomotive, sometimes strangely metamorphosed into the " vermiform organ," generally long, many-jointed, and distally armed with retroverted spines, its function being that of an extremely mobile cleansing foot, which can insert itself among the eggs in the brood-space, between the branchial leaves of Asterope (fig.

  • in diameter, and distinguished by the presence of spines along the ribs of the shell.

  • The skin is devoid of ossifications, but large and numerous cutaneous spines are often present, especially on the head and on the tail.

  • Their scales are mixed with larger prominent spines, which in some species are particularly developed on the tail, and disposed in whorls.

  • The body is uniformly covered with granular scales, whilst the short, strong tail is armed with powerful spines disposed in whorls.

  • Among the ammonites the loss of power to coil the shell is one feature of racial old age, and in others old age is accompanied by closer coiling and loss of surface ornamentation, such as spines, ribs, spirals; while in other forms an arresting of variability precedes extinction.

  • Beecher (1856-1905) has pointed out (1898), many animals possessing hard parts tend toward the close of their racial history to produce a superfluity of dead matter, which accumulates in the form of spines among invertebrates, and of horns among the land vertebrates, reaching a maximum when the animals are really on the down-grade of development.

  • (b) Triarthridae; body with a pair of long cervical spines pointing distally and serving for leaping movements or to extend the body and make it too big for small enemies to swallow; Pedetes Gosse (no median spines); Triarthra Ehr., one postero-ventral spine; Tetramastix Zacharias, two unequal median spines.

  • Spondylus; shell with spiny ribs, adherent by the spines.

  • In most species there are three circumvallate papillae at the base, and the apical portion is generally covered with small, thread-like papillae, some of which in the porcupines become greatly enlarged, forming toothed spines.

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