Spinal-cord sentence example
It excites the motor areas of the spinal cord and increases their reflex irritability.
All potassium salts if taken in large doses are cardiac depressants, they also depress the nervous system, especially the brain and spinal cord.
If a healthy spinal cord be hung up in spirit for a matter of six months or more, a glassy substance develops within it quite like true amyloid.
The remarkable physiological discoveries of Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) and Marshall Hall (1790-1857) for the first time rendered possible the discrimination of diseases of the spinal cord.
His views as to the physiological functions of the spinal cord are also in agreement with recent research, and he anticipated many of the pre-eminent offices of the ductless glands which students of the present time are only beginning to discover.Advertisement
But the influence of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord is very marked and characteristic. The reflex functions of the cord are entirely abolished, and it has been experimentally shown that this is due to a direct influence upon the cells in the anterior cornua.
There appears also to be a specific action of lowering the reflex excitability of the spinal cord.
Thus the tonus of the motor neurons of the spinal cord is much lessened by rupture of the great afferent root cells which normally play upon them.
In large toxic and in lethal doses the activity of the spinal cord is lowered.
The substance of the brain, spinal cord and nervetrunks is normal, but the membranes are engorged.Advertisement
Ordinarily, however, it is due to some peripheral irritation which is conducted by sensory nerves to the spinal cord and thence up to the sensory centre in the brain.
Pain may be stopped by removing the cause of irritation, as, for example, by the extraction of a carious tooth or by rendering the nerveendings insensitive to irritation, as by the application of cocaine; by preventing its transmission along the spinal cord by antipyrin, phenacetin, acetanilide, cocaine, &c.; or by dulling the perceptive centre in the brain by means of opium or its alkaloids, by anaesthetics, and probably also, to a certain extent, by antipyrin and its congeners.
Intercostal neuralgia is pain affecting the nerves which emerge from the spinal cord and run along the spaces between the ribs to the front of the body.
If, for example, the brain and spinal cord removed from an animal be bruised and brought into contact with tetanus toxin, a certain amount of the toxicity disappears, as shown by injecting the mixture into another animal.
The chief difference between the action of opium and morphine is due to the presence in the former of thebaine, which readily affects the more irritable spinal cord of very young children.Advertisement
Furthermore, he indicated that the brain and spinal cord may be divided into separate parts, each part having a special function - one part ministering to motion, the other to sensation, and that the origin of the -nerves from one or other or both of those sources endows them with the peculiar property of the division whence they spring.
His methods were doubtless known also to the French physiologist Magendie, who improved upon them, and who in 1809 published a research on the Upas Tieute and other strychnine-containing plants, in which he showed that their effects were due to an action on the spinal cord.
The action of a drug may be called direct when it acts on any part to which it is immediately applied, or which it may reach through the blood; and indirect when one organ is affected secondarily to another, as, for instance, in strychnine poisoning when the muscles are violently contracted as the result of the action of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord.
Many cases, such as slipped disks, are best treated by surgical techniques involving spinal cord decompression.
The spinal cord has 31 pairs of spinal nerves attached which innervate the body and leave the vertebral canal via the intervertebral foramen.Advertisement
The inquest jury returned a verdict of " Injury to the brain and spinal cord consequent upon judicial hanging " .
The dorsal horns are where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord.
Weaker intracortical inhibition makes it easier for messages from the brain to pass down the spinal cord to the rest of the body.
Whilst on holiday in Spain Henry sustained a spinal cord injury in a diving accident.
A small upper thoracic laminectomy is carried out and the anterolateral quadrant of the spinal cord is sectioned with specially designed blades.Advertisement
Sensory nerve cells carry information about muscle tension and body position to motor nerve cells in the spinal cord to control muscle contraction.
Paraplegia from injecting phenol into the arteries that supply the spinal cord (prevented by checking the needle position with radio-opaque dye ).
The spinal cord also contains parts of the circuits involved in spinal reflexes.
This marker can be used to differentiate sensory neurons from adjacent spinal cord or sympathetic neurons.
Neurological sequelae have been reported where secondary deposits impinge upon the spinal cord or CNS.Advertisement
The backbone or spinal column protects the spinal column protects the spinal cord.
Spine The spine supports the skeleton, and surrounds and protects the delicate spinal cord and nerves.
In the spine, the affected vertebrae have a defect at the back and the boney ring does not completely surround the spinal cord.
The ventral horns are where motor neurons leave the spinal cord.
The concern that has been expressed regarding carcass splitting relates to the possible transfer of material from the damaged spinal cord onto the carcass.Advertisement
Definition of total spinal Total spinal is a local anesthetic depression of the cervical spinal cord and the brainstem.
Firstly, by reports that bovine spinal cord was being incompletely removed from some carcasses.
It is not possible to use cultured cells, since these do not have the complex organization of the intact spinal cord.
Helps maintain the normal development of the baby's spinal cord.
In the presence of neurological symptoms, an MRI scan is useful to rule out spinal cord compression or spinal canal stenosis.Advertisement
It is also possible to break the vertebrae in the neck without causing any injury to the spinal cord.
Motor neuron disease is another degenerative disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord and is characterized by weakness and wasting of the muscles.
The backbone or spinal column protects the spinal cord.
Spinal Injury is damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function such as mobility or feeling.
The influence of social support on the lived experiences of spinal cord injured athletes, XI European Congress of Sport Psychology.Advertisement
As a result muscles which are commanded by the nerve cells in these areas of the spinal cord become affected.
According to the diagnosis she had suffered from viral attack on the Spinal cord at the level of D4 to D7.
Helps maintain the normal development of the baby 's spinal cord.
It aims to reduce the sensitivity of the nerve endings in the spinal cord in order to close the pain ' gates '.
The removal of spinal cord from the carcass was only one of many of the statutory requirements that they had to monitor.Advertisement
Brain and spinal cord from cattle incubating BSE ought not to have entered human food after the SBO ban in 1989.
Substance P Nerves from nociceptors use this peptide to activate relay neurons in the spinal cord.
In cancer, however, vertebral collapse can compress the spinal cord.
The pons sends messages, shutting off the motor neurons in the spinal cord.
The system sends signals from the brain and spinal cord to the different parts of the body-and amazingly, as people sleep, the central nervous system plays a big part in the many sensations that are expereinced in dreams.
Central nervous system-Part of the nervous system consisting of the brain, cranial nerves, and spinal cord.
The cranial nerves and spinal cord link the brain to the peripheral nervous system, that is the nerves present in the rest of body.
Cerebrospinal fluid-The clear, normally colorless fluid that fills the brain cavities (ventricles), the subarachnoid space around the brain, and the spinal cord and acts as a shock absorber.
Also refers to a small, round demyelinated area that develops in the brain and spinal cord of an individual with multiple sclerosis.
Various sized tumors may grow on the nerves in or leading away from the brain and spinal cord (peripheral nerves) and in the vascular system (veins and arteries) and other organ systems.
These are the nerves throughout the body that communicate motor and sensory information to and from the spinal cord.
Peripheral nerves-Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord that provide the link between the body and the central nervous system.
When it does reach the CNS, inflammation and destruction of the spinal cord motor cells (anterior horn cells) occurs, which prevents them from sending out impulses to muscles.
This is due to an inflammation of the meninges (tissues which cover the spinal cord and brain).
The muscles, therefore, no longer receive any messages from the brain or spinal cord.
Brainstem-The stalk of the brain which connects the two cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord.
Meningitis-An infection or inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a set of laboratory tests that examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
This location is used because the spinal cord stops near L2, and a needle introduced below this level will miss the cord.
In people who have bleeding disorders, lumbar puncture can cause hemorrhage that can compress the spinal cord.
The spinal cord passes through the spinal canal.
Subarachnoid-Referring to the space underneath the arachnoid membrane, the middle of the three membranes that sheath the spinal cord and brain.
There is a hole in the center of each bone, through which the spinal cord passes.
The dura is the tough, fibrous outermost membrane covering the brain and the spinal cord.
Spasticity occurs when certain nerve signals do not reach the muscles because of injury or disease that affects parts of the brain or spinal cord.
Common neurological conditions associated with spasticity include cerebral palsy, brain injury or trauma, severe head injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and some metabolic diseases.
A diagnosis of spasticity is often made with the diagnosis of cerebral palsy or following a brain or spinal cord injury.
Baclofen is a muscle relaxant that works on nerves in the spinal cord to reduce spasticity.
First, a catheter (thin, flexible tube) is inserted through a needle and guided into the spinal canal, close to where pain pathways enter the spinal cord.
Neural tube defect, for example, is a birth defect in which the neural tube that forms the spinal cord does not close completely.
Cerebral spinal fluid bathes the brain and spinal cord.
Ataxia-A condition marked by impaired muscular coordination, most frequently resulting from disorders in the brain or spinal cord.
They run from nerve roots on each side of the upper spinal cord to regions beneath the collarbone where they branch out as the major nerves of the shoulders, arms, wrists, and hands.
It is the detachment of a nerve from the spinal cord.
Avulsion injuries require surgery to reattach the nerve root to the spinal cord.
Cervical nerves-The eight pairs of nerves (C1C8) originating in the cervical (neck) region of the spinal cord.
For example, substance P relays the pain message to nerves leading to the spinal cord and brain.
The nerve cells most affected by FA are those in the spinal cord involved in relaying information between muscles and the brain.
Imaging studies are conducted to provide pictures of the brain and spinal cord.
The lower structures of the brain are crowded and may be forced into the foramen magnum, the opening through which the brain and spinal cord are connected.
If a condition affecting the brain and spinal cord is suspected, a lumbar puncture or spinal tap may be performed.
If prenatal testing indicates the baby has a serious congenital anomaly as a heart defect or spinal cord defect, the mother may need additional testing to determine the extent of the problem.
When a person takes an opioid medication, the drug attaches to these opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord and decreases the person's perception of pain.
Chordomas develop on the skull or spinal cord.
A neurosurgeon performing dorsal rhizotomy carefully cuts selected nerve roots in the spinal cord to prevent them from stimulating the spastic muscles.
In its most severe form, termed spinal rachischisis, the entire spinal canal is open, exposing the spinal cord and nerves.
More commonly, the abnormality appears as a localized mass on the back that is covered by skin or by the meninges, the three-layered membrane that envelops the spinal cord.
The term meningocele is used when the spine malformation contains only the protective covering (meninges) of the spinal cord.
The other terms indicate involvement of the spinal cord and nerves in the malformation.
A related term, spina bifida occulta, indicates that one or more of the bony bodies in the spine are incompletely hardened, but that there is no abnormality of the spinal cord itself.
The spine may be completely open, exposing the spinal cord and nerves.
In rare instances, the spinal cord malformation may occur internally, sometimes with a connection to the gastrointestinal tract.
In these conditions, a tumor of fatty tissue becomes isolated among the nerves below the spinal cord, which may result in tethering of the spinal cord and complications similar to those with open spina bifida.
Other physiological problems, such as urinary tract infection, severe constipation, or spinal cord injury, can cause bed-wetting.
Sensation is carried to the brain by neurons (nerve cells) running from the outer parts of the body to the spinal cord in bundles called nerves.
Peripheral nervous system-The part of the nervous system that is outside the brain and spinal cord.
Sensory nerves-Sensory or afferent nerves carry impulses of sensation from the periphery or outward parts of the body to the brain and spinal cord.
Meningitis is a serious inflammation of the meninges, the membranes (lining) that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Some pit vipers carry potent venom that can threaten the brain and spinal cord.
In 15 percent of cases, the covering of the brain and spinal cord becomes inflamed (meningitis).
The damage appears to be caused by leakage of fluid from the spinal cord and exposure of the cord to amniotic fluid.
Occasionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used as a diagnostic tool, primarily to look more closely at the condition of the spinal cord and nerve roots extending from it if neurological problems are suspected.
A difference in reflexes between the arms and legs usually indicates of a lesion involving the spinal cord.
Corticospinal tract-A tract of nerve cells that carries motor commands from the brain to the spinal cord.
Normal voluntary muscle contraction begins when electrical signals are sent from the brain through the spinal cord along nerve cells called motor neurons.
These include both the upper motor neurons within the brain and the lower motor neurons within the spinal cord and leading out to the muscle.
Possible causes include stroke, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, neurodegenerative diseases, trauma, spinal cord injury, and nervous system poisons such as strychnine, tetanus, and certain insecticides.
During a spinal tap, a needle is inserted between the vertebrae of the spinal column and a small sample of the fluid surrounding the spinal cord is obtained.
When both the brain and spinal cord are involved, the disorder is called encephalomyelitis.
Cerebrospinal fluid analysis-A laboratory test, important in diagnosing diseases of the central nervous system, that examines a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
The spinal cord may protrude through a defect in the vertebrae of the spinal column (myelomeningocele).
Abnormally high levels of this substance suggests there may be defects in the fetal neural tube, a structure that will include the brain and spinal cord when completely developed.
Staph infections affecting these areas can spread to the brain or spinal cord.
These dormant viruses are concentrated in nerve cells near the spinal cord and may reactivate in adults, causing the disease herpes zoster or shingles.
Others develop pneumonia, diarrhea, dry or cracked lips, jaundice, or an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meningitis).
If the tube that becomes the brain and spinal cord does not close correctly during fetal development, AFP may leak through this abnormal opening and enter the amniotic fluid.
It has been hypothesized that uninterrupted and unrelenting pain can induce changes in the spinal cord.
As of 2004 evidence was accumulating that unrelenting pain or the complete lack of nerve signals increases the number of pain receptors in the spinal cord.
Nerve cells in the spinal cord may also begin secreting pain-amplifying neurotransmitters independent of actual pain signals from the body.
Narcotics may be ineffective against some forms of chronic pain, especially since changes in the spinal cord may alter the usual pain signaling pathways.
Another mode of administration involves implanted catheters that deliver pain medication directly to the spinal cord.
In this procedure, instead of applying the current across the skin, electrodes are implanted to stimulate peripheral nerves or nerves in the spinal cord.
Ablative procedures are characterized by severing a nerve and disconnecting it from the spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)-The part of the nervous system that is outside the brain and spinal cord.
Polio-Poliomyelitis, an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord and can cause paralysis.
The rabies virus infects the human nervous system causing acute encephalomyelitis, an inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
Encephalomyelitis-Encephalitis or another acute inflammation of the brain and spinal cord that can be caused by the rabies virus.
Incomplete closure causes protrusion of the spinal cord and meninges, called meningomyelocele.
Spina bifida may be treated with surgery to close the open portion of the spinal cord.
They are located above and in front of the cerebellum, and their function is to produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the protective fluid that circulates through the brain and the spinal cord.
In Type I malformation, the lower portions of the cerebellum, known as the cerebellar tonsils, protrude through the opening in the skull known as the foramen magnum and into the spinal cord canal.
It is often accompanied by a condition known as syringomyelia in which pockets of CSF form in the spinal cord.
These malformations are part of a larger syndrome seen in children with spina bifida, a condition in which the spine and spinal cord have not formed properly.
It is painless, noninvasive, and allows doctors to see the brain and spinal cord from several different angles.
Brain stem-The part of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and controls most basic life functions.
Ventricles-Four cavities within the brain that produce and maintain the cerebrospinal fluid that cushions and protects the brain and spinal cord.
A stimulus, such as a light tap with a rubber hammer, causes sensory neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to the spinal cord.
The familiar knee-jerk reflex is an example; this reflex tests the integrity of the spinal cord in the lower back region.
This is due to the fact that the fibers in the spinal cord and cerebral cortex have not been completely covered in myelin, the protein and lipid sheath that aids in processing neural signals.
Calancie B., et al. "Tendon reflexes for predicting movement recovery after acute spinal cord injury in humans."
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function such as mobility or feeling.
The spinal cord does not have to be severed in order for a loss of function to occur.
In most SCI cases, the spinal cord is intact, but the damage to it results in loss of function.
The spinal cord and the brain are the two components of the central nervous system (CNS).
The spinal cord extends from the base of the brain, down the middle of the back, to the lower back, and it coordinates movement and sensation in the body.
The nerve cells themselves, with long branches (dendrites) that receive signals from other nerve cells, make up the gray matter that lies in a butterfly-shaped region in the center of the spinal cord.
Like the brain, the spinal cord is enclosed in three membranes (meninges).
The spinal cord consists of several segments along its length, with higher segments controlling movement and sensation in upper parts of the body and lower segments controlling the lower parts of the body.
Severe injury to the spinal cord causes paralysis and complete loss of sensation to the parts of the body controlled by the spinal cord segments below the point of injury.
The incidence of spinal cord injuries peaks among people in their early 20s, with a small increase in the elderly population due to falls and degenerative diseases of the spine.
However, symptoms can develop slowly, if an infection or tumor is gradually increasing pressure on the spinal cord.
A person suspected of having a spinal cord injury should not be moved and treatment of SCI begins with immobilization, commonly achieved by enclosing the cervical spine in a rigid collar and use of rigid backboards.
Surgery cannot reverse damage to the spinal cord but is often needed to stabilize the spine to prevent future pain or deformity.
Long-term treatment of spinal cord injuries usually involves drug therapy, the use of neural prostheses, and rehabilitation.
Effective drug therapy for spinal cord injury was demonstrated in 1990, when methylprednisolone, the first drug shown to improve recovery from spinal cord injury, was approved for standard use.
A spinal cord injury can also affect the nerves and muscles and can cause bowel and bladder problems and skin problems.
Having a spinal cord injury does not mean that children have to stop participating in games and enjoyable activities.
People with spinal cord injuries caused by traumatic events have in the past been considered hopeless cases destined to a life of paralysis.
But in the last decades of the twentieth century there were dramatic advances in spinal cord regeneration research.
At the Swedish Karolinska Institute, scientists succeeded in constructing a bridge of slender nerve filaments to connect a once-severed spinal cord in rats that subsequently were able to flex their legs.
Because of the changes that occur in the body after SCI, parents need to understand the role that nutrition can play in the overall health of a child following a spinal cord injury.
The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) also recommends that playgrounds be made safe to prevent spinal cord injuries.
Gray matter-Areas of the brain and spinal cord that are comprised mostly of unmyelinated nerves.
Methylpredisolone administered within eight hours of acute spinal cord trauma is the first drug shown to improve recovery from spinal cord injury.
Y., et al. "High rates of neurological improvement following severe traumatic pediatric spinal cord injury."
These electrical signals pass along upper motor neurons through the midbrain to the spinal cord.
Within the spinal cord, they connect to lower motor neurons, which convey the signals out of the spinal cord to the surface of the muscles involved.
Baclofen (Lioresal) is a muscle relaxant that works on nerves in the spinal cord to reduce spasticity.
A sample of cerebrospinal fluid is removed from the spinal cord using a needle and syringe.
From the bite or other area of penetration, the virus multiplies as it spreads along nerves that travel away from the spinal cord and brain (efferent nerves) and into the salivary glands.
Efferent nerves-Peripheral nerves that carry signals away from the brain and spinal cord.
Spina bifida is a defect in the structure of the spinal cord.
Maya survives surgery to her spinal cord and paralysis is prevented.
Large doses also depress the nervous system, weakening the anterior horns of grey matter in the spinal cord so as ultimately to cause complete paralysis, and also causing a partial insensibility of the cutaneous nerves of touch and pain.
The activity of the spinal cord is similarly depressed.
By similar methods nature, unassisted, betrays herself but too often; in many instances - probably originating primarily in the nervous tissues themselves - the course of disease is observed to follow certain paths with remarkable consistency, as for instance in diseases of particular tracts of the spinal cord.
It depresses the nervous system, especially the spinal cord.
When we come to consider more in detail the results of these actions we find that the various secretions of the body, such as the sweat, gastric juice, bile, milk, urine, &c., may be increased or diminished; that the heart may have its muscular or nervous apparatus stimulated or depressed; that the nerve-centres in the brain, medulla and spinal cord may be rendered more sensitive or the reverse; and that the general metabolism of the body may be altered in various ways.
Thus curare may stop strychnine convulsions by paralysing the terminations of motor nerves, and chloroform may exercise the same effect by abolishing the irritability of the spinal cord.
These bodies stimulate the grey matter in the spinal cord and cause tetanic convulsions.
Physostigmine, the active principle of the Calabar bean, acts chiefly as a stimulant to voluntary and involuntary muscles, and at the same time exercises a depressing effect upon the spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid This is the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
It can usefully be applied to cases of suspected spinal cord compression which often results from spinal tumors or from slipped disks.
Parents of spinal cord injured children also need to learn how to take care of their spinal-cord injured child.