Spinal sentence example

spinal
  • The activity of the spinal cord is similarly depressed.

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  • The classification into epithelial organs, connective tissues, and the more specialized muscle and nerve, was largely due to him; and he proved the presence of neuroglia in the brain and spinal cord, discovered crystalline haematoidine, and made out the structure of the umbilical cord.

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  • It excites the motor areas of the spinal cord and increases their reflex irritability.

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  • The substance of the brain, spinal cord and nervetrunks is normal, but the membranes are engorged.

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  • It depresses the nervous system, especially the spinal cord.

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  • If, for example, the brain and spinal cord removed from an animal be bruised and brought into contact with tetanus toxin, a certain amount of the toxicity disappears, as shown by injecting the mixture into another animal.

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  • There are only two or three vertebrae which are equivalent to those of the reptiles; these true sacrals are situated in a level just behind the acetabulum; as a rule between these two primary sacral vertebrae issues the last of the spinal nerves which contributes to the composition of the sciadic plexus.

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  • Large doses also depress the nervous system, weakening the anterior horns of grey matter in the spinal cord so as ultimately to cause complete paralysis, and also causing a partial insensibility of the cutaneous nerves of touch and pain.

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  • They are modifications of the lateral muscles and are supplied with numerous branches of the spinal nerves.

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  • Such discharges descend the nerve fibres of the spinal cord, and through the intermediation of various spinal nerve cells excite the respiratory muscles through their motor nerves.

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  • Thus the tonus of the motor neurons of the spinal cord is much lessened by rupture of the great afferent root cells which normally play upon them.

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  • The skunk had a conspicuous spinal stripe.

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  • All potassium salts if taken in large doses are cardiac depressants, they also depress the nervous system, especially the brain and spinal cord.

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  • The island has no spinal range or dominating mountain mass.

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  • His methods were doubtless known also to the French physiologist Magendie, who improved upon them, and who in 1809 published a research on the Upas Tieute and other strychnine-containing plants, in which he showed that their effects were due to an action on the spinal cord.

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  • The action of a drug may be called direct when it acts on any part to which it is immediately applied, or which it may reach through the blood; and indirect when one organ is affected secondarily to another, as, for instance, in strychnine poisoning when the muscles are violently contracted as the result of the action of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord.

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  • When we come to consider more in detail the results of these actions we find that the various secretions of the body, such as the sweat, gastric juice, bile, milk, urine, &c., may be increased or diminished; that the heart may have its muscular or nervous apparatus stimulated or depressed; that the nerve-centres in the brain, medulla and spinal cord may be rendered more sensitive or the reverse; and that the general metabolism of the body may be altered in various ways.

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  • Thus curare may stop strychnine convulsions by paralysing the terminations of motor nerves, and chloroform may exercise the same effect by abolishing the irritability of the spinal cord.

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  • After absorption their action, speaking generally, is exerted on the brain and spinal cord, and is at first slightly stimulant and afterwards depressing, even to the causing of sleepiness and stupor.

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  • These bodies stimulate the grey matter in the spinal cord and cause tetanic convulsions.

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  • Physostigmine, the active principle of the Calabar bean, acts chiefly as a stimulant to voluntary and involuntary muscles, and at the same time exercises a depressing effect upon the spinal cord.

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  • They all depress the conducting power and the grey matter of the spinal cord, and to a much less extent that of the brain.

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  • Tonics are drugs which increase the muscular tone of the body by acting either on the stomach, heart, spinal cord, &c.

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  • He had to take prodigious quantities of Paracetamol for his spinal pain.

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  • If a spinal anesthetic is used, polio survivors cannot be expected to get up and walk after surgery.

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  • Cerebrospinal fluid This is the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

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  • Sometimes the annulus of the disk is completely torn and nuclear material escapes into the spinal canal.

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  • Loch Bee causeway The link across Loch Bee in South Uist is the the oldest causeway involved in the Western Isles Spinal Route.

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  • Four studies used a sham chiropractic compared with true spinal manipulation came to no agreement.

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  • This means that you must not move the spinal column relative to any part of the body in case you damage the spinal chord.

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  • The fatal shot was fired, and Nelson ' s spinal column was broken.

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  • It can usefully be applied to cases of suspected spinal cord compression which often results from spinal tumors or from slipped disks.

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  • Having been extensively studied and refined over the years, there are few situations where a spinal is absolutely contraindicated.

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  • Sleeping on a firm bed with no more than one pillow can help prevent spinal curvature.

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  • Spinal curvature Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine, often with a rotational element.

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  • Many cases, such as slipped disks, are best treated by surgical techniques involving spinal cord decompression.

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  • Link Blank... treatment options, including spinal injections, percutaneous disk decompression and radiofrequency.. .

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  • Because of its effect on increasing blood flow to the gut, spinal anesthesia reduces the incidence of anastomotic dehiscence.

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  • There is a gradual diminution with age in the power of some spinal reflexes, for example the knee-jerk reflex.

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  • He saw his GP on 25th August 1988, who found pain on spinal flexion but no other problems.

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  • I am now back on my original painkillers for spinal problems and the awful black floaters have disappeared.

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  • The spinal cord has 31 pairs of spinal nerves attached which innervate the body and leave the vertebral canal via the intervertebral foramen.

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  • This is equally the case with back specialists, many of whom still favor spinal fusion for chronic low back pain.

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  • The inquest jury returned a verdict of " Injury to the brain and spinal cord consequent upon judicial hanging " .

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  • It's an added bonus if employers consider seats with integral headrests that support the user's head, neck and spinal chord.

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  • The dorsal horns are where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord.

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  • Mode of Action Nitrous oxide suppresses spinal impulses and may supress supraspinal pathways.

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  • Weaker intracortical inhibition makes it easier for messages from the brain to pass down the spinal cord to the rest of the body.

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  • With spinal injury, you can't feel anything from the break down.

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  • Whilst on holiday in Spain Henry sustained a spinal cord injury in a diving accident.

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  • To investigate the function of spinal inhibitory interneurons in Xenopus tadpoles, paired whole-cell recordings were used.

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  • The success rate of recording from spinal interneurons has been considerably enhanced.

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  • We have examined the morphology and longitudinal axon projections of a population of spinal commissural interneurons, in young Xenopus tadpoles.

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  • Mechanism - narrowing causes spinal nerve root irritation with referred pain in the arm or leg.

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  • A small upper thoracic laminectomy is carried out and the anterolateral quadrant of the spinal cord is sectioned with specially designed blades.

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  • The neck of the animal should not be disjoined during slaughtering intentionally, even the knife should not go deep into the spinal marrow.

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  • Ailments such as headaches, skin disorders and digestive disorders are seen as the results of spinal misalignment.

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  • These so called spinal motoneurons project long protrusions that contact all skeletal muscles.

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  • It refers to the strengthening of the abdominal musculature especially transversus abdominus and the deep spinal muscle lumbar multifidus.

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  • Lumbar Puncture A thin hollow needle is placed into the lower back, into the spinal canal.

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  • Sensory nerve cells carry information about muscle tension and body position to motor nerve cells in the spinal cord to control muscle contraction.

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  • Firstly, the inhibitory spinal neurons do not function correctly to ' switch off ' pain signals.

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  • People with SCI whose spinal reflexes are not functioning are said to have flaccid paralysis.

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  • Paraplegia from injecting phenol into the arteries that supply the spinal cord (prevented by checking the needle position with radio-opaque dye ).

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  • Up to now they had struggled to find the poliovirus in human spinal tissue.

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  • Good sitting posture maintains the spinal curves usually present in the erect standing position.

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  • The spinal cord also contains parts of the circuits involved in spinal reflexes.

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  • Spinal manipulation is an alternative to taking muscle relaxants for acute low back pain.

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  • If progressive scoliosis is contributing to respiratory insufficiency then spinal surgery may be undertaken.

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  • This marker can be used to differentiate sensory neurons from adjacent spinal cord or sympathetic neurons.

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  • Neurological sequelae have been reported where secondary deposits impinge upon the spinal cord or CNS.

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  • He asked me if I was having a spinal.

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  • General Surgery Equipped to undertake a comprehensive range of general procedures including spinal and brain surgery.

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  • Clinical symptoms Early recognition is the key to management in case of total spinal.

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  • All the clinical problems associated with a high spinal will reverse when cardiovascular and respiratory support are provided.

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  • The backbone or spinal column protects the spinal column protects the spinal cord.

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  • In so doing, fracture risk, particularly spinal fracture, is significantly reduced.

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  • Although surgery may realign the spinal column, the damaged bone still has to heal, especially when bone grafts have been used.

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  • Spine The spine supports the skeleton, and surrounds and protects the delicate spinal cord and nerves.

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  • In the spine, the affected vertebrae have a defect at the back and the boney ring does not completely surround the spinal cord.

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  • The ventral horns are where motor neurons leave the spinal cord.

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  • The third most common kind of defect affects the spinal cord, such as spina bifida.

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  • The concern that has been expressed regarding carcass splitting relates to the possible transfer of material from the damaged spinal cord onto the carcass.

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  • Definition of total spinal Total spinal is a local anesthetic depression of the cervical spinal cord and the brainstem.

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  • Firstly, by reports that bovine spinal cord was being incompletely removed from some carcasses.

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  • It is not possible to use cultured cells, since these do not have the complex organization of the intact spinal cord.

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  • Helps maintain the normal development of the baby's spinal cord.

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  • This was achieved by the use of a circular saw which was passed down the back of the carcass splitting the spinal column.

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  • Spinal cord ischaemia, caused by reduction of arterial flow or venous stasis, may contribute to the development of clinical features.

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  • My husband is disabled; he has a spinal stenosis and various other problems, which affect his mobility considerably.

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  • In the presence of neurological symptoms, an MRI scan is useful to rule out spinal cord compression or spinal canal stenosis.

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  • Electrically stimulated bone healing is usually used only in severe breaks and spinal injuries, where the body has difficulty healing itself.

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  • It is particularly useful to treat hypotension during spinal anesthesia when the patient has a tachycardia.

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  • High Street and Fore Street formed a wide spinal thoroughfare where the markets were held.

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  • Carefully titrated epidural anesthesia for labor is associated with less sympathetic blockade than spinal or epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery.

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  • The first algorithm is for diagnostic triage, which includes red flags for possible serious spinal pathology and nerve root problems.

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  • It is also possible to break the vertebrae in the neck without causing any injury to the spinal cord.

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  • Motor neuron disease is another degenerative disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord and is characterized by weakness and wasting of the muscles.

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  • The atlas is composed of three pieces; a pair of lateral ele ptz pt.z W " ments (the right and left dorsal arch pieces) joining above the spinal cord, and a ventral piece equivalent to the first basiventral elements, i.e.

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  • To begin with, Pasteur, in studying the malady in dogs, came to the conclusion that the virus had its seat in the nerve centres, and he proved that the injection of a portion of the matter of the spinal column of a rabid dog into the body of a healthy one produces in the latter with certainty the symptoms of rabies.

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  • Other symptoms of total spinal are upper extremity weakness, loss of consciousness and pupillary dilatation.

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  • In the average person, this occurs when the sagittal diameter of the spinal canal is less than 14 mm.

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  • Monitoring is provided for scoliosis surgery at the NOC and JRH and also for cases of spinal fractures at the JRH.

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  • We perform about 30 Cesarean sections annually using spinal anesthesia.

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  • At age 73, I had surgery to correct a spinal stenosis.

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  • The backbone or spinal column protects the spinal cord.

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  • Eventually, in December 1995, on SEAC 's advice the extraction of MRM from the spinal column of cattle was banned.

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  • Spinal Injury is damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function such as mobility or feeling.

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  • The influence of social support on the lived experiences of spinal cord injured athletes, XI European Congress of Sport Psychology.

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  • As a result muscles which are commanded by the nerve cells in these areas of the spinal cord become affected.

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  • According to the diagnosis she had suffered from viral attack on the Spinal cord at the level of D4 to D7.

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  • Helps maintain the normal development of the baby 's spinal cord.

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  • It aims to reduce the sensitivity of the nerve endings in the spinal cord in order to close the pain ' gates '.

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  • The removal of spinal cord from the carcass was only one of many of the statutory requirements that they had to monitor.

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  • Brain and spinal cord from cattle incubating BSE ought not to have entered human food after the SBO ban in 1989.

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  • Substance P Nerves from nociceptors use this peptide to activate relay neurons in the spinal cord.

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  • Make sure the patient can tolerate lying flat if a simple spinal is used.

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  • In cancer, however, vertebral collapse can compress the spinal cord.

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  • You will most likely be given an epidural or spinal anaesthesia.

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  • An epidural will numb you from your waist down, while a spinal anaesthesia provides further numbing.

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  • Memory foam mattresses and toppers also help improve spinal alignment during sleep because they contour your body.

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  • There are mattresses that are especially designed for specific spinal needs as well.

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  • The spinal neurons that regulate skeletal muscles in the cat's upper body and legs die off and cause muscular atrophy.

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  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy - This is a genetically inherited muscular disease.

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  • Naturopaths-Naturopaths are natural health practitioners who believe in disease prevention and focus on removing the root causes of disease, which may include diet, spinal mal-alignment, poor posture, muscle tension or psychological causes.

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  • In 1892, Susy, at age twenty-four, died from spinal meningitis in the family Nook farm home.

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  • Adam Cook passed away as he was receiving chemotherapy treatment for his cancer, that had reportedly spread to his spinal column.

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  • These are all classic signs of orthopedic problems, such as luxating patellas (bad knee joints), Canine Hip and Elbow Dysplasia, spinal problems, and arthritis.

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  • The pons sends messages, shutting off the motor neurons in the spinal cord.

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  • In one review, a chiropractor claims the bed may actually worsen back pain because it does not provide enough support to the spinal column.

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  • The system sends signals from the brain and spinal cord to the different parts of the body-and amazingly, as people sleep, the central nervous system plays a big part in the many sensations that are expereinced in dreams.

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  • Central nervous system-Part of the nervous system consisting of the brain, cranial nerves, and spinal cord.

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  • The cranial nerves and spinal cord link the brain to the peripheral nervous system, that is the nerves present in the rest of body.

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  • Cerebrospinal fluid-The clear, normally colorless fluid that fills the brain cavities (ventricles), the subarachnoid space around the brain, and the spinal cord and acts as a shock absorber.

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  • Neurologist-A doctor who specializes in disorders of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

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  • Also refers to a small, round demyelinated area that develops in the brain and spinal cord of an individual with multiple sclerosis.

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  • Various sized tumors may grow on the nerves in or leading away from the brain and spinal cord (peripheral nerves) and in the vascular system (veins and arteries) and other organ systems.

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  • A spinal tap (lumbar puncture) is another procedure that the doctor may order to diagnose leukemia.

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  • In this procedure, a small needle is inserted into the spinal cavity in the lower back to withdraw some cerebrospinal fluid and to look for leukemic cells.

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  • Lumbar puncture-A procedure in which the doctor inserts a small needle into the spinal cavity in the lower back to withdraw spinal fluid for testing.

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  • With this procedure, medication is injected into the space surrounding the spinal nerves.

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  • An epidural or spinal block can provide complete pain relief during cesarean birth.

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  • The needle is inserted between two vertebrae and through the tough tissue in front of the spinal column.

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  • Spinal anesthesia operates on the same principle as epidural anesthesia and is used primarily in cases of c-section delivery.

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  • These are the nerves throughout the body that communicate motor and sensory information to and from the spinal cord.

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  • Peripheral nerves-Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord that provide the link between the body and the central nervous system.

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  • In suspected cases of toxoplasmosis, rubella, or syphilis, cerebrospinal fluid may be obtained from the infant by spinal tap in order to confirm the diagnosis.

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  • Examples include lumbar puncture (spinal tap), urine collection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), additional blood tests, or electrocardiogram (ECG).

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  • When it does reach the CNS, inflammation and destruction of the spinal cord motor cells (anterior horn cells) occurs, which prevents them from sending out impulses to muscles.

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  • Once absorbed, it is widely distributed throughout the body until it ultimately reaches the CNS (the brain and spinal cord).

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  • This is due to an inflammation of the meninges (tissues which cover the spinal cord and brain).

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  • The muscles, therefore, no longer receive any messages from the brain or spinal cord.

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  • When poliovirus invades the brainstem (the stalk of brain which connects the two cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord, called bulbar polio), a person may begin to have trouble breathing and swallowing.

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  • Using a long, thin needle inserted into the lower back to withdraw spinal fluid (lumbar puncture) will reveal increased white blood cells and no bacteria (aseptic meningitis).

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  • Brainstem-The stalk of the brain which connects the two cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord.

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  • In the case of children under 18 months of age, a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) may be recommended to rule out meningitis because symptoms are often lacking or subtle in children of that age.

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  • Meningitis-An infection or inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.

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  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a set of laboratory tests that examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

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  • This location is used because the spinal cord stops near L2, and a needle introduced below this level will miss the cord.

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  • In rare instances, such as a spinal fluid blockage in the middle of the back, a physician may perform a spinal tap in the cervical spine.

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  • In people who have bleeding disorders, lumbar puncture can cause hemorrhage that can compress the spinal cord.

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  • Spinal canal-The opening that runs through the center of the spinal column.

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  • The spinal cord passes through the spinal canal.

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  • Subarachnoid-Referring to the space underneath the arachnoid membrane, the middle of the three membranes that sheath the spinal cord and brain.

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  • The individual bones of the spinal column that are stacked on top of each other.

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  • There is a hole in the center of each bone, through which the spinal cord passes.

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  • The dura is the tough, fibrous outermost membrane covering the brain and the spinal cord.

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  • The examination should include an echocardiogram taken by a cardiologist, a slit-lamp eye examination by an ophthalmologist, and a work-up of the child's spinal column by an orthopedic specialist.

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  • If the spinal curvature increases to 40 or 50 degrees, the child may require surgery in order to prevent lung problems, back pain, and further deformity.

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  • Medication or spinal shunting to remove some of the spinal fluid are used to treat severe cases.

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  • Spasticity occurs when certain nerve signals do not reach the muscles because of injury or disease that affects parts of the brain or spinal cord.

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  • Common neurological conditions associated with spasticity include cerebral palsy, brain injury or trauma, severe head injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and some metabolic diseases.

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  • A diagnosis of spasticity is often made with the diagnosis of cerebral palsy or following a brain or spinal cord injury.

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  • Baclofen is a muscle relaxant that works on nerves in the spinal cord to reduce spasticity.

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  • Baclofen usually is taken as an oral medication but also can be delivered directly into the spinal fluid when the oral medication does not effectively control symptoms.

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  • An intrathecal baclofen delivery system continuously releases prescribed amounts of baclofen in small doses directly into the spinal fluid via a small catheter and pump.

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  • During this trial, the medication is delivered into the spinal fluid via a lumbar puncture procedure.

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  • First, a catheter (thin, flexible tube) is inserted through a needle and guided into the spinal canal, close to where pain pathways enter the spinal cord.

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  • Baclofen flows freely in the spinal canal, affecting the nerves to control hyperactive muscles.

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  • Selective dorsal rhizotomy surgery, also called selective posterior rhizotomy, involves a surgical resection of part of the spinal nerve.

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  • Neural tube defect, for example, is a birth defect in which the neural tube that forms the spinal cord does not close completely.

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  • Cerebral spinal fluid bathes the brain and spinal cord.

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  • Ataxia-A condition marked by impaired muscular coordination, most frequently resulting from disorders in the brain or spinal cord.

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  • Spinal cord-The elongated nerve bundles that lie in the spinal canal and from which the spinal nerves emerge.

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  • Subdural hematoma-A localized accumulation of blood, sometimes mixed with spinal fluid, in the space between the middle (arachnoid) and outer (dura mater) membranes covering the brain.

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  • They run from nerve roots on each side of the upper spinal cord to regions beneath the collarbone where they branch out as the major nerves of the shoulders, arms, wrists, and hands.

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  • It is the detachment of a nerve from the spinal cord.

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  • Avulsion injuries require surgery to reattach the nerve root to the spinal cord.

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  • Brachial plexus-A group of lower neck and upper back spinal nerves supplying the arm, forearm and hand.

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  • Cervical nerves-The eight pairs of nerves (C1C8) originating in the cervical (neck) region of the spinal cord.

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  • For example, substance P relays the pain message to nerves leading to the spinal cord and brain.

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  • Without a normal level of frataxin, some of the body's cells-especially those of the brain, spinal cord, and muscle-cannot handle the normal amounts of "oxidative stress," which the mitochondria produce.

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  • The nerve cells most affected by FA are those in the spinal cord involved in relaying information between muscles and the brain.

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  • Imaging studies are conducted to provide pictures of the brain and spinal cord.

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  • A spinal tap is performed to evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid.

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  • The nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and nerves) is very sensitive to electric shock injury, and neurological problems are the most common consequences suffered by electric shock victims.

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  • The lower structures of the brain are crowded and may be forced into the foramen magnum, the opening through which the brain and spinal cord are connected.

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  • If a condition affecting the brain and spinal cord is suspected, a lumbar puncture or spinal tap may be performed.

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  • Chiropractors adjust or manipulate segments of the patient's spinal column in order to relieve pain.

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  • It is comprised of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

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  • If prenatal testing indicates the baby has a serious congenital anomaly as a heart defect or spinal cord defect, the mother may need additional testing to determine the extent of the problem.

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  • The central nervous system in humans and other mammals contains five different types of opioid receptor proteins, located primarily in the brain, spinal cord, and digestive tract.

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  • When a person takes an opioid medication, the drug attaches to these opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord and decreases the person's perception of pain.

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  • The neural tube of the embryo develops into the brain, spinal cord, spinal column, and the skull.

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  • The stimuli used to evoke a response can be the use of nasal suctioning, stroking the back to assess for spinal abnormalities, having the foot tapped.

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  • The anesthesia is usually a regional anesthetic (epidural or spinal), which makes her numb from below her breasts to her toes.

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  • If an epidural or spinal were used, Duramorph (a pain medication similar to morphine) is often administered through these catheters just prior to completion of surgery.

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  • Galant reflex is stimulated by placing the infant on the stomach or lightly supporting him or her under the abdomen with a hand and, using a fingernail, gently stroking one side of the neonate's spinal column from the head to the buttocks.

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  • Chordomas develop on the skull or spinal cord.

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  • Also excluded from CP are any disorders of muscle control that arise in the muscles themselves and/or in the peripheral nervous system (nerves outside the brain and spinal cord).

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  • A neurosurgeon performing dorsal rhizotomy carefully cuts selected nerve roots in the spinal cord to prevent them from stimulating the spastic muscles.

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  • In its most severe form, termed spinal rachischisis, the entire spinal canal is open, exposing the spinal cord and nerves.

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  • More commonly, the abnormality appears as a localized mass on the back that is covered by skin or by the meninges, the three-layered membrane that envelops the spinal cord.

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  • Various forms of spina bifida are known as meningomyelocele, myelomeningocele, spina bifida aperta, open spina bifida, myelodysplasia, spinal dysraphism, spinal rachischisis, myelocele, and meningocele.

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  • The term meningocele is used when the spine malformation contains only the protective covering (meninges) of the spinal cord.

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  • The other terms indicate involvement of the spinal cord and nerves in the malformation.

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  • A related term, spina bifida occulta, indicates that one or more of the bony bodies in the spine are incompletely hardened, but that there is no abnormality of the spinal cord itself.

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  • As an isolated abnormality, spina bifida is caused by the combination of genetic factors and environmental influences that bring about malformation of the spine and spinal column.

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  • Recurrence may be for spina bifida or another type of spinal abnormality.

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  • The spine may be completely open, exposing the spinal cord and nerves.

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  • In rare instances, the spinal cord malformation may occur internally, sometimes with a connection to the gastrointestinal tract.

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  • At least one of every seven cases develops findings of Chiari II malformation, a condition in which the lower part of the brain is crowded and may be forced into the upper part of the spinal cavity.

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  • In these conditions, a tumor of fatty tissue becomes isolated among the nerves below the spinal cord, which may result in tethering of the spinal cord and complications similar to those with open spina bifida.

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  • Prevention of isolated spina bifida and other spinal abnormalities became possible in the 1980s and 1990s.

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  • Other physiological problems, such as urinary tract infection, severe constipation, or spinal cord injury, can cause bed-wetting.

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  • These causes include enlarged adenoids that cause sleep apnea, physical defects in the urinary system, or a spinal tumor.

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  • Sensation is carried to the brain by neurons (nerve cells) running from the outer parts of the body to the spinal cord in bundles called nerves.

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  • In the spinal cord, these neurons make connections with other neurons that run up to the brain.

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  • This disturbance can occur in the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), the nerve roots that are attached to the spinal cord, or the peripheral nervous system (nerves outside the brain and spinal cord).

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  • Chronic nerve root compression, or radiculopathy, can occur in disk disease or spinal arthritis.

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  • Peripheral nervous system-The part of the nervous system that is outside the brain and spinal cord.

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  • Sensory nerves-Sensory or afferent nerves carry impulses of sensation from the periphery or outward parts of the body to the brain and spinal cord.

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  • Meningitis is a serious inflammation of the meninges, the membranes (lining) that surround the brain and spinal cord.

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  • As for bacterial meningitis, the diagnosis is established by growing bacteria from a sample of spinal fluid.

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  • The spinal fluid is obtained by performing a lumbar puncture (also called a spinal tap), in which a needle is inserted into an area in the lower back where fluid in the spinal canal is readily accessible.

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  • Meninges-The three-layer membranous covering of the brain and spinal cord, composed of the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater.

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  • It provides protection for the brain and spinal cord, as well as housing many blood vessels and participating in the appropriate flow of cerebrospinal fluid.

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  • Some pit vipers carry potent venom that can threaten the brain and spinal cord.

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  • In 15 percent of cases, the covering of the brain and spinal cord becomes inflamed (meningitis).

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  • Spina bifida occurs during the first month of fetal development when a small bit of bone and skin fails to fully enclose the nerves of the spinal cord, leaving a hole or lesion.

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  • The damage appears to be caused by leakage of fluid from the spinal cord and exposure of the cord to amniotic fluid.

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  • The surgeon loosens and lifts the tissues of the spinal canal lesion and stitches them closed.

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  • The surgery also appears to reverse hindbrain herniation, in which the back of the brain slips down into the spinal canal.

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  • Spina bifida-A birth defect (a congenital malformation) in which part of the vertebrae fail to develop completely so that a portion of the spinal cord, which is normally protected within the vertebral column, is exposed.

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  • Herpes zoster virus-Acute inflammatory virus that attacks the nerve cells on the root of each spinal nerve with skin eruptions along a sensory nerve ending.

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  • Scoliosis is found in both boys and girls, but a girl's spinal curve is much more likely to progress than a boy's.

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  • An x ray is also used to document spinal maturity, any pelvic tilt or hip asymmetry, and the location, extent, and degree of curvature.

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  • Occasionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used as a diagnostic tool, primarily to look more closely at the condition of the spinal cord and nerve roots extending from it if neurological problems are suspected.

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  • Bracing may be appropriate for scoliosis due to some types of neuromuscular disease, including spinal muscular atrophy, before growth is finished.

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  • The surgical procedure for scoliosis is called spinal fusion, because the goal is to straighten the spine as much as possible and then to fuse the vertebrae together to prevent further curvature.

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  • To maintain the proper spinal posture before fusion occurs, metal rods are inserted alongside the spine and are attached to the vertebrae by hooks, screws, or wires.

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  • Spinal fusion leaves the involved portion of the spine permanently stiff and inflexible.

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  • Normal mobility, exercise, and even contact sports are usually all possible after spinal fusion.

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  • A difference in reflexes between the arms and legs usually indicates of a lesion involving the spinal cord.

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  • Spinal cord lesions or disease can possibly be detected by pinprick and temperature assessment.

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  • Corticospinal tract-A tract of nerve cells that carries motor commands from the brain to the spinal cord.

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  • As of the early 2000s, the diagnosis of narcolepsy also can be confirmed by taking a sample of the patient's cerebrospinal fluid by a spinal tap and testing it for the presence of hypocretin-1.

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  • Patients with narcolepsy have no hypocretin-1 in their spinal fluid.

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  • Normal voluntary muscle contraction begins when electrical signals are sent from the brain through the spinal cord along nerve cells called motor neurons.

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  • These include both the upper motor neurons within the brain and the lower motor neurons within the spinal cord and leading out to the muscle.

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  • Possible causes include stroke, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, neurodegenerative diseases, trauma, spinal cord injury, and nervous system poisons such as strychnine, tetanus, and certain insecticides.

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  • Spinal cord injury-Injury to the spinal cord, via blunt or penetrating trauma.

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  • If the cancer appears to have spread beyond the eye, then other assessments such as a blood test, spinal tap (lumbar puncture), and/or bone marrow biopsy may be recommended.

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  • During a spinal tap, a needle is inserted between the vertebrae of the spinal column and a small sample of the fluid surrounding the spinal cord is obtained.

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  • When both the brain and spinal cord are involved, the disorder is called encephalomyelitis.

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  • Cerebrospinal fluid analysis-A laboratory test, important in diagnosing diseases of the central nervous system, that examines a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

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  • Chemotherapy given by catheter or port into the spinal fluid is called intrathecal (IT) administration.

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  • The spinal cord may protrude through a defect in the vertebrae of the spinal column (myelomeningocele).

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  • In the back, the entire spinal column folds in like a pipe wrapped in a pillow.

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  • Abnormally high levels of this substance suggests there may be defects in the fetal neural tube, a structure that will include the brain and spinal cord when completely developed.

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  • Staph infections affecting these areas can spread to the brain or spinal cord.

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  • Children and adolescents with injuries, medical conditions, or spinal problems should consult a physician before beginning yoga.

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  • These dormant viruses are concentrated in nerve cells near the spinal cord and may reactivate in adults, causing the disease herpes zoster or shingles.

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  • Others develop pneumonia, diarrhea, dry or cracked lips, jaundice, or an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meningitis).

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  • In older children and adults, near-drownings are often secondary to an event such as or a head or spinal injury or (in adults) a heart attack that causes unconsciousness and prevents a diver from resurfacing.

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  • These types of defects include spinal column defects (spina bifida) and anencephaly (a severe and usually fatal brain abnormality).

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  • If the tube that becomes the brain and spinal cord does not close correctly during fetal development, AFP may leak through this abnormal opening and enter the amniotic fluid.

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  • The CNS comprises the brain and spinal cord, and the PNS is composed of the nerves that stem from and lead into the CNS.

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  • It has been hypothesized that uninterrupted and unrelenting pain can induce changes in the spinal cord.

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  • As of 2004 evidence was accumulating that unrelenting pain or the complete lack of nerve signals increases the number of pain receptors in the spinal cord.

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  • Nerve cells in the spinal cord may also begin secreting pain-amplifying neurotransmitters independent of actual pain signals from the body.

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  • Narcotics may be ineffective against some forms of chronic pain, especially since changes in the spinal cord may alter the usual pain signaling pathways.

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  • Another mode of administration involves implanted catheters that deliver pain medication directly to the spinal cord.

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  • In this procedure, instead of applying the current across the skin, electrodes are implanted to stimulate peripheral nerves or nerves in the spinal cord.

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  • Ablative procedures are characterized by severing a nerve and disconnecting it from the spinal cord.

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  • Peripheral nervous system (PNS)-The part of the nervous system that is outside the brain and spinal cord.

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  • Polio-Poliomyelitis, an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord and can cause paralysis.

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  • The rabies virus infects the human nervous system causing acute encephalomyelitis, an inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.

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  • Encephalomyelitis-Encephalitis or another acute inflammation of the brain and spinal cord that can be caused by the rabies virus.

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  • Testing for neonatal herpes infections may include special smears and/or viral cultures, blood antibody levels, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of spinal fluid.

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  • Spinal muscular atrophy is a term that describes a number of different conditions, all of which have in common the gradual deterioration of the voluntary muscles.

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  • The autosomal recessive forms of spinal muscular atrophy are the most common inherited cause of infant death.

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  • Each type of spinal muscular atrophy has an incidence of about 10 to 15 cases in every 100,000 live births.

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  • All types of spinal muscular atrophy are genetic diseases.

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  • This form of spinal muscular atrophy only affects men; it is an X-linked recessive disorder, meaning that the defective gene is passed from mother to son.

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  • This is one of the rarest forms of spinal muscular atrophy.

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  • It is present at birth, and children exhibit severe contractures of the joints, resulting in limb deformity; spinal curvature; deformities of the chest wall; difficulties breathing; abnormally small jaw; and upper eyelid droop (ptosis).

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  • There are no cures for any of the forms of spinal muscular atrophy.

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  • Surgery may be necessary for spinal curvature and severe contractures.

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  • The prognosis for spinal muscular atrophy is variable.

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  • There is no way to prevent spinal muscular atrophy.

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  • This so-called neural tube develops into the spinal cord, and at one end, the brain.

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  • Failure of neural-tube closure below the level of the brain prevents full development of the surrounding vertebral bones and leads to spina bifida, or a divided spinal column.

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  • Incomplete closure causes protrusion of the spinal cord and meninges, called meningomyelocele.

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  • For reasons that are unclear as of 2004, part of the cerebellum is displaced downward into the spinal column.

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  • Spina bifida may be treated with surgery to close the open portion of the spinal cord.

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  • Chiari malformation is a congenital anomaly (a condition that is present at birth), in which parts of the brain protrude through the opening in the base of the skull into the spinal column.

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  • They are located above and in front of the cerebellum, and their function is to produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the protective fluid that circulates through the brain and the spinal cord.

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  • In Type I malformation, the lower portions of the cerebellum, known as the cerebellar tonsils, protrude through the opening in the skull known as the foramen magnum and into the spinal cord canal.

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  • It is often accompanied by a condition known as syringomyelia in which pockets of CSF form in the spinal cord.

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  • The brain tissues protrude farther into the spinal column than in Type I.

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  • These malformations are part of a larger syndrome seen in children with spina bifida, a condition in which the spine and spinal cord have not formed properly.

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  • In these children, hydrocephalus is caused by obstruction of the fourth ventricle due to its herniation into the spinal column.

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  • Type IV malformation consists of an underdevelopment of the cerebrum and involves no herniation of brain tissue into the spinal area.

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  • The exact cause is unknown; however, it is suspected that, at some point during embryonic development, an increased pressure in the brain may cause brain structures to be displaced or moved into the spinal canal.

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  • It is painless, noninvasive, and allows doctors to see the brain and spinal cord from several different angles.

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  • Brain stem-The part of the brain that is continuous with the spinal cord and controls most basic life functions.

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  • Dura mater-The strongest and outermost of three membranes that protect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves of the cauda equina.

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  • Ventricles-Four cavities within the brain that produce and maintain the cerebrospinal fluid that cushions and protects the brain and spinal cord.

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  • For example, encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the brain and spinal cord) occurs in one to two cases out of 1000 patients; the disease is fatal at that same rate.

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  • A stimulus, such as a light tap with a rubber hammer, causes sensory neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to the spinal cord.

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  • The familiar knee-jerk reflex is an example; this reflex tests the integrity of the spinal cord in the lower back region.

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  • This is due to the fact that the fibers in the spinal cord and cerebral cortex have not been completely covered in myelin, the protein and lipid sheath that aids in processing neural signals.

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  • Calancie B., et al. "Tendon reflexes for predicting movement recovery after acute spinal cord injury in humans."

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  • When a child has primarily motor delays, conditions such as cerebral palsy, ataxia, spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy (withering) and myopathy may be present.

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  • The central nervous system in particular-made up of the brain and spinal cord-is very dependent on a steady oxygen supply and is one of the first organ systems to feel the effects of RDS.

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  • Spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function such as mobility or feeling.

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  • The spinal cord does not have to be severed in order for a loss of function to occur.

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  • In most SCI cases, the spinal cord is intact, but the damage to it results in loss of function.

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  • The spinal cord and the brain are the two components of the central nervous system (CNS).

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  • The spinal cord extends from the base of the brain, down the middle of the back, to the lower back, and it coordinates movement and sensation in the body.

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  • The nerve cells themselves, with long branches (dendrites) that receive signals from other nerve cells, make up the gray matter that lies in a butterfly-shaped region in the center of the spinal cord.

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  • Like the brain, the spinal cord is enclosed in three membranes (meninges).

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  • The spinal cord consists of several segments along its length, with higher segments controlling movement and sensation in upper parts of the body and lower segments controlling the lower parts of the body.

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  • Severe injury to the spinal cord causes paralysis and complete loss of sensation to the parts of the body controlled by the spinal cord segments below the point of injury.

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  • Spinal cord injuries also can lead to many complications, including pressure sores and increased susceptibility to respiratory diseases.

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  • The incidence of spinal cord injuries peaks among people in their early 20s, with a small increase in the elderly population due to falls and degenerative diseases of the spine.

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  • However, symptoms can develop slowly, if an infection or tumor is gradually increasing pressure on the spinal cord.

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  • A person suspected of having a spinal cord injury should not be moved and treatment of SCI begins with immobilization, commonly achieved by enclosing the cervical spine in a rigid collar and use of rigid backboards.

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  • Surgery cannot reverse damage to the spinal cord but is often needed to stabilize the spine to prevent future pain or deformity.

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  • Long-term treatment of spinal cord injuries usually involves drug therapy, the use of neural prostheses, and rehabilitation.

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