How to use Spina-bifida in a sentence
She also suffered from severe spina bifida and congenital hydrocephalus.
Association for Spina Bifida and hydrocephalus Working with those in Sussex who have spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus to create and develop the best opportunities.
The third most common kind of defect affects the spinal cord, such as spina bifida.
Chiari II anomaly-A structural abnormality of the lower portion of the brain (cerebellum and brainstem) associated with spina bifida.
Pregnant women whose diets are deficient in folic acid have a greater chance of having a baby with neural tube defects (NTD), such as spina bifida.Advertisement
If this tube forms incompletely during the first few months of pregnancy, a serious, and often fatal, defect results in spina bifida or anencephaly (formation of the head without the brain).
Various forms of spina bifida are known as meningomyelocele, myelomeningocele, spina bifida aperta, open spina bifida, myelodysplasia, spinal dysraphism, spinal rachischisis, myelocele, and meningocele.
A related term, spina bifida occulta, indicates that one or more of the bony bodies in the spine are incompletely hardened, but that there is no abnormality of the spinal cord itself.
As an isolated abnormality, spina bifida is caused by the combination of genetic factors and environmental influences that bring about malformation of the spine and spinal column.
The specific genes and environmental influences that contribute to the many-factored causes of spina bifida were not as of 2004 completely known.Advertisement
The recurrence risk after the birth of an infant with isolated spina bifida is 3 to 5 percent.
Recurrence may be for spina bifida or another type of spinal abnormality.
In most cases, spina bifida is obvious at birth because of malformation of the spine.
In these conditions, a tumor of fatty tissue becomes isolated among the nerves below the spinal cord, which may result in tethering of the spinal cord and complications similar to those with open spina bifida.
Few disorders are to be confused with open spina bifida.Advertisement
Aggressive surgical and medical management have improved the survival and function of infants with spina bifida.
Although most individuals with spina bifida have normal intellectual function, learning disabilities or mental retardation occur in a minority.
Open fetal surgery has been performed for spina bifida during the last half of pregnancy.
More than 80 percent of infants born with spina bifida survive with surgical and medical management.
Prevention of isolated spina bifida and other spinal abnormalities became possible in the 1980s and 1990s.Advertisement
For women who have had a previous child with spina bifida, the CDC recommends a daily intake of 4 milligrams of synthetic folic acid to help prevent a recurrence of spina bifida in future pregnancies.
Caring for a child with spina bifida can be a daunting endeavor.
Children with spina bifida require a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers, including surgeons, physicians, and therapists.
Children with spina bifida may have many surgical procedures throughout their lives.
Many children with spina bifida have non-surgical treatments as well, such as positional aides to help the child sit and stand, physical therapy, and bracing and splints usually of the lower extremities.Advertisement
Parents of children with spina bifida experience an array of emotions, including grief, fear, anxiety, and stress.
Groups and networks of other families affected by spina bifida can provide valuable support.
Finally, parents should remember that most children with spina bifida live productive and happy lives.
For the most part, children with spina bifida have average or above-average intelligence.
However in 1994 the first prenatal surgery to treat spina bifida (myelomeningocele) was performed.Advertisement
Surgery for spina bifida requires closing the opening in the cord.
Since the damage from spina bifida occurs during fetal development, prenatal surgery may reduce the damage.
However, prenatal surgery for spina bifida has become enmeshed in the politics of reproductive rights and fetal rights.
As of 2004, prenatal surgery for spina bifida was available only as part of a prospective randomized clinical trial.
Prenatal surgery for spina bifida does not cure the condition.Advertisement
This condition can cause difficulties in breathing and swallowing and leads to death in 15 percent of children with spina bifida.
In addition, children who have prenatal surgery for spina bifida appear to have better brain function than children who do not have surgery.
People with spina bifida can suffer from bladder and bowel incontinence, cognitive (learning) problems, and limited mobility.
Some of these children have other defects such as cardiac anomalies, chromosomal abnormalities, kidney and genital anomalies, and neural tube defects, such as spina bifida.
For example, a deficiency in folic acid during the early stages of pregnancy may lead to neural tube defects such as spina bifida.Advertisement
Some cases of spina bifida are accompanied by another defect at the base of the brain, known as the Arnold-Chiari malformation or Chiari II malformation.
Some congenital brain defects, such as those associated with spina bifida have a higher prevalence, affecting as many as two to three per 1,000 live births.
Type II Chiari malformation may be diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound or shortly after birth during medical evaluation of the accompanying spina bifida.
In Type III malformation, parts of the cerebellum and the brain stem protrude into a spina bifida defect located at the base of the skull, on the neck.
Some neurologists do not consider it a Chiari malformation but rather a specific type of spina bifida called an encephalocervical meningocele.Advertisement
However, the majority of all Chiari malformations are Type II and are almost exclusively associated with spina bifida defects.
Because of the associated conditions of spina bifida and hydrocephalus, these children are usually quite ill.
Many have developmental delays and impaired intellectual functioning in addition to the physical limitations often caused by the accompanying spina bifida.
In rare cases, congenital torticollis can also be a symptom of other congenital disorders including abnormalities of the neck vertebra such as spina bifida or Arnold-Chiari syndrome.
Alpha fetoprotein test-A screening blood test that can be done after the sixteenth week of pregnancy to evaluate the possibility of spina bifida and other neural tube defects in the fetus.Advertisement
According to the Spina Bifida Association of America, nearly 40 percent of shunts malfunction and may need to be replaced within one year, 60 percent will require revision within five years, and 80 to 90 percent within ten years.
Upto 6 percent of the general population suffers from an allergy to latex, and children with spina bifida who have had multiple surgical procedures are at higher risk for allergic reactions to latex.
Folic acid in early pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects such as spina bifida.
Low levels of folate are linked to serious neurological birth defects including spina bifida and anencephaly.
Babies with spina bifida may be unable to learn to walk, or to control their bowels and bladder.
The fluid is then sent to a lab where it will be tested for genetic abnormalities like Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and spina bifida.
Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and spina bifida are some of the most common abnormalities that an amnio can detect.
Taking a prenatal vitamin with folic acid is thought to reduce the risk of your baby developing anencephaly or spina bifida by 50 to 70 percent.
Other structural defects may be spina bifida or hypospadias.
Neural tube defects like spina bifida and anencephaly are being researched as possible defects where environmental states may affect the development of the fetus as well as genetics.
Folate intake during pregnancy also protects against neural tube birth defects, which can result in spina bifida and anencephaly.
For example, in the Shining a young women in the bathtub turns into an old decaying woman, and Zelda, the elderly sister in Pet Cemetery died of spina bifida - the elderly, sickness and death became a recurring theme.