This sort of speculation is going to intensify.
Speculation and suspicion had done enough harm already.
Further speculation ended as they both drifted back to sleep.
We are offered a philosophical rather than a scientific speculation when E.
This has been due to speculation, to the unrestricted pasturage of goats, to the rights which many communes have over the forests, and to some extent to excessive taxation, which led the proprietors to cut and sell the trees and then abandon the ground to the Treasury.
All he needed was a nice brick wall to halt the nagging speculation Byrne might have skipped—like a body or something equally definitive.
The pair was interrupted from further speculation by the sound of Martha's laughter and footsteps bounding down the stairs.
During the wild era of speculation which followed (especially in 1832 - upon the opening of the Chickasaw Cession to settlement) a large number of banks and railroad corporations with banking privileges were chartered.
One could hardly expect that a colourless deity of this description, so completely the product of priestly speculation, could ever have found a place in the hearts of the people generally.
Purchases for " speculation " remain in the market and therefore figure again in the sales.
He takes no rank as a scientific theologian, being a man of activity rather than of speculation or of much insight.
Dean knew the look and he put the brakes on Fred's euphoria before the rampant speculation could go any further.
(2) As to the speculation of the errorists, it is replied that it is explicable in the lifetime of Paul, that some of the elements of it may have their source in pre-Christian Jewish theories, and that recourse to the developed gnosticism of the 2nd century is unnecessary.
No speculation of hypothesis has been propounded to account satisfactorily for the origin of the Australian flora.
Upon its final acceptance as the capital, there was some activity in land speculation, but Indianapolis had only 600 inhabitants and a single street when the seat of government was removed thither in 1824.
The gradual elaboration of the sacrificial ceremonial, as the all-sufficient expression of religious devotion, and a constantly growing tendency towards theosophic and mystic speculation on the significance of every detail of the ritual, could not fail to create a demand for explanatory treatises of this kind, which, to enhance their practical utility, would naturally deal with the special texts and rites assigned in the ceremonial to the several classes of officiating priests.
Speculation continued to abound at Bird Song.
Finally, there was a nice, solid brick wall ending speculation on this matter.
The nebular theory is a noble speculation supported by plausible argument, and the verdict of science on the whole subject cannot be better expressed than in the words of S.
In the absence, however, of any relics of a kind which might lead to the identification of the ancient miners, their nationality and origin are matters which must continue to be mere questions of speculation and conjecture.
Like his greater contemporary, Pomponazzi, he was a lecturer on medicine at Pisa (1546-1552), and in later life gave up purely scientific study for speculation on the nature of man.
The summingup of divine powers manifested in the universe in a threefold division represents an outcome of speculation in the schools attached to the temples of Babylonia, but the selection of Anu, Bel and Ea for the three representatives of the three spheres recognized, is due to the importance which, for one reason or the other, the centres in which Anu, Bel and Ea were worshipped had acquired in the popular mind.
The history of the two cognate names reflects in some measure the development of Indian religious speculation generally.
- Be fore leaving the German speculation of the first half of the century, a word must be said of von Baer, to whose biological contributions we shall refer later in this article, who recognized in the law of development the law of the universe as a whole.
Dean brought Fred up to date on not only the telephone call to his wife, but his meeting with Weller and his speculation that Cynthia might have seen Donnie Ryland near the accident scene.
It is emphatically a speculation; it cannot be demonstrated by observation or established by mathematical calculation.
Here we are first struck by th ° results of advancing physical speculation in their bearing on the conception of the world.
But their little sojourn to Scranton had not yielded once and for all what Dean had hoped for, a dead end to close off speculation on this business.
He could defend many institutions better than any philosopher, because, in describing them as they concerned him, he gave the true reason for their prevalence, and speculation had not suggested to him any other.
Passing from mythology to speculation properly so called, we find in the early systems of philosophy of India theories of emanation which approach in some respects the idea of evolution.
An example of a return to early Greek speculation is to be met with in Bernardino Telesio.
This agrees with the beginning of the speculation of Basilides.
The uniformed guys downstairs had drawn lots to see who got stuck informing the next of kin, and since that time, speculation on the disappearance of Jeffrey Byrne had been the chief topic of conversation at the Parkside Police Department.
A " straddle " is a speculation on the difference between the prices of nearer and more distant futures, which varies from time to time, or on the difference between the prices of different kinds of cotton.
- The theological discussions which make up so large a part of the English speculation of the 18th century cannot detain us here.
"So," Dean mused as he continued their speculation, "if you want to let the world know you're loaded and your drinking partner's gone, you..."
The period of the revival of learning, which was also that of a renewed study of nature, is marked by a considerable amount of speculation respecting the origin of the universe.
Again, the classification of an economic bibliography at once shows how varied has been the character of economic investigation, ranging from the most abstract speculation on the one hand to almost technical studies of particular trades on the other.
The Deans let the facts speak for themselves, explaining the situation truthfully while leaving speculation to others.
It's a bit confusing and a lot of it's speculation on my part, but bear with me and I think I have enough of the answers to make some sense of what happened.
This speculation is clearly a development of that which the Iranian cosmology has to tell about the battles between Ahura-Mazda and Angro-Mainyu (Ormuzd and Ahriman).
The amount of capital which parliament authorized railway companies to raise was about 42 millions on the average of the two years 1842-1843, 174 millions in 1844, 60 millions in 1845, and 132 millions in 1846, though this last sum was less than a quarter of the capital proposed in the schemes submitted to the Board of Trade; and the wild speculation which occurred in railway shares in 1845 contributed largely to the financial crisis of 1847.
We have already mentioned the final conception in which Lotze's speculation culminates, that of a personal Deity, Himself the essence of all that merits existence for its own sake, who in the creation and government of a world has voluntarily chosen certain laws and forms through which His ends are to be realized.
It cannot justly be said that the companies made large profits while neglecting to develop the services adequately, but it is true that they were not able commercially to comply with many of the demands made upon them by the public. Until speculation took place in anticipation of government purchase, the market prices of the telegraph securities were mostly below par.
Consequently his theology is cosmological speculation and ethical reflection based on the sacred Scriptures.
He was, therefore, in the forefront of that intellectual revolution in the course of which speculation ceased to move in the realms of the physical 1 and focused itself upon human reason in its application to the practical conduct of life.
The occupants of Edom during practically the whole period of Biblical history were the Bedouin tribes which claimed 1 A curious etymological speculation connects the name with the story of Esau's begging for Jacob's pottage, Gen.
An external conformity was possible, inasmuch as speculation, proceeding from the higher to the lower, could keep by the stages of the regula fidei, which had been developed into a history of salvation.
Official corruption and speculation have led to some unsound ventures, but in the great majority of cases the lines constructed have been beneficial and productive.
The third, which is not distinct in principle from the two preceding, is that such limited speculation in cotton buying on the part of spinners worried with other matters would not be likely to steady the cotton market in any high degree.
A question which has met with a good deal of attention is whether the speculation, which has been encouraged by the various arrangements made for facilitating operations in " futures," has steadied or unsteadied prices.
The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.
Whereas Plato's main problem had been the organization of the perfect state, and Aristotle's intellect had ranged with fresh interest over all departments of the knowable, political speculation had become a mockery with the extinction of free political life, and knowledge as such had lost its freshness for the Greeks of the Roman Empire.
Valentin Weigel (1533-1588), who stands under manifold obligations to Franck, represents also the influence of the semi-mystical physical speculation that marked the transition from scholasticism to modern times.
The belief in them probably arose out of the doctrine of the older school, which did not deny the existence of the various creations of previous mythology and speculation, but allowed of their actual existence as spiritual beings, and only deprived them of all power over the lives of men, and declared them to be temporary beings liable, like men, to sin and ignorance, and requiring, like men, the salvation of Arahatship. Among them the later Buddhists seem to have placed their numerous Bodhisats; and to have paid especial reverence to Manju-sri as the personification of wisdom, and to Avalokiteswara as the personification of overruling love.
4 attention, as far as it was not engaged upon their hierarchy of mythological beings, to questions of metaphysical speculation, which, in the earliest Buddhism, are not only discouraged but forbidden.
In the variety of his knowledge, and in the importance of his influence on both Greek and modern speculation he was the Aristotle of the 5th century, while the sanity of his metaphysical theory has led many to regard him as the equal, if not the superior, of Plato.
But it suited also the practical bent of the Roman mind, with its comparative indifference to abstract speculation or purely scientific research.
It is unnecessary to insist on the purely speculative character of the conclusions to be reached in this way, so long as they cannot be checked by the results of palaeontology, but, when this is recognized, such speculation is not only legitimate but necessary as a basis on which to build a natural classification.
His thought in this direction, wherein he anticipated something of modern speculation, is the more remarkable because his scholastic successors accomplished least in the field of morals, hardly venturing to bring the principles and rules of conduct under pure philosophical discussion, even after the great ethical inquiries of Aristotle became fully known to them.
Thus while Plato hoped to ascend through classificatory science to the knowledge of eternal and immutable laws of thought and being, Speusippus, abandoning ontological speculation, was content to regard classificatory science not as a means but as an end, and (6) to rest in the results of scientific observation.
vii.); articles by Chapman and Knoop in the Economic Journal (December, 1904) and the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (April, 1906); Emery's Speculation on Stock and Produce Exchanges of the United States (small portions of which relate to cotton).
Geiger Johann Reuchlin (1871), p. 167) introduced him to the Kabbalah, which had great fascinations for one who loved all mystic and theosophic speculation.
Although our information respecting the chemical composition of petroleum has been almost entirely gained since the middle of the 18th century, a considerable amount of empirical knowledge of the substance was possessed by chemists at an earlier date, and there was much speculation as to its origin.
All this, however, must necessarily be of the nature of the purest speculation, and the only facts which we are able to deduce in the present state of our knowledge of the subject may be summed up as follows: (a) That the Malays ethnologically belong to a race which is allied to the Polynesians; (b) that the theory formerly current to the effect that the Sakai and other similar races of the peninsula and archipelago belonged to the Malayan stock cannot be maintained, since recent investigations tend to identify them with the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer family of races; (c) that the Malays are, comparatively speaking, newcomers in the lands which they now inhabit; (d) that it is almost certain that their emigration took place from the south; (e) and that, at some remote period of their history, they came into close contact with the Polynesian race, probably before its dispersion over the extensive area which it now occupies.
Still, till the last Berzelius remained faithful to his original theory; experiment, which he had hitherto held to be the only sure method of research, he discarded, and in its place he substituted pure speculation, which greatly injured the radical theory.
In his theories the element of mystical speculation for the first time comes to the front as all-important.
Bach, Meister Eckhart der Vater der deutschen Speculation (1864); C. Ullmann, Reformatoren vor der Reformation (1842); W.
They would never have died out, however, had not circumstances altered, and a new mental attitude been taken up. The spirit of philosophical and theological speculation and of ethical reflection, which began to spread through the churches, did not know what to make of the old hopes of the future.
Her theologians had, to begin with, little turn for mystical speculation; their tendency was rather to reduce the gospel to a system of morals.
It is the same all through the 3rd and 4th centuries with those Latin theologians who escaped the influence of Greek speculation.
He was one of the first of his countrymen to recognize and come under the influence of German thought and speculation, and, amidst an exaggerated alarm of German heresy, did much to vindicate the authority of the sounder German critics.
This was not an abundant source, women slaves being less numerous than men, and wise masters making the union of the sexes rather a reward of good service than a matter of speculation (Xen.
His studies both in English and foreign speculation led him to cherish the design also of making some worthy contribution to philosophy.
It may, however, well be that both peach and almond are derived from some pre-existing and now extinct form whose descendants have spread over the whole geographic area mentioned; but this is a mere speculation, though indirect evidence in its support might be obtained from the nectarine, of which no mention is made in ancient literature, and which, as we have seen, originates from the peach and reproduces itself by seed, thus offering the characteristics of a species in the act of developing itself.
The exact significance of these roots is a matter for speculation, but it seems possible that they are epiphysial structures remotely comparable with the epiphysial (pineal) complex of the craniate vertebrates.
Little light has been thrown on the affinities of the Brachiopoda by recent research, though speculation has not been wanting.
In addition to the works already mentioned, his Cosmotheoros- a speculation concerning the inhabitants of the planets - was printed posthumously at the Hague in 1698, and appeared almost simultaneously in an English translation.
In these circumstances there grew up in Rome a class of wealthy ' men, whose sole occupation it was to amass large fortunes by speculation,' and who found a most lucrative field of enterprise ' in state contracts and the farming of the public revenues.
The exact mode in which the in-sinking of superficial outstanding limbs, carrying gill-lamellae, has historically taken place has been a matter of much speculation.
In the field of philosophic speculation, Auguste Comte has had many disciples in Brazil.
The same infatuated passion for mining speculation which had characterized the Spanish settlers in South America now began to actuate the Portuguese; labourers and capital were drained off to the mining districts, and Brazil, which had hitherto in great measure supplied Europe with sugar, sank before the competition of the English and French.
The scholastic systems are not the free products of speculation; in the main they are summae theologiae, or they are modified versions of Aristotle.
The question of universals, though fully discussed, no longer forms the centre of speculation.
Although relegated to a note (vii.), and propounded "Avec la defiance que doit inspirer tout ce qui n'est point un resultat de l'observation ou du calcul," it is plain, from the complacency with which he recurred to it 3 at a later date, that he regarded the speculation with considerable interest.
The wave of morphological speculation, with its outcome of new systems and new theories of classification.
The peculiar plan of the Erechtheum has given rise to much speculation.
Except as regards philosophical and religious speculation, his writings show a range of interest and knowledge quite unparalleled in that generation.
The term "rulers" appears to be derived from Manichean speculation, or from the same cycle of myth which is reflected in Cor.
This doctrine, crudely transferred from philosophical speculation, was intended to reconcile the humoral (or Hippocratic) and solidist (or methodic) schools; but the methodists seem to have claimed Athenaeus as one of themselves.
Moreover, Haller's views did not rest on a priori speculation, but on numerous experiments.
Intellectual activity was not wanting, but the great achievements of the 18th century in philosophy and the moral sciences had fostered a love of abstract speculation; and some sort of cosmical or general system was thought indispensable in every department of special science.
These new conceptions of the multiplicity in unity of disease, and of the fluidity and continuity of morbid processes, might have led to vagueness and over-boldness in speculation and reconstruction, had not the experimental method been at hand with clues and tests for the several series.
He was full of literary projects, and immediately after his return he is said to have increased his fortune immensely by a lucky lottery speculation.
He then took lodgings with an agent of his, one Demoulin, in an out-of-the-way part of Paris, and was, for some time at least, as much occupied with contracts, speculation and all sorts of means of gaining money as with literature.
There has been much speculation as to the depth to which it will be practicable to push the work of mining.
His main contention has met with some acceptance,' but the great current of ethnographical speculation still flows in the direction indicated by Humboldt.
Towards 1818 Comte became associated as friend and disciple with Saint-Simon, who was destined to exercise a very decisive influence upon the turn of his speculation.
When we reflect that the chapter is not narrative, but an abstract exposition of the guiding principles of the movements of several centuries, with many threads of complex thought running along side by side all through the speculation, then the circumstances under which it was reduced to literary form are really astonishing.
His voice is musical, metallic, fit for loud laughter and piercing wail, and all that may lie between; speech and speculation free and plenteous; I do not meet in these late decades such company over a pipe."
However crude and hasty this critical investigation, it helped to direct philosophic reflection to the unity of mind, and so to develop the post-Kantian line of speculation.
Later, especially when scientific speculation had made the theistic problem urgent, he was a frequent contributor to the literary monthlies.
For his essays are fine examples of permanent literature appearing in an ephemeral medium, and represent work which has solid worth for later thought as well as for the speculation of their own time.
The remaining years of his life he devoted to theological speculation and ecclesiastical reforms. His religious enthusiasm led him to oppress his Jewish subjects; on the other hand he sought to reconcile the Christian sects, and to this effect propounded in his Ecthesis a conciliatory doctrine of monothelism.
The latter received mythical representation in that most interesting god (but originally rather culture-hero) Maui, who, in NewZealand practically supplants Tangaloa, and becomes the god of the air and of the heaven, the creator and the causer of the flood.2 Speculation opened the usual deep problem; whence came the gods?
- India, however, is the natural home of a mythology recast by speculation.
The aim of the historical works is to show the necessary connexion between philosophical concepts and the age to which they belong; the same idea is at the root of his constructive speculation.
They were followed by an age of philosophizing which did little to advance speculation.
In science and theology, mathematics and poetry, metaphysics and law, he is a competent and always a fair if not a profound critic. The bent of his own mind is manifest in his treatment of pure literature and of political speculation - which seems to be inspired with stronger personal interest and a higher sense of power than other parts of his work display.
Medieval speculation took the Church and the Empire for granted, as divinely appointed institutions, under which the nations of the earth must flourish for the space of man's probation on this planet.
In each case history is blent with speculation in nearly the same proportions.
In the Historie fiorentine Machiavelli quitted the field of political speculation for that of history.
(a) The Kantian system had for the first time opened up a truly fruitful line of philosophic speculation, the transcendental consideration of knowledge, or the analysis of the conditions under which cognition is possible.
Apart from speculation, the first definite evidence for the molecular structure of matter occurs when it is found that certain physical phenomena change their whole nature as soon as we deal with matter of which the linear dimensions are less than a certain amount.
The contact of Jewish theology with Greek speculation became the great problem of thought.
To understand the philosophical theory that has come to be known under this title, we may ask (I) what in general it is and how it is differentiated from other theories of knowledge and reality, (2) how it has risen in the history of philosophy, (3) what position it occupies at present in the world of speculation.
Determinism had other forms besides that of a crude materialism, and the direction that Malebranche succeeded in giving to speculation led only to the more complete denial of freedom and individuality in the all-devouring pantheism of Spinoza.
To have established this position was a great step in speculation.
The fact seems to be that intellectual speculation was as strong in America as in Puritan England; the assumption that the inhibition of its expression was good seems wholly gratuitous, and contrary to general convictions underlying modern freedom of speech.
The strength of these men lay in destructive criticism rather than in construction: as dialecticians they were successful, but they contributed little to ethical speculation.
Among the passages quoted from Pacuvius are several which indicate a taste both for physical and ethical speculation, and others which expose the pretensions of religious imposture.
But prosperity brought on a feverish land speculation; prices of wool and wheat fell in 187 9 and went on falling.
Undoubtedly also commercial confidence was restored by the reconstruction in 1895 of the Bank of New Zealand, and activity has been stimulated by large public loans, while more cautious banking and the systems of taxation and rating on land values, adopted in 1891 and 1896, have done something to check land speculation.
Later Jewish and Christian speculation followed on the lines of the angelology of the earlier apocalypses; and angels play an important part in Gnostic systems and in the Jewish Midrashim and the Kabbala.
The Government tried to oppose the rise in prices by penal measures, and in public attributed the rise of foreign rates to speculation.
Further speculation is caused when it is found that Solomon fortifies such cities as Megiddo, Beth-horon and Tamar, and that the Egyptian Pharaoh had slain the Canaanites of Gezer (ix.
(2) The process of abstraction takes an important place both in psychological and metaphysical speculation.
Masaryk, who, as a counterpoise to German speculation and the intellectualism of Herbart, emphasized the critical study of English philosophy, notably Hume, Spencer and Mill, and the French Comte; at the same time he fully appreciated the value of Kant in epistemology.
As every attempt to rationalize nature implies a certain process of criticism and interpretation to which the data of sense are subjected, and in which they are, as it were, transcended, the antithesis of reason and sense is formulated early in the history of speculation.
But, as Christianity became firmly established, Christian writers' became more tolerant of speculation, and laboured to reduce the doctrines of the church to a rational system.
Incredible as it may seem, the expedition to place the false Demetrius on the Muscovite throne was a private speculation of a few Lithuanian magnates, and similar enterprises on the part of other irresponsible noblemen on the Danube or Dniester brought upon unhappy Poland retaliatory Tatar raids, which reduced whole provinces to ashes.
Events seemed at first to favour this audacious speculation.
This he did as elector of Saxony, but it was War with the unfortunate Polish republic which paid for the hazardous speculation of its newly elected king.
Jumel (1769-1865), a rich New York widow; the two soon separated, however, owing to Burr's having lost much of her fortune in speculation.
534) to express the general theory that the essential feature in philosophic speculation is continuity.
1.9 (where the concourse of chariots and horsemen would invite speculation), and the latter with the Cushite wife of Moses; but although one may grant that the canonical sources do not by any means preserve all the older current traditions, the contents of the latter cannot be recovered from the later persisting Midrashim.2 iii.
Never before in Greek or in Roman speculation had the consciousness of man's dignity and superiority to nature found such adequate expression; never before had real science and pure knowledge been so undervalued and despised by the leaders of culture as they were by the Neoplatonists.
Moreover, in the unbridled exercise of speculation, the number of divine beings was increased indefinitely; and these fantastic accessions to l Olympus in the system of Iamblichus show that Greek philosophy 'is returning to mythology, and that nature-religion is still a power in the world.
The numerous followers of Iamblichus - Aedesius, Chrysanthius, Eusebius, Priscus, Sopater, Sallust, and, most famous of all, Maximus, rendered little service to speculation.
And we find accordingly in his great work a combination of inductive inquiry with a priori speculation founded on the "Nature" hypothesis.
Leidy adhered strictly to Cuvier's exact descriptive methods, and while an evolutionist and recognizing clearly the genetic relationships of the horses and other groups, he never indulged in speculation.
It is a mistake to regard the Gnostics as pre-eminently the representatives of intellect amongChristians, and Gnosticism as an intellectual tendency chiefly concerned with philosophical speculation, the reconciliation of religion with philosophy and theology.
But Gnostic speculation gives various accounts of the descent or fall of this goddess of heaven.
His efforts after a construction of natural reality are bad in themselves, and gave rise to wearisome and useless physical speculation.
His tendency towards mystical speculation formed a not less fundamental quality of his mind than its strong grasp of positive scientific truth.
Religionssystem (1831; in this work Manichaean speculation is exhibited from a speculative standpoint); Fliigel, Mani (1862; a very careful investigation on the basis of the Fihrist); Kessler, Untersuchung zur Genesis des manich.
The most powerful impulse to mining operations, and the immediate cause of a somewhat lengthy period of wild excitement and speculation, was the discovery and successful opening of the Comstock lode in 1859, in the western part of what is now Nevada, but was then part of Utah.
This being granted, there is room for plentiful speculation as to where and why it was concocted.
(I) Tertullian was a man of great originality and genius, characterized by the deepest pathos, the liveliest fancy, and the most penetrating keenness, and was endowed with ability to appropriate and make use of all the methods of observation and speculation, and with the readiest wit.
6) by the three operations of speculation (BEwpia), practice (71 - pats) and production (7roipacs), and made the following subdivisions: I.
God's occupation is speculative; man's is speculation, practice and production.
At the same time, the possibility of a confusion between Ninib and Nergal must be admitted, and perhaps we are to see the solution of the problem in the recognition of two diverse schools of theological speculation, the one assigning to Ninib the role of the spring-tide solar deity, the other identifying him with the sun of the summer solstice.
His true place in the history of speculation may be seen from the simple observation that the difficulties or obscurities in his scheme are really the points on which later philosophy has turned.
Plants of a single year's growth reached the ridiculous price of $1 each at the height of the fever, which, however, did not last long, for in 1839 the speculation collapsed; the famous M.
Empiricism was characteristic of all early speculation in Greece.
Maine de Biran's first essays in philosophy were written avowedly from the point of view of Locke and Condillac, but even in them he was brought to signalize the essential fact on which his later speculation turns.
In the latest stage of his speculation Biran distinguishes the animal existence from the human, under which the three forms above noted are classed, and both from the life of the spirit, in which human thought is brought into relation with the supersensible, divine system of things.
Its essence, as stated by Kant, was to reduce the logical use of reason to mental phenomena of experience in speculation, in order to extend the practical use of reason to the real noumena, or things in themselves, required for morality.
Though their prevailing tendency was practical, and the tenets of the society were kept a profound secret, it is perfectly clear from the concurrent testimony of Philo and Josephus that they cultivated a kind of speculation, which not only accounts for their spiritual asceticism, but indicates a great deviation from the normal development of Judaism, and a profound sympathy with Greek philosophy, and probably also with Oriental ideas.
Philo tells us expressly that they rejected logic as unnecessary to the acquisition of virtue, and speculation on nature as too lofty for the human intellect.
this period that the Catholic edifice of the middle ages began to be shaken by the boldness of philosophical speculation as applied to theological studies and also by the growth of heresy.
The vigour of his thought won admiration from Henry James (father of the novelist) and from Emerson, through whom he became known to Carlyle and Froude; and his speculation further attracted Tennyson, the Oliphants and Edward Maitland.
The machinery of expression having thus been indicated, the connexion of the physical actions and the psychical state was made the subject of speculation by Herbert Spencer (Psychology, 1855) These speculations were reduced to a system by Darwin (Expression of Emotions, 1872), who formulated and illustrated the following as fundamental physiognomical principles: (1) Certain complex acts are of direct or indirect service, under certain conditions of the mind, in order to relieve or gratify certain sensations or desires; and whenever the same states of mind are induced the same sets of actions tend to be performed, even when they have ceased to be of use.
In 1402 Lord Thomas de Berkeley bought, as a speculation, 24 Scottish prisoners.
But deliverance from this cycle of existences, which is conceived as misery, is promised by means of speculation and asceticism.
In the middle ages there was an extravagance of speculation on this subject, which may be seen in the last division of Aquinas' Summa Theologiae.
The last of the great Latin Fathers and the first representative of medieval Catholicism he brings the dogmatic theology of Tertullian, Ambrose and Augustine into relation with the Scholastic speculation of later ages.
Paul of Samosata represented the high-water mark of Christian speculation; and it is deplorable that the fanaticism of his own and of succeeding generations has left us nothing but a few scattered fragments of his writings.
Thus, in the first decade of the 20th century a great advance had been made in the way in which the whole problem was being viewed in America, though the very immensity of the problem of bringing the Federal power to bear on operations on so vast a scale, involving the limitation of private land speculation in important areas, still presented political difficulties of considerable magnitude.
A similar movement began among the Protestants after the commercial crisis of 1873, which forms an epoch in German thought, since it was from that year that men first began to question the economic doctrines of Liberalism, and drew attention to the demoralization which seemed to arise from the freedom of speculation and the influence of the stock exchangea movement which in later years led to some remarkable attempts to remedy the evil by legislation.
The Agrarians tjons, believed that the Berlin Exchange was partly re sponsible for the fall of prices in corn; the Anti Semites laid stress on the fact that many of the financiers were of Jewish extraction; the Centre feared the moral effects of speculation.
Hence his religious feeling and theological speculation demanded their realization in a kingdom of God coextensive with man's nature, terrestrial history and human society; and thus his theological system became a Theologische Ethik, as he entitled one of his books (3 vols., 18 451848).
But the speculation was unsuccessful, and for many years Godwin struggled with constant pecuniary difficulties, for which more than one subscription was raised by the leaders of the Liberal party and by literary men.
(4) Hungary to reform her produce and Stock Exchange laws so as to prevent speculation in agrarian produce.
Among them were nearly all the representatives of trade and industry, of commercial enterprise and financial speculation; they were the men who hoped to make Austria a great industrial state, and at this time they were much occupied with railway enterprise.
Sound industrial concerns were little touched by it, but speculation had become so general that every class of society was affected, and in the investigation which followed it became apparent that some of the most distinguished members of the governing Liberal party, including at least two members of the government, were among those who had profited by the unsound finance.
The origin of the connexion may possibly be due to the fusion of two "Pelasgic" tribes, worshipping Zeus and Hera respectively; but speculation on the earliest cult of the goddess, before she became the wife of Zeus, must be largely conjectural.
Science.The Egyptians sought little after knowledge for its own sake: they might indulge in religious speculation, but their science was no more than the knowledge of practical methods.
Of this kind of speculation much more must have existed than has reached us.
2 Pragmatism, as a general philosophic doctrine or mental attitude, can only be understood as part of a reaction against the intellectualistic speculation which has characterized most of modern metaphysics.
To arbitrary and unverifiable metaphysical speculation, and to forms of "absolutism" which have lost touch with human interests, this humanism is particularly destructive.
The oosphere is not differentiated within the wall of the oogonium, but certain cells known as wendungszellen, the significance of which has given rise to much speculation, are cut off from the basal portion of the parent-cell during its development.
Like Leonardo, but with much less than Leonardo's genius for scientific speculation and divination, Diirer was a confirmed reasoner and theorist on the laws of nature and natural appearances.
On the other hand, many of his ideas have passed into the common literary stock, and have been more precisely elaborated by later writers on sociology and history; and though his own work is now somewhat neglected, its influence was immensely valuable in provoking further research and speculation.
Schelling, already on the way to fame, kept Hegel abreast with German speculation.
This bill passed both houses, but was vetoed in February 1859 by President Buchanan on the ground that it would cause friction between the states, that it would be uneconomical, that it might encourage fraudulent speculation, that it would injure existing institutions, and that it was unconstitutional.
is a matter of speculation.
Thus, whereas hitherto the young Greek, having completed his elementary training in the schools of the rypaµµaTcvTi s, the KtOapuTr s, and the 7rat orpi(3ns, was left to prepare himself for his life's work as best he might, by philosophical speculation, by artistic practice, or otherwise, one who passed from the elementary schools to the lecture-room of Protagoras received from him a " higher education."
Various as were the phases through which sophistry passed between the middle of the 5th century and the middle of the 4th, the sophists - Socrates himself being no exception - had in their declared antagonism to philosophy a common characteristic; and, if in the interval, philosophical speculation being temporarily suspended, scepticism ceased for the time to be peculiar, at the outset, when Protagoras and Gorgias broke with the physicists, and in the sequel, when Plato raised the cry of " back to Parmenides," this common characteristic was distinctive.
Legal rights are everywhere taking the place of unwritten customs. Land, which was before merely a source of livelihood to the cultivator and of revenue to the state, has now become the subject of commercial speculation.
The success of these undertakings engendered a wild spirit of speculation in tea companies both in India and at home, which reached its climax in 1865.
In addition to the reckless speculation of this period, there were continued political dissensions, repeated dictatorships and financial mismanagement on the part of the government.
The system represents a harmonious combination of two factors, one of popular origin, the other the outcome of speculation in the schools attached to the temples of Babylonia.
It is a legitimate speculation to suppose that these in the reverse order are the stages in the evolution of a double star.
The freedom of his speculation, and the boldness with which he works out his logical or dialectical system of the universe, altogether prevent us from classing him along with the scholastics properly so called.
Logic arose, at least for the Western world, in the golden age of Greek speculation which culminated in Plato and Aristotle.
In seeking for a single material principle underlying the multiplicity of phenomena, the first nature-philosophers, Thales and the rest, did indeed raise the problem of the one and the many, the endeavour to answer which must at last lead to logic. But it is only from a point of view won by later speculation that it can be said that they sought to determine the predicates of the single subject-reality, or to establish the permanent subject of varied and varying predicates.'
Other sophists, of course, with more practical interests, or of humbler attainments, were content to move on a lower plane of philosophical speculation.
Wolff's formalism is the bastard outcome of the speculation of Leibnitz, and is related to it as remotely as Scholasticism is to Aristotle.
Along this line of speculation we have a logic which claims that whatsoever is in one plane or at one stage in the development of thought a residuum that apparently defies analysis must at another stage and on a higher plane be shown so to be absorbed as to fall altogether within thought.
In all else the claim is made to have left the Kantian teaching behind as a cancelled level of speculation.
Its speculation can no longer be stigmatized as vaticination in vacuo, nor its results as illusory.
This tendency is to be seen in the activity of Fries and Herbart and Beneke, and was actualized as the aftermath of their speculation.
For at the basis of Herbart's speculation there lies a conception of identity foreign to the thought of Kant with his stress on synthesis, in his thoroughgoing metaphysical use of which Herbart goes back not merely to Wolff but to Leibnitz.
His speculation turns, as has been said, upon the necessity of reconciling the existence and the might of evil with the existence of an all-embracing and allpowerful God, without falling into Manichaeanism on the one hand, or, on the other, into a naturalistic pantheism that denies the reality of the distinction between good and evil.
Schelling's Philosophical Inquiries into the Nature of Human Freedom (1809) is almost entirely a reproduction of Boehme's ideas, and forms, along with Baader's writings, the best' modern example of theosophical speculation.
He was the son of a merchant of that town who lost the greater part of his means by speculation.
This was a stock speculation based on the remarkable output ($ 3 00,000,000 in 20 years) of the silver " bonanzas " of the Comstock lode at Virginia City, Nevada, which were opened and financed by San Francisco capitalists.
Perhaps the sloughing more than any other feature stimulated primitive speculation; cf.
They were not given to metaphysical speculation, nor long insistent in their inquiries as to the meaning and origin of things.
Their speculation as to the nature of God had led them gradually to separate him by an infinite distance from all creation, and to feel keenly the opposition of the finite and the infinite, the perfect and the imperfect, the eternal and the temporal.
Speculation and hyperspiritualization were ever tending to obscure this fundamental religious fact: in the interest of a higher doctrine of God his true presence in Jesus was denied, and by exaggeration of Paul's doctrine of " Christ in us " the significance of the historic Jesus was given up. The Johannine writings, which presupposed the Pauline movement, are a protest against the hyperspiritualizing tendency.
By this recognition of the necessary correlation of Being and Not-being, Heraclitus is in a very real sense the father of metaphysical and scientific speculation, and in him the Ionian school of philosophy reached, its highest point.
Hence the problem becomes a dialectical a priori speculation wherein the laws of thought transcend the sense-given data of experience.
But wherever they went, and whether, as apparently in Asia Minor, Greek blood was kept free from barbaric mixture, or whether, as in Magna Graecia and Sicily, it was mingled with that of the aboriginal races, the Greek emigrants carried with them the Hellenic spirit and the Hellenic tongue; and the colonies fostered, not infrequently more rapidly and more brilliantly than at home, Greek literature, Greek art and Greek speculation.
Oporto, the seat of the outbreak, had no connexion by sea with any place known to be infected, and all attempts to trace introduction ended in speculation or assumption.
Many points about purgatory, on which the Church has no definition, have been subjects of much speculation among Catholics.
The 18th century, in which the spirit of classical correctness had the most absolute dominion, did not come to an end before a powerful reaction set in, which affected not only literature but also speculation and politics.
The origin of the word has been the subject of much speculation.
What was wanting was not vitality and licence, not audacity of speculation, not lawless instinct or rebellious impulse.
The thinkers of southern Italy, Telesio, Bruno and Campanella, at last opened the two chief lines on which modern speculation has since moved.
Without challenging or adopting this speculation, it may be safely affirmed that nothing so pregnant of results has happened as this exploration of the globe.
Humanism has never been in the narrow sense of that term Protestant; still less has it been strictly Catholic. In Italy it fostered a temper of mind decidedly averse to theological speculation and religious earnestness.
Depicting feudalism in the vivid colours of an age at war with feudal institutions, breathing into antique histories the breath of actual life, embracing the romance of Italy and Spain, the mysteries of German legend, the fictions of poetic fancy and the facts of daily life, humours of the moment and abstractions of philosophical speculation, in one homogeneous amalgam instinct with intense vitality, this extraordinary birth of time, with Shakespeare for the master of all ages, left a monument of the Re- naissance unrivalled for pure creative power by any other product of that epoch.
The term plays an important part in metaphysical, ethical and theological speculation.
In 1824 the Real del Monte mines were sold to an English company and became the centre of a remarkable mining speculation - the company ruining itself with lavish expenditures and discontinuing work in 1848.
The development of the doctrine has been the most characteristic and important contribution of British thinkers to philosophical speculation.
The British moralists who wrote with political prepossessions are interesting, not merely as contributors to speculation, but as exponents of spiritual tendencies which were expressed practically in the political agitations of their times.
in 1863) sums up in brief and perfect form the essential principles of his doctrine, and is a little masterpiece worthy to be set beside Kant's Metaphysic of Morals as an authoritative statement of one of the two main forms of modern ethical speculation.
This great fact once ascertained, it became clear that the notion that electric phenomena are affections of the luminiferous ether was no longer a mere speculation but a scientific theory capable of verification.
Bacon is, therefore, regarded by many as the father of what is most characteristic in English psychological speculation.
In the midst of the bewildering variety, where all types co-exist together and act and react on each other, it is impossible to do more than point out some obvious groups receiving their special forms chiefly from the side (i) of nature, (2) of human life, and (3) from moral or theological speculation.
Babylonian speculation embraced the world in a triad of divine powers, Anu the god of heaven, Bel of earth and Ea of the deep; and these became the symbols of the order of nature, the divine embodiments of physical law?
(2) Over these theological speculation erects a few lofty and impressive forms; sometimes below the highest, like Vohu Mano,.
Egyptian speculation, in like manner, impersonated the conceptions of physical and moral order as two sides of a fundamental unity in the goddess Maat.
Yet the words Schopenhauer then listened to, often with baffled curiosity, certainly influenced his speculation.
It is only by such a tower of speculation that an 1 In this doctrine, so far as the facts go, Schopenhauer is indebted to a paper by R.
Preoccupied with his own ideas, he chafed under the indifference of thinkers who had grown blasé in speculation and fancied himself persecuted by a conspiracy of professors of philosophy.
Anterior to Kant the gradual advance of idealism had been the most conspicuous feature in philo sophic speculation.
But with the Indians this speculation leads to the complete abolition of all barriers between God and man, to a mystic pantheism, and to absorption in the universal Ego, in contrast with which the world becomes an unsubstantial phantasm and sinks into nothingness.
The abstractions which it preaches are not products of metaphysical speculation, as in India, but rather the ethical forces which dominate human life.
The centre of speculation is a group of extensive ruins at Zimbabwe, in Mashonaland, about 200 m.
Following Duns Scotus, he adopted the Platonic theory of ideas, and denied that Aristotle had made any contribution to metaphysical speculation.
can only be a matter of speculation" (Gairdner, Cal.
Now, whatever speculation may say as to God's purpose being necessarily universal benevolence, experience plainly shows us that our present happiness and misery depend upon our conduct, and are not distributed indiscriminately.
Owing to the uncertainty of these passages there has been much speculation regarding the original home of the Angli.
In September 1869 the Central Pacific line was completed to Oakland, and in the next four years there was a crash in real estate values inflated during the railway speculation.
Instead, therefore, of constantly beginning afresh in speculation, it should be our duty to attach ourselves to what may be considered the permanent results of historic developments.
His Anticipations (1902) showed his real gift for sociological speculation.
The success of the English revolution permitted men to turn from the active side of political and theological controversy to speculation and theory; and curiosity was more powerful than faith.
It is safe to say that no prehistoric monument in Great Britain has given rise to more speculation as to its origin, date and purpose; and although the few hoary stones still extant are but a small portion of the original structure they are still sufficiently imposing to excite the wonder of the passing traveller, and mysterious enough to puzzle the antiquary.
Berlin is also the great centre and the chief market for speculation in corn and other cereals which reach it by water from Poland, Austria and South Russia, while in commerce in spirits it rivals Hamburg.
Few men of so much mental force have had so little genius for speculation, and he is constantly dominated by fierce instincts which he mistakes for reasons.
It rises in the realm of physical speculation, passes over into the territory of ethics and theology, and makes its way through at least three well-defined stages.
Like a law of nature, objective in the world, it gives order and regularity to the movement of things, and makes the system rational.3 The failure of Heraclitus to free himself entirely from the physical hypotheses of earlier times prevented his speculation from influencing his successors.
Instead of the once powerful confidence in the immediate presence of God there grew up a mass of speculation regarding on the one hand the distant future, on the other the distant past.
while Philo, even when ascribing a real personality to the Logos, keeps within the bounds of abstract speculation, leads him seriously to modify the Philonic doctrine.
The latter indeed is glanced at ("All things were made by him"), merely to provide a link with earlier speculation, but what the writer is concerned about is not the mode in which the world came into being but the spiritual life which resides in the Logos and is communicated by him to men.
In the later developments of Hellenic speculation nothing essential was added to the doctrine of the Logos.
With them came land speculation, litigiousness, the development of mines and mining-camp law, and the passion of politics, of which duels were one feature of early days.
The number of the population of Colombia is very largely a matter of speculation.
Although he was imprisoned in the Luxembourg during the Terror, he took no part of any importance in the Revolution, but profited by it to amass a little fortune by land speculation - not on any selfish account, however, as he said, but to facilitate his future projects.
Considerable speculation was caused by the fact that whereas in 1878-79 the lake-level was high, from 1880 to 1890 the level was falling, and that after a few years (1892-95) of higher level there was, from 1896 to 1902, again a steady fall, amounting in seven years to 30 in.
The money thus poured into the country produced an epidemic of speculation known as the "Share Mania".
Here too appeared in part the first of his philosophic works, Edward Allwills Briefsammlung (1776), a combination of romance and speculation.
Indirectly, through the dialectic of his pupil and friend Zeno and otherwise, the doctrine of the inadequacy of sensation led to the humanist movement, which for a time threatened to put an end to philosophical and scientific speculation.
During this period Cousin seems to have turned with fresh interest to those literary studies which he had abandoned for speculation under the influence of Laromiguiere and RoyerCollard.
His eclecticism was the proof of a reverential sympathy with the struggles of human thought to attain to certainty in the highest problems of speculation.
The state issued bonds to the value of $io,000,000, a period of wild speculation followed, and the financial panic of 1837 forced the abandonment of the proposed plan and the sale to private persons of that part already completed.
The Jains are the last direct representatives on the continent of India of those schools of thought which grew out of the active philosophical speculation and earnest spirit of religious inquiry that prevailed in the valley of the Ganges during the 5th and 6th centuries before the Christian era.
This was precisely the actual course on which speculation was entering in France at that moment.
Such works were evidently a sign that his mind was turning away from abstract speculation to the great political and economic fields, and to the more visible conditions of social stability and the growth of nations.
If not, modern Christian minds will hardly regard the doctrine as more than a speculation.
For a time, freedom in scholarship lingered in the younger rival of Alexandria, the school of Antioch; though speculation was never so strong there.
Athanasius's piety is thus brought into association with the details of Logos speculation.
Fairbairn takes the rather unusual view that Greek Christian theology was the climax of the process of Greek philosophy, and so far alien to piety, although he is far from banishing speculation out of theology.
As such the term has played an important part in the philosophical and theological speculation.
He had gone frankly to the professional money-lenders, who made advances to him in a speculation on his success": they were to get their money back with large interest or lose it altogether.
When the latter came to be identified by philosophical speculation with the sungod Helios, it was natural that his sister and counterpart should be identified with the moon-goddess Selene.
He is typically English in his reverence for facts, whether facts of sense or of living consciousness, in his aversion from abstract speculation and verbal reasoning, in his suspicion of mysticism, in his calm reasonableness, and in his ready submission to truth, even when truth was incapable of being fully reduced to system by man.
Large, " round-about " common sense, intellectual strength directed by a virtuous purpose, not subtle or daring speculation sustained by an idealizing faculty, in which he was deficient, is what we find in Locke.
The contrast and correlation of these two data of experience is suggested in the chapter on the " qualities of matter " in which we are introduced to a noteworthy vein of speculation (bk.
The origin of the name has given rise to much speculation; the current theory is that the Achaeans were driven back into this region by the Dorian invaders of the Peloponnese.
And there are not wanting signs of a revival in recent years of the earlier tendency of philosophical speculation to subordinate the necessities of metaphysical, scientific and even psychological inquiries to the prima facie demands of the moral consciousness.
is a historical sketch in four parts tracing the main lines of development in ethical speculation from its birth to the present day.
When ethical speculation first begins, conceptions such as those of duty, responsibility, the will as the ultimate subject of moral approbation and disapprobation, are already in existence and already operative.
But so soon as men perceive upon reflection an apparent discrepancy between the utterances of their moral consciousness and certain conclusions to which theological speculation (or at a later period metaphysical and scientific inquiries) seems inevitably to lead them, they will not rest satisfied until the belief in the will's freedom (hitherto unquestioned) is upon further reflection justified or condemned.
- The ethical speculation of Greece, and therefore of Europe, had no abrupt and absolute beginning.
In the case of Pythagoras, conspicuous among pre-Socratic philosophers as the founder not merely of a school, but of a sect or order bound by a common rule of life, there is a closer connexion between moral and metaphysical speculation.
But in the true sense of the word, they had no ethical system at all, nor did they contribute save by contrast to ethical speculation.
Even on the cardinal point on which Aristotle entered into direct controversy with Plato, the definite disagreement between the two is less than at first appears; the objections of the disciple hit that part of the master's system that was rather imagined than thought; the main positive result of Platonic speculation only gains in distinctness by the application of Aristotelian analysis.
But in spite of the intense conviction with which he thus identified metaphysical speculation and practical wisdom, we find in his writings no serious attempt to deduce the particulars of human well-being from his knowledge of absolute good, still less to unfold from it the particular cognitions of the special arts and sciences.
But he has not failed to observe that practical reasonings are not commonly of this kind, but are rather concerned with actions as means to ulterior ends; indeed, he lays stress on this as a characteristic of the " political " life, when he wishes to prove its inferiority to the life of pure speculation.
The outline given in the Advancement was never filled in, and does not seem to have had any effect on the subsequent course of ethical speculation.
In the preceding sketch we have traced the course of English ethical speculation without bringing it into relation with contemporary European thought on the same subject.
This influence, so far as it has affected moral as distinct from political speculation, has been exercised primarily through the general conception of human progress; which, in Comte's view, consists in the ever growing preponderance of the distinctively human attributes over the purely animal, social feelings being ranked highest among human attributes, and highest of all the most universalized phase of human affection, the devotion to humanity as a whole.
p. 4) that his object is to show that " ethics is as independent of metaphysical speculation for its principles and methods as any of the so-called ` natural sciences '; that its real basis must be sought not in philosophical theories about the nature of the Absolute or the ultimate constitution of the Universe, but in the empirical facts of human life as they are revealed to us in our concrete everyday experience of the world and mankind, and sifted and systematized by the sciences of psychology and sociology..
Green and Bradley and Taylor are the chief representatives, have dominated the field of ethical speculation since 1870.
And the widespread interest in social problems has produced a revival of speculation concerning questions partly political and party ethical in character, e.g.
interest in the theory of conduct likely to lead to fresh developments in ethical speculation.
Under these disadvantageous circumstances, it is scarcely surprising that the heliocentric theory, while admired as a daring speculation, won its way slowly to acceptance as a truth.
Kepler, on the contrary, was endowed with unlimited powers of speculation, but had no mechanical faculty.
In it he chiefly dwells upon the evidence from Scripture in favour of the belief that the soul retains its intelligent consciousness after its separation from the body - passing by questions of philosophical speculation, as tending on such a subject only to minister to an idle curiosity.
In these objections Gassendi's tendency towards the empirical school of speculation appears more pronounced than in any of his other writings.
Great as was the importance of these paradoxes of plurality and motion in stimulating speculation about space and time, their direct influence upon Greek thought was less considerable than that of another paradox - strangely neglected by historians of philosophy - the paradox of predication.
Nevertheless, he left an enduring mark upon Greek speculation, inasmuch as he not only recognized the need of a logic, and grappled, however unsuccessfully, with one of the most obvious of logical.
Man's craving to know " the reason why " is already " among rude savages an intellectual appetite," and " even to the Australian scientific speculation has its germ in actual experience."' How does he try to satisfy this craving ?
By reflection on dreams, in which the self, or " spirit," of the savage seems to wander free from the bounds of time and space, to see things remote, and to meet and recognize dead friends or foes; by speculation on the experiences of trance and of phantasms of the dead or living, beheld with waking eyes; by pondering on the phenomena of shadows, of breath, of death and life, the savage evolved the idea of a separable soul or spirit capable of surviving bodily death.
Among these the Maoris of New Zealand, and the Polynesian people generally, are remarkable for a mythology largely intermixed with early attempts at more philosophical speculation.
The system of Hesiod is a medley of later physical speculation and of poetic allegory, with matter which we, at least, regard as savage survivals, like the mutilation of Heaven and the swallowmyth.'
20), and his wife, on looking back, becomes one of those pillars of salt which still invite speculation.
The formations older than the mesozoic are remarkably unfossiliferous, so that the determination of their age is frequently a matter of speculation, and in the following table the European equivalents of the pre-Karroo formations in many regions must be regarded as subject to considerable revision.
Their chief claim to the notice of the historian of speculation comes from their warm reception of Greek philosophy when it had been banished from its original soil, and whilst western Europe was still too rude and ignorant to be its home (9th to 12th century).
Driven in the first instance to speculation in theology by the needs of their natural reason, they came, in after days, when Greek philosophy had been naturalized in the Caliphate, to adapt its methods and doctrines to the support of their views.
His failure is made obvious by the attack of Ghazali on the tendencies and results of speculation.
Whilst the native Spaniards were narrowing the limits of the Moorish kingdoms, and whilst the generally fanatical dynasty of the Almohades might have been expected to repress speculation, the century preceding the close of Mahommedan sway saw philosophy cultivated by Avempace, Abubacer and Averroes.
Arabian speculation in Spain was heralded by Avicebron or Ibn Gabirol, a Jewish philosopher (1021-1058).
Averroes, rejected by his Moslem countrymen, found a hearing among the Jews, to whom Maimonides had shown the free paths of Greek speculation.
Speculation fell on irreligious paths.
Metaphysical speculation on the relation of matter and mind has naturally led to a conviction of an underlying unity of all existence, and so to a metaphysical identification of God and the universe: when this identification proceeds to the length of expressing the universe as merely a mode or form of deity the result is pantheism (cf.
They treated the occupation of Spain as a financial speculation more than as a war for the faith.
With him speculation passed from the colonies of Greece to settle at Athens.
The conception of reason in the world passed from him to Aristotle, to whom it seemed the dawn of sober thought after a night of disordered dreams. From Aristotle it descended to his commentators, and under the influence of Averroes became the engrossing topic of speculation.
There had been much speculation as to what his post would be, and his nomination to the colonial office, then considered one of secondary rank, excited some surprise; but Mr Chamberlain himself realized how important that department had become.
Martensen gives even freer rein to speculation.
The edict was a well-intended but abortive attempt, in great measure in the interests of the soldiers, to meet the distress caused by several bad harvests and commercial speculation.
His master mind, soaring high, sees one vast connected whole, and, alive with enthusiasm, with smiling face and sparkling eye, he shows the panorama to his pupils, pointing out the similarities and differences of its parts, the boundaries of our knowledge, and the regions of doubt and speculation.
He continued to take part in the proceedings of various learned societies; and only a few months before his death, at the Leicester meeting of the British Association, he attested the keenness with which he followed the current developments of scientific speculation by delivering a long and searching address on the electronic theory of matter.
The discovery of Mount Bischoff one year later, though it greatly stimulated speculation and induced a large influx of immigrants, did not put a stop to the outflow, for in 1880 the population was still below 115,000.
He cared comparatively little for the history of speculation, but his acquaintance with books of science, general history, travels and belles lettres was boundless.
In this remarkable work Kant, proceeding from the Newtonian conception of the solar system, extends his consideration to the entire sidereal system, points out how the whole may be mechanically regarded, and throws out the important speculation which has since received the title of the nebular hypothesis.
Historians are accustomed to divide the general current of speculation into epochs or periods marked by the dominance of some single philosophic conception with its systematic evolution.
The great work of Kant absolutely closed the lines of speculation along which the philosophical literature of the 18th century had proceeded, and substituted for them a new and more comprehensive method of regarding the essential problems of thought, a method which has prescribed the course of philosophic speculation in the present age.
Of the two preceding stages of modern philosophy, only the second, that of Locke and Leibnitz, seems to have influenced practically the course of Kant's speculation.
The tendency towards what may be technically called subjectivism, a tendency which differentiates the modern from the ancient method of speculation, is expressed in Locke and Leibnitz in a definite and peculiar fashion.
Ethel Reagan ended the article with speculation about more widespread use of this psychic ability, if in fact it existed.
Aside from speculation, I haven't developed one crumb of information on this psychic, at least until maybe, now.
The speculation says he's heading back west.
All he needed was a nice brick wall to halt the nagging speculation Byrne might have skippedâ€”like a body or something equally definitive.
You should indulge in some plausible speculation.
abuzz with speculation, but it is clear that one of four couples is connected to the crime.
At any rate, I find the speculation more alarming than exciting.
Granted, this is only a crude analogy, but until you eliminate such possibilities, other suggestions are nothing more than speculation.
aware, nobody has studied the chemistry and there is speculation as to the reactions involved.
This increased speculation that the naturally combative former Liberal leader was determined to fight for his political career.
complainant s assertions about the events leading to the death of the twins was speculation, unsupported by any evidence.
The first vote by the papal conclave on Monday cannot come soon enough, if only to relieve the incessant speculation about frontrunners.
dampened speculation that Lynch might return his firm to the private sector.
It seems to me an obsolete speculation, but it implies no moral delinquency.
dismissed speculation linking the player with a move to Sheffield Wednesday.
endless speculation is possible about the role these fascinating stones played in the life of the Neolithic people.
Friend the Foreign Secretary were made after the particular document that has been the subject of some rather excitable media speculation this morning.
frenzy of speculation after it was placed anonymously in the Sunday Times last month.
groundless speculation our stock in trade.
heighten speculation that Crest remains a genuine bid target.
On the one hand, the german idealists ' fanciful speculation about Geist collapsed upon itself.
Of course the character could be entirely imaginary - in which case MacMillan would probably enjoy the speculation.
He added: " A prosecution case was based upon pure and wholly impermissible speculation.
improvident speculation has led to cases of defaulting and greatly damaged the reputation of the dhikuti.
mistletoe therapy belong to the realm of unfounded speculation.
The placeholder pH is added to the speculation degree of which evaluates the continuation of future.
Is it sheer speculation, pure poppycock, or something insightful?
prompted speculation of a possible takeover or of Marks taking the company private.
quashing speculation she may be pregnant.
realms of speculation, there is the question of a democratic mandate for any major change.
rely a great deal upon data collection, human judgment and speculation at each step of the animation process.
speculation on fansites.
speculation in the weekend press that private equity firm Permira were about to make a bid for the company.
The music from one slice of Johnny ' Hammond ' Smith is more fun than any of this idle speculation.
He may not believe even in God, may not ask what his soul is, nor think of any metaphysical speculation.
There has been no concrete interest from us, it's pure speculation.
Very high numbers of posts can result from rampant speculation, which may attract traders or repel contrarian investors.
And he went some way to quash the speculation that he is enjoying the top job too much to want to leave it behind.
Ian Moore's agent has dismissed speculation linking the player with a move to Sheffield Wednesday.
To quell speculation... I'm amazed - you people actually read these memes.
The surprise CPI figure has prompted industry speculation that the next Bank of England base rate move may be down instead of up.
The increase in rates in the US sparked speculation in markets across the rest of the globe.
He still owns 8 per cent of JJB, which is currently the subject of takeover speculation.
I would also want a Tobin tax levied on currency speculation viii.
There has been much publicity and media speculation concerning the changes in licensing law that come into force this week.
The DTI said it was aware of all the bid speculation.
The board has noted the recent press speculation on this subject.
I am sure there will be a great deal of media speculation about what happens next.
A tame reading on consumer prices tomorrow may reinforce speculation the central bank will keep borrowing costs steady through the start of next year.
The natural species from which modern garden tulips were derived are still a matter for speculation.
unfounded speculation " .
There has been speculation that Blair is somewhat unhinged.
The meaning of the term "Pelasgian" is, however, too obscure to furnish a basis for ethnographical speculation; in the time of Herodotus it may have already come to denote a period rather than a race.
We see it in Huxley, and still more in Haeckel, whose materialism (which he chooses to term "monism") is evidently conditioned by ignorance of the history and present position of speculation.
In 1877 Grant was appointed principal of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, which through his exertions and influence expanded from a small denominational college into a large and influential educational centre; and he attracted to it an exceptionally able body of professors whose influence in speculation and research was widely felt during the quarter of a century that he remained at its head.
In physics - but in that region of speculation its positions are more perfunctory - it teaches pantheism on a quasi-materialistic basis.
This modern doctrine of evolution is but an expansion and completion of those physical theories (see below) which opened the history of speculation.
We must content ourselves by referring to the progress of physical (including chemical) theory, which has led to the great generalization of the conservation of energy; to the discovery of the fundamental chemical identity of the matter of our planet and of other celestial bodies, and of the chemical relations of organic and inorganic bodies; to the advance of astronomical speculation respecting the origin of the solar system, &c.; to the growth of the science of geology which has necessitated the conception of vast and unimaginable periods of time in the past history of our globe, and to the rapid march of the biological sciences which has made us familiar with the simplest types and elements of organism; finally, to the development of the science of anthropology (including comparative psychology, philology, &c.), and to the vast extension and improvement of all branches of historical study.
On the other hand, nearly all systems of philosophy have discussed the underlying problems. Such questions as the origin of the cosmos as a whole, the production of organic beings and of conscious minds, and the meaning of the observable grades of creation, have from the dawn of speculation occupied men's minds; and the answers to these questions often imply a vague recognition of the idea of a gradual evolution of things.
Here we are first struck by th Ã‚° results of advancing physical speculation in their bearing on the conception of the world.
It might suffice to single out the influence of Auguste Comte, as the last great thinker who wrote before Darwinism began to permeate philosophic speculation.
The prosecution of such inquiries is beginning to make unnecessary much ingenious speculation of a kind that was prominent from r880 to 'goo; much futile effort has been wasted in the endeavour to find on Darwinian principles special " selection-values " for phenomena the universality of which places them outside the possibility of having relations with the particular conditions of particular organisms. On the other hand, many of those who have been specially successful in grouping diverse phenomena under empirical generalizations have erred logically in posing their generalizations against such a vera causa as the preservation of favoured individuals and races.
18); his repeated emphasis on Christ, as supreme over all things, over men and angels, agent in creation as well as in redemption, in whom dwelt bodily the fulness of the Godhead; and his constant stress upon knowledge, - all these combine to reveal a speculation real and dangerous, even if naive and regardless of consequences, and to suggest (with Julicher and McGiffert) that in addition to Jewish influence there is also the direct influence of Oriental mysticism.
Quite apart from the difficulties created by the Tubingen theory, legitimate difficulties were found in the style of the letter, in the speculation of the errorists, and in the theology of the author.
This school is first observable under the rule of Peisistratus at Athens in the 6th century B.C. Its doctrines are founded on two elements: the Thraco-Phrygian religion of Dionysus with its enthusiastic orgies, its mysteries and its purifications, and the tendency to philosophic speculation on the nature and mutual relations of the numerous gods, developed at this time by intercourse with Egypt and the East, and by the quickened intercourse between different tribes and different religions in Greece itself.
But if we accept either view we have still to examine the process of construction in detail, with a view to ascertaining the stages by which proteid is built up. Here unfortunately we find ourselves in the region of speculation and hypothesis rather than in that of fact.
In the course of the 19th century the idea that the different elements are constituted by different groupings or condensations of one primal matter - a speculation which, if proved to be well grounded, would imply the possibility of changing one element into another - found favour with more than one responsible chemist; but experimental research failed to yield any evidence that was generally regarded as offering any support to this hypothesis.
And, since it had been suppressed, not, as in the East, by mystical speculation, its mightiest antagonist, but by the political church of the hierarchy, we find that wherever chiliasm appears in the middle ages it makes common cause with all enemies of the secularized church.
In 218, as a leader of the democratic opposition, Flaminius was one of the chief promoters of the measure brought in by the tribune Quintus Claudius, which prohibited senators and senators' sons from possessing sea-going vessels, except for the transport of the produce of their own estates, and generally debarred them from all commercial speculation (Livy xxi.
EKX yw, I select), a term used specially in philosophy and theology for a composite system of thought made up of views borrowed from various other systems. Where the characteristic doctrines of a philosophy are not thus merely adopted, but are the modified products of a blending of the systems from which it takes its rise, the philosophy is not properly eclectic. Eclecticism always tends to spring up after a period of vigorous constructive speculation, especially in the later stages of a controversy between thinkers of pre-eminent ability.
These schools became the centres of medieval learning and speculation, and from them the name Scholasticism is derived (cf.
In speaking of the origin of Scholasticism - name and thing - it has been already noted that medieval speculation takes its rise in certain logical problems. To be more precise, central theme of Scholastic debate (see Nominalism, Realism).
While Germany and Scotland, as the chief homes of abstract speculation, gave birth to most of the theories, progress in objective science was most marked in other countries - in Italy first, and afterwards in England and France.
Croce has elaborated the various philosophic sciences in treating of the various theories to which they give rise, and he has completed the doctrines with their history, either, as in the case of the Aesthetic, with a masterly historical survey of previous speculation on the subject, or in a more modest form in appendices.
There is at least one biological speculation of astounding audacity, that could be examined in nothing less than a treatise.
In spite of the perpetuation of all the old abuses and the continual appearance of new devices for increasing the papal revenue; in spite of the jealousy of kings and princes, the attacks of legists and the preaching of the heretics; in spite of seventy years of exile from the holy city, forty years of distracting schism and discord, and thirty years of conflict with stately oecumenical councils deliberating in the name of the Holy Spirit and intent upon permanently limiting the papal prerogatives; in spite of the unworthy conduct of some of those who ascended the papal throne, their flagrant political ambitions, and their greed; in spite of the spread of knowledge, old and new, the development of historical criticism, and philosophical speculation; in spite, in short, of every danger which could threaten the papal monarchy, it was still intact when Leo X.
In this respect Descartes' dictum - cogito ergo sum - may be said to have struck the keynote of modern philosophy, and all subsequent speculation to have been merely a prolonged commentary upon it.
Mr Roosevelt and his supporters were convinced that his policy was necessary to save the country from the social and political dangers of plutocracy, and that in establishing a definite system of government regulation not only were popular rights preserved and justice promoted but industrialism and finance were placed upon a basis of regularity and honesty that paved the way for an era of general prosperity in the United States, unhampered by feverish speculation and shrewd scheming, such as the country had so far in its history been unable to enjoy.
At first the influence of German thought, German enlightenment and idealism was apparent, particularly in Kollar (a Slovak); the influence of Kant was seen in Palacky, that of Hegel and post-Kantian speculation in Aug.
Belote, The Scioto Speculation and the French Settlement at Gallipolis (Cincinnati, 1907), series 2, vol.
When the first storm of opposition from smaller men had begun to die down, thinkers of real weight, beginning with Cumberland and Cudworth, were moved by their aversion to his analysis of the moral nature of man to probe anew the question of the natural springs and the rational grounds of human action; and thus it may be said that Hobbes gave the first impulse to the whole of that movement of ethical speculation that, in modern times, has been carried on with such remarkable continuity in England.
And the light that later writers bring to bear on Kant's logic and epistemology from other sides of his speculation varies in kind and in degree.
He indulged in a great deal of speculation as to the existence of an extra-spatial unit, which was to furnish the raison d'etre of the numerical part, and render the quaternion homogeneous as well as linear.
Their perpetual meddling in politics, and even in speculation and finance, stank in the nostrils of every government in Europe; while their high-handedness and corporate greed in the matter of ecclesiastical privileges and patronage alienated the clergy.
In view of the evidence for the advanced culture of early Arabia, the question of Edom is extremely suggestive, and although speculation at this stage would be premature, it is interesting to observe that Edomite and allied tribes were famed for their wisdom,' and that apart from the possibility of Arabian influence upon Israelite culture, the influence of Midian and related tribes is certain from the traditions of Moses and of his work (see Jethro; Kenites; Moses), and the Edomite district was a traditional home of Yahweh himself (Deut.
Preoccupied with his own ideas, he chafed under the indifference of thinkers who had grown blasÃ© in speculation and fancied himself persecuted by a conspiracy of professors of philosophy.
Small and slight in person and never robust in health, Robertson Smith was yet a man of ceaseless and fiery energy; of an intellect extraordinarily alert and quick, and as sagacious in practical matters as it was keen and piercing in speculation; of an erudition astonishing both in its range and in its readiness; of a temper susceptible of the highest enthusiasm for worthy ends, and able to inspire others with its own ardour; endowed with the warmest affections, and with the kindest and most generous disposition, but impatient of stupidity and ready to blaze out at whatever savoured of wrong and injustice.
It was intended as a defence against the great tide of deistical speculation (see Deism), which in the apprehension of many good men seemed likely to sweep away the restraints of religion and make way for a general reign of licence.
Lessing set about the translation and annotation of it, and Moses Mendelssohn borrowed from Burke's speculation at least one of the most fruitful and important ideas of his own influential theories on the sentiments.
Nor did they merely mean by pleasure (i/Sovi) the gratification of bodily appetite; we find (e.g.)Chrysippus urging, as a decisive argument against Aristotle, that pure speculation was " a kind of amusement; that is, pleasure."
And, under the influence of Mahommedan Aristotelianism, the same paralysing speculation found entrance among the learned Jews of Spain (see Maimonides).
It was not, however, like the Danish War, a national danger, but a political speculation meant to be remunerative and compensatory, and was concluded very advantageously for Sweden by the peace of Stolbova on the 27th of February 1617 (see Sweden: History).
Bear in mind, tho, that this is pure speculation.
She tackled that other rumor with an emphatic " no ", quashing speculation she may be pregnant.
But coming out of the realms of speculation, there is the question of a democratic mandate for any major change.
Computer animations in particular rely a great deal upon data collection, human judgment and speculation at each step of the animation process.
Current and unconfirmed speculation has been misplacing the blame on Google 's ' sandbox ' effect.
But maybe they will - I am sure that the source of many of their stories is idle speculation on fansites.
That statement followed speculation in the weekend press that private equity firm Permira were about to make a bid for the company.
There has been no concrete interest from us, it 's pure speculation.
To quell speculation... I 'm amazed - you people actually read these memes.
However, the state attorney general has said those claims are " baseless " and founded on " conjecture and unfounded speculation ".
Tawdry tabloid speculation implied that there was something very unseemly about a gay director and a young boy.
The actor's ambiguously defined sexuality was the subject of much speculation, but he refused to comment on his private romantic relationships.
Determining gender before birth is another popular way, and while fraternals can be any gender combination, having a boy and a girl makes fraternal twin speculation concrete.
Whether the leaked sale ads are from the retailers themselves or from third parties is speculation.
Media speculation tied Mary-Kate to Health Ledger after his 2008 death at his rented New York apartment.
Alba has also frequently been frustrated by speculation over her racial heritage.
First there was speculation that Al's preference is for men and their marriage is one of convenience, which, of course, Jones-Reynolds categorically denies.
The drumbeat of media speculation is growing ever louder that Bruce Springsteen and his band mate and wife of 15 years, Patti Scialfa, are headed for divorce.
Jessica has been linked with several other young male stars, but apparently it was only speculation.
This speculation is unconfirmed, however.
There is speculation, however, about whether it is official -- a British media lawyer said on The Early Show this morning that he doubted the document's authenticity.
Since both had started their careers with clean-cut images, there was much speculation about Spears' virginity and their sex life in general.
While CBS has not confirmed the contestants of The Amazing Race All-Stars, there is much speculation on the Internet.
There is speculation that Jon changed his last name from Leibowitz to Stewart (a slightly different spelling of his middle name) because of his fractured relationship with his father.
Despite all of the speculation surrounding her love life, Aniston has been able to parlay her television success into a bankable film career.
Her most recent brush with tabloid gossip was over her rumored relationship with Justin Timberlake after appearing in his music video, What Goes Around… The speculation came on the heels of Timberlake's breakup with Cameron Diaz.
After rumors began to circulate that Lohan would be entering rehab, her rep confirmed the speculation, saying, "Lindsay admitted herself to an intensive medical rehabilitation facility on Memorial Day.
Following several weeks of speculation in the press, Academy Award-winning actress Halle Berry has confirmed that she and her boyfriend, Canadian model and restaurateur Gabriel Aubry, are excitedly awaiting a bundle of joy.
Rumors immediately began to surface, including speculation that Woods and his wife, Elin Nordegren, had been arguing before the crash.
While a celebrity death isn't a scandal on its own, the speculation and rumors that followed this tragedy were certainly scandalous in nature.
The couple denied any breakup rumors, although there was speculation about whether a breakup could lead Pollard to do a third season of the hit reality series.
Of course, as with all celebrity couple break-ups, you can be sure that there will be speculation as to why the two parted ways.
Ratings for the once CBS darling have been declining for years and there is speculation that the 20th season will be its last.
This was followed by speculation that Kate Gosselin was sleeping with her bodyguard.
Almost immediately after the "King of Pop's" passing, speculation arose regarding the true amount of his indebtedness.
When the issue of Jackson's life insurance policy arose, there was much speculation that it would not be paid out because the multi-million dollar policy excluded "illicit drug use."
As no surprise, some speculate the constant media speculation on their relationship was a factor in the break up as Vince has said on numerous occasions that he likes to "…keep his relationships quiet."
Bruce Lee - Official reports list a cerebral edema as the cause of the coma Lee suffered, but speculation ran rampant after his death in 1973 that the martial arts master was the victim of foul play.
Of course, speculation ran rampant over what this could mean.
No one knows for sure why they hang on to their habits except the celebrities themselves, but there's some room for speculation.
So the speculation that she will not attend the wedding because she won't be able to sit with Andrew and her daughters is complete nonsense.
Although speculation about reconciliation swirled, news emerged that the couple were together to spend time with their children.
Dissertations often involve observational studies in addition to academic work and speculation on long-term application.
There's some speculation that their superior sense of smell actually allows them to smell the change in a pregnant woman's body chemistry.
This somewhat mysterious subject has always been on the forefront of speculation.
While there is little factual information available about the upcoming park, speculation is rampant among Harry Potter fans about what the park may offer.
Speculation has it that it won't be seeing any competition from its rivals for a number of months yet, perhaps not until near the end of 2006!
With the upcoming Nintendo Revolution console with it's innovative control mechanism, fans have already begun speculation as to what Mario Kart will be like on the new platform.
Yes, everything below is to be taken as speculation, not facts.
At this point, these are all just speculation; none have been confirmed.
The gaming world was abuzz with rumours and speculation about Nintendo's next generation machine well before its release.
There's a lot of speculation about what Sony will do to compete with Microsoft's fully-featured Xbox Live internet multiplayer-matching system.
Speculation was that, as usual, the French and Italians build them to mature later (questionable marketing for us Yanks...).
The speculation is that a wild grape crossed with cultivated grapes, or that the two strains of grapes crossed accidentally, producing a hardy, disease-resistant grape vine that produced excellent deep purple grapes suited for wine making.
If Apple releases a 4G phone in the future, there is speculation about whether they will actually release it on a 4G network.
Whether this was done by Microsoft intentionally to generate buzz for the project is speculation.
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