How to use Specific gravity in a sentence
Its specific gravity of 4.5 is about twice as great as that of salt and of many other colourless, transparent and glassy minerals not unlike barytes in general appearance.
The " cracking " process, whereby a considerable quantity of the oil which is intermediate between kerosene and lubricating oil is converted into hydrocarbons of lower specific gravity and boiling-point suitable for illuminating purposes, is one of great scientific and technical interest.
To illuminating oil or kerosene a series of tests is applied in order that the colour, odour, specific gravity and flash-point or fire-test may be recorded.
In the testing of mineral lubricating oils the viscosity, flash-point, cold-test," and specific gravity are the characters of chief importance.
All obsidians have a low specific gravity (about 2.4) both because they are acid rocks and because they are non-crystalline.Advertisement
Its specific gravity is about 9; it is sparingly soluble in water, but readily dissolves in acids and molten alkalis.
Red lead or triplumbic tetroxide, Pb304, is a scarlet crystalline powder of specific gravity 8.6-9.1, obtained by roasting very finely divided pure massicot or lead carbonate; the brightness of the colour depends in a great measure on the roasting.
Its specific gravity is 0.8009 (o C.).
The mass is now systematically extracted with water, and a solution of aluminium sulphate of specific gravity 1.16 is prepared.
This solution is allowed to stand for some time (in order that any calcium sulphate and basic ferric sulphate may separate), and is then evaporated until ferrous sulphate crystallizes on cooling; it is then drawn off and evaporated until it attains a specific gravity of 1.40.Advertisement
As obtained by the reduction of the chloride, it is a steel grey powder of specific gravity 7 06.
Of the impurities of the ore the wolframite (tungstate of iron and manganese) is the most troublesome, because on account of its high specific gravity it cannot be washed away as gangue.
The specific gravity of cast tin is 7.29, of rolled tin 7.299, and of electrically deposited tin 7.143 to 7.178.
Dropsical liquids are usually pale yellow or greenish, limpid, with a saltish taste and alkaline reaction, and a specific gravity ranging from 1005 to 1024.
The specific gravity of the amorphous form is 2.35 (Vigouroux), that of the crystalline variety varying, according to the method of preparation, from 2.004 to 2.493.Advertisement
In former times a high specific gravity used to be quoted as one of the characters of the genus; but this no longer holds, since we now know a series of metals lighter than water.
Thus, for instance, chemically pure iron in the ingot has the specific gravity 7.844; when it is rolled out into thin sheet, the value falls to 7.6; when drawn into thin wire, to 7.75.
It is used to determine the density of a body experimentally; for if W is the weight of a body weighed in a balance in air (strictly in vacuo), and if W' is the weight required to balance when the body is suspended in water, then the upward thrust of the liquid (I) (2) "F r an Minim ' 'i n or weight of liquid displaced is W-W, so that the specific gravity (S.G.), defined as the ratio of the weight of a body to the weight of an equal volume of water, is W/(W-W').
Since the specific gravity of hot liquor is less than that of cold liquor, and since the specific gravity of the scum and particles of.
The pans are provided with steam worms to keep the mass hot as required, and with mechanical stirrers to keep it in movement and thoroughly mixed with the water and sweet water which are added to the sugar to obtain a solution of the specific gravity desired.Advertisement
The hardness is 2, and the specific gravity 2 I.
The specific gravity of zinc cannot be expected to be perfectly constant; according to Karsten, that of pure ingot is 6.915, and rises to 7.191 after rolling.
The product has a brilliant white fracture, a specific gravity of 4.87, very friable, but harder than quartz or steel.
The pure salt is dissolved in hot water and decomposed with ammonia to produce a slightly ammoniacal hydrated oxide; this, when ignited in platinum, leaves pure TiO 2 in the form of brownish lumps, the specific gravity of which varies from 3.9 to 4.25, according to the temperature at which it was kept in igniting.
It is a silver-white ductile metal (of specific gravity 2.54) which melts at 8000.Advertisement
The quantity of alcohol present in an aqueous solution is determined by a comparison of its specific gravity with standard tables, or directly by the use of an alcoholometer, which is a hydrometer graduated so as to read per cents by weight (degrees according to Richter) or volume per cents (degrees according to Tralles).
The specific gravity of gold obtained by precipitation from solution by ferrous sulphate is from 19.55 to 20.72.
The specific gravity of cast gold varies from 18.29 to 19.37, and by compression between dies the specific gravity may be raised from 19.37 to 19.41; by annealing, however, the previous density is to some extent recovered, as it is then found to be 19.40.
According to Chenevix, the alloy composed of equal parts of the two metals is grey, is less ductile than its constituent metals and has the specific gravity i i.
The operation may be conducted in vessels of glass or platinum, and each pound of granulated metal is treated with a pound and a quarter of nitric acid of specific gravity 1.32.Advertisement
When not tarnished, the mineral has a silver-white colour with a tinge of red, and the lustre is metallic. Hardness 2-21; specific gravity 9-70-9.83.
The slight variations in specific gravity are due to the presence of small amounts of arsenic, sulphur or tellurium, or to enclosed impurities.
The specific gravity bottle may be used to determine the relative density of a solid which is available in small fragments, and is insoluble in the standard liquid.
Hence W/(W - W,) is the relative density or specific gravity of the body.
Tellurium is a brittle silvery-white element of specific gravity 6.27.Advertisement
An amor phous form is obtained when tellurium is precipitated from its solutions by sulphur dioxide, this variety having a specific gravity 6.015.
Besides the determination of salinity by titration of the chlorides, the method of determination by the specific gravity of the sea-water is still often used.
In the laboratory the specific gravity is determined in a pyknometer by actual weighing, and on board ship by the use of an areometer or hydrometer.
Buchanan, which has an arbitrary scale and can be varied in weight by placing small metal rings on the stem so as to depress the scale to any desired depth in sea-water of any salinity, the specific gravity being calculated for each reading by dividing the total weight by the immersed volume; (3) the total immersion areometer, which has no scale and the weight of which can be adjusted so that the instrument can be brought so exactly to the specific gravity of the water sample that it remains immersed, neither floating nor sinking; this has the advantage of 'eliminating the effects of surface tension and in Fridtjof Nansen's pattern is capable of great precision.
In all areometer work it is necessary to ascertain the temperature of the water sample under examination with great exactness, as the volume of the areometer as well as the specific gravity of the water varies with temperature.Advertisement
Sorensen, carried out a careful investigation of the relation between the amount of chlorine, the total salinity and the specific gravity of sea-water of different strengths including an entirely new determination of the thermal expansion of sea-water.
The temperature of maximum density of sea-water of any specific gravity was found by Knudsen to be given with sufficient accuracy for all practical purposes by the formula 0 = 3.950.2660 -0, where 0 is the temperature of maximum density in degrees centigrade.
In other words, water which has a specific gravity of 1 0280 at the surface would at the same temperature have a specific gravity of 1 0450 at 2000 and I 0540 at 3000 fathoms. If the whole mass of water in the ocean were relieved from pressure its volume would expand from 319 million cub.
As a rule, the density increases with the amount of carbon, but in some instances a very high specific gravity is due to intermixed earthy matters, which are always denser than even the densest form of coal substance.
The specific gravity is low when not brought up by an excessive amount of earthy matter.Advertisement
The hardness is 51-6, and the specific gravity 5.9-6.2.
Its specific gravity is 21.3-22.48 (Deville and Debray) and its specific heat is 0.03113 (Regnault).
The crystals look like antimony, and are brittle, and so hard as to scratch glass and rubies; their specific gravity is 4.25.
Its specific gravity is 1 54, and after remelting 1 56; after distillation it is 1.52.
Fluorine is a pale greenish-yellow gas with a very sharp smell; its specific gravity is 1.265.Advertisement
The specific gravity of milk ordinarily ranges from i 029 to 1.033, very seldom reaching 1 035 or falling so low as 1.027.
The specific gravity is 2.2, that of diamond is 3.5.
It is a colourless, odourless gas of specific gravity 0.967 (air = I).
Its specific gravity is 1.529 (air = I).
For the sulphate of copper solution, take 16.5 parts by weight of pure crystals of copper sulphate (CuSO 4 50H 2) and dissolve in 83.5 parts by weight of water; the resulting solution should have a specific gravity of 1.
Its specific gravity is o 865; hence it is the lightest metal known except lithium.
The latter begin to oxidize before the ley has come up to the traditional strength of specific gravity 1.333 when cold, while nickel is not attacked so long as the percentage of real KHO is short of 60.
An important character, and one by which the mineral may always be recognized, is the perfect cubical cleavage, on which the lustre is brilliant and metallic. The colour of the mineral and of its streak is lead-grey; it is opaque; the hardness is 2 2 and the specific gravity 7.5.
The oil has been chemically analysed and found to be a fish-oil, and to possess nearly all the qualities of that obtained from the liver of the cod, with a lighter specific gravity.
In comparing the densities of different liquids, it is clear that this instrument is precisely equivalent to that of Fahrenheit, and must be employed in the same manner, weights being placed in the top scale only until the hydrometer sinks to the mark on the wire, when the specific gravity of the liquid will be proportional to the weight of the instrument together with the weights in the scale.
Without the extra 5 grammes the instrument weighs about 20 grammes, and therefore floats in a liquid of specific gravity 8.
The specific gravity of any sample of spirits thus determined, when multiplied by ten, gives the weight in pounds per imperial gallon, and the weight of any bulk of spirits divided by this number gives its volume at once in imperial gallons.
The scale is so arranged that the reading multiplied by 5 and added to 1000 gives the specific gravity with reference to water as 1000.
Wohler reduced the sesquioxide by zinc, and obtained a shining green powder of specific gravity 6.81, which tarnished in air and dissolved in hydrochloric acid and warm dilute sulphuric acid, but was unacted upon by concentrated nitric acid.
In the amorphous state it is a dull green, almost infusible powder, but as obtained from chromium oxychloride it is deposited in the form of dark green hexagonal crystals of specific gravity 5 2.
Its hardness is rather above 5, and its specific gravity varies from 3.5 to 4.
Its specific gravity is 96, a little less than that of water, and it dissolves freely in alcohol, ether and glacial acetic acid.
Its hardness is about 6, and its specific gravity 4 9 to 5.2, being rather more than that of marcasite.
Its specific gravity is 5.2, and its hardness 5.5 to 6.5.
Its specific gravity is 5.3 and its hardness 5.5 to 6.5.
Its streak is yellowish-black, its specific gravity 3.6 to 4.0, and its hardness 5 to 5.5.
Its specific gravity is 3.7 to 3.9, and its hardness 3.5 to 4.5.
Its specific gravity is 4.83 to 5.2, its hardness 6 to 6.5.
The specific gravity ranges from 3.56 to 3.50, generally about 3.52.
The electrical resistance is about that of ordinary glass, and is diminished by one-half during exposure by Rntgen rays; the dielectric constant (16) is greater than that which should correspond to the specific gravity.
In the northern section, which receives the copious volumes brought down by the Volga, Ural and Terek, the salinity is so slight (only 0.0075% in the surface layers) that the water is quite drinkable, its specific gravity being not higher than 1.0016.
The specific gravity is 40, and the hardness 4.
It is a malleable metal, of specific gravity 1.64 (Nilson and Pettersson) and a specific heat of 0.4079.
It is rather softer and less dense than crystallized quartz, its hardness being about 6.5 and its specific gravity 2.6, the difference being probably due to the presence of a small amount of opaline silica between the fibres.
Primarily but a slight deposit is formed (none until the concentration arrives at specific gravity 1.0509), this deposit consisting for the most part of calcium carbonate and ferric oxide.
This goes on till a density of 1.1315 is attained, when hydrated calcium sulphate begins to deposit, and continues till specific gravity 1.2646 is reached.
At specific gravity 1.2461 a Up to the time then that the water became concentrated to specific gravity 1.218 only 0.150 of deposit had formed, and that chiefly composed of lime and iron, but between specific gravity I 218 and 1.313 there is deposited a mixture of Of this about 95% is sodium chloride.
The mother-liquor now falls to a specific gravity of 1.3082 to 1.2965, and yields a very mixed deposit of magnesium bromide and chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium sulphate, with the double magnesium and potassium sulphate, corresponding to the kainite of Stassfurt.
There is also deposited a double magnesium and potassium chloride, similar to the carnallite of Stassfurt, and finally the mother-liquor, which has now again risen to specific gravity 1.3374, contains only pure magnesium chloride.
Its specific gravity is 11.86.
The specific gravity of this "horn" thallium is 7.02.
It is a dark coloured powder of specific gravity 5.09.
One general conclusion arrived at both by Bauschinger and Johnson was that the strength is much affected by the specific gravity of the timber.
The metal has somewhat the appearance of iron, and has a specific gravity of 6.628, which, after melting, is increased to 6.728.
Its specific gravity is 6.739, and its specific heat 0.0877.
It is a red infusible mass of specific gravity 5.1, and is slowly decomposed by warm water.
It is a white powder of specific gravity 3.912, easily soluble in cold water.
Its specific gravity varies according to the method employed for its preparation, the extreme values being 8.279 and 9.25.
Erdmann, again, has invented an induction from particular predicates to a totality of predicates which he calls " erganzende Induction, " giving as an example, " This body has the colour, extensibility and specific gravity of magnesium; therefore it is magnesium."
The colour is iron-black and the lustre metallic; hardness 6, specific gravity 5.2.
The upper stratum is struck at a depth of 600 to 700 ft., and yields a natural liquid fuel of heavy specific gravity.
He determined the specific gravity of these gases with reference to common air, investigated the extent to which they are absorbed by various liquids, and noted that common air containing one part in nine by volume of fixed air is no longer able to support combustion, and that the air produced by fermentation and putrefaction has properties identical with those of fixed air obtained from marble.
Ordinary commercial copper is somewhat porous and has a specific gravity ranging from 8.2 to 8.5.
The chloride crystallizes in colourless rhombic tables of specific gravity 3.9 and is readily soluble in water, but is almost insoluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid and in absolute alcohol.
Barium carbonate, BaCO 31 occurs rather widely distributed as witherite, and may be prepared by the addition of barium chloride to a hot solution of ammonium carbonate, when it is precipitated as a dense white powder of specific gravity 4.3; almost insoluble in water.
The same hydrate can be prepared by dissolving borax in water until the solution has a specific gravity of 1.246 and then allowing the solution to cool.
Similar phenomena are exhibited in the electrolysis of solutions of antimony tribromide and tri-iodide, the product obtained from the tribromide having a specific gravity of 5.4, and containing 18-20% of antimony tribromide, whilst that from the tri-iodide has a specific gravity of 5.2-5.8 and contains about 22% of hydriodic acid and antimony tri-iodide.
It is a nonvolatile white powder, and has a specific gravity of 6.6952; it is insoluble in water and almost so in acids - concentrated hydrochloric acid dissolving a small quantity.
It is a pale yellow powder (of specific gravity 6.5), which on being heated strongly gives up oxygen and forms the tetroxide.
Its specific gravity is about 3.2.
The specific gravity of the syrup should be 1'33.
The hardness of the crystallized haematite is about 6, and the specific gravity 5.2.
The specific gravity of selenium is 4.8; the specific heat varies from 0.0716 to 0.1147, depending upon the particular form.
Its specific gravity is 3.18828 (r), latent heat of fusion 16.185 calories, latent heat of vaporization 45.6 calories, specific heat 0.1071.
It is infusible before the gas blowpipe, but in the oxyhydrogen flame fuses to a clear colourless glass, which has a hardness of 5 and specific gravity 2.2.
It follows from this that the acid collecting at the bottom of the chambers must never exceed a certain concentration, say 70%, H2S04 having a specific gravity of 1.615, but it is preferable to make it only 66 to 67%, having a specific gravity of 1.57 to 1.58.
On the other hand, it should never go down below 60% H 2 SO 4, equivalent to a specific gravity of 1.50.
This fact is probably due partly to the actual intrusion of warm water from the Mascarene current east of Madagascar, and partly to the circumstance that the different temperatures of the waters are so compensated by their differences of salinity that they have almost precisely the same specific gravity in situ.
The lower the temperature, the smaller will be the volume of gas produced, and the lighter the specific gravity of the tar, whilst with increase of temperature, the volume of gas rapidly rises, and so does the specific gravity of the tar.
Vanadium is a light-coloured metal of specific gravity 5.5.
Its specific gravity is 2.6 or only a little less than that of crystalline quartz.
The hardness is 3.5 and the specific gravity 5'63-5'73.
The tri-iodide, AsI3 prepared by subliming arsenic and iodine together in a retort, by leading arsine into an alcoholic iodine solution, or by boiling powdered arsenic and iodine with water, filtering and evaporating, forms brick-red hexagonal tables, of specific gravity 4.39, soluble in alcohol, ether and benzene, and in a large excess of water; in the presence of a small quantity of water, it is decomposed with formation of hydriodic acid and an insoluble basic salt of the composition 4AsOI.
Its specific gravity is 3.7; it is only slightly soluble in cold water, but is more soluble in hot water, the solution reacting faintly acid.
Its specific gravity is 4.15.
Realgar occurs native in orange prisms of specific gravity 3.5; it is prepared artificially by fusing together arsenic and sulphur, but the resulting products vary somewhat in composition; it is readily fusible and sublimes unchanged, and burns on heating in a current of oxygen, forming arsenic trioxide and sulphur dioxide.
The hardness is 31 and the specific gravity 3.7.
It forms large triclinic prisms of specific gravity 2.6-2.7, which are moderately soluble in cold water and readily soluble in hot water.
The trichromates are obtained by the addition of nitric acid (of specific gravity about 1.2) to solutions of the bichromates.
The lowest specific gravity is owned by the oils belonging to the rape oil group - from 0.913 to 0.916.
The high specific gravity, 0.970, is owned by castor oil and cacao butter, and the highest specific gravity observed hitherto, o-975, by Japan wax and myrtle wax.
In specific gravity the essential oils range from o 850 to 1.142; the majority are, however, specifically lighter than water.
On standing, the distillate separates into two layers, an aqueous and an oily layer, the oil floating on or sinking through the water according to its specific gravity.
The colour, the boiling-point, the specific gravity and solubility in alcohol serve as most valuable adjuncts in the examination with a view to form an estimate of the genuineness and value of a sample.
Gum senegal, a variety of gum arabic produced by Acacia Verek, occurs in pieces generally rounded, of the size of a pigeon's egg, and of a reddish or yellow colour, and specific gravity 1.436.
Its specific gravity is 1.384.
Its specific gravity is 1 36.
Slightly brackish water would perhaps be the ideal, with the specific gravity maintained around the 1.005 mark.
The specific gravity of each batch in the stock solution should be checked at least weekly by designated staff with a calibrated hydrometer.
I have a small pipet with five balls in it designed for measuring specific gravity.
Placer cassiterite is free of deleterious minerals and is easy to recover having a high specific gravity.
Once a week I check specific gravity and add some filtered tap water if necessary.
It is a brittle metal of specific gravity 22 .
The specific gravity is 2.6.
Pure amorphous boron is a chestnut-coloured powder of specific gravity 2.45; it sublimes in the electric arc, is totally unaffected by air at ordinary temperatures, and burns on strong ignition with production of the oxide B 2 0 3 and the nitride BN.
The hardness is 22 and the specific gravity 2.8.
In the case of the Gulf Stream, which is not much impeded by the land, this descending motion is relatively slight, being perhaps largely due to the greater specific gravity of the water; it ceases to be perceptible beyond about 500 fathoms. On the European-African side the descending movement is more marked, partly because the coast-line is much more irregular and the northward current is deflected against it by the earth's rotation, and partly because of the outflow of salt water from the Mediterranean; here the movement is traceable to at least 1000 fathoms. The northward movement of water across the Norwegian Sea extends down from the surface to the IcelandShetland ridge, where it is sharply cut off; the lower levels of the Norwegian Sea are filled with ice-cold Arctic water, close down to the ridge.
Cadmium oxide, CdO, is a brown powder of specific gravity 6.5, which can be prepared by heating the metal in air or in oxygen; or by ignition of the nitrate or carbonate; by heating the metal to a white heat in a current of oxygen it is obtained as a dark red crystalline sublimate.
As in the analogous swim-bladder of fishes, the gas in the pneumatophore can be secreted or absorbed, whereby the specific gravity of the body can be diminished or increased, so as to cause it to float nearer the surface or at a deeper level.
It forms a grey coloured powder of specific gravity 9.01; it is malleable, and not as hard as glass.
The action of colchicum or colchicine upon the kidneys has been minutely studied, and it is asserted on the one hand that the urinary solids are much diminished and, on the other hand, that they are markedly increased, the specific gravity of the secretion being much raised.
Such sheet or wire then remains flexible after cooling, the originally only loosely cohering crystals having got intertwisted and forced into absolute contact with one another - an explanation supported by the fact that rolled zinc has a somewhat higher specific gravity (7.2) than the original ingot (6.9).
The specific gravity is highest in anthracite and lowest in lignite, bituminous coals giving intermediate values (see Table I.).
The hardness (6-62) is the same as that of pyrites, and the specific gravity (4.8-4.9) as a rule rather less.
The electrical resistance is about that of ordinary glass, and is diminished by one-half during exposure by RÃ¶ntgen rays; the dielectric constant (16) is greater than that which should correspond to the specific gravity.
The preface treats of Greek sciences, geometry, the discovery of specific gravity by Archimedes, and other discoveries of the Greeks, and of Romans of his time who have vied with the Greeks -- Lucretius in his poem De Rerum Natura, Cicero in rhetoric, and Varro in philology, as shown by his De Lingua Latina.
It will have, when freshly burned, a specific gravity not lower than 3.15, and briquettes made from it and kept in water will possess a tensile strength of 400-500 lb per sq.
Barium sulphate, BaSO 4, is the most abundant of the naturally occurring barium compounds (see Barytes) and can be obtained artificially by the addition of sulphuric acid or any soluble sulphate to a solution of a soluble barium salt, when it is precipitated as an amorphous white powder of specific gravity 4.5.
The lake is a novel and popular bathing resort, the specific gravity of the water being so great that one cannot sink or entirely submerge oneself.
Other bits and bobs A hydrometer is a good piece of kit to have to measure the specific gravity of the biodiesel.
Heavy metals are chemical elements that have a specific gravity (a measure of density) at least five times that of water.
Heavy metal-One of 23 chemical elements that has a specific gravity (a measure of density) at least five times that of water.
Laboratory tests, including blood tests (to check electrolyte levels) and urine tests (e.g. urine specific gravity and creatinine), may be used to evaluate the severity of the problem.