Specific sentence example

specific
  • It's easy to identify specific crimes and follow them up.
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  • She dropped Jonathan off and told him to meet her at a specific time and place.
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  • We never had much luck going back to a specific time that long ago.
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  • We have specific criteria and certain limitations.
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  • You wouldn't need a specific date or time and you could probably find your old home, given enough tries.
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  • He may understand you need the specific time of the incident.
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  • Someone his size with his specific skills didn't ask for favors or need to be polite.
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  • Each one has its own specific codes and specifications.
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  • If Patsy had a destination in mind more specific than Chicago, she didn't share this knowledge with her hitchhiking passenger.
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  • The specific name reticulatus would not apply to this; it should be guttatus rather.
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  • Was she encouraging Alex to assume a paternal role, or was she merely old-fashioned enough to think that men and women had specific roles?
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  • If it were something specific, it would be one thing, but Jonathan was a good boy and he didn't want to stifle him the way Carmen's parents did her.
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  • The pay per click (PPC) business is a way to advertise online to people who did a specific search in a search engine like Google or who are viewing content on a certain topic.
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  • Other officers are the clerk of the county court, elected for six years, the sheriff, who also acts as tax-collector and treasurer, the prosecuting attorney, one or two assessors, the surveyor of lands and the superintendent of free schools, all elected for the term of four years; the sheriff may not serve two consecutive full terms. In addition there are boards appointed or elected by various authorities and charged with specific duties.
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  • Sofi's skill relied mostly on reading the future of a specific soul by touching them, and he'd not let her within miles of a vamp since taking over her guardianship.
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  • Whether you look at a single country over a span of time, or a group of countries at a specific point in history, the result is the same.
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  • Either they didn't want to spook him or they don't have any concrete evidence of specific crimes.
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  • This will produce extremely specific nutritional information for just you, will add years to your life, and will increase its quality as well.
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  • Certain categories of food are intended to be consumed under specific circumstances.
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  • After too much heated discussion, I agreed to give a less than specific tip saying I didn't believe the child was abducted.
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  • Vortr.) that the specific prediction concerning Zedekiah (xii.
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  • The presbytery fixes the former for specific business; the latter is summoned by the moderator, either on his own initiative or on the requisition of two or more members of presbytery, for the transaction of business which has suddenly emerged.
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  • True to our verbal blackout, nothing specific was said but the tone of her conversation hinted at sensational news.
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  • Only specific types of glue will allow wood to adhere to itself.
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  • If you want to see a specific character, it is advisable to book according to your favorite cartoons.
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  • Weber showed that the specific heat increases rapidly with increasing temperature.
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  • The multitude of species and the many intermediate forms render their exact limitation difficult, but those presenting sufficiently marked characters to justify specific rank probably approach 300 in number.
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  • The specific heat is.
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  • Its specific gravity is 0.8009 (o C.).
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  • It is true, of course, that ultimate laws need discovery, that they are discovered in some sense in the medium of the psychological mechanism, and that they are nevertheless the grounds of all specific inferences.
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  • Since she did not want to practice any specific religions, Amanda was okay with being an infidel.
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  • The treatment is symptomatic, there being no specific antidote.
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  • Hence within narrow limits Kopp's determinations were carried out under coincident conditions, and therefore any regularities presented by the critical volumes should be revealed in the specific volumes at the boiling-point.
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  • At the same time he perceived that specific heats varied with temperature and also with allotropes, e.g.
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  • Red lead or triplumbic tetroxide, Pb304, is a scarlet crystalline powder of specific gravity 8.6-9.1, obtained by roasting very finely divided pure massicot or lead carbonate; the brightness of the colour depends in a great measure on the roasting.
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  • The magnetic properties of the metal at different temperatures and in fields up to 1350 units have been studied by P. Curie (loc. cit.), who found that its " specific susceptibility " (K) was independent of the strength of the field, but decreased with rise of temperature up to the melting-point, 273° C. His results appear to show the relation - K X10 6 = I'381 - O'o0155t°.
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  • On the side of induction we find that experience is said to give the specific principles, 10 "the phenomena being apprehended in sufficiency."
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  • The kind of warrant that intelligence can give to specific principles falls short of infallibility.
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  • They failed to realize that permissible abstraction from specific contents or methods of knowledge does not obliterate reference to matter or content.
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  • (II) This relation gives a linear formula for the variation of the total heat, a result which agrees in form with that found by Regnault for steam, and implies that the coefficient of t in his formula should be equal to the specific heat S of steam.
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  • If the saturated vapour behaves as a perfect gas, the change of intrinsic energy E depends only on the temperature limits, and is equal to s (8-00), where s is the specific heat at constant volume.
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  • - The question of the measurement of the specific heat of a vapour possesses special interest on account of this simple theoretical relation between the specific heat and the variation of the latent and total heats.
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  • The first accurate calculations of the specific heats of air and gases were made by Rankine in a continuation of the paper already quoted.
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  • Employing Joule's value of the mechanical equivalent of heat, then recently published, in connexion with the value of the ratio of the specific heats of air S/s=I.
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  • Adopting for steam the same value of the ratio of the specific heats, viz.
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  • The specific heat of steam was determined shortly afterwards by Regnault (Comptes Rendus, 36, p. 676) by condensing superheated steam at two different temperatures (about 125° and 225° C.) successively in the same calorimeter at atmospheric pressure, and taking the difference of the total heats observed.
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  • The ideal method of determining by direct experiment the relation between the total heat and the specific heat of a vapour is that of Joule and Thomson, which is more commonly known in connexion with steam as the method of the throttling calorimeter.
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  • From a different point of view, equation (12) may be applied to determine the specific heat of steam in terms of the rate of variation of the total heat.
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  • Whatever may be the objections to Regnault's method of measuring the specific heat of a vapour, it seems impossible to reconcile so wide a range of variation of S with his value 5=0.475 between 125° and 225° C. It is also extremely unlikely that a vapour which is so stable a chemical compound as steam should show so wide a range of variation of specific heat.
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  • Check with a restaurant before you go, because discounts may apply to specific days or times.
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  • He regarded these anomalies as solely due to the chemical nature of the elements, and ignored or regarded as insignificant such factors as the state of aggregation and change of specific heat with temperature.
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  • Weber, who showed that with rise of temperature the specific (and atomic) heat increases, finally attaining a fairly constant value; diamond, graphite and the various amorphous forms of carbon having the value about 5.6 at moo°, and silicon 5.68 at 232°; while he concluded that boron attained a constant value of 5.5.
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  • Since the atomic heat of the same element varies with its state of aggregation, it must be concluded that some factor taking this into account must be introduced; moreover, the variation of specific heat with temperature introduces another factor.
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  • We now proceed to discuss molecular heats of compounds, that is, the product of the molecular weight into the specific heat.
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  • The specific heat of a compound may, in general, be calculated from the specific heats of its constituent elements.
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  • Conversely, if the specific heats of a compound and its constituent elements, except one, be known, then the unknown atomic heat is readily deducible.
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  • - Denoting the atomic weight by W and the specific heat by s, Dulong and Petit's law states that 6.4 = Ws.
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  • The specific heat of indium is o 057; and the atomic heats corresponding to the atomic weights 38, 76 and 114 are 3.2, 4.3, 6.5.
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  • Since a/d is the real specific volume of the molecule, it is therefore a constant; hence (N2-I)/(N2+2)d is also a constant and is independent of all changes of temperature, pressure, and of the state of aggregation.
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  • The density and specific heat of the tetragonal form are greater than those of the yellow.
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  • 7 represents the specific volumes of mixtures of ammonium and potassium sulphates; the ordinates re presenting specific volumes, and the abscissae the per centage composition of the mixture.
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  • 9 illustrates the first case: the ordinates represent specific volumes, and the abscissae denote the composition of isomorphous mixtures of ammonium and potassium dihydrogen phosphates, which mutually take one another up to the extent of 20% to form homogeneous crystals.
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  • By plotting the specific volumes of these mixed crystals as ordinates, it is found that they fall on two lines, the upper corresponding to the orthorhombic crystals, the lower to the monoclinic. From this we may conclude that these salts are isodimorphous: the upper line represents isomorphous crystals of stable orthorhombic magnesium sulphate and unstable orthorhombic ferrous sulphate, the lower line isomor phous crystals of stable monoclinic ferrous sulphate and unstable monoclinic magnesium sulphate.
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  • These drugs are specific for acute rheumatism (rheumatic fever).
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  • The drug is not a true specific, as quinine is for malaria, since it rarely, if ever, prevents the cardiac damage usually done by rheumatic fever; but it entirely removes the agonizing pain, shortly after its administration, and, an hour or two later, brings down the temperature to normal.
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  • A few of them demand from their ministers definite subscription to a specific body of doctrine, mostly of the ordinary " evangelical " type.
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  • But this specific application is dependent upon a prolonged racial preparation of the organism to respond in this particular way.
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  • The first specific legislation on the subject was enacted on the 12th of February 1793, and like the Ordinance for the Northwest Territory and the section of the Constitution quoted above, did not contain the word "slave"; by its provisions any Federal district or circuit judge or any state magistrate was authorized to decide finally and without a jury trial the status of an alleged fugitive.
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  • The liquid prepared by Baker is green in colour, and has a specific gravity III at ordinary temperature, but below -2° C. becomes of a deep indigo blue colour.
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  • He seemed unaware of the vital importance of the moment, crouched shivering over a bivouac fire, and finally rode back to Dresden, leaving no specific orders for the further pursuit.
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  • It differs from egg-albumin in its specific rotation (-57° to - 64°), and in being slowly coagulated by alcohol and ether.
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  • It coagulates at about 56°, and its specific rotation is - 30.70°.
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  • They are dextrorotatory, and the specific rotation is numerically greater than that of albumin; hence the proteids are, in general, dextrorotatory.
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  • All obsidians have a low specific gravity (about 2.4) both because they are acid rocks and because they are non-crystalline.
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  • Again, water, the best electrolytic solvent known, is also the body of the highest specific inductive capacity (dielectric constant), and this property, to whatever cause it may be due, will reduce the forces between electric charges in the neighbourhood, and may therefore enable two ions to separate.
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  • It is then possible to assign to each body a specific coefficient of affinity.
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  • It is found that the influence of different acids on this action is proportional to their specific coefficients of affinity.
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  • As we have seen above, when a solution is placed in contact with water the water will take a positive or negative potential with regard to the solution, according as the cation or anion has the greater specific velocity, and therefore the greater initial rate of diffusion.
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  • When heated to above 200 it turns brown and produces caramel, a substance possessing a bitter taste, and used, in its aqueous solution or otherwise, under various trade names, for colouring confectionery, spirits, &c. The specific rotation of the plane of polarized light by glucose solutions is characteristic. The specific rotation of a freshly prepared solution is 105°, but this value gradually diminishes to 52.5°, 24 hours sufficing for the transition in the cold, and a few minutes when the solution is boiled.
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  • The specific rotation also varies with the concentration; this is due to the dissociation of complex molecules into simpler ones, a view confirmed by cryoscopic measurements.
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  • This liquid is concentrated in vacuum pans to a specific gravity of 40° to 44° B., a small quantity of sodium bisulphite solution being added to bleach it, to prevent fermentation, and to inhibit browning.
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  • There is, comparatively speaking, no great distance of time between the leges barbarorum and the Laws of Wales, while the contents of the latter show a similar, nay almost the same, idea of law as the former; and, apart from the fact that Wales became permanently connected at the end of the 13th century with a Teutonic people, the English, it has been noticed that in Wales Roman and Germanic, but no traces of a specific Welsh, law are found.
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  • The larva now assumes specific characters and is practically adult.
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  • The specific gravity is 11 352 for ingot, and from 11.354 to II '365 for sheet lead (water of 4°C. = 1).
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  • Its specific gravity is about 9; it is sparingly soluble in water, but readily dissolves in acids and molten alkalis.
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  • The second solution is that every sensation has its specific affective quality, though by reason of the poverty of language many of these have no name.
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  • The antipyretic action which considerable doses of aconite display is not specific, but is the result of its influence on the circulation and respiration and of its slight diaphoretic action.
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  • The total magnetic induction or flux corresponds to the current of electricity (practically measured in amperes); the induction or flux density B to the density of the current (number of amperes to the square centimetre of section); the magnetic permeability to the specific electric conductivity; and the line integral of the magnetic force, sometimes called the magnetomotive force, to the electro-motive force in the circuit.
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  • Unfortunately the effects of magnetization upon the specific resistance of bismuth vary enormously with changes of temperature; it is therefore necessary to take two readings of the resistance, one when the spiral is in the magnetic field, the other when it is outside.
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  • Abrupt alterations, take place in its density, specific heat, thermo-electric quality, electrical conductivity, temperature-coefficient of electrical resistance, and in some at least of its mechanical properties.
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  • Curie has shown, for many paramagnetic bodies, that the specific susceptibility K is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature 0.
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  • It is readily polymerized, small quantities of hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride, carbonyl chloride, &c. converting it, at ordinary temperatures, into paraldehyde, (C 2 H 4 0) 3, a liquid boiling at 124° C. and of specific gravity o�998 (15° C.).
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  • It is a liquid, boiling at 235° C., and has a specific gravity of 0.973.
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  • Salicylic aldehyde (ortho-hydroxybenzaldehyde), HO(I)� C 6 H 4 �CHO(2), an aromatic oxyaldehyde, is a colourless liquid of boiling point 196° C. and specific gravity.
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  • The mass is now systematically extracted with water, and a solution of aluminium sulphate of specific gravity 1.16 is prepared.
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  • This solution is allowed to stand for some time (in order that any calcium sulphate and basic ferric sulphate may separate), and is then evaporated until ferrous sulphate crystallizes on cooling; it is then drawn off and evaporated until it attains a specific gravity of 1.40.
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  • As obtained by the reduction of the chloride, it is a steel grey powder of specific gravity 7 06.
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  • M de Remusat characterizes his view on the Eucharist as a specific application of Nominalism.
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  • William of Conches, a pupil of Bernard's, devoting himself to psychological and physiological questions, was of less importance for the specific logico-metaphysical problem.
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  • This is manifestly true, however real the facts may be which are designated by the generic and specific names; and the position is fully accepted, as has been seen, by a Realist like Gilbert, who perhaps adopted it first from Abelard.
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  • Lavoisier he made an important series of experiments on specific heat (1782-1784), in the course of which the "ice calorimeter" was invented; and they contributed jointly to the Memoirs of the Academy (1781) a paper on the development of electricity by evaporation.
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  • Laplace's treatise on specific heat was published in German in 1892 as No.
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  • It is unnecessary to follow in this article all these subjects, since they are for the most part treated under separate headings, not indeed under these names - which are too comprehensive for that purpose - but under those of the more specific questions which arise under each.
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  • Linnaeus adopted Ray's conception of species, but he made species a practical reality by insisting that every species shall have a double Latin name - the first half to be the name of the genus common to several species, and the second half to be the specific name.
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  • The analysis of the specific variations of organic form so as to determine what is really the nature and limitation of a single " character " or " individual variation," and whether two such true and strictly defined single variations of a single structural unit can actually " blend " when one is transmitted by the male parent and the other by the female parent, are matters which have yet to be determined.
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  • In the course of several generations, Lamarck argued, a structural alteration amounting to such difference as we call " specific " might be thus acquired.
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  • Its specific gravity has the high value 18.7; its specific heat is 0.02765, which, according to Dulong and Petit's law, corresponds to U = 240: It melts at bright redness.
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  • The asphodel was also supposed to be a remedy for poisonous snake-bites and a specific against sorcery; it was fatal to mice, but preserved pigs from disease.
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  • Of the impurities of the ore the wolframite (tungstate of iron and manganese) is the most troublesome, because on account of its high specific gravity it cannot be washed away as gangue.
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  • The specific gravity of cast tin is 7.29, of rolled tin 7.299, and of electrically deposited tin 7.143 to 7.178.
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  • Its coefficient of linear expansion between 0° and 100° is 0.002717; its specific heat 0.0562; its thermal and electrical conductivities are 145 to 152 and '14.5 to 140.
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  • It is a colourless fuming liquid of specific gravity 2.269 at o°; it freezes at - 33° C., and boils at I13.9°.
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  • Tubercular pneumonia may thus be looked upon as comparable to pneumonia excited by any other specific agent.
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  • The term hypertrophy is used when the individual tissue elements become bigger to meet the demands of greater functional activity; hyperplasia, if there is an increase in the number of these elements; and pseudo-hypertrophy, when the specific tissue element is largely replaced by another tissue.
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  • These represent the albuminoid series, and are probably elaborated by the cells from albuminous substances through the influence of specific ferments.
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  • Dropsical liquids are usually pale yellow or greenish, limpid, with a saltish taste and alkaline reaction, and a specific gravity ranging from 1005 to 1024.
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  • These remedies were arcana - a word corresponding partly to what we now call specific remedies, but implying a mysterious connexion between the remedy and the "essence" of the disease.
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  • He introduced a milder and better way of treating fevers - especially small-pox, and gave strong support to the use of specific medicines - especially Peruvian bark.
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  • Another important point in Sydenham's doctrine is his clear recognition of many diseases as being what would be now called specific, and not due merely to an alteration in the primary qualities or humours of the older schools.
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  • From this springs his high appreciation of specific medicines.
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  • Some of the most successful of the advances of medicine as a healing art have followed the detection of syphilitic disease of the vessels, or of the supporting tissues of nervous centres and of the peripheral nerves; so that, by specific medication, the treatment of paralytic, convulsive, and other terrible manifestations of nervous disease thus secondarily induced is now undertaken in early stages with definite prospect of cure.
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  • Lardaceous disease, however, here and in other regions, now appears to be due to the specific toxins of pyogenetic micro-organisms. In stone of the kidney a great advance has been made in treatment by operative means, and the formation of these stones seems to recent observers to depend less upon constitutional bent (gout) than upon unhealthy local conditions of the passages, which in their turn again may be due to the action of microorganisms.
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  • Recognizing that slavery was a state institution, with which the Federal government had no authority to interfere, he contended that slavery could only exist by a specific state enactment, that therefore slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories was unlawful and should be abolished, that the coastwise slave-trade in vessels flying the national flag, like the international slave-trade, should be rigidly suppressed, and that Congress had no power to pass any act which in any way could be construed as a recognition of slavery as a national institution.
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  • The specific effect of boric acid in this respect was correctly ascertained by Stokes and Harcourt, but they mistook the effect of titanic acid.
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  • The product is a crystalline solid of specific gravity 2.34, and melts at about 1430° C. See also German Patent 108817 for the production of crystallized silicon from silica and carborundum.
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  • The specific gravity of the amorphous form is 2.35 (Vigouroux), that of the crystalline variety varying, according to the method of preparation, from 2.004 to 2.493.
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  • It is an etherealsmelling liquid, which boils at 158-159° C., and has a specific gravity of 0.925.
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  • It boils at 93.1° C., and has a specific gravity of 1.144 (15° C.).
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  • In former times a high specific gravity used to be quoted as one of the characters of the genus; but this no longer holds, since we now know a series of metals lighter than water.
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  • Thus, for instance, chemically pure iron in the ingot has the specific gravity 7.844; when it is rolled out into thin sheet, the value falls to 7.6; when drawn into thin wire, to 7.75.
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  • The following table gives the specific gravities of many metals.
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  • Thermal Properties.-The specific heats of most metals have been determined.
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  • Its specific gravity is o 899 at o° C. It is very slightly soluble in water, more soluble in alcohol, and completely miscible with ether, acetic acid and carbon disulphide.
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  • It is used to determine the density of a body experimentally; for if W is the weight of a body weighed in a balance in air (strictly in vacuo), and if W' is the weight required to balance when the body is suspended in water, then the upward thrust of the liquid (I) (2) "F r an Minim ' 'i n or weight of liquid displaced is W-W, so that the specific gravity (S.G.), defined as the ratio of the weight of a body to the weight of an equal volume of water, is W/(W-W').
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  • (or napoh) are the Malay names of the species with those specific titles.
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  • The Roman Catholic Church also recognizes a class of beneficed chaplains, supported out of "pious foundations" for the specific duty of saying, or arranging for, certain masses, or taking part in certain services.
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  • Since the specific gravity of hot liquor is less than that of cold liquor, and since the specific gravity of the scum and particles of.
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  • The pans are provided with steam worms to keep the mass hot as required, and with mechanical stirrers to keep it in movement and thoroughly mixed with the water and sweet water which are added to the sugar to obtain a solution of the specific gravity desired.
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  • It is a clear, strongly refractive liquid, which has a pleasant odour; it boils at 144° and has a specific gravity of o 925 at o°.
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  • The hardness is 2, and the specific gravity 2 I.
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  • The specific effects of different impurities on the physical properties of zinc have only been imperfectly studied.
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  • The specific gravity of zinc cannot be expected to be perfectly constant; according to Karsten, that of pure ingot is 6.915, and rises to 7.191 after rolling.
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  • The specific heat is 0.09555 (Regnault).
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  • To assign any specific date to the end of this formative age is of course impossible, but meaning by the end what has just been stated, we shall not be far wrong if we place it somewhere near the beginning of the 10th century.
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  • We may say, however, that they fall into two classes, general and specific. The general included all that might come under the idea of loyalty, seeking the lord's interests, keeping his secrets, betraying the plans of his enemies, protecting his family, &c. The specific services are capable of more definite statement, and they usually received exact definition in custom and sometimes in written documents.
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  • This would explain the absence of specific address, so that it appears as in form a "general epistle," as Origen styles it.
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  • The product has a brilliant white fracture, a specific gravity of 4.87, very friable, but harder than quartz or steel.
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  • The pure salt is dissolved in hot water and decomposed with ammonia to produce a slightly ammoniacal hydrated oxide; this, when ignited in platinum, leaves pure TiO 2 in the form of brownish lumps, the specific gravity of which varies from 3.9 to 4.25, according to the temperature at which it was kept in igniting.
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  • What the tree is in regard to its specific qualities depends on what faculties we have for perceiving it.
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  • From his committee he reported in April 1888 the "Mills Bill," which provided for a reduction of the duties on sugar, earthenware, glassware, plate glass, woollen goods and other articles, the substitution of ad valorem for specific duties in many cases, and the placing of lumber (of certain kinds), hemp, wool, flax, borax, tin plates, salt and other articles on the free list.
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  • The derivation of Yahweh from hawah is formally unimpeachable, and is adopted by many recent scholars, who proceed, however, from the primary sense of the root rather than from the specific meaning of the nouns.
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  • As the God of Israel Yahweh becomes its leader and champion in war; he is a warrior, mighty in battle; but he is not a god of war in the specific sense.
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  • It is a silver-white ductile metal (of specific gravity 2.54) which melts at 8000.
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  • Much of his work was concerned with specific volumes, the conception of which he set forth in a paper published when he was only twenty-two years of age; and the principles he established have formed the basis of subsequent investigations in that subject, although his results have in some cases undergone modification.
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  • In the course of his inquiries he also noticed that different bodies in equal masses require different amounts of heat to raise them to the same temperature, and so founded the doctrine of specific heats; he also showed that equal additions or abstractions of heat produced equal variations of bulk in the liquid of his thermometers.
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  • The periodical histolysis may be partly due to the absence of specific excretory organs and to the accumulation of pigmented excretory substances in the wall of the alimentary canal.
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  • He was a strong opponent of the reconstruction measures of President Johnson, for whose conviction he voted (on most of the specific charges) in the impeachment trial.
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  • Throughout these two periods, which saw the decline and final dissolution of the alliance, there is very little specific evidence for its existence.
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  • Founded with the specific object of thwarting the ambitious designs of Sparta, it was plunged by Athens into enterprises of an entirely different character which exhausted the resources of the allies without benefiting them in any respect.
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  • Eau de vie (" elixir of life") was in use during the 13th and 14th centuries; Arnoldus Villanovanus applied it to the product of distilled wine, though not as a specific name.
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  • The quantity of alcohol present in an aqueous solution is determined by a comparison of its specific gravity with standard tables, or directly by the use of an alcoholometer, which is a hydrometer graduated so as to read per cents by weight (degrees according to Richter) or volume per cents (degrees according to Tralles).
    0
    0
  • Under the action of the same or identical electric forces the intensity of this state in various insulators is determined by a quality of them called their dielectric constant, specific inductive capacity or inductivity.
    0
    0
  • Cavendish and subsequently Faraday discovered this fact, and the latter gave the name " specific inductive capacity," or " dielectric constant," to that quality of an insulator which determines the charge taken by a conductor embedded in it when charged to a given potential.
    0
    0
  • He also showed that the difference of the specific heats at constant pressure and volume, S - s, must be the same for equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure, being represented by the expression R/TF'(t).
    0
    0
  • He remarks that ” the law according to which the motive power of heat varies at different points of the thermometric scale is intimately connected with that of the variations of the specific heats of gases at different temperatures - a law which experiment has not yet made known to us with sufficient exactness."
    0
    0
  • 3, the heat absorbed in raising the temperature to 0' and the pressure to p without change of state may be written s' (o' - o"), where s' is the specific heat of the substance in the first state at saturation pressure.
    0
    0
  • The heat evolved in this process may be represented by s"(o' - o"), where s" is the specific heat of the substance in the second state at saturation pressure.
    0
    0
  • The same equations apply to the case of fusion of a solid, if L is the latest heat of fusion, and v', s', v", s" the specific volumes and specific heats of the solid and liquid respectively.
    0
    0
  • 2, and cool it at constant volume to E, through an interval of temperature (o' - o"), the amount of heat abstracted may be written h = s (o' - 0"), where s is the specific heat at constant volume.
    0
    0
  • The whole quantity of heat required to raise the temperature from 0" to 0' at constant pressure along the path EC is H+h, which is equal to S(0' - o"), where S is the specific heat at constant pressure.
    0
    0
  • Since h = s (o' - 0"), the difference S - s between the specific heats at constant pressure and volume is evidently H/(o' - o").
    0
    0
  • (7) The value of the specific heat S at constant pressure can always be determined by experiment, and in practice is one of the most important thermodynamical properties of a substance.
    0
    0
  • The value of the specific heat s at constant volume can also be measured in a few cases, but it is generally necessary to deduce it from that at constant pressure, by means of relation (6).
    0
    0
  • A similar expression for the variation of the specific heat S at constant pressure is obtained from the second expression in (8), by taking p and 0 as independent variables; but it follows more directly from a consideration of the variation of the function (E+pv).
    0
    0
  • (I I) This expression shows that the rate of variation of the total heat with temperature at constant pressure is equal to the specific heat at constant pressure.
    0
    0
  • The isothermal elasticity - v(dp/dv) is equal to the pressure p. The adiabatic elasticity is equal to y p, where -y is the ratio S/s of the specific heats.
    0
    0
  • The specific heats are independent of the pressure or density by equations (to) and (12).
    0
    0
  • In thiscase the ratio of the specific heats is constant as well as the difference, and the adiabatic equation takes the simple form, pv v = constant, which is at once obtained by integrating the equation for the adiabatic elasticity, - v(dp/dv) =yp.
    0
    0
  • The specific heats may be any function of the temperature consistently with the characteristic equation provided that their difference is constant.
    0
    0
  • - William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), who wars the first to realize the importance of the absolute scale in thermodynamics, and the inadequacy of the test afforded by Boyle's law or by experiments on the constancy of the specific heat of gases, devised a more delicate and practical test, which he carried out successfully in conjunction with Joule.
    0
    0
  • In the case of imperfect gases, all the available experimental evidence shows that the specific volume tends towards its ideal value, V =Re/p, in the limit, when the pressure is indefinitely reduced and the molecules are widely separated so as to eliminate the effects of their mutual actions.
    0
    0
  • We may therefore reasonably assume that the limiting values of the specific heats at zero pressure do not vary with the temperature, provided that the molecule is stable and there is no dissociation.
    0
    0
  • The expression for the change of intrinsic energy E between any given limits poOo to po is readily found by substituting these values of the specific heats in equations (II) or (13), and integrating between the given limits.
    0
    0
  • In the case of a solid or a liquid, the latent heat of isothermal expansion may often be neglected, and if the specific heat, s, be also taken as constant, we have simply 0-00 =s log e0/00.
    0
    0
  • If J', J" represent the values of the function for unit mass of the substance of specific volumes v' and v" in the two states at temperature 0 and pressure and if a mass m is in the state v', and 1-m in the.
    0
    0
  • The values of the corresponding functions for the liquid or solid cannot be accurately expressed, as the theoretical variation of the specific heat is unknown, but if we take the specific heat at constant pressure s to be approximately constant, and observe the small residual variation dh of the total heat, we may write F'=s'D+dh+B'.
    0
    0
  • The specific gravity of gold obtained by precipitation from solution by ferrous sulphate is from 19.55 to 20.72.
    0
    0
  • The specific gravity of cast gold varies from 18.29 to 19.37, and by compression between dies the specific gravity may be raised from 19.37 to 19.41; by annealing, however, the previous density is to some extent recovered, as it is then found to be 19.40.
    0
    0
  • Its specific heat is between 0.0298 (Dulong and Petit) and 0.03244 (Regnault).
    0
    0
  • According to Chenevix, the alloy composed of equal parts of the two metals is grey, is less ductile than its constituent metals and has the specific gravity i i.
    0
    0
  • The operation may be conducted in vessels of glass or platinum, and each pound of granulated metal is treated with a pound and a quarter of nitric acid of specific gravity 1.32.
    0
    0
  • When not tarnished, the mineral has a silver-white colour with a tinge of red, and the lustre is metallic. Hardness 2-21; specific gravity 9-70-9.83.
    0
    0
  • The slight variations in specific gravity are due to the presence of small amounts of arsenic, sulphur or tellurium, or to enclosed impurities.
    0
    0
  • Regnault determined its specific heat between o° and too° to be 0.0308; Kahlbaum, Roth and Siedler (loc. cit.) give the value 0.03055.
    0
    0
  • It is true that the cases are not very numerous where precisely the same event is described from opposite points of view, but, speaking in general terms rather than of specific incidents, we are already able to subject considerable portions of history to this test.
    0
    0
  • His view of constitutional history was that it should contain only so much of the political and general history of the time as bears directly on specific changes in the organization of the state, including therein judicial as well as ecclesiastical institutions.
    0
    0
  • Since the weights used in conjunction with a balance are really standard masses, the word "weight" may be substituted for the word "mass" in the preceding definitions; and we may symbolically express the relations thus: - If M be the weight of substance occupying a volume V, then the absolute density O = M/V; and if m, m 1 be the weights of the substance and of the standard substance which occupy the same volume, the relative density or specific gravity S = m/m l; or more generally if m i be the weight of a volume v of the substance, and m l the weight of a volume v l of the standard, then S = mv l /m l v.
    0
    0
  • The specific gravity bottle may be used to determine the relative density of a solid which is available in small fragments, and is insoluble in the standard liquid.
    0
    0
  • The method involves three operations: - (1) weighing the solid in air (W), (2) weighing the specific gravity bottle full of liquid (W 1), (3) weighing the bottle containing the solid and filled up with liquid (W2).
    0
    0
  • Hence W/(W - W,) is the relative density or specific gravity of the body.
    0
    0
  • Some balances are provided with a "specific gravity pan," i.e.
    0
    0
  • Tellurium is a brittle silvery-white element of specific gravity 6.27.
    0
    0
  • An amor phous form is obtained when tellurium is precipitated from its solutions by sulphur dioxide, this variety having a specific gravity 6.015.
    0
    0
  • The obligations involved in the act of homage were more general than those associated with the oath of fealty, but they provided a strong moral sanction for more specific engagements.
    0
    0
  • Thus other hands apart from the compiler of Chronicles may have helped to shape the narratives, either before their union with that book or after their separation.2 The present intricacy is also due partly to specific historical theories regarding the post-exilic period.
    0
    0
  • It melts between 2250° and 2300°, its specific heat is 0.0365, coefficient of expansion o 0000079, and specific gravity 16.64.
    0
    0
  • According to the resolutions of the International Geographical Congress the larger individual forms which have been described by generic terms shall have specific names of a purely geographical character; but in the case of the minor forms the names of ships and persons are considered applicable.
    0
    0
  • Besides the determination of salinity by titration of the chlorides, the method of determination by the specific gravity of the sea-water is still often used.
    0
    0
  • In the laboratory the specific gravity is determined in a pyknometer by actual weighing, and on board ship by the use of an areometer or hydrometer.
    0
    0
  • In all areometer work it is necessary to ascertain the temperature of the water sample under examination with great exactness, as the volume of the areometer as well as the specific gravity of the water varies with temperature.
    0
    0
  • The relations between the various conditions are set forth in the following equations where 0-o signifies the specific gravity of the sea-water in question at o° C., the standard at 4° being taken as 1000, S the salinity and Cl the chlorine, both expressed in parts by weight per mille.
    0
    0
  • The temperature of maximum density of sea-water of any specific gravity was found by Knudsen to be given with sufficient accuracy for all practical purposes by the formula 0 = 3.950.2660 -0, where 0 is the temperature of maximum density in degrees centigrade.
    0
    0
  • According to Thoulet and Chevallier the specific heat diminishes as salinity increases, so that for io per mille salinity it is o 968, for 35 per mille it is only o 932, that of pure water being taken as unity.
    0
    0
  • The compressibility is in itself very small, but so great in its effect on the density of deep water in situ that the specific gravity (0 0 /4°) at 2000 fathoms increases by o 017 and at 3000 fathoms by o 026.
    0
    0
  • In other words, water which has a specific gravity of 1 0280 at the surface would at the same temperature have a specific gravity of 1 0450 at 2000 and I 0540 at 3000 fathoms. If the whole mass of water in the ocean were relieved from pressure its volume would expand from 319 million cub.
    0
    0
  • On account of the high specific heat of sea-water the diurnal range of temperature at the surface is very small.
    0
    0
  • As a rule, the density increases with the amount of carbon, but in some instances a very high specific gravity is due to intermixed earthy matters, which are always denser than even the densest form of coal substance.
    0
    0
  • The specific gravity is low when not brought up by an excessive amount of earthy matter.
    0
    0
  • It melts at 26° to 27° C. and has a specific gravity of 1.88 (15°C.).
    0
    0
  • If the volume of the gas is kept constant, we put dv=o in equation (18) and dQ = JC0NmdT, where C v is the specific Specific heat of the gas at constant volume and J is the mechanical equivalent of heat.
    0
    0
  • (20) By division of the values of C, and C„ we find for -y, the ratio of the specific heats.
    0
    0
  • If a solid body is regarded as an aggregation of similar atoms each of mass m, its specific heat C is given, as in formula (19) by C = i (n+3) R/Jm.
    0
    0
  • The hardness is 51-6, and the specific gravity 5.9-6.2.
    0
    0
  • In the culture areas the environment gave specific characters to the religion.
    0
    0
  • Pure methyl alcohol is a colourless mobile liquid, boiling at 66°-67°, and having a specific gravity of 0 8142 at o° C. It has a burning taste, and generally a spirituous odour, but when absolutely pure it is said to be odourless.
    0
    0
  • Methyl bromide is a liquid, specific gravity I 73, boiling point 13°; methyl iodide has a specific gravity of 2.19, and boils at 43°.
    0
    0
  • Its specific gravity is 21.3-22.48 (Deville and Debray) and its specific heat is 0.03113 (Regnault).
    0
    0
  • The crystals look like antimony, and are brittle, and so hard as to scratch glass and rubies; their specific gravity is 4.25.
    0
    0
  • As a result of the importance both of the formulae obtained by elementary methods and of those which have involved the previous use of analysis, there is a tendency to dissociate the former, like the latter, from the methods by which they have been obtained, and to regard mensuration as consisting of those mathematical formulae which are concerned with the measurement of geometrical magnitudes (including lengths), or, in a slightly wider sense, as being the art of applying these formulae to specific cases.
    0
    0
  • It is necessary, in applying formulae to specific cases, not only, on the one hand, to remember that the measurements are only approximate, but also, on the other hand, to give to any ratio such as 7r a value which is at least more accurate than the measurements.
    0
    0
  • This sacrifice of local autonomy was in a measure prepared for by an earlier centralizing movement proper to the churches themselves, whereby those in certain areas met in conference or " synod " to formulate a common policy on local problems. Such inter-church meetings cannot be traced back beyond the latter half of the 2nd century, and were purely ad hoc and informal, called to consider specific questions like Montanism and Easter observance.
    0
    0
  • These specific differences revealed different religious tendencies,' the one type being more warmly Evangelical, the other more " rational " and congenial in temper with 18th-century Deism.
    0
    0
  • In Scripture the function of the angel overshadows his personality; the stress is on their ministry; they appear in order to perform specific acts.
    0
    0
  • Indeed so severe a stress is laid upon the explicitly Christian life and its specific means, that orthodoxy itself interprets the rebirth by water and spirit, and the eating the flesh and drinking the blood to which entrance into the Kingdom and possession of interior life are here exclusively attached, as often represented by a simple sincere desire and will for spiritual purification and a keen hunger and thirst for God's aid, together with such cultual acts as such souls can know or find, even without any knowledge of the Christian rites.
    0
    0
  • Only some such position as Abbe Loisy's critical summing up (1903) brings out its specific greatness.
    0
    0
  • Comparing the velocities of sound U i and U2 in two different gases with densities and at the same temperature and pressure, and with ratios of specific heats 'yl, 72, theory gives Ui/U2 = 1/ {71 p 2/72 p i }.
    0
    0
  • Kundt's dust-tube may also be employed for the determination of the ratio of the specific heats of a gas or vapour.
    0
    0
  • If U is the velocity of sound in a gas at pressure P with density p, and if waves of length X and frequency N are propagated through it, then the distanc?e l between the dust-heaps is 2 = N - zN Vyp' where y is the ratio of the two specific heats.
    0
    0
  • His efforts are chiefly devoted to proving that the condemnation of the elder Oppianicus was just and in no way the result of the jury having been bribed by Cluentius; only a small portion of the end of the speech deals with the specific charge.
    0
    0
  • His official messages to Congress, probably more frequent, certainly much longer than those of any of his predecessors, were quite as often treatises on the moral principles of government as they were recommendations of specific legislative or administrative policies.
    0
    0
  • While he was criticized by the friends of Civil Service Reform for not going far enough during his presidency to protect the encroachments of those who desire to have the offices distributed as political rewards or for partisan ends, such specific acts as his transference to the classified service of all fourth-class postmasters east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio rivers, his insistence upon a thorough investigation of the scandals in the Post Office department, and his order forbidding federal employes to use their offices for political purposes in the campaign of 1908 are typical of his vigorous support of the merit system.
    0
    0
  • He established the Federal Department of Commerce and Labor, the secretary of which has a seat in the cabinet, and in which there exists a bureau of corporations possessing the specific function of inspecting and supervising interstate corporations - an entirely new feature in American government.
    0
    0
  • The sum agreed on by way of penalty might be either specific or unliquidated, e.g.
    0
    0
  • They are after all personal expressions of Christianity, in which are discernible also specific types of local tradition.
    0
    0
  • While Apostolic phrases are used, the sense behind them is often different and less evangelic. They have not caught the Apostolic meaning, because they have not penetrated to the full religious experience which gave to the words, often words with long and varied history both in the Septuagint and in ordinary Greek usage, their specific meaning to each apostle and especially to Paul.
    0
    0
  • Its specific gravity is 1 54, and after remelting 1 56; after distillation it is 1.52.
    0
    0
  • Ammonia is a colourless gas possessing a characteristic pungent smell and a strongly alkaline reaction; it is lighter than air, its specific gravity being o�589 (air =1).
    0
    0
  • Ustun-tagh, which appears on Stieler's map as an alternative name for Altyn-tagh, means Higher or Farther Mountains, and though not used locally of any specific range, would be appropriately employed to designate the higher and more southerly of the twin border-ranges of the Tibetan plateau.
    0
    0
  • Fluorine is a pale greenish-yellow gas with a very sharp smell; its specific gravity is 1.265.
    0
    0
  • It possesses only slight influence over the heart and respiration, but it has a specific effect on mucous membranes as the elimination of the drug takes place largely through the lungs, where it aids in loosening bronchial secretions.
    0
    0
  • It is also an intestinal and hepatic stimulant and a feeble diuretic and diaphoretic, and has been considered a specific in some forms of neuralgia.
    0
    0
  • The specific gospel of Jesus, the gospel of divine fatherhood and human brotherhood, received no attention in the earliest days, so far as our sources enable us to judge.
    0
    0
  • The bases of priestly power under this system are the unity of the altar, its inaccessibility to laymen and to the inferior ministers of the sanctuary, and the specific atoning functions of the blood of priestly sacrifices.
    0
    0
  • "the most notable accomplishment of the young republic in the field of social-political reform has been the enactment of Dec. 19 1918 establishing an 8-hour day for industrial and agricultural workers (with some specific exceptions).
    0
    0
  • The first important step was taken in 1881, when a new general tariff was established, in which specific duties replaced the ad valorem duties chiefly applied in the treaty tariffs of 1860-66.
    0
    0
  • The trend of the tariff policy of the Zollverein for some time after 1834 was towards protection; partly because the specific duties of 1818 became proportionately heavier as manufactured commodities fell in price, partly because some actual changes in rates were made in response to the demands of the Protectionist states.
    0
    0
  • But the pressure from the representatives of some of the states, notably Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, compelled him to incorporate in the Tariff Act certain specific duties borrowed from the Tariff Acts then in force in these states, which had a distinctly protective aim.
    0
    0
  • It substituted specific duties for the ad valorem duties of 1846 and 1857, and made some other changes of significance, as in the higher duties upon iron and steel.
    0
    0
  • With all the important work he accomplished in physics - the enunciation of Boyle's law, the discovery of the part taken by air in the propagation of sound, and investigations on the expansive force of freezing water, on specific gravities and refractive powers, on crystals, on electricity, on colour, on hydrostatics, &c. - chemistry was his peculiar and favourite study.
    0
    0
  • He also replaced the letters on the stem by the corresponding specific gravities referred to water as unity.
    0
    0
  • These freezing-point curves and transformation curves thus divide the diagram into 8 distinct regions, each with its own specific state or constitution of the metal, the molten state for region 1, a mixture of molten metal and of solid austenite for region 2, austenite alone for region 4 and so on.
    0
    0
  • The specific effect of phosphorus is to make the metal cold-short, i.e.
    0
    0
  • Its specific gravity is 5.2, and its hardness 5.5 to 6.5.
    0
    0
  • Its specific gravity is 5.3 and its hardness 5.5 to 6.5.
    0
    0
  • Its streak is yellowish-black, its specific gravity 3.6 to 4.0, and its hardness 5 to 5.5.
    0
    0
  • Its specific gravity is 3.7 to 3.9, and its hardness 3.5 to 4.5.
    0
    0
  • Its specific gravity is 4.83 to 5.2, its hardness 6 to 6.5.
    0
    0
  • - Sulphur has the specific harmful effects of shifting the carbon from the state of graphite to that of cementite, and thus of making the metal hard and brittle; of making it thick and sluggish when molten, so that it does not run freely in the moulds; and of making it red short, i.e.
    0
    0
  • 19; but this would probably recover less heat than the continuous system, first, because it transfers the heat from flame to metal indirectly instead of directly; and, second, because the brickwork of the Siemens system is probably a poorer heat-catcher than the iron billets of the continuous system, because its disadvantages of low conductivity and low specific heat probably outweigh its advantages of roughness and porosity.
    0
    0
  • Berthelot, Comptes rendus, 1878, 86, P. 71) The anhydrous hydrogen peroxide obtained by Wolffenstein boils at 84-85°C. (68 mm.); its specific gravity is 1.4996 (I.
    0
    0
  • Prior to this, in 1526-1527, appeared a programme of the lectures he intended to deliver at Basel, but this can hardly be reckoned a specific work.
    0
    0
  • It is a colourless highly volatile and inflammable liquid, having at 20° C. a specific gravity of 0.65.
    0
    0
  • Recently Hermann Walther Nernst has been able to deduce the transitionpoint in the case of sulphur from the specific heat and the heat developed in the transition only.
    0
    0
  • The word "species" now signifies a grade or rank in classification assigned by systematists to an assemblage of organic forms which they judge to be more closely interrelated by common descent than they are related to forms judged to be outside the species, and of which the known individuals, if they differ amongst themselves, differ less markedly than they do from those outside the species, or, if differing markedly, are linked by intermediate forms. It is to be noted that the individuals may themselves be judged to fall into groups of minor rank, known as sub-species or local varieties, but such subordinate assemblages are elevated to specific rank, if they appear not to intergrade so as to form a linked.
    0
    0
  • In technical biology each species is designated by two words, one for the genus, printed with an initial capital, and one for the particular species, printed without an initial capital in Zoology, whilst in Botany the habit once common to both subjects is retained, and the specific name if derived from a proper name is printed with a capital.
    0
    0
  • Thus "Canis vulpes Linnaeus" is the specific designation of the common fox, Canis being the generic term common to dogs, wolves and so forth, and vulpes indicating the particular species, whilst the attached author's name indicates that Linnaeus first named the species in question.
    0
    0
  • There appears also to be a specific action of lowering the reflex excitability of the spinal cord.
    0
    0
  • If too, as seems most probable, bishops and presbyters were practically identical, there is of course a specific reference to them in Phil.
    0
    0
  • There is an equally specific reference in liv.
    0
    0
  • The specific gravity ranges from 3.56 to 3.50, generally about 3.52.
    0
    0
  • The specific heat increases rapidly with rising temperature up to 60° C., and then more slowly.
    0
    0
  • The electrical resistance is about that of ordinary glass, and is diminished by one-half during exposure by Rntgen rays; the dielectric constant (16) is greater than that which should correspond to the specific gravity.
    0
    0
  • Carbonado or " black diamond," found in Bahia (also recently in Minas Geraes), is a black material with a minutely crystalline structure somewhat porous, opaque, resembling charcoal in appearance, devoid of cleavage, rather harder than diamond, but of less specific gravity; it sometimes displays a rude cubic crystalline form.
    0
    0
  • In the northern section, which receives the copious volumes brought down by the Volga, Ural and Terek, the salinity is so slight (only 0.0075% in the surface layers) that the water is quite drinkable, its specific gravity being not higher than 1.0016.
    0
    0
  • It is clear, however, that this relation cannot be generally true, for the cast-iron mentioned in the last section had a specific resistance of 112,000 C.G.S.
    0
    0
  • The advantage is that the quantities of heat are measured directly in absolute measure, in terms of the current, and that the results are independent of a knowledge of the specific heat.
    0
    0
  • The conductivity probably changes with temperature in the same way, being proportional to the product of the viscosity and the specific heat; but the experimental investigation presents difficulties on account of the necessity of eliminating the effects of radiation and convection, and the results of different observers often differ considerably from theory and from each other.
    0
    0
  • He would then single out Man from the realm of nature, and, in a treatise De homine, show what specific bodily motions were involved in the production of the peculiar phenomena of sensation and knowledge, as also of the affections and passions thence resulting, whereby man came into relation with man.
    0
    0
  • The specific gravity is 40, and the hardness 4.
    0
    0
  • As is commonly the case with plants which have been long under cultivation, there has been some doubt as to specific distinctions among the varieties of tea.
    0
    0
  • Its specific gravity is 6.1545, and it melts at 810°.
    0
    0
  • It is a malleable metal, of specific gravity 1.64 (Nilson and Pettersson) and a specific heat of 0.4079.
    0
    0
  • It is rather softer and less dense than crystallized quartz, its hardness being about 6.5 and its specific gravity 2.6, the difference being probably due to the presence of a small amount of opaline silica between the fibres.
    0
    0
  • The acid is an oily liquid of unpleasant smell, and solidifies at - 19° C.; it boils at 162.3° C., and has a specific gravity of o 9746 (o° C.).
    0
    0
  • It is a liquid of somewhat unpleasant smell, boiling at 155.5° C. Its specific gravity is o 9697 (0°).
    0
    0
  • Jung invented or gave precision to many technical terms which Ray and others at once made use of in their descriptions, and which are now classical; and his notions of what constitutes a specific distinction and what characters are valueless as such seem to have been adopted with little change by Ray.
    0
    0
  • Within the circular muscles is a layer of longitudinal muscles, very often broken into bundles, the number of which is often of specific importance.
    0
    0
  • In these courts native law and customs (principally the Mahommedan law) were administered with the proviso that no penalty could be enforced which was contrary to the laws of humanity or opposed to any specific proclamation of the protectorate.
    0
    0
  • Properly a "duty" differs from a "tax" in being levied on specific commodities, transactions, estates, &c., and not on individuals; thus it is right to talk of import-duties, excise-duties, deathor succession-duties, &c., but of income-tax as being levied on a person in proportion to his income.
    0
    0
  • The two best-known species, so much alike in size, form, colour and habits that, although they are widely separated geographically, some zoologists question their specific distinction, are P. lutreola, the Norz or Sumpfotter (marsh-otter) of eastern Europe, and P. visors, the mink of North America.
    0
    0
  • Primarily but a slight deposit is formed (none until the concentration arrives at specific gravity 1.0509), this deposit consisting for the most part of calcium carbonate and ferric oxide.
    0
    0
  • This goes on till a density of 1.1315 is attained, when hydrated calcium sulphate begins to deposit, and continues till specific gravity 1.2646 is reached.
    0
    0
  • At specific gravity 1.2461 a Up to the time then that the water became concentrated to specific gravity 1.218 only 0.150 of deposit had formed, and that chiefly composed of lime and iron, but between specific gravity I 218 and 1.313 there is deposited a mixture of Of this about 95% is sodium chloride.
    0
    0
  • The mother-liquor now falls to a specific gravity of 1.3082 to 1.2965, and yields a very mixed deposit of magnesium bromide and chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium sulphate, with the double magnesium and potassium sulphate, corresponding to the kainite of Stassfurt.
    0
    0
  • There is also deposited a double magnesium and potassium chloride, similar to the carnallite of Stassfurt, and finally the mother-liquor, which has now again risen to specific gravity 1.3374, contains only pure magnesium chloride.
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  • Thus only the generic, not the specific, difference between them is abolished.
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  • The discovery by Brebner of the specific identity of Haplospora globosa and Scaphospora speciosa marks an important step in the advance of our knowledge of the group. Three kinds of reproductive organs are known: first, sporangia, which each give rise to a single tetra-, or multi-nucleate non-motile, probably asexual spore; second, plurilocular sporangia, which are probably antheridia, generating antherozoids; and third, sporangia, which are probably oogonia, giving rise to single uninucleate non-motile oospheres.
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  • To the specific identity of Haplospora globosa and Scaphospora speciosa, and of Cutleria multifida and A glaozonia reptans, reference has already been made.
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  • Some, however, are wanderers, either swimming actively with the aid of cilia, or floating inertly as the result of a specific weight closely approaching that of the medium.
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  • The second and larger species is the water-rat, or "watervole," which belongs to a second section of the genus, and is commonly known as Microtus (Arvicola) amphibius, although some writers employ the inappropriate specific name terrestris.
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  • The quality of Portland cement is ascertained by its analysis and by determining its specific gravity, fineness, mechanical strength Tesfing.
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  • Its specific gravity is 11.86.
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  • The specific gravity of this "horn" thallium is 7.02.
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  • The ordinary mind complained that he had no specific remedy to propose for the growing evils of the time; and the more cultivated idealist was alienated by the gloom and the tendency to despair.
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  • Crystalline rocks crop out at several capes; Cretaceous limestones, containing an abundant and specific fauna of gigantic ammonites, occur at Dui on the west coast, and Tertiary conglomerates, sandstones, marls and clays, folded by subsequent upheavals, in many parts of the island.
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  • Like thiosinamine it has a specific action on scar tissue and has been used in urethral strictures.
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  • Thiselton-Dyer has pointed out, what is called "specific stability" is a familiar obstacle to the producer of novelties, but one which he frequently succeeds in breaking down by cultural and other methods.
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  • As yet no solid reason has been alleged for excluding fluctuating variations, on account of their limitation, from the materials for specific change.
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  • There remains open a wide field for inquiry as to the precise relations between selection and variation on the one hand, and their products, specific differences and adaptive structures, but the advance of knowledge has supplied no alternative to the Darwinian principles.
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  • Its specific heat is 0.1946.
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  • It is a dark coloured powder of specific gravity 5.09.
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  • Here only the specific properties of the parabola will be given.
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  • The two carried out some of the earliest thermochemical investigations, devised apparatus for measuring linear and cubical expansions, and employed a modification of Joseph Black's ice calorimeter in a series of determinations of specific heats.
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  • From these specific uses the word has come into general use as a synonym of "aristocrat" or "noble," and implies the possession of such qualities as are generally associated with long descent, hereditary good breeding and the like.
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  • Of these, seven were hospitals for the insane - six for specific parts of the state, viz.
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  • One general conclusion arrived at both by Bauschinger and Johnson was that the strength is much affected by the specific gravity of the timber.
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  • The metal has somewhat the appearance of iron, and has a specific gravity of 6.628, which, after melting, is increased to 6.728.
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  • Its specific gravity is 6.739, and its specific heat 0.0877.
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  • It is a red infusible mass of specific gravity 5.1, and is slowly decomposed by warm water.
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  • It is a white powder of specific gravity 3.912, easily soluble in cold water.
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  • In its original form the poem was the dramatization of a specific and individualized story; in the years of Goethe's friendship with Schiller it was extended to embody the higher strivings of r8th-century humanism; ultimately, as we shall see, it became, in the second part, a vast allegory of human life and activity.
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  • To this relatively conservative bill, which substituted in many instances ad valorem for specific duties, and was intended by its author to be a revenue as well as a protective measure, were added many amendments which made the bill more strongly protectionist, and in some cases were vigorously opposed by Morrill.
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  • However profound the influence of Babylonia may have been, excavation has discovered comparatively few specific traces of it.
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  • Specific influence on the part of Babylonia is not excluded; but the absence of striking points of agreement in other portions of the Old Testament may not be due to anything else than the particular character of the circles to which they belonged.
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  • Though the commercial principles of the United States were far too liberal for acceptance, as such, by powers holding colonies in America, Jefferson won some specific concessions to American trade.
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  • The schools of thought for which they stood have since contended for mastery in American politics: Hamilton's gradually strengthened by the necessities of stronger administration, as time gave widening amplitude and increasing weight to the specific powers - and so to Hamilton's great doctrine of the" implied powers "- of the general government of a growing country; Jefferson's rooted in colonial life, and buttressed by the hopes and convictions of democracy.
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  • Regnault executed a careful redetermination of the specific heats of all the elements obtainable, and of many compounds - solids, liquids and gases.
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  • The word "sea," however, is also used, in a restricted sense, in application to specific parts of the great oceans, more or less clearly defined by a partial land-boundary.
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  • The specific heat of a substance is sometimes defined as the thermal capacity of unit mass, but more often as the ratio of the thermal capacity of unit mass of the substance to that of unit mass of water at some standard temperature.
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  • But the specific heat of water is often stated in terms of other units.
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  • In any case it is necessary to specify the temperature, and sometimes also the pressure, since the specific heat of a substance generally depends to some extent on the external conditions.
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  • This is generally calculated by assuming values for the specific heats of the materials obtained by experiment between loo° C. and 20° C. Since the specific heats of most metals increase rapidly with rise of temperature, the values so obtained are generally too high.
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  • This is a very good method of comparing the mean specific heats over two ranges of temperature such as 0-50, and 50-100, or 0-20 and 20-40, but it is not so suitable as the electric method described below for obtaining the actual specific heat at any point of the range.
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  • A common example of this method is the determination of the specific heat of a liquid by filling a small calorimeter with the liquid, raising it to a convenient temperature, and then setting it to cool in an enclosure at a steady temperature, and observing the time taken to fall through a given range when the conditions have become fairly steady.
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  • Person and Hess avoided the error of water sticking to the ice by using dry ice at various temperatures below o° C., and determining the specific heat of ice as well as the latent heat of fusion.
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  • These discrepancies might, no doubt, be partly explained by differences in the units employed, which are somewhat uncertain, as the specific heat of water changes rapidly in the neighbourhood of o° C; but making all due allowance for this, it remains evident that the method of ice-calorimetry, in spite of its theoretical simplicity, presents grave difficulties in its practical application.
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  • The method requires very delicate weighing, as one calorie corresponds to less than two milligrammes of steam condensed; but the successful application of the method to the very difficult problem of measuring the specific heat of a gas at constant volume, shows that these and other difficulties have been very skilfully overcome.
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  • The application of the method appears to be practically limited to the measurements of specific heat between the atmospheric temperature and loo° C. The results depend on the value assumed for the latent heat of steam, which Joly takes as 536.7 calories, following Regnault.
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  • Joly has himself determined the mean specific heat of water between 12° and zoo° C. by this method, in terms of the latent heat of steam as above given, and finds the result 9952.
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  • These methods have reached their highest development in connexion with the determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat, but they may be applied with great advantage in connexion with other problems, such as the measurement of the variation of specific heat, or of latent heats of fusion or vaporization.
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  • He Paid Greater Attention To The Important Question Of Thermometry, And Extended His Researches Over A Much Wider Range Of Temperature, Namely 5° To 35° C. His Experiments Revealed For The First Time A Diminution In The Specific Heat Of Water With Rise Of Temperature Between O° And 30° C., Amounting To Four Parts In To.
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  • The Result Was To Reduce The Coefficient Of Diminution Of Specific Heat At 15° C. By Nearly One Half, But The Absolute Value At 20° C. Is Practically Unchanged.
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  • Might Be A Small Error In The Direction Of Making The Equivalent Too Great, And That The Specific Heat Might Go On Decreasing To Even 40° C."
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  • In Spite Of The Large Corrections The Results Were Extremely Consistent, And The Value Of The Temperature Coefficient Of The Diminution Of The Specific Heat Of Water, Deduced From The Observed Variation In The Rate Of Rise At Different Points Of The Range 15° To 25°, Agreed With The Value Subsequently Deduced From Rowland'S Experiments Over The Same Range, When His Thermometers Were Reduced To The Same Scale.
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  • Specific Heat Of Mercury By Continuous Electric Method It Is Assumed As A First Approximation That The Heat Loss Is Proportional To The Rise Of Temperature Do, Provided That Do Is Nearly The Same In Both Cases, And That The Distribution Of Temperature In The Apparatus Is The Same For The Same Rise Of Temperature Whatever The Flow Of Liquid.
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  • The Result Calculated On These Assumptions Is Given In The Last Column In Joules, And Also In Calories Of 20° C. The Heatloss In This Example Is Large, Nearly 4.5% Of The Total Supply, Owing To The Small Flow And The Large Rise Of Temperature, But This Correction Was Greatly Reduced In Subsequent Observations On The Specific Heat Of Water By The Same Method.
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  • The Absolute Value Of The Specific Heat Deduced Necessarily Depends On The Absolute Values Of The Electrical Standards Employed In The Investigation.
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  • But For The Determination Of Relative Values Of Specific Heats In Terms Of A Standard Liquid, Or Of The Variations Of Specific Heat Of A Liquid, The Method Depends Only On The Constancy Of The Standards, Which Can Be Readily And Accurately Tested.
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  • Assuming This Value, The Result Found By This Method For The Specific Heat Of Water At 20° C. Agrees With That Of Rowland Within The Probable Limits Of Error.
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  • The First Experiments Of Any Value Were Those Of Regnault In 1847 On The Specific Heat Of Water Between 110° C. And 192° C. They Were Conducted On A Very Large Scale By The Method Of Mixture, But Showed Discrepancies Of The Order Of 0.5%, And The Calculated Results In Many Cases Do Not Agree With The Data.
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  • Regnault Himself Adopted The Formula, S = I 0 00004T 0.0000-0091 2 (Regnault), (3) For The Specific Heat S At Any Temperature T C. In Terms Of The Specific Heat At O° C. Taken As The Standard.
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  • 6, Show A Minimum At 25° C., And A Maximum At 87° C., The Values Being 9935 And 1.0075 Respectively In Terms Of The Mean Specific Heat Between O° And 100° C. He Paid Great Attention To The Thermometry, And The Discrepancies Of Individual Measurements At Any One Point Nowhere Exceed O 3%, But He Did Not Vary The Conditions Of The Experiments Materially, And It Does Not Appear That The Well Known Constant Errors Of The Method Could Have Been Completely Eliminated By The Devices Which He Adopted.
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  • The Specific Heat Itself Can Be Deduced Only By Differentiating The Curve Of Observation, Which Greatly Increases The Uncertainty.
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  • The Peculiar Advantage Of The Electric Method Of Callendar And Barnes, Already Referred To, Is That The Specific Heat Itself Is Determined Over A Range Of 8° To 10° At Each Point, By Adding Accurately Measured Quantities Of Heat To The Water At The Desired Temperature In An Isothermal Enclosure, Under Perfectly Steady Conditions, Without Any Possibility Of Evaporation Or Loss Of Heat In Transference.
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  • Assoc. Report, 1899, with a slight modification Specific Heat Of Water In Terms Of Unit At 20° C. 4.180 Joules to allow for the increase in the specific heat below 20° C. This was estimated in 1899 as being equivalent to the addition of the constant quantity 0.020 to the values of the total heat h of the liquid as reckoned by the parabolic formula (5).
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  • This quantity is now, as the result of further experiments, added to the values of h, and also represented in the formula for the specific heat itself by the cubic term.
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  • The unit of comparison in the following table is taken as the specific heat of water at 20° C. for the reasons given below.
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  • The Value 4.180 Joules At 20° C. Is The Mean Between Rowland'S Corrected Result 4.181 And The Value 4.179, Deduced From The Experiments Of Reynolds And Moorby On The Assumption That The Ratio Of The Mean Specific Heat O° To 100° To That At 20° Is 1.043'6, As Given By The Formulae Representing The Results Of Callendar And Barnes.
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  • The Mean Specific Heat, Over Any Range Of Temperature, May Be Obtained By Integrating The Formulae Between The Limits Required, Or By Taking The Difference Of The Corresponding Values Of The Total Heat H, And Dividing By The Range Of Temperature.
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  • It Must Be Admitted That It Is Desirable To Redetermine The Variation Of The Specific Heat Above 100° C. This Is Very Difficult On Account Of The Steam Pressure, And Could Not Easily Be Accomplished By The Electrical Method.
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  • A Favourite Temperature To Select Is 4° C., The Temperature Of Maximum Density, Since At This Point The Specific Heat At Constant Volume Is The Same As That At Constant Pressure.
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  • But This Is Really Of No Consequence, Since The Specific Heat At Constant Volume Cannot Be Practically Realized.
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  • The Specific Heat At 4° Could Be Accurately Determined At The Mean Over The Range O° To 8° Keeping The Jacket At O° C. But The Change Appears To Be Rather Rapid Near O°, The Temperature Is Inconveniently Low For Ordinary Calorimetric Work, And The Unit At 4° Would Be So Much Larger Than The Specific Heat At Ordinary Temperatures That Nearly All Experiments Would Require Reduction.
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  • The Natural Point To Select Would Be That Of Minimum Specific Heat, But If This Occurs At 40° C. It Would Be Inconveniently High For Practical Realization Except By The Continuous Electrical Method.
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  • It Was Proposed By A Committee Of The British Association To Select The Temperature At Which The Specific Heat Was 4.20O Joules, Leaving The Exact Temperature To Be Subsequently Determined.
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  • A Similar Objection Applies To Selecting The Temperature At Which The Specific Heat Is Equal To Its Mean Value Between 0° And Loo°.
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  • Its Relation To The Calorie At Any Given Temperature, Such As 15° Or 20°, Cannot Be Determined With The Same Degree Of Accuracy As The Ratio Of The Specific Heat At 15° To That At 20°, If The Scale Of Temperature Is Given.
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  • But For Purposes Of Definition It Would Be Necessary To Take The Mean Value Of The Specific Heat Over A Given Range Of Temperature, Preferably At Least 10°, Rather Than The Specific Heat At A Point Which Necessitates Reference To Some Formula Of Reduction For The Rate Of Variation.
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  • The Specific Heat At 15° Would Be Determined With Reference To The Mean Over The Range 10° To 20°, And That At 20° From The Range 15° To 25°.
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  • In The Case Of Solids And Liquids Under Ordinary Conditions Of Pressure, The External Work Of Expansion Is So Small That It May Generally Be Neglected; But With Gases Or Vapours, Or With Liquids Near The Critical Point, The External Work Becomes So Large That It Is Essential To Specify The Conditions Under Which The Specific Heat Is Measured.
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  • The Most Important Cases Are, The Specific Heats (I) At Constant Volume; (2) At Constant Pressure; (3) At Saturation Pressure In The Case Of A Liquid Or Vapour.
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  • Thus The Direct Experimental Evidence Is Somewhat Meagre And Conflicting, But The Question Of The Relation Of The Specific Heats Of Gases Is One Of Great Interest In Connexion With The Kinetic Theory And The Constitution Of The Molecule.
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  • The Well Known Experiments Of Regnault And Wiedemann On The Specific Heat Of Gases At Constant Pressure Agree In Showing That The Molecular Specific Heat, Or The Thermal Capacity Of The Molecular Weight In Grammes, Is Approximately Independent Of The Temperature And Pressure In Case Of The More Stable Diatomic Gases, Such As 112,02, N2, Co, &C., And Has Nearly The Same Value For Each Gas.
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  • The Direct Determination Of The Specific Heat At Constant Volume Is Extremely Difficult, But Has Been Successfully Attempted By Joly With His Steam Calorimeter, In The Case Of Air And C02.
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  • Employing Pressures Between 7 And 27 Atmospheres, He Found That The Specific Heat Of Air Between 10 And Ioo C. Increased Very Slightly With Increase Of Density, But That Of Co 2 Increased Nearly 3% Between 7 And 21 Atmospheres.
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  • The Expansion Per Degree At Constant Pressure Is V/9 = R/P. The External Work Of Expansion Per Degree Is Equal To R, Being The Product Of The Pressure And The Expansion, And Represents The Difference Of The Specific Heats S S, At Constant Pressure And Volume, Assuming As Above That The Internal Work Of Expansion Is Negligible.
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  • If The Molecules Are Supposed To Be Like Smooth, Hard, Elastic Spheres, Incapable Of Receiving Any Other Kind Of Energy Except That Of Translation, The Specific Heat At Constant Volume Would Be The Increase Per Degree Of The Kinetic Energy Namely 3Pv/20=3R/2, That At Constant Pressure Would Be 5R/2, And The Ratio Of The Specific Heats Would Be 5/3 Or 1.666.
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  • For Such Gases, Assuming A Constant Ratio Of Rotation To Translation, The Specific Heat At Low Pressures Would Be Very Nearly Constant.
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  • The Experimental Evidence, However, Is Somewhat Conflicting, And Further Investigations Are Very Desirable On The Variation Of Specific Heat With Temperature.
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  • Given The Specific Heat As A Function Of The Temperature, Its Variation With Pressure May Be Determined From The Characteristic Equation Of The Gas.
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  • This Is The Value Of The Minimum Of Atomic Heat Calculated By Perry From Diatomic Hydrogen, But The Observations Themselves Might Be Equally Well Represented By Taking The Imaginary Limit 3, Since The Quantity Actually Observed Is The Mean Specific Heat Between O° And 182 5° C. Subsequent Experiments On Other Metals At Low Temperatures Did Not Indicate A Similar Diminution Of Specific Heat, So That It May Be Doubted Whether The Atomic Heats Really Approach The Ideal Value At The Absolute Zero.
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  • No Doubt There Must Be Approximate Relations Between The Atomic And Molecular Heats Of Similar Elements And Compounds, But Considering The Great Variations Of Specific Heat With Temperature And Physical State, In Alloys, Mixtures Or Solutions, And In Allotropic Or Other Modifications, It Would Be Idle To Expect That The Specific Heat Of A Compound Could Be Accurately Deduced By Any Simple Additive Process From That Of Its Constituents.
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  • The waters of Baden-Baden are specific in cases of chronic rheumatism and gout, paralysis, neuralgia, skin diseases and various internal complaints, such as stone and uric acid.
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  • Its specific gravity varies according to the method employed for its preparation, the extreme values being 8.279 and 9.25.
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  • Even the manorial system admitted the buying off for money of particular dues in kind and of specific performance of work.
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  • Erdmann, again, has invented an induction from particular predicates to a totality of predicates which he calls " erganzende Induction, " giving as an example, " This body has the colour, extensibility and specific gravity of magnesium; therefore it is magnesium."
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  • Later and more accurate experiments have confirmed the experimental value, and have shown that the limiting value of the specific heat should consequently be somewhat smaller than that given by Maxwell's hypothesis.
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  • The introduction of this correction into the calculations would slightly improve the agreement with Regnault's values of the specific heat and total heat between 100° and 200° C., where they are most trustworthy, but would not materially affect the general nature of the results.
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  • The rate of change of the latent heat is easily deduced from that of the total heat by subtracting the specific heat of the liquid.
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  • Since the specific heat of the liquid increases rapidly at high temperatures, while dH/d0 diminishes, it is clear that the latent heat must diminish more and more rapidly as the critical point is approached.
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  • Regnault's formula for the total heat is here again seen to be inadmissible, as it would make the latent heat of steam vanish at about 870° C. instead of at 365° C. It should be observed, however, that the assumptions made in deducing the above formulae apply only for moderate pressures, and that the formulae cannot be employed up to the critical point owing to the uncertainty of the variation of the specific heats and the cooling effect Q at high pressures beyond the experimental range.
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  • The reason for adopting this method is that the specific volume of a saturated vapour cannot be directly measured with sufficient accuracy on account of the readiness with which it condenses on the surface of the containing vessel.
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  • The specific volumes of superheated vapours may, however, (19) be measured with a satisfactory degree of approximation.
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  • By assuming suitable forms of the characteristic equation to represent the variations of the specific volume within certain limits of pressure and temperature, we may therefore with propriety deduce equations to represent the saturation-pressure, which will certainly be thermodynamically consistent, and will probably give correct numerical results within the assigned limits.
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  • The rate of variation of the latent heat at low pressures is equal to S-s, where s is the specific heat of the liquid.
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  • He proceeds to calculate from this expression the difference of vapour-pressures of ice and water in the immediate neighbourhood of the melting-point, but does not observe that the vapour-pressures themselves may be more accurately calculated for a considerable interval of temperature by means of formula (23), by substituting the appropriate values of the latent heats and specific heats.
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  • Taking for ice and water the following numerical data, L = 674.7, 6 74.7, L 1 =595.2, L r = 79.5, R = o 11 03 cal./deg., po = 4.61 mm., s-S = 519 cal./deg., and assuming the specific heat of ice to be equal to that of steam at constant pressure (which is sufficiently approximate, since the term involving the difference of the specific heats is very small), we obtain the following numerical formulae, by substitution in (23), Ice..
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  • It is generally called Dupre's formula in continental text-books, but he did not give the values of the coefficients in terms of the difference of specific heats of the liquid and vapour.
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  • The close agreement found under these conditions is a very strong confirmation of the correctness of the assumption that a vapour at low pressures does really behave as an ideal gas of constant specific heat.
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  • The approximate equation of Rankine (23) begins to be I or 2% in error at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, owing to the coaggregation of the molecules of the vapour and the variation of the specific heat of the liquid.
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  • Omitting w and neglecting the small variation of the specific heat of the liquid, the result is simply the addition of the term (c-b)/V to formula (23) log p=A+B/B - I - C log B-f-(c-b)IV..
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  • The most uncertain data are the variation of the specific heat of the liquid and the value of the small quantity b in the formula (13).
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  • The effect of variation of the specific heat is more important, but is nearly eliminated by the form of the equation.
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  • It is equivalent, as Callendar (loc. cit.) points out, to supposing that the variation of the specific heat is due to the formation and solution of a mass w/(v-w) of vapour molecules per unit mass of the liquid.
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