Special Sentence Examples

special
  • It's nice to have that special respect.

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  • I have a special board on which I play these games.

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  • You have a very special gift.

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  • It was rude to act this way to hosts who had invited them into their home on such a special occasion.

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  • Grand is the characteristic, in their conception, of some special animals called "heroes."

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  • I have a special mission for you.

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  • The biographies and special national histories are like paper money.

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  • Certainly she wanted to feel special to Alex - and did.

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  • She had learned the printed letters, and for some time had amused herself by making simple sentences, using slips on which the words were printed in raised letters; but these sentences had no special relation to one another.

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  • She's a very special person.

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  • The evening slipped by and when the band took a break, special requests were played on a stereo.

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  • Your special gift will protect you.

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  • It's one of my special talents, he said.

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  • As before he was absent-minded and seemed occupied not with what was before his eyes but with something special of his own.

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  • That evening she prepared a special supper for Alex and dressed in the white sundress he liked so well.

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  • It may be supposed that originally the public roads, when worn by the cartage of the coal, were repaired by laying planks of timber at the bottom of the ruts, and that then the planks were laid on the surface of special roads or ways' formed between the collieries and the river.

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  • Besides the system of charges thus prescribed in the classification and rate-sheet, each tariff provides for a certain number of special rates or charges made for particular lines of trade in certain localities, independently of their relation to the general system.

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  • A special class of Roman prelatures exist at Rome, endowed as a kind of ecclesiastical majority to which those members of certain families who are destined for the clerical life naturally succeed.

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  • The real ruler and the chief officers of the state were members of the Tupou family, from which also the wife of the Tui Tonga was always chosen, whose descendants through the female line had special honours and privileges, under the title of tamaha, recalling the vasu of Fiji.

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  • The Leibzoll (body-tax) was also abolished, in addition to the special law-taxes, the passport duty, the nightduty and all similiar imposts which had stamped the Jews as outcast, for they were now (Dec. 19) to have equal rights with the Christian inhabitants."

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  • And first as to Italy, where the Jews in a special degree have identified themselves with the national life.

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  • As time went on, a more progressive policy intervened, the special form of Jewish oath was abolished in 1846, and in 1848, as a result of the revolutionary movement in which Jews played an active part, legislation took a more liberal turn.

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  • But gradually the title was extended to ecclesiastical persons having a prominent office even without jurisdiction, and later still it has come to be applied to ecclesiastical persons marked by some special honour though without any definite office or jurisdiction.

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  • This circumstance deserves attention owing to the special connexion traditionally existing between the Minyans of Iolcus and those of Orchomenus, the point of all others on this side where the early Cretan influence seems most to have taken root.

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  • In contrast to the palace of Phaestus, the contents of the royal villa proved exceptionally rich, and derive a special interest from the fact that the catastrophe which overwhelmed the building belongs to a somewhat earlier part of the Late Minoan age than that which overwhelmed Cnossus and Phaestus.

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  • Both the signet types and the other objects of art here discovered display the fresh naturalism that characterizes in a special way the first Late Minoan period.

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  • It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.

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  • The sanctity of special times was an idea absent from the minds of the first Christians.

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  • In accordance with authority conferred by the home-rule amendment of the state constitution, a charter, submitted by a special commission, was accepted by the citizens on July I 1913.

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  • It meets in regular session quadrennially, in special sessions in the middle of the interval to pass the appropriation and revenue bills, and in extraordinary session whenever the governor sees fit to call it.

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  • The constitution goes into minute detail in prohibiting local, private and special legislation.

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  • The public school system, established in 1846, never was universal, because of special legislation for various counties; public education was retarded during the Civil War and the Reconstruction period (when immense sums appropriated for schools were grossly mismanaged), but conditions gradually improved after 1875, especially through the concentration of schools.

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  • Congress granted another township (thirty-six sections) for the university in 1892, and its income is supplemented by legislative appropriations for current expenses and special needs.

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  • This body is not, however, a special board, as in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, but a kind of administrative cabinet as in Iowa, consisting of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, and the superintendent of 2 The changes made in 1875 were adopted in a convention, were ratified in 1876, and were so numerous that the amended constitution is frequently referred to as the Constitution of 1876.

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  • The word Orchis is used in a special sense to denote a particular genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae); very frequently, also, it is employed in a more general way to indicate any member of that large and very interesting group. It will be convenient here to use the word Orchis as applying to that particular genus which gives its name to the order or family, and to employ the term "orchid" in the less precise sense.

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  • Although for the purposes of geographical nomenclature, boundaries formed by a coast-line - that is, by depressions of the earth's solid crust below the ocean level - are most easily recog- Political nized and are of special convenience; and although such divisions.

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  • Although the succession of the periodical winds follows the progress of the seasons as just described, the changes in the wind's direction everywhere take place under the operation of special local influences which often disguise the more general law, and make it difficult to trace.

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  • Its animals and plants have a special character suited to the peculiar climatal conditions, more closely allied to those of the adjacent northern Siberian tract than of the other bordering regions.

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  • Much still remains to be done in the exploration of China and eastern Asia; but it is known that many of the special forms of this region extend to the Himalaya, while others clearly indicate a connexion with North America.

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  • The reindeer of northern Siberia call also for special notice; they are used for the saddle as well as for draught.

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  • It amounts to this, that Asiatics stand on a higher level than the natives of Africa or America, but do not possess the special material civilization of western Europe.

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  • Where Chinese influence had full play it introduced Confucianism, a special style in art and the Chinese system of writing.

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  • Even more than Buddhism Islam has carried with it a special style of art and civilization.

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  • It is nevertheless certain that during the first half of 1794 he was very strictly secluded; he had no special guardian, but was under the charge of guards changed from day to day.

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  • Hugh, who was probably one of William the Conqueror's companions, was made earl of Chester in 1071; he had special privileges in his earldom, and he held land in twenty counties.

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  • The manufacture of cloth had disappeared, the harbour is silted up, and there is no special local industry.

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  • Another son, Thomas Ewing (1829-1896), studied at Brown University in1852-1854(in 1894, by a special vote, he was placed on the list of graduates in the class of 1856); he was a lawyer and a freestate politician in Kansas in 1857-1861, and was the first chiefjustice of the Kansas supreme court (1861-1862).

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  • In others, it lies in the coelom, often surrounded by a special and occasionally rather thick sheath.

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  • Special sacs developed from the intersegmental septa lodge the developing ova and sperm.

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  • Special gonad ducts always present.

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  • Beneath this again is a distinct peritoneum lining the coelom, which appears to be wanting as a special layer in some Polychaetes (Benham, Gilson).

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  • The intervening segments contain the genitalia, which are on the Oligochaeta plan in that the gonads are independent of their ducts and that there are special spermathecae, one pair.

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  • What appears the most probable solution is that which regards Lancelot as the hero of an independent and widely diffused folk-tale, which, owing to certain special circumstances, was brought into contact with, and incorporated in, the Arthurian tradition.

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  • The logical conclusion appears to be that the Charrette poem is a "Tendenz-Schrift," composed under certain special conditions, in response to a special demand.

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  • Malory's version of the Charrette adventure differs in many respects from any other extant form, and the source of this special section of his work is still a question of debate among scholars.

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  • With the special commissioner from Great Britain, Lord Ashburton, he concluded the treaty of 1842 known as the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.

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  • He thus superseded Warham, who was legatus flatus, in ecclesiastical authority; and though legates a latere were supposed to exercise only special and temporary powers, Wolsey secured the practical permanence of his office.

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  • They are sometimes in the position of landlords, but often they are the assignees of the land revenue, which they are entitled under special grants to collect for themselves instead of for government, paying merely a small sum to Government by way of quit-rent.

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  • Archbishop Laud sent for Taylor to preach before him at Lambeth, and took the young man under his special protection.

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  • Next he sought to prepare the inactive form of the acid by artificial means; and after great and long-continued labour he succeeded, and was led to the commencement of his classical researches on fermentation, by the observation that when the inactive acid was placed in contact with a special form of mould (Penicillium glaucum) the right-handed acid alone was destroyed, the left-handed variety remained unchanged.

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  • Special mention, however, must be made of the most important of them all - his biography of Sir Isaac Newton.

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  • His special work was the exposition of the Old and New Testaments in the light of his great Oriental learning and according to his characteristic principle of "natural explanation."

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  • The Peak District of the north, on the other hand, though inferior in grandeur to the mountainous Lake District, presents some of the finest hill scenery in England, deriving a special beauty from the richly wooded glens and valleys, such as those of Castleton, Glossop, Dovedale and Millersdale.

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  • On the Thursday before Easter a special church service is celebrated, and the wells are beautifully ornamented with flowers, prayers being offered at each.

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  • The Sale of Food and Drugs Act 1899 has special reference in its earlier sections to the trade in dairy produce and margarine.

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  • Of the twenty plots into which this land is divided, two were left without manure from the outset, two received ordinary farmyard manure for a series of years, whilst the remainder each received a different description of artificial or chemical manure, the same being, except in special cases, applied year after year on the same plot.

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  • It is equally true that, when under the influence of special local or other demand - proximity to towns, easy railway or other communication, for example - the products which would otherwise be retained on the farm are exported from it, the import of town or other manures is generally an essential condition of such practice.

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  • In 1875, at Taunton, special prizes were awarded for onehorse and two-horse mowing-machines, hay-making machines, horse-rakes (self-acting and not self-acting), guards to the drums of threshing-machines, and combined guards and feeders to the drums of threshing-machines.

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  • In 1880 at Carlisle, and in 1881 at Derby, the special awards were for broadside steam-diggers and string sheaf-binders respectively.

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  • In 1891, at Doncaster, special prizes were given for combined portable threshing and finishing machines, and cream separators (hand and power).

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  • In 1897, at Manchester, special awards were made for fruit baskets and milk-testers.

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  • In 1899, at Maidstone, special prizes were offered for machines for washing hops with liquid insecticides, cream separators (power and hand), machines for the evaporation of fruit and vegetables, and packages for the carriage of (a) soft fruit, (b) hard fruit.

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  • And in the same spirit Mill desired, whilst incorporating all the results arrived at in the special science by Smith's successors, to exhibit purely economic phenomena in relation to the most advanced conceptions of his own time in the general philosophy of society, as Smith had done in reference to the philosophy of his century.

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  • It is thus the study of the life of communities with special reference to one side of their activity.

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  • But at any moment special causes may bring into the field of economic inquiry whole departments of life which have hitherto been legitimately ignored.

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  • In our own day we have had many illustrations of the manner in which special circumstances may at once bring an almost unnoticed series of scientific investigations into direct and vital relation with the business world.

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  • The methods applied to economics in the 18th and the early part of the 19th century were no more invented with a special view to that subject than the principles of early railway legislation, in the domain.

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  • Competition, in the sense in which the word is still used in many economic works, is merely a special case of the struggle for survival, and, from its limitation, does not go far towards explaining the actual working of modern institutions.

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  • Suppose, now, we ignore the writers who were inaugurating neit methods, investigating special problems or laboriously collecting facts, and concentrate attention on the dominant school, with its long series of writers from Adam Smith to John Stuart Mill.

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  • It is much more likely than not that some principle which for the moment seems new, some distinction which we may flatter ourselves has not been observed before, has been pointed out over and over again by previous writers, although, owing to special circumstances, it may not have received the notice it deserved.

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  • In general theory special studies by other men cannot play the same part as they do in historical and statistical work.

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  • In historical and statistical investigation, or in special studies of particular subjects, it is possible, given the pecuniary means, to organize a whole army of skilled assistants, and with ordinary care to combine the results of their separate efforts.

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  • A complete restatement could only be undertaken by a group of men, trained in much the same conditions, accustomed to think and work together, each one engaged on a special department, but all acting under the control of one master-mind.

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  • It is clear that in the interests of general economic theory we require a vast number of special studies before an adequate restatement can be undertaken.

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  • The relations between general theory and special studies conducted on the lines we have indicated have completely changed.

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  • It they are to be tested, an indefinitely large number of special studies must be made, for which the original materials must be collected and examined.

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  • That is, original investigation of special problems has to be carried out on a more gigantic scale than any economist of the historical school ever dreamt of or the world requires, with the certain knowledge that at the end of it all the general theory will not correspond with the facts of life.

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  • For there is all the difference in the world between using a body of general theory as an indication of the factors to be considered in the study of a special problem, and undertaking special studies with a view to testing the general theory.

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  • The general theory which we require should be sketched in firm and clear outline, leaving the detailed qualifications of broad principles to special studies, where they can be dealt with if it is necessary or desirable, and examined by statistical and other tests.

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  • The refinements of economic analysis, as distinguished from its broader achievements, should be reserved for special studies, in which a technical scientific terminology, specially devised, can be used without danger of misconception.

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  • The variety of special developments of structure accompanying the atrophy of typical organs in the Opisthobranchia and general degeneration of organization is very great.

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  • Such special irregularities in the development of ganglia upon the visceral loop, and on one or more of the main nerves connected with it, are very frequent.

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  • Apart from decided signs of proficiency in mathematics, he showed no special ability.

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  • Told off to serve in the army of Nice, he was detained by a special order of the commissioners of the Convention, Saliceti and Gasparin, who, hearing of the severe wound sustained by Dommartin, the commander of the artillery of the republican forces before Toulon, ordered Bonaparte to take his place.

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  • Talleyrand, Roederer, Cambaceres and Real were among his special confidants, his brothers Joseph and Lucien also giving useful advice.

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  • Imprecations uttered by Lucien against the brigands and traitors in the pay of England decided the grenadiers of the Council to march against the deputies whom it was their special duty to protect.

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  • In this connexion we may note that the disturbances, mainly royalist but sometimes Jacobinical, in several districts of France enabled Bonaparte to propose the establishment in the troubled districts of special tribunals for the trial of all offences tending to disturb the general peace.

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  • In the first of these spheres the victory of Marengo (14th of June 1800) was of special importance, as it consolidated the reputation of Bonaparte at a time when republican opposition was gathering strength.

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  • The measure proved to be the deportation of the leading Jacobins; and a cloak of legality was cast over this extraordinary proceeding by a special decree of the senate (avowedly the guardian of the constitution) that this act of the government was a "measure tending to preserve the constitution" (5th of January 1801).

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  • The institution of the special tribunals (already referred to), which enabled Bonaparte to supersede local government in thirty-two of the departments, was another outcome of the bomb conspiracy.

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  • After imposing these harsh terms on his enemy, the conqueror might naturally have shown clemency to the Tirolese leader, Andreas Hofer; but that brave mountaineer, when betrayed by a friend, was sentenced to death at Mantua owing to the arrival of a special message to that effect from Napoleon.

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  • But both in the House and at Dundee he emphatically declared that Ulster, though she had a claim to special treatment, must not be allowed to bar the way.

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  • Carrying on the same analytical method into the special department of moral philosophy, Green held that ethics applies to the peculiar conditions of social life that investigation into man's nature which metaphysics began.

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  • Social union is the indispensable condition of the development of the special capacities of the individual members.

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  • Of the seven days of the week, next to Sunday (habshaba) Thursday has a special sacredness as the day of Hibil Ziva.

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  • It is true that Cuchulinn seems to stand in a special relation to the Tuatha De Danann leader, the god Lug, but in primitive societies there is always a tendency to ascribe a divine parentage to men who stand out pre-eminently in prowess beyond their fellows.

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  • In the relative development and shape of the various segments of the leg there is almost endless variety, dependent on the order to which the insect belongs, and the special function - walking, running, climbing, digging or swimming - for which the limb is adapted.

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  • In connexion with the central nervous system there are usually numerous organs of special sense.

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  • They lead into chambers, formed by inpushing of the cuticle, whose delicate inner walls are in contact with air-tubes; on the outer surface of these latter are ridges, along which the special nerveendings are arranged.

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  • These spiracles have firm chitinous edges, and can be closed by valves moved by special muscles.

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  • In aquatic insects various devices for obtaining or entangling air are found; these modifications are described in the special articles on the various orders of insects (Coleoptera, Hemiptera, &c.).

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  • Some of these glands may be modified for special purposes - as silk-producing glands in caterpillars or as poisonglands in blood-sucking flies and bugs.

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  • Hence we are inclined to look on the imaginal disks as cellular areas that possess in a latent condition the powers of growth and development that exist in the embryo, powers that only become evident in certain special conditions of the organism.

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  • A much more thorough appreciation than we yet possess of the phenomena in these cases is necessary in order completely to demonstrate the special characteristics of the holometabolous transformation.

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  • For details, the reader may consult the special articles on the various orders and groups of insects.

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  • For further classificatory details, reference must be made to the special articles on the various orders.

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  • Brauer in his arrangement of these orders laid special stress on the nature of the metamorphosis, and was the first to draw attention to the number of Malpighian tubes as of importance in classification.

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  • Of special interest are cockroachlike forms, with two pairs of similar membranous wings and a long ovipositor, and gigantic insects allied to the Odonata, that measured 2 ft.

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  • Further details of the geological history of the Hexapoda will be found in the special articles on the various orders.

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  • But a survey of the Hexapoda as a whole, and especially a comparative study of the tracheal system, can hardly leave room for doubt that this system is primitively adapted for atmospheric breathing, and that the presence of tracheal gills in larvae must be regarded as a special adaptation for temporary aquatic life.

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  • Further references will be found appended to the special articles on the orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, &C).

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  • On reviewing the progress of ornithology since the end of the 18th century, the first thing that will strike us is the fact that general works, though still undertaken, have become proportionally fewer, while special works, whether relating to the ornithic portion of the fauna of any particular country, or limited to certain groups of birds - works to which the name of " Monograph " has become wholly restricted - have become far more numerous.

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  • Of special works relating to the British West Indies, C. Waterton's well-known Wanderings has passed through several editions since its first appearance in 1825, and must be mentioned here, West though, strictly speaking, much of the country he traversed was not British territory.

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  • Special mention should be made of the following works most of which have appeared since America.

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  • Hitherto our attention has been given wholly to Germany and France, for the chief ornithologists of Britain were occupying themselves at this time in a very useless way - not paying due heed at this time to the internal structure of birds, and some excellent descriptive memoirs on special forms had appeared from their pens, to say nothing of more than one general treatise on ornithic anatomy.

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  • Looking on Miller's labours as we now can, we see that such errors as he committed are chiefly due to his want of special knowledge of ornithology, combined with the absence in several instances of sufficient materials for investigation.

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  • Often the ass was a mere incident in the Feast of Fools; but sometimes he was the occasion of a special festival, ridiculous enough to modern notions, but by no means intended in an irreverent spirit.

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  • As an article of food the boar's head was long considered a special delicacy, and its serving was attended with much ceremonial.

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  • Special notes of the style are the central grouping of the windows, leaving comparatively solid spaces on each side, which gives the effect of FIG.

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  • They had their special altar dedicated to the patron of the gild, a private buryingplace, and a room in which they held their chapter.

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  • Special progress has been made in the production of mirrors, electric lamps, candelabra and mosaics.

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  • The committee secured much verde antico and porphyry for the restoration of the pavement, in place of the common marbles which it had been intended to use, and organized special workshops for the restoration and preservation of the ancient mosaics, which it had been intended to detach and replace.

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  • A special brick structure was erected in the public gardens to receive the works of contemporary artists, both Italian and foreign.

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  • Under the constitution of 1802, municipal corporations were established by special legislation.

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  • The system of classification adopted in time became so elaborate that many municipalities became isolated, each in a separate class, and the evils of special legislation were revived.

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  • Of the two chief cities, Cleveland (under a special act providing for the government of Columbus and Toledo, also) in1892-1902was governed under the federal plan, which centralized power in the hands of the mayor; in Cincinnati there was an almost hopeless diffusion of responsibility among the council and various executive boards.

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  • The supreme court in June 1902 decided that practically all the existing municipal legislation was special in character and was therefore unconstitutional.

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  • School districts fall into four classes - cities, villages, townships and special districts - each of which has its own board of education elected by popular vote.

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  • A special tax is levied for the benefit of the sinking fund - one-tenth of a mill in 1909.

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  • The university fund is derived from special taxes levied for the four institutions which receive aid from the state; in 1909 the levy was 0.245 mills and the total receipts were $582,843.

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  • Several banks and trading houses with banking privileges were incorporated by special statutes between 1803 and 1817.

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  • Especially complicated was the ancient Babylonian demonology; all the petty annoyances of life - a sudden fall, a headache, a quarrel - were set down to the agency of fiends; all the stronger emotions - love, hate, jealousy and so on - were regarded as the work of demons; in fact so numerous were they, that there were special fiends for various parts of the human body - one for the head, another for the neck, and so on.

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  • This theory of disease disappeared sooner than did the belief in possession; the energumens (EVEp-yoiwEvoc) of the early Christian church, who were under the care of a special clerical order of exorcists, testify to a belief in possession; but the demon theory of disease receives no recognition; the energumens find their analogues in the converts of missionaries in China, Africa and elsewhere.

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  • The beach reservations of the metropolitan park system at Revere and Nantasket, and several smaller city beaches are a special feature of this service.

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  • Hadrian treated the city with special favour, and on the occasion of his visit in A.D.

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  • Sigwart, in the preface to the first edition of his Logic, makes "special mention" of the assistance he obtained from this book.

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  • While studying theology at the university he devoted special attention to Biblical archaeology.

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  • These glands are represented externally by a special plate, the cribellum, which lies in front of the ordinary spinning mamillae, and by a comb of short bristles, the calamistrum, placed in the penultimate segment of the left of the last pair.

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  • So far as is known, however, only the large spiders belonging to this group possess this special means of defence, and in many other species this is accompanied by highly-developed stridulating organs resembling those of rattlesnakes and scorpions in function.

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  • There are also special rules of law with reference to leases by persons having only a limited interest in the property leased, e.g.

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  • Special powers of granting leases are conferred by statute on trustees.

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  • Agricultural leases usually contain special provisions as to the order of cropping, the proper stocking of the farm, and the rights of the incoming and outgoing tenant with regard to the waygoing crop. Where the rent is in money, it is generally payable at Whitsunday and Martinmas - the two " legal terms."

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  • The Crofters' Holdings (Scotland) Acts 1886, 1887 and 1888, confer on " crofters " special rights.

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  • As the number of species of insects is believed to exceed that of all other animals taken together, it is no wonder that their study should form a special division of zoology with a distinctive name.

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  • Graber turned their attention to the detailed investigation of some one species or to special points in the structure of some particular organs, using for the elucidation of their subject the ever-improving microscopical methods of research.

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  • Direct collection of taxes by imperial procurators was substituted for the system of farming, and a special official (advocatus fisci) was instituted to look after the interests of the imperial treasury.

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  • The 26 special maps are drawn on a rectangular projection.

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  • The Book of Discipline in its successive printed editions from 1783 to 1906 contains the working rules of the organization, and also a compilation of testimonies borne by the Society at different periods, to important points of Christian truth, and often called forth by the special circumstances of the time.

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  • The special nature of the "axioms" which constitute geometry is considered in the article Geometry (Axioms).

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  • Under the general heading "Analysis" occur the subheadings "Foundations of Analysis," with the topics theory of functions of real variables, series and other infinite processes, principles and elements of the differential and of the integral calculus, definite integrals, and calculus of variations; "Theory of Functions of Complex Variables," with the topics functions of one variable and of several variables; "Algebraic Functions and their Integrals," with the topics algebraic functions of one and of several variables, elliptic functions and single theta functions, Abelian integrals; "Other Special Functions," with the topics Euler's, Legendre's, Bessel's and automorphic functions; "Differential Equations," with the topics existence theorems, methods of solution, general theory; "Differential Forms and Differential Invariants," with the topics differential forms, including Pfaffians, transformation of differential forms, including tangential (or contact) transformations, differential invariants; "Analytical Methods connected with Physical Subjects," with the topics harmonic analysis, Fourier's series, the differential equations of applied mathematics, Dirichlet's problem; "Difference Equations and Functional Equations," with the topics recurring series, solution of equations of finite differences and functional equations.

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  • A group is a class of relations possessing a special property.

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  • Since 1898 special statistics have been drawn up respecting their trade also with Austria and Hungary.

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  • The Franciscan church, now converted into a military storehouse, belongs to the 12th century, but there are no other buildings of special interest.

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  • For superior education there is (1) the university of Constantinople, with its four faculties of letters, science, law and medicine; and (2) special schools, including (a) the normal school for training teachers, (b) the civil imperial school, (c) the school of the fine arts and (d) the imperial schools of medicine.

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  • Allowing for certain battalions unformed, there are altogether 309 nizam battalions; 20 separate chasseur battalions, of four companies each; 4 special chasseur battalions stationed on the Bulgarian frontier - total, 333 battalions in the first line.

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  • For the introduction of improvements something, however, was done by the creation in 1892 of a special ministry of agriculture, to which is attached the department of mines and forests, formerly under the minister of finance.

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  • The more special industries of Turkey are tanning, and the manufacture of muslin, velvet, silk, carpets and ornamental weapons.

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  • The budget of Ali Aga is almost identical with that of Eyubi Effendi, and is worthy of special note for the conclusions which accompanied it, and which although drawn up 250 years ago, described with striking accuracy some of the very ills from which Turkish finance was suffering throughout the reign of Abd-ul-Hamid.

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  • Special instructions and regulations determined the latitude left to each department in the distribution of the credits accorded to it among its various heads of expenditure, the degree of responsibility of the functionaries within each department and the relations regarding finance and accounts between each department and its dependencies.

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  • In 1905 financial resources had to be found for the special administration of the three European vilayets as insisted upon by the powers, and to this end the Porte initiated negotiations with the latter to increase the import duties by 3%.

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  • In the previous budget there had been a special heading, " Proceeds of Domains transferred from the Civil List," estimated to produce ET620,233, which may have been intended to include all the various receipts above enumerated.

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  • The Public Debt Administration plays so considerable a part in the finances of the Ottoman Empire, and its history is of such importance that a special section of this article will be devoted to it below.

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  • No other items in the budget call for special remark, but in order that the information given may be complete, each head of expenditure is shown separately below, and the budget for 1910-1911, as first placed before the Turkish parliament, presents the following picture, from which it may be observed that the public debt absorbs 26% of the revenue, war service 38% and civil services 36%.

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  • Revenues composing the second class such as the tapu (registration tax) do not vary, unless by special decree, and the assessment is automatic.

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  • The lottery bonds receive a special treatment both in regard to interest and sinking fund; full information as to the intricate arrangements made for these bonds will be found in the decree of Muharrem and the published reports of the council of administration of the Ottoman public debt.

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  • In this manner an annuity of £T159,500 was set free, of which £Ti i,000 per annum was allotted as " extraordinary sinking fund " to series A and £T49,500 per annum each to series B, C and D; the lottery bonds were originally excluded from this arrangement, and special compensation was granted to these later.

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  • Each series receives the benefit of the interest on bonds belonging to it amortized by this special annuity.

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  • Further special stipulations regarding the Turkish lottery bonds were made, but these are, as before, omitted.

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  • The vakufs are administered by a special ministerial department (evkaf nazareti), whose property, on behalf of the state, they theoretically are.

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  • The various special dues payable on vakuf form too long a list to be inserted; the highest is 30 per mille.

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  • For the discovery of mines, special permits of research, on which there is a fee of £T5 to £T 15, are necessary; full details of the requisite formalities are given in the law.

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  • He was succeeded by his brother Osman, whose three years' reign w as marked by no political event of special 1754-1757.

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  • The Ottoman Empire thus remained outside the European concert; Russia maintained her claim to a special right of isolated intervention in its affairs; and the renewal of war between Russia and Turkey was only postponed by the preoccupation of Alexander with his dream of the " Confederation of Europe."

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  • Special state schools of medicine, arts, science, crafts, &c., have been created successively, and in 1901 a university was founded.

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  • Educational affairs in the provinces are now superintended by special officials.

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  • Turkey had originally maintained, no representatives abroad, and appointed such only for special occasions as e.g.

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  • The organic law for Crete was to be carried out, and special laws enacted for other parts of Turkey.

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  • The history of his youth reveals no special predilection for the military service - the bent of his mind was political far more than military, but unlike the politicians of his epoch he consistently applied scientific and mathematical methods to his theories, and desired above all things a knowledge of facts in their true relation to one another.

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  • In 1903 there was considerable discussion as to the placing of the line under international control, and the question aroused special interest in England in view of the short route which the line would provide to India, in connexion with fast steamship services in the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf.

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  • He made a special study of the philosophers.

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  • But the movements of the body are not analogous to the movements of matter; they are caused by a special immaterial force, the soul.

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  • In October 1908, at a special election, the security franchise was invalidated, and this seemed to have the effect of dissolving the lease held by the Municipal Traction Co., and of ending the city's experiment in operating (indirectly) the street car lines.

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  • Previous to that almost the only special report was the misleading one of Lieut.

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  • Maw, explored the central part of the Great Atlas with the special object of investigating its flora and determining its relation to that of the mountains of Europe.

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  • In 479 he was re-elected strategus, and invested with special powers as commander of the Athenian contingent at Plataea; he is also said to have judiciously suppressed a conspiracy among some oligarchic malcontents in the army, and to have played a prominent part in arranging for the celebration of the victory.

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  • The first step towards the modern improvement of the town was taken in 1774, when a special act was obtained for the purpose.

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  • A third Epidaurus was situated in Illyricum, on the site of the present Ragusa Vecchia; but it is not mentioned till the time of the civil wars of Pompey and Caesar, and has no special interest.

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  • He was sentenced to a year's imprisonment, but was released in six months through the intervention of Thiers, who sent him on a special mission to the United States to study the question of land and water transport.

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  • The danger of loss from forest fires, such as that of 1894, emphasized the necessity of forest preservation, and resulted (1895) in the creation of a special state department with a forest commissioner and five wardens with power to enforce upon corporations and individuals a strict observance of the forestry laws, the good effects of the law being evidenced by the fact that the fire losses in forest lands for the first twelve years of its operation averaged only $31,000 a year.

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  • In the usage of the Catholic Church, both East and West, though the benediction as defined above has its place as between one Christian and another, it has also a special place in the sacramental system in virtue of the special powers of blessing vested in the priesthood.

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  • Both by Catholics and by Protestants blessings may be applied to things inanimate as well as animate; but while in the reformed Churches this involves no more than an appeal to God for a special blessing, or a solemn "setting apart" of persons or objects for sacred purpoes, in the Catholic idea it implies a special power, conferred by God, of the priests over the invisible forces of evil.

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  • There is much to be said in favour of the view entertained by some entomologists that the structural and developmental characteristics of may-flies are sufficiently peculiar to warrant the formation for them of a special order of insects, for which the names Agnatha, Plectoptera and Ephemeroptera have been proposed.

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  • A good deal of special investigation relating to naval and especially submarine warfare was carried on during 1914-8, but the results of this confidential work were not published.

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  • On this account the animal was subsequently placed by Gegenbaur in a special class of Vermes, the Enteropneusta.

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  • The collar-pores are remarkable for their constancy; this is probably owing to the fact that they have become adapted to a special function, the inhalation of water to render the collar turgid during progression.

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  • The dorsal epidermal nerve-tract is continued in front into the ventral wall of the collar nerve-tube, and at the point of junction there is a circular commissural thickening following the posterior rim of the collar and affording a special connexion between the dorsal and ventral nervetracts.

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  • It would appear that while the direct development throws light upon the special plan of organization of the Enteropneusta, the indirect development affords a clue to their possible derivation.

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  • The St Katharinenkirche and the St Jakobikirche are the only surviving medieval churches, but neither is of special interest.

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  • Of the numerous other churches, Evangelical, Roman Catholic and Anglican, none are of special interest.

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  • From several European crowned heads he received, at various times, marks of special distinction, and the empress Maria Theresa granted him a yearly pension of Too sequins (50).

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  • Ecclesiastical vestments, with which the present article is solely concerned, are the special articles of costume worn by the officers of the Christian Church "at all times of their ministration" - to quote the Ornaments Rubric of the English Book of Common Prayer, i.e.

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  • Hitherto the chasuble had been worn indifferently by all ministers at the eucharist, even by the acolytes; it had been worn also at processions and other non-liturgical functions; it was now exalted into the mass vestment par excellence, worn by the celebrant only, or by his immediate assistants (deacon and subdeacon) only on very special occasions.

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  • It is now used only by the bishops of Eichstatt, Cracow, Paderborn and Toul, by the special concession of various popes.

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  • These are generally ensigns of dignity; their form and use varies in different Churches, and they often represent special privileges conferred by the popes, e.g.

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  • White is also worn during the octaves of these festivals, on ordinary days (for which no special colour is provided) between Easter and Whitsuntide, at certain special masses connected with the saints falling under the above category, and at bridal masses.

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  • Volumetric methods are used, but the uncertainty of the end of the reaction has led to the suggestion of special indicators, or of determining the amount of cuprous oxide gravimetrically.

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  • Up to the year 1862 not only was the fortress of Belgrade garrisoned by Turkish troops, but the Danubian slope of the town was inhabited by Turks, living under a special Turkish administration, while the modern part of the town (the plateau of the ridge and the western slope) was inhabited by Servians living under their own authorities.

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  • Nevada City was first incorporated in 1851 under a special act of the legislature (repealed in 1852); it was reincorporated in 1856 and again in 1878.

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  • Africa, can, however, only be enforced by special administrative machinery and at considerable expense, and this legislative action can only be regarded as temporary and preliminary to the establishment of plantations of rubber trees, which are not only easier to control, but the trees are less liable to injury from careless tapping.

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  • The seeds readily lose their vitality, and on this account need special care in transport.

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  • Instead of the axe or large knives which frequently inflicted serious damage to the trees, special small knives and prickers are now employed so constructed as to avoid injury to the tree through making a larger incision than is necessary, and without penetrating into the wood below the laticiferous layer.

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  • The manufacture of springs, valves and washers does not require any very special notice, these articles being generally fashioned out of mixed rubber, and vulcanized either in moulds or in powdered French chalk.

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  • Platinum, palladium and tin are occasionally deposited for special purposes.

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  • Elmore, Dumoulin, Cowper-Coles and others have prepared copper cylinders and plates by depositing copper on rotating mandrels with special arrangements.

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  • The special features of the language and partly also of the national character are due to the earliest settlers, who came mostly from northern Russia.

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  • Middendorff's journey (1844-1845) to north-eastern Siberia - contemporaneous with Castren's journeys for the special study of the Ural-Altaian languages - directed attention to the far north and awakened interest in the Amur, the basin of which soon became the scene of the expeditions of Akhte and Schwarz (1852), and later on (1854-1857) of the Siberian expedition to which we owe so marked an advance in our knowledge of East Siberia.

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  • There is a special marginal nerve running round the edge of the mantle, but the connexion of this with the rest of the nervous system is not clear; probably it is merely another concentration of the diffused sub-ectodermal nervous fibrils.

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  • The chitinous chaetae have their origin in special ectodermal pits, at the base of which is one large cell which is thought to secrete the chaeta, as in Chaetopods.

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  • The pedicle passes out at right angles to the plane of junction of the valves of the shell; the opening is confined to the ventral valve, and may take the form of a slit, or may be closed by the development of a special plate called the listrium, or by a pseudo-deltidium.

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  • By the canon law all resignation bonds were simoniacal, and in 1826 the House of Lords held that all resignation bonds, general or special, were illegal.

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  • Special bonds have since, however, been to a limited extent sanctioned by law.

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  • The intendants, by an exercise of their general or special powers, took the place of the elus, and delegated commissaires aux tailles (commissaries of the taille) for the assessment of the parishes, who guided and supervised the elected collectors - for the most part ignorant and partial peasants.

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  • Certain convariants of the quintic involve the same determinant factors as appeared in the system of the quartic; these are f, H, i, T and j, and are of special importance.

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  • On reaching his sixteenth year he began his studies at the university of Berlin, paying special attention to theology and the Talmud.

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  • The other objections, however, remain, and have provoked a variety of theories from Old Testament scholars, of which three call for special notice.

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  • From the 11th century onward, they were governed by their own special customs or fors.

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  • The slag is a waste product, and the flue-dust, collected by special devices in dust-chambers, is briquetted by machinery, with lime as a bond, and then resmelted with the ore-charge.

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  • Glanvill's first work (a passage in which suggested the theme of Matthew Arnold's Scholar Gipsy), The Vanity of Dogmatizing, or Confidence in Opinions, manifested in a Discourse of the shortness and uncertainty of our Knowledge, and its Causes, with Reflexions on Peripateticism, and an Apology for Philosophy (1661), is interesting as showing one special direction in which the new method of the Cartesian philosophy might be developed.

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  • It is an important centre for the control of the Bedouin Arabs, and has a garrison of about 1000 troops, including a special corps of mule-riders.

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  • A special meaning has been assigned to the term " lines of induction."

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  • Except in the few special cases when a uniform external field produces uniform magnetization, the value of the demagnetizing force cannot be calculated, and an exact determination of the actual magnetic force within the body is therefore impossible.

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  • The field due to a coil can be made as nearly uniform as we please throughout a considerable space; its intensity, when the constants of the coil are known, can be calculated with ease and certainty and may be varied at will'through wide ranges, while the apparatus required is of the simplest character and can be readily constructed to suit special purposes.

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  • Bidwell," who, adopting special precautions against sources of error by which former work was probably affected, measured the changes of thermo-electric force for iron, steel, nickel and cobalt produced by magnetic fields up to I Soo units.

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  • Ewing's Experimental Researches of 1885; throughout the whole of his work special attention was directed to that curious lagging action to which the author applied the now familiar term " hysteresis."

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  • The collective name for the corps was celeres (" the swift," or possibly from Kan s, "a riding horse"); Livy, however, restricts the term to a special body-guard of ' Romulus.

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  • It is probable that certain privileges of the equites were due to Gracchus; that of wearing the gold ring, hitherto reserved for senators; that of special seats in the theatre, subsequently withdrawn (probably by Sulla) and restored by the lex Othonis (67 B.C.); the narrow band of purple on the tunic as distinguished from the broad band worn by the senators.

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  • It is probable that they acquire special sensibility at the breeding season and serve as " guides " in copulation.

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  • The present writer is of opinion that it will be found most convenient to treat this evanescent somite as something special, and not to attempt to reckon it to either the prosoma or the mesosoma.

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  • The coxal glands do not establish any special connexion between Limulus and Scorpio, since thay also occur in the same somite in the lower Crustacea, but it is to be noted that the coxal glands of Limulus are in minute structure and probably in function more like those of Arachnids than those of Crustacea.

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  • Lankester some years ago made a special study of the histology (3) of these entosternites for the purpose of comparison, and also ascertained the relations of the very numerous muscles which are inserted into them (4).

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  • It has been considered by them as proving that Limulus, in spite of all its special agreements with Scorpio (which, however, have scarcely been appreciated by the writers in question), really belongs to the Crustacean line of descent, whilst Scorpio, by possessing Malpighian tubes, is declared to be unmistakably tied together with the other Arachnida to the tracheate Arthropods, the Hexapods, Diplopods, and Chilopods, which all possess Malpighian tubes.

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  • Further, it is pointed out by Korschelt and Heider that the hinder portion of the gut frequently acts in Arthropoda as an organ of nitrogenous excretion in the absence of any special excretory tubules, and that the production of such caeca from its surface in separate lines of descent does not involve any elaborate or unlikely process of growth.

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  • But little is known of the structure of these extinct animals; we are therefore compelled to deal with such special points of resemblance and difference as their remains still exhibit.

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  • Pocock accepts those views in all essential points and has, as a special student of the Arachnida, given to them valuable expansion and confirmation.

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  • The small forms known as Schizomus and Hubbardia are of special interest from a morphological point of view.

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  • Like the scorpions the spiders have a special tendency to cannibalism, and accordingly the male, in approaching the female for the purpose of fertilizing her, is liable to be fallen upon and sucked dry by the object of his attentions.

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  • The sperm is removed by the male from the genital aperture into a special receptacle on the terminal segment P FIG.

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  • A fact of special interest in regard to them is that the genus Poliochera, from the Coal Measures, appears to be a member of the same group. The name Cryptostemma, given to the first-known genus of the order, described by Guerin-Meneville, refers to the supposed concealment of the eyes by the movable cephalic sclerite.

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  • Others have a special faculty of consuming dry, powdery vegetable and animal refuse, and are liable to multiply in manufactured products of this nature, such as mouldy cheese.

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  • Compensation for the expropriated land and the categories of land to be expropriated without compensation will be determined by a special law.

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  • In this connexion one point deserves special notice.

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  • There are special manufactures of silver filigree-work and embroidery.

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  • The town has a special historical interest for the heroic and successful defence of the fortress by Nicolas Jurisics against a large army of Sultan Soliman, in July - August 1532, which frustrated the advance of the Turks to Vienna for that year.

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  • One special and necessary rule is in regard to the language to be employed.

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  • The designation comes thus developed into a formal official title of high officers of state, some qualification being added to indicate the special duties attached to the office in each case.

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  • Besides the administration of sacraments and the celebration of offices on special occasions, the priest kept alight the eternal fire on the altar, addressed prayers to the Sun at dawn, midday and twilight, turning towards east, south and west respectively.

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  • Each day of the week was marked by the adoration of a special planet, the sun being the most sacred of all, and certain dates, perhaps the sixteenth of each month and the equinoxes, in conformity with the character of Mithras as mediator, were set aside for special festivals.

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  • Not including the city of Rio de Janeiro, whose population was estimated at 691,565 in conformity with a special municipal census of 1906, the total population was 16,626,991, of which 15,572,671 were Roman Catholics, 177,727 Protestants, 876,593 of other faiths.

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  • The members of the army and navy are governed by special laws, enjoy immunities from civil process, and are subject to the jurisdiction of military courts.

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  • In addition to these there are a number of seminaries for the education of priests, where special attention is given to the classics and belles-lettres.

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  • The department of industry, communications and public works takes the next highest proportion, but about half its expenditures are met by special taxes, as in the case of port works and railway inspection, and by the revenues of the state railways, telegraph lines and post office.

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  • Up to 1906 the Caixa da Amortisacdo (redemption bureau), which has charge of the service of the internal funded debt, superintended the redemption of the currency, but in that year (December 6, 1906) a Caixa de Conyers-do (conversion bureau) was created for this special service.

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  • The 4th duke planted several square miles of the estate with this tree, of which he had made a special study.

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  • The Royal College of Physicians is another learned body organized, with special privileges, by a charter of incorporation granted by Charles II.

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  • Bocskay, to save the independence of Transylvania, assisted the Turks; and in 1605, as a reward for his part in driving Basta out of Transylvania, the Hungarian diet, assembled at Modgyes, elected him prince (1605), on which occasion the Ottoman sultan sent a special embassy to congratulate him and a splendid jewelled crown made in Persia.

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  • In that year the first plot against the Viscontian rule, hatched by the twelve and the Salimbeni and fomented by the Florentines, was violently repressed, and caused the twelve to be again driven from office; but in the following year a special balia, created in consequence of that riot, annulled the ducal suzerainty and restored the liberties of Siena.

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  • The special characteristics of its masters are freshness of colour, vivacity of expression and distinct originality.

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  • The Sienese school of painting owes its origin to the influence of Byzantine art; but it improved that art, impressed it with a special stamp and was for long independent of all other influences.

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  • Here we pause to remark that in Tertullian's view the church as a whole possesses the power of self-government and administration, though in the interest of discipline and convenience it delegates that power to special officers.

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  • When we go on to inquire what special offices the church from the beginning, or almost from the beginning, adopted and recognized, two points claim preliminary attention.

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  • The office of doorkeeper explains itself, though it must be remembered that it was the special duty of the Christian ostiarius to exclude the unbaptized and persons undergoing penance from the more solemn part of the Eucharistic service.

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  • The ordinary minister of orders is a bishop. The tonsure and minor orders are, however, still sometimes conferred by abbots, who, though simple priests, have special faculties for the ordination of their monks.

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  • The special care of the poor is committed to deacons.

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  • Nor do Scottish presbyterians now recognize any special class of doctors, unless we suppose that these are represented by professors of theology.

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  • It is a logical consequence that Nergal is pictured also as the deity who presides over the nether-world, and stands at the head of the special pantheon assigned to the government of the dead, who are supposed to be gathered in a large subterranean cave known as Aralu or Irkalla.

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  • Its vast scope leaves it still unique and valuable, where other editions of special works do not exist.

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  • Kenner as special commissioner to the courts of England and France to obtain recognition of the Confederacy on condition of the abolition of slavery.

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  • There are special manufactures of chauris, or flappers, with handles of sandalwood, ivory or silver, and tails also made of strips of ivory or sandalwood as fine as horse-hair.

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  • There are two mosques of special interest - the Umawi (or Zakaria) on the site of a church ascribed to the empress Helena and containing a tomb reputed to be that of the Baptist's father, and the Kakun.

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  • Coloured persons are not, by name, excluded from the franchise, but no persons " subject to special laws and tribunals," 1 in which category all natives are included, are entitled to vote.

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  • For local government purposes the province is divided into counties or magisterial divisions; Zululand being under special jurisdiction.

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  • Sir George then appointed Mr Henry Cloete (a brother of Colonel Cloete) a special commissioner to explain to the Natal volksraad the decision of the government.

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  • There were moreover special local causes such as undoubted defects in the Natal administration.'

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  • Erigena pronounces no express opinion upon the question which was even then beginning to occupy men's minds; but his Platonico-Christian theory of the Eternal Word as containing in Himself the exemplars of created things is equivalent to the assertion of universalia His whole system, indeed, is based upon the idea of the divine as the exclusively real, of which the world of individual existence is but the theophany; the special and the individual are immanent, therefore, in the general.

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  • By special command of Raimund, archbishop of Toledo, the chief of these works were translated from the Arabic through the Castilian into Latin by the archdeacon Dominicus Gonzalvi with the aid of Johannes Avendeath (=ben David), a converted Jew, about 1150.

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  • The plaits are sewed partly by hand and in a special sewing-machine, and the hats or bonnets are finished by stiffening with gelatin size and blocking into shape with the aid of heat and powerful pressure, according to the dictates of fashion.

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  • Drouyn de Lhuys, the French minister of foreign affairs, made his death the subject of a special despatch, desiring the French ambassador to express to the government "the mournful sympathy and truly national regret which the death, as lamented as premature, of Richard Cobden had excited on that side of the Channel."

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  • For the diseases of the stomach in general see Digestive Organs; and for special forms Gastritis, Gastric Ulcer, Dyspepsia, &C.; also Abdomen (Abdominal Surgery).

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  • Worthy of special notice also are Photometria (Augsburg, 1760), Insigniores orbitae cometarum proprietates (Augsburg, 1761), and Beitrcige zum Gebrauche der Mathematik and deren Anwendung (4 vols., Berlin, 1765-1772).

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  • In some respects Hungary proper has been particularly dealt with, while special information regarding the other regions will be found under Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania and Fiume.

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  • Owing to the improvidence of the Hungarian landowners and the poverty of the peasants the soil of the country is also gradually passing into their hands.3 The Gipsies, according to the special census of 1893, numbered 2 74,94 0.

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  • The branches of industry which have received special encouragement are those whose products are in universal request, such as cotton and woollen goods, and those which are in the service of natural production.

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  • There are also a special commercial court at Budapest, a naval court at Fiume, and special army courts.

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  • The primate is the archbishop of Esztergom, who also bears the title of prince, and whose special privilege it is to crown the sovereigns of Hungary.

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  • Among special schools the principal mining schools are at Selmeczbanya, Nagyag and Felsobanya; the principal agricultural colleges at Debreczen and Kolozsvar; and there are a school of forestry at Selmeczbanya, military colleges at Budapest, Kassa, Deva and Zagrab, and a naval school at Fiume.

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  • There are besides an adequate number of training institutes for teachers, a great number of schools of commerce, several art schools - for design, painting, sculpture, music, &c. Most of these special schools are of recent origin, and are almost entirely maintained by the state or the communes.

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  • There are besides a number of learned societies in the various provinces for the fostering of special provincial or national aims. There are also a number of societies for the propagation of culture, both amongst the Hungarian and the non-Hungarian nationalities.

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  • The Magyars had certainly done much to justify their claim to a special measure of enlightenment.

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  • Here it is only possible to give some of the more important general histories, together with such special works as are most readily accessible to English readers.

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  • For works on special periods see the separate articles on the sovereigns and other notabilities of Hungary.

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  • The next three literary periods stand in special relationship to one another, and are sometimes regarded as the same.

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  • The Orpheus (1790) was the special work of Kazinczy, and the Urania (1794) of 'Carman and of Pajor.

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  • As authors of special works on philosophy, we find Samuel Koteles, John Imre, Joseph Ruszek, Daniel Ercsei and Paul Sarvari; as a theologian and Hebraist John Somossy; as an historian and philologist Stephen Horvath, who endeavoured to trace the Magyar descent from the earliest historic times; as writers on jurisprudence Alexander Kovy and Paul Szlemenics.

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  • As popular plays the Sdrga csiko (Bay Foal) and A giros bugyelldris (The Red Purse), by Francis Csepreghy, have their own special merit, and were often represented in 1878 and 1879 at Budapest and elsewhere.

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  • Magyar history is indebted to Paul Jaszay for his careful working out of certain special periods, as, for instance, in his A Magyar nemzet napjai a legregibb idOtOl az arany bullaig (Days of the Hungarian nation from the earliest times to the date of the Golden Bull).

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  • Special phases of the subject are treated under their own headings, e.g.

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  • The distinction between algebraical and arithmetical reasoning then lies mainly in the fact that the former is in a more condensed form than the latter; an unknown quantity being represented by a special symbol, and other symbols being used as a kind of shorthand for verbal expressions.

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  • Two other developments of algebra are of special importance.

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  • The treatment of equations of the second and higher degrees introduces imaginary and complex numbers, the theory of which is a special subject.

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  • If it is intended that the first number is to be multiplied by the second, a special sign such as X should be used.

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  • Equations with Fractional Coefficients.-As an example of a special form of equation we may take zx+ 3x = Io.

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  • The following are some special points.

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  • We are then able to combine any number with the + or the - sign inside the bracket, and to deal with this constructed symbol according to special laws; i.e.

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  • This insertion of irrational numbers (with corresponding negative numbers) requires for its exact treatment certain special methods, which form part of the algebraic theory of number, and are dealt with under Number.

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  • Reference may also be made to the special articles mentioned at the commencement of the present article, as well as to the articles on Differences, Calculus Of; Infinitesimal Calculus; Interpolation; Vector Analysis.

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  • A special algebra is one which differs from ordinary algebra in the laws of equivalence which its symbols obey.

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  • All that can be done here is to give a sketch of the more important and independent special algebras at present known to exist.

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  • The special symbols o and I are used to denote a - a and a=a.

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  • From A Merely Formal Point Of View, We Have In The Barycentric Calculus A Set Of " Special Symbols Of Quantity " Or " Extraordinaries " A, B, C, &C., Which Combine With Each Other By Means Of Operations And Which Obey The Ordinary Rules, And With Ordinary Algebraic Quantities By Operations X And =, Also According To The Ordinary Rules, Except That Division By An Extraordinary Is Not Used.

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