Special sentence example

special
  • It's nice to have that special respect.

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  • I have a special board on which I play these games.

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  • You have a very special gift.

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  • It was rude to act this way to hosts who had invited them into their home on such a special occasion.

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  • Grand is the characteristic, in their conception, of some special animals called "heroes."

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  • I have a special mission for you.

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  • She had learned the printed letters, and for some time had amused herself by making simple sentences, using slips on which the words were printed in raised letters; but these sentences had no special relation to one another.

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  • Certainly she wanted to feel special to Alex - and did.

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  • The biographies and special national histories are like paper money.

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  • The evening slipped by and when the band took a break, special requests were played on a stereo.

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  • She's a very special person.

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  • Your special gift will protect you.

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  • As before he was absent-minded and seemed occupied not with what was before his eyes but with something special of his own.

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  • That evening she prepared a special supper for Alex and dressed in the white sundress he liked so well.

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  • It's one of my special talents, he said.

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  • Other books dealing with special subjects are likely to take a very high place in economic literature.

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  • During the period when the hair or wig was worn "powdered" or whitened, houses had a special room set apart for the process, known as the powdering-room or closet.

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  • A special guard of fifty soldiers was appointed to protect the sacred standard.

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  • The qualifications for the office were fixed in each town by a special law for that community (lex municipalis).

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  • His position is one of great honour and influence, but he remains a simple presbyter, without any special rule or jurisdiction.

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  • The Customs(douane), at one time only a branch of the administration of the contributions indirectes, were organized in 1869 as a special service.

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  • So far no evidence is forthcoming that the same days of each month were observed as these of this special rarely occurring month.

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  • A full pardon was promised, but on the 1st of August Waynflete was one of the special commissioners to try the rebels.

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  • The appointment of these would be regarded as a matter of course, and would not seem to call for any special notice in such a narrative as the Acts of the Apostles.

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  • He had certain special privileges.

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  • Though he has had a vast influence in this special department, the disciples of his general philosophy are few.

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  • There are besides in the island 10 gymnasia, 3 lycees, 6 technical and nautical schools and institutes (including a school of mines at Iglesias), and 9 other institutes for various branches of special education.

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  • Institutions possessing a special character are the monti frumentarii, public grain deposits, founded for the purpose of supplying peasant proprietors with seed corn, debts being paid in kind with interest after harvest.

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  • Since concordats are contracts they give rise to that special mutual obligation which results from every agreement freely entered into; for a contract is binding on both parties to it.

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  • The name is also applied to a special kind of wall-paper, which has an appearance almost like cloth, or, in the more expensive kinds, of velvet.

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  • The origin of the blotched as a special type is wholly unknown.

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  • The majority of them are addressed to Mersenne, and deal with problems of physics, musical theory (in which he took a special interest), and mathematics.

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  • On the right (N.) are some small well-preserved thermae, and the barracks of the firemen (vigiles), a special cohort of whom was stationed here.

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  • In the palace there are various permanent exhibitions, while special exhibitions are held from time to time, also concerts, winter pantomimes and other entertainments.

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  • A special feature of his rule was the sending out of numerous cleruchies (q.v.), which served the double purpose of securing strategic points to Athens and converting the needy proletariate of the capital into owners of real property.

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  • Of natural history and botany he pretends to no special knowledge.

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  • They are now usually of special design, and may be divided into three classes - indirect radiators, direct radiators and direct ventilating radiators.

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  • The moderator has no special power or supremacy over his brethren, but is honoured and obeyed as Primus inter pares.

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  • In January 1895 a special session of congress was summoned to take into consideration the financial proposals of the government, which included an increase in the naval and military estimates.

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  • A cure, in addition to his regular salary, received fees for baptisms, marriages, funerals and special masses, and had the benefit of a free house called a presbytre.

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  • Its consistories are grouped into two special synods, one at Paris and one at Montbliard (for the department of Doubs and Haute-Sane and the territory of Belfort, where the churches of this denomination are principally situated).

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  • Vegetables.Potatoes are not a special product of any region, though grown in great quantities in the Bresse and the Vosges.

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  • The latter is subdivided into general commerce, which includes all goods entering or leaving the country, and special commerce whirls includes imports for home use and exports of home produce.

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  • The average value of the principal articles of import and export (special trade) over quinquennial periods following 1890 is shown in the two tables below.

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  • Mention may also be made of the Tribunal des Conflits, a special court whose function it is to decide which is the competent tribunal when an administration and a judicial court both claim or refuse to deal with a given case.

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  • It is then submitted to a special commission of the Chamber of Deputies, elected for one year, who appoint a general reporter and one or more special reporters for each of the ministries.

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  • The collection of these excise duties as well as the sale of matches, tobacco and gunpowder to retailers, is assigned to a special service in each department subordinated to a central administration.

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  • But certain army corps have a special organization.

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  • The military government of Lyons is another independent and special command; it comprises practically the XIV.

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  • The ordnance department of the navy is carried on by a large detachment of artillery officers and artificers provided by the war office for this special duty.

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  • If the number of inhabitants exceed 500, the commune must also provide a special school for girls, unless the Departmental Council authorizes it to substitute a mixed school.

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  • Higher education is given by the state in the universities, and in special higher schools; and, since the law of 1875 established the freedom of higher education, by private individuals and bodies in private schools and faculties (facultis libres).

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  • Besides the faculties there are a number of institutions, both state-supported and private, giving higher instruction of various special kinds.

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  • He was appointed secretary to Cabarrus on a special mission to France in 1787.

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  • Whether a pouch is present or not, the young are born in an exceedingly imperfect state of development, after a very short period of gestation, and are immediately transferred by the female parent to the teats, where they remain firmly attached for a considerable time; the milk being injected into their mouths at intervals by means of a special muscle which compresses the glands.

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  • It retained its constitution and its special privileges until the 1st of July 1876, when it was incorporated with the kingdom of Prussia.

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  • There the foundations of the second great Persian Empire were laid, and Istakhr acquired special importance as the centre of priestly wisdom and orthodoxy.

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  • His experimental investigations are carried out with plain and usually home-made apparatus, the accessories being crude and rough, but the essentials thoughtfully designed so as to compass in the simplest and most perfect manner the special end in view.

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  • In like manner the special ritual at the temple prescribed for the Sabbath by the Pentateuchal law was not regarded as any part of the hallowing of the sacred day; on the contrary, the rule was that, in this regard, "Sabbath was not kept in the sanctuary."

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  • The general position which He takes up, that "the Sabbath is made for man and not man for the Sabbath," 2 is only a special application of the wider principle that the law is not an end in itself but a help towards the realization in life of the great ideal of love to God and man, which is the sum of all true religion.

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  • Zinc ores, in the several varieties of carbonates, silicates, oxide, sulphide and sulphate of zinc, have been found in several of the Australian states, but have attracted little attention except in New South Wales, where special efforts are being made successfully to produce a high-grade zinc concentrate from the sulphide ores.

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  • The truth is, pastoralists for the most part carried on their industry trusting very greatly to luck, not making any special provisions against the vicissitudes of the seasons.

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  • Special provisions were made respecting appeals from the High Court to the sovereign in council.

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  • Riotous scenes occurred both in Sydney and on the coal-fields, and a large number of special constables were sworn in by the government.

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  • A special board may be formed at the request of any union of employers or of workmen, or on the initiative of the Labour department.

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  • Either party, or the minister for Labour, may refer a determination to the court of industrial appeals, and the court, in the event of a special board failing to make a determination, may itself be called upon to frame one.

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  • The general administration of the Factories and Shops Acts, to which the special boards owe their being, is vested in a chief inspector of factories, subject to the control of the minister of Labour in matters of policy.

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  • Before the end of 1906 fifty-two separate trades in Victoria had obtained special boards, by whose determinations their operations were controlled.

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  • Smith, at the request of a member of the commission by which the prize was proposed, undertook in 1882 to write out the demonstration of his general theorems so far as was required to prove the results for the special case of five squares.

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  • In 1858 he was sent to St Petersburg on a special mission to seek the support of Russia against Napoleon III.

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  • The canons respecting the clergy exhibit the clergy as already a special class with peculiar privileges, a more exacting moral standard, heavier penalties for delinquency.

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  • Worthy of special note are canon 33, enjoining celibacy upon all clerics and all who minister at the altar (the most ancient canon of celibacy); canon 36, forbidding pictures in churches; canon 38, permitting lay baptism under certain conditions; and canon 53, forbidding one bishop to restore a person excommunicated by another.

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  • Its remoteness from the control of the authority of the German and French kings, together with its inaccessibility, gave special facilities in Lower Lorraine to the growth of a number of practically independent feudal states forming a group or system apart.

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  • Margaret was assisted by a permanent council of regency, and there was a special minister charged with the administration of the finances, sometimes under the name of superintendent of the finances, sometimes under the title of treasurer-general and controller-general.

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  • The duties of this minister were of special importance, for it was to the Netherlands that Charles looked for much of the resources wherewith to carry on his many wars.

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  • During the three years he held this position he carried out researches on the contact of elastic solids, hardness, evaporation and the electric discharge in gases, the last earning him the special commendation of Helmholtz.

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  • During the whole of the middle ages Tournai was styled the "seigneurie de Tournaisis," and possessed a charter and special privileges of its own.

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  • Large quantities of fruits - apples, pears, quinces, peaches, nectarines, apricots, grapes and melons - were exported by special trains to central Europe, where the Turkestan crop was received a short time before the south European supplies ripened.

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  • We find in the Babylonian-Assyrian omen-texts special designations for the three main lobes of the sheep's liver - the lobus dexter, the lobus sinister and the lobus caudatus; the first-named being called "the right wing of the liver," the second "the left wing of the liver," and the third "the middle of the liver."

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  • With this in view, omens given in the reigns of prominent rulers were preserved with special care as guides to the priests.

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  • There is no special board of commissioners or supervisors as in most of the other states, the county authority being the assistant judges of the county court.

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  • There is no general property tax except a special levy of 8% on the general list for school purposes and 5% for the construction of roads.

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  • He challenged the legality of Horne's consecration, and a special act of parliament was passed to meet the point, while the charge against Bonner was withdrawn.

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  • In 1914 his preeminence had become so evident that a special position was created for him in Berlin, where he was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences and given a sufficient stipend to enable him to devote all his time to research without any restrictions or duties whatsoever.

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  • The special form of government was not the important point, but its possibility and its acceptability.

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  • The ordinance establishing the special tribunal for the trial was passed by a remnant of the House of Commons alone, from which all dissentients were excluded by the army.

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  • In 1658 the improved condition of Scotland was the subject of Cromwell's special congratulation in addressing parliament.

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  • It is probable that very little of this moral legislation was enforced in practice, though special efforts were made under the government of the major-generals.

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  • They had power to transport royalists and those who could not produce good characters, and supported themselves by a special tax of 10% on the incomes of the royalist gentry.

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  • The major-generals were the object of general attack, while the special tax on the royalists was declared unjust, and the bill for its continuation rejected by a large majority.

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  • They are brief, yet not wanting in that element of practical edification on which Chrysostom lays special weight as characteristic of the Antiochenes.

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  • There are also special elucidations of some difficult Scripture texts.

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  • He had made special inquiries of the authorities of the Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Hobart museums, and published questions in the newspapers, but no evidence has reached him that the eggs of Ornithorhyncus have ever been obtained except by the dissection of the mother.

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  • In the 16th century instrumentation was, in its normal modern sense, non-existent; but in a special sense it was at an unsurpassable stage of perfection, namely, in the treatment of pure vocal harmony.

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  • In every mature period of art it will be found that, however much the technical rules may be collected in one special category, every artistic category has a perfect interaction with all the others; and this is nowhere more perfectly shown than when the art is in its simplest possible form of maturity.

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  • There is not room for one together with an independent violoncello part; the wonderful use of muted solo violoncellos in the slow movement of the Pastoral Symphony being a special effect, like the earlier instance in Haydn's 12th Salomon Symphony.

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  • Otherwise, when Beethoven has anything special for the violoncellos to say, he invariably softens and deepens their singularly incisive cantabile tones by doubling them with the violas.

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  • Wind instruments produce very special effects in chamber-music, and need an exceedingly adroit technique on the part of the composer.

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  • Sometimes, especially in the case of overhead travelling cranes for very heavy loads, the chain is a special pitch chain, formed of flat links pinned together, and the barrel is reduced to a wheel provided with teeth, or " sprockets," which engage in the links.

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  • It is now possible to apply motive power exactly where it is wanted, and to do so economically, so that the crane designer has a perfectly free hand in adding the various motions required by the special circumstances of each case.

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  • It is not clear that all lands paid tithe, perhaps only such as once had a special connexion with the temple.

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  • The earth is always, except for some special reason, used as a return, because it offers little resistance and saves the expense and the risk of failure of the return wire.

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  • The synchronous revolutions of the transmitting cylinders are effected by making one cylinder revolve slightly faster than the other; after each revolution the cylinder which is accelerated is arrested for a moment by means of a special relay until the difference of speed is accurately compensated for.

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  • The magnet between the poles of which the rectangular signal coil moves is built up of a number of thin flat horseshoe-shaped permanent magnets of a special quality of steel, and is provided with adjustable pole pieces.

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  • The speed of a cable is given in words per minute, the conventional number of five letters per word being understood, though in actual practice, owing to the extensive use of special codes, the number of letters per word is really between eight and nine; and this forms a considerable factor in lowering the earning capacity of a cable.

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  • Reports to the Postmaster-General upon proposals for transferring to the Post Of f ice the Telegraphs throughout the United Kingdom (1868); Special Reports from Select Committee on the Electric Telegraphs Bills (1868, 1869); Report by Mr Scudamore on the reorganization of the Telegraph system of the United Kingdom (1871); Journ.

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  • Fleming 5 invented special forms of the metallic contact or metallic filings sensitive tube.

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  • With a proper arrangement of the operator's speaking set it is possible, by touching the socket of a jack with the tip of a peg or a special " test " thimble, to determine whether the circuit connected to the jack is in use.

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  • Each telephone set was equipped with a special key or switch by means of which the telephone could be transferred from an exclusive line to the call-wire at will.

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  • At the outgoing end the circuits are multipled on the subscribers' switchboard, while at the incoming end they terminate in plugs on a special incoming junction switchboard upon which the subscribers' lines are multipled in the usual way.

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  • The corporation of Glasgow having persisted in its efforts to obtain a licence, the Treasury appointed Sheriff Andrew Jameson (afterwards Lord Ardwall) a special commissioner to hold a local inquiry in Glasgow to report whether the telephone service in that city was adequate and efficient and whether it was expedient to grant the corporation a licence.

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  • The determining episode of his life followed soon after his return to Assisi; as he was riding he met a leper who begged an alms; Francis had always had a special horror of lepers, and turning his face he rode on; but immediately an heroic act of self-conquest was wrought in him; returning he alighted, gave the leper all the money he had about him, and kissed his hand.

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  • If for no other reason than the prominent place they hold in art, it would not be right to pass by the Stigmata without a special mention.

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  • The capacity of camels for travelling long distances without water - owing to special structural modifications in the stomach - is familiar to all.

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  • This great valley—one of the most considerable on the southern side of the Alps—has attracted special attention, in ancient as well as modern times, from its leading to two of the most frequented passes across the great mountain chain—the Great and the Little St Bernard—the former diverging at Aosta, and crossing the main ridges to the north into the valley of the Rhone, the other following a more westerly direction into Savoy.

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  • Among other fruit trees, apple-trees have special importance.

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  • A law passed on the 22nd of March 1900 gave a B a, special impulse to this form of enterprise by fixing the ratio r naze.

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  • In Emilia both mezzadria and lease tenure are widely diffused in the provinces of Ferrara, Reggio and Parma; but other special forms of contract exist, known as the famiglio da spesa, boaria, braccianti obbligati and braccianti disobbligati.

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  • Special contracts, known as colonie immovibili and colonie tern poranee are applied to the latifondi or huge estates, the owners of which receive half the produce, except that of the vines, olive-trees and woods, which he leases separately.

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  • In Sicily leasehold prevails under special conditions.

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  • The match-making industry is subject to special fiscal conditions.

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  • Each region produces a special type, Venetia turning out imitations of 16th- and I 7th-century styles, Tuscany the 15th-century or cinquecento style, and the Neapolitan provinces the Pompeian style.

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  • The decrease of the disease is a direct result of the efforts made to combat it, in the form of special hospitals or pellagrosarf, economic kitchens, rural bakeries and maize-drying establishments.

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  • In the principal towns letters may be posted in special boxes at the head office just before the departure of any given mail train, and are conveyed direct to the travelling post office.

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  • The universities are maintained by the state and by their own ancient resources; while the higher special schools are maintained conjointly by the state, the province, the commune and (sometimes) the local chamber of commerce.

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  • Supplementary stipends to bishops and parochial clergy, assignments to Sardinian clergy and expenditure for education and charitable purposes - - 142,912 f28,52f Roman Charitable and Religious Fund.The law of the 19th of June 1873 contained special provisions, in conformity with the character of Rome as the seat of the papacy, and with the situation created by the Law of Guarantees.

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  • The law of 1873 created a special charitable and religious fund of the city, while it left untouched 23 monasteries and 49 convents which had either the character of private institutions or were supported by foreign funds.

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  • New parishes were created, old parishes were improved, the property of the suppressed religious corporations was assigned to charitable and educational institutions and to hospitals, while property having no special application was used to form a charitable and religious fund.

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  • Certain types of dangerous individuals are relegated after serving a sentence in the ordinary convict prisons, and by administrative, not by judicial process, to special penal colonies known as domicilii coatti or forced residences.

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  • Including officers on special service or in the reserve.

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  • The serious condition of recruiting was quickly noticed, and the tabulation of each years results was followed by a new draft law, but no solution was achieved until a special commission assembled.

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  • In 1902 the special corps in Eritrea numbered about 4700 of all ranks, including nearly 4000 natives.

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  • The demands of the Commission were only partly complied with, but a large special grant was voted amounting to at least 1/2I,ooo,000 per annum for the next seven years.

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  • Certain banks make a special business of lending money to owners iif land or buildings (credito fo,zdiario).

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  • The law of the 23rd of January 1887 (still in force) extended the dispositions of the Civil Code with regard to privileges, and established special privileges in regard to harvested produce, produce stored in barns and farm buildings, and in regard to agricultural implements.

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  • A new magistrate, the gonfalonier of justice, appears in some of the Guelph cities, with the special duty of keeping the insolence of the nobility in check.

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  • There were special reasons why Sicily should harbour these feelings against the Bourbons.

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  • Legislation had to be entirely reformed, and the bill for abolIshing the special jurisdiction for the clergy (foro ecclesiastico) and other medieval privileges aroused the bitter opposition of the Vatican as well as of the Piedmontese clericals.

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  • Encouraged from Berlin, Kalnky agreed to the reciprocal territorial guarantee, but declined reciprocity in support of special interests.

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  • This something more consisted, at least in part, of the arrangement, with the help of Austria and Germany, of an Anglo-Italian naval understanding having special reference to the Eastern question, but providing for common action by the British and Italian fleets in the Mediterranean in case of war.

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  • In order to diminish the gold premium, which under Giolitti had risen to 16%, forced currency was given to the existing notes of the banks of Italy, Naples and Sicily, while special state notes were issued to meet immediate currency needs.

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  • Major Nerazzini was then despatched as special envoy to the negus to arrange terms of peace.

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  • In June 1675 he signed the paper of advice drawn up by the bishops for the king, urging the rigid enforcement of the laws against the Roman Catholics, their complete banishment from the court, and the suppression of conventicles, 2 and a bill introduced by him imposing special taxes on recusants and subjecting Roman Catholic priests to imprisonment for life was only thrown out as too lenient because it secured offenders from the charge of treason.

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  • He received his early education, according to Morice his secretary, from " a marvellous severe and cruel schoolmaster," whose discipline must have been severe indeed to deserve this special mention in an age when no schoolmaster bore the rod in vain.

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  • He had a special protest recorded, in which he formally declared that he swore allegiance to the pope only in so far as that was consistent with his supreme duty to the king.

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  • The gradual elaboration of the sacrificial ceremonial, as the all-sufficient expression of religious devotion, and a constantly growing tendency towards theosophic and mystic speculation on the significance of every detail of the ritual, could not fail to create a demand for explanatory treatises of this kind, which, to enhance their practical utility, would naturally deal with the special texts and rites assigned in the ceremonial to the several classes of officiating priests.

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  • At a later period, when the Atharvan gained admission to the Vedic canon, a special connexion with the Brahman priest was sometimes claimed, though with scant success, for this fourth collection of hymns and spells, and the comparatively late and unimportant Gopatha-brahmana attached to it.

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  • From it the other two fires, the anavaniya, or offering fire, and the dakshinagni, or southern fire, used for certain special purposes, are taken.

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  • He observes with truth that Natural Theology, if you remove from it the idea of subordination to Christianity as (claiming to be) a special revelation, tends to pass into a philosophy of religion.

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  • And yet theism - or monotheism - constitutes a special locus in the history of religion.

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  • Grouping and naming are fixed here for one special purpose.

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  • Many objects in nature, organisms especially, seem to resemble the works of human design; there fore with high probability we infer a designing mind behind nature, adequate to the production of these special results.

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  • Every time we survey a field, we go upon the principles, not of special experience, but of a priori necessity.

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  • The Rational Psychology formulates immortality on the ground that the immaterial soul has no parts to suffer decay - the argument which Kant's Critique of Pure Reason " refutes" with special reference to the statement of it by Moses Mendelssohn.

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  • But that special criticism is a question of detail.

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  • In this instance it may happen that the work of intelligence has only been mimicked in nature by blind forces which have accidentally produced organic life; and Mill is disposed to hold that if the evolution of species should be clearly established as due to natural law - if there has been no creation by special interposition - the argument falls to the ground and theism (apparently) is lost.

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  • Lotze was a man of considerable attainments in special science; perhaps he reveals here the bias of the scientific mind, and possibly even its limitations.

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  • Having decided to take orders he graduated, by special letters from the chancellor, at Exeter College, Oxford, and was ordained in 1722.

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  • They are, however, always bright and merry, are under no special social restrictions and have considerable influence.

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  • The mesogloea in the hydropolyp is a thin elastic layer, in which may be lodged the muscular fibres and ganglion cells mentioned above, but which never contains any connective tissue or skeletogenous cells or any other kind of special mesogloeal corpuscles.

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  • The circular system is developed continuously over the entire subumbral surface, and the velum represents a special local development of this system, at a region where it is able to act at the greatest mechanical advantage in producing the contractions of the umbrella by which the animal progresses.

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  • We can distinguish (I) digestive endoderm, in the stomach, often with special glandular elements; (2) circu-, latory endoderm, in the radial and ring canals; (3) supporting endoderm in the axes of the tentacles and in the endodermlamella; the latter is primitively a double layer of cells, produced by concrescence OC-- = w.?"

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  • The special property of the medusa is the umbrella, distinguishing the medusa at once from other morphological types among the Coelentera.

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  • Balfour put forward the view that the polyp was the more primitive type, and that the medusa is a special modification of the polyp for reproductive purposes, the result of division of labour in a polypcolony, whereby special reproductive persons become detached and acquire organs of locomotion for spreading the species.

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  • This must not be taken to mean, however, that the medusa is derived from a sessile polyp; it must be regarded as a direct modification of the more ancient free actinula form, without primitively any intervening polyp-stage, such as has been introduced secondarily into the development of the Leptolinae and represents 'a revival, so to speak, of an ancestral form or larval stage, which has taken on a special role in the economy of the species.

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  • In many Calyptoblastea there occur also reduced defensive polyps or dactylozoids, which the special name of sarcostyles.

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  • They may be branched, so-called " gonodendra," and amongst them may occur special forms of palpons, " gonopalpons."

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  • Our world is but one of an infinite number of others, and all the harmonies and adaptations of the universe are regarded as a special case of the infinite possibilities of mechanical events.

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  • The peculiarity of organic and sentient bodies is due to the minuteness and shape of their particles, and to their special motions and combinations.

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  • The superiority of animals to plants and metals in the possession of special organs of sense is connected with the greater complexity and heterogeneity of their structure.

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  • The growth of a special " original " jurisdiction at Constantinople, which perhaps developed earlier than the corresponding institution at Rome, may be traced to the fact that bishops from all parts were constantly in Constantinople.

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  • How far the official principal had jurisdiction in criminal matters by virtue of his office, how far it was usual to add this jurisdiction by special commission, and what were the respective limits of his office and that of the vicar-general, are questions of some nicety.

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  • The word is significant as showing that there was something special and restricted about the position.

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  • The occupants of certain sees by a kind of prescription became legates without special appointment, legati nati, as in the case of Canterbury.

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  • After legates came special delegates appointed by the pope to hear a particular cause.

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  • The Church of England has reverted to early custom in so far as only "Easter Even" is distinguished by a special collect, gospel and epistle.

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  • They are not allowed to prescribe, nor the medical men to dispense, except under special licence, and then only in small villages, where the pharmacist could not make a living.

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  • The arches bear on the convex outer side the delicate arborescent gills, and on the concave inner side develop a membranous septum with vermicular perforations, a special sifting or filtering contrivance through which the water absorbed by the mouth has to pass before reaching the respiratory organs of the branchial apparatus.

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  • The rules of the Orphic life prescribed abstinence from beans, flesh, certain kinds of fish, &c., the wearing of a special kind of clothes, and numerous other practices and abstinences.

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  • He travelled in Finland and Lapland in 1873-4, and in 1875 made a special study of archaeology and ethnology in the Balkan States.

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  • The spores, as in the heterosporous Pteridophyta, are of two kindsmicrospores (pollen grains) borne in microsporangia (pollen sacs) on special leaves (sporophylls) known as stamens, and macrospores (embryo-sac) borne in macrosporangia (ovules) on sporophylls known as carpels.

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  • The fertile leaves or sporophylls are generally aggregated on special shoots to form rioweN which may contain one or both kinds The microspores are set free from the sporangiurn and carried generally by wind or insect agency to the vicinity of the macrospore, which never leaves the ovule.

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  • These cavities are completely roofed by a layer of cells; in the centre of the roof is a pore surrounded by a ring of special cells.

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  • In a few cases there is a special surface or epidermal layer, but usually all the outer layers of the stem are composed of brown, thick-walled, lignified, prosenchymatous, fibre-like cells forming a peripheral stereom (mechanical or supporting tissue) which forms the outer cortex.

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  • In the liverworts we find fixation of the thallus by water-absorbing rhizoids; in certain forms with a localized region of water-absorption the development of a primitive hydrom or water-conducting system; and in others with rather a massive type of thallus the differentiation of a special assimilative and transpiring system.

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  • The leaves, again, have special histological features adapted to the performance of their special functions.

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  • Special tissues (stereom) may be developed for this purpose in the cortex, or in immediate connection.

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  • These are special organs, ?Iydathodes.

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  • In the leafPhloeo- blade it takes the form of special parenchymatous erma.

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  • Associated with it are other tissues, consisting of parenchyma, mainly starchy, and in the Phanerogams particularly, of special stereom.

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  • The evolution of the vascular structure of the petiole in the higher ferns is strikingly parallel with that of the stem, except in some few special cases.

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  • In some cases special secreting tissues, resin ducts, oil glands, laticiferous tissue, crystal sacs, &c., may be developed among the ordinary secondary vascular elements.

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  • The living elements die, and the walls of all the cells often become hardened, owing to the deposit in them of special substances.

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  • Special wound-cork is also often formed round accidental injuries so as to prevent the rotting of the tissues by the soaking in of rain and the entrance of fungal spores and bacteria.

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  • This may take various forms and may cover the whole of the organ or be localized in special regions; but its cells are always living and are separated by very large intercellular spaces containing air.

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  • In other cases, a similar formation of spongy but dead periderm tissue may occur for the same purpose in special patches, called pneumatodes, on the roots of certain trees living in marshy places, which rise above the soil in order to obtain air.

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  • It was fully recognized by its followers that the dominating influence in the structure and working of the body was the protoplasm, and the division of labor which it exhibited, with the accompanying or resulting differentiation into various tissues, was the special subject of investigation.

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  • The requirements of the several protoplasts must be met by supplies from without, and, as many of them are deep seated, varieties of need arise, so that various members of the colony are set apart for special duties, masses of them being devoted to the discharge of one function, others to that of another, and so on.

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  • The Special Apparatus of Plants for constructing Food .T he explanation of the apparent difference of food supply is very simple.

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  • The absorption of these rays implies that the pigment absorbs radiant energy from the sun, and gives us some explanation of its power of constructing the carbohydrates which has been mentioned as the special work of the apparatus.

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  • It may be, however, that there is no special mechanism, but that this power is a particular differentiation of a physiological kind, existing in all vegetable protoplasm, or in that of certain cells.

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  • The idea of an identity of protoplasm does not involve a denial of special powers developed in it in different situations, and the possession of such a power by the vegetable cell is not more striking than the location of the powers of co-ordination and thought in the protoplasm of cells of the human brain.

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  • The enzymes which act upon glucosides are many; the best known are emul sin and myrosin, which split up respectively amygdalin, the special glucoside of certain plants of the Rosaceae; and sinfgrin, which has a wide distribution among those of the Cruciferae.

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  • The epidemic nature of wheat-rust was known to Aristotle about 350 B.C., and the Greeks and Romans knew these epidemics well, their philosophers having shrewd speculations as to causes, while the people held characteristic superstitions regarding them, which found vent in the dedication of special festivals and deities to the pests.

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  • But it is worthy of special attention that the mere chemical composition of agricultural and garden soils is, as a rule, the least important feature about them, popular opinion to the contrary notwithstanding.

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  • Experience with epidemics, dearly bought in the past, has shown that one fruitful cause is the laying open to the inroads of some Fungus or insect, hitherto leading a quiet endemic life in the fields and forests, large tracts of its special food, along which it may range rampant without check to its dispersal, nutrition and reproduction.

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  • For the composition of the numerous liquids and powders special works must be consulted, but the following principles apply generally.

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  • More indirect methods, such as the grafting of less resistant scions on more vigorous stocks, of raising special late or early varieties by crossing or selection, and so on, have also met with success; but it must be understood that resistant in such cases usually means that some peculiarity of quick growth, early ripening or other life-feature in the plant is for the time being taken advantage of.

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  • This sketch of an enormous subject shuws us that the pathology of plants is a special department of the study of variations which threaten injury to the plant, and passes imperceptibly into the study of variations in general.

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  • It is true that in the unicellular plants all the vital activities are performed by a single cell, but in the multicellular plants there is a more or less highly developed differentiation of physiological activity giving rise to different tissues or groups of cells, each with a special function.

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  • The special function of this organ has been a source of controversy during the past few years, and much uncertainty still exists as to its true nature.

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  • Organs which respond to the mechanical stimulus of contact are found to possess special contrivances in certain of their cells(I) sensitive spots, consisting of places here and there on the epidermal cells where the wall is thin and in close contact with protoplasmic projections.

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  • The earliest scientific result of the study of plants was the recognition of the fact that the various parts of the body are associated with the performance of different kinds of physiological work; that they are, in fact, organs discharging special functions.

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  • Metamorphosis.It has already been pointed out that each kind of member of the body may present a variety of forms. For example, a stem may be a tree-trunk, or a twining stem, or a tendril, or a thorn, or a creeping rhizome, or a tuber; a leaf may be a green foliage-leaf, or a scale protecting a bud, or a tendril, or a pitcher, or a floral leaf, either sepal, petal, stamen or carpel (sporophyll); a root may be a fibrous root, or a swollen tap-root like that of the beet or the turnip. All these various forms are organs discharging some special function, and are examples of what Wolff called modification, and Goethe metamorphosis.

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  • But, in actual operation, these two processes are simultaneous; every member is developed as an organ for the performance of some special function.

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  • Further, the term is particularly used of a course of post-graduate study at a university, for which many universities have provided special Research Studentships or Fellowships.

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  • Each country is described with particular regard to its people as well as to its surface, and the prominence given to the human element is of special interest.

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  • He divides geography into The Spherical Part, or that for the study of which mathematics alone is required, and The Topical Part, or the description of the physical relations of parts of the earth's surface, preferring this division to that favoured by the ancient geographers - into general and special.

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  • The deviation is of importance in the movement of air, of ocean currents, and to some extent of rivers.3 In popular usage the words " physical geography " have come to mean geography viewed from a particular standpoint rather than any special department of the subject.

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  • It is, however, not the action of the running water on the land, but the function exercised by the land on the running water, that is considered here to be the special province of geography.

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  • Essential are vibrating membranes between the cartilaginous framework, and next, special muscles for regulating the tension.

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  • It is protruded and retracted by special muscles which are partly attached to the ventral, distal end of the ilium.

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  • Granting this is a general truth, it must yet be acknowledged as a special fact, that in fossil birds we have as yet but scanty means of arriving at any precise results which will justify bold generalization in the matter of avine distribution.

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  • In 1688 his widow was created countess of Stafford for life, and his eldest son, Henry, had the earldom of Stafford, with special remainder to his brothers.

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  • He was elected a member of the New York Assembly in the spring of 1789, and at a special session of the legislature held in July of that year was chosen one of the first representatives of New York in the United States Senate.

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  • In zoology, the mollusca are divided into cephalous and acephalous (Acephala), according as they have or have not an organized part of their anatomy as the seat of the brain and special senses.

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  • It may be divided into three divisions, upper, lower and middle, each of which is distinguished by special physical features, and has played a conspicuous part in the world's history, retaining to the present day monumental evidence of the races who have lined its banks.

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  • In August of the same year he was again arrested, and on his appearance in court he desired his defence to be undertaken by two women who were with him, alleging that the matter was of special concern to women.

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  • The Norman, a strict observer of forms in all matters, attended to the forms of religion with special care.

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  • The special character of Norman rule in Sicily was that all these various races flourished, each in its own fashion, each keeping its own creed, tongue and manners, under the protection of a common sovereign, who belonged to none of them, but who did impartial justice to all.

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  • Indianapolis is governed under a form of government adopted originally in a special charter of 1891 and in 1905 incorporated in the new state municipal code, which was based upon it, It provides for a mayor elected every four years, a single legislative chamber, a common council, and various administrative departments - of public safety, public health, &c. The guiding principle of the charter, which is generally accepted as a model of its kind, is that of the complete separation of powers and the absolute placing of responsibility.

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  • Again, it is sometimes thought that both nobility and aristocracy are in some special way connected with kingly government.

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  • Justin had, no doubt, special reasons for wishing to see an end to the reign of Theodoric. Justin was orthodox, Theodoric was an Arian.

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  • He became secretary of the embassy in London; was employed on special missions in the principalities and at St Petersburg (1848), and was sent to Egypt as special commissioner in 1851.

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  • The rubber trade is controlled by the Liberian Rubber Corporation, which holds a special concession from the Liberian government for a number of years, and is charged with the preservation of the forests.

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  • Some notes may be added on special points.

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  • Wallace succeeded in displacing the naïf conception of special creation by belief in the origin of species out of other species through a process of natural law.

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  • The special Darwinian hypothesis - natural " selection " - may or may not be true; it was at least a fruitful suggestion.

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  • On the other hand, faith has no special interest in claiming that we can compose a biographical study of the development of Jesus.

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  • Dubois (1886), who considers that the luminosity is due to the influence of an enzyme in the cells of the organ upon a special substance in the blood.

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  • C. Miall's Aquatic Insects (London, 1895), the special literature of the Coleoptera is enormous.

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  • It is difficult to allow the appositeness of this special illustration; on the other hand, Ford has even in this case shown his art of depicting sensual passion without grossness of expression; for the exception in Annabella's language to Soranzo seems to have a special intention, and is true to the pressure of the situation and the revulsion produced by it in a naturally weak and yielding mind.

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  • A Strange Truth, appears to call for special attention.

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  • His scientific temper and the special facilities which he enjoyed for drawing from original sources give to his numerous historical works a very special value.

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  • Towards the end of the reign of Alexander II., the government, in order to preserve order in the country districts, also created a special class of mounted rural policemen (uryadniki, from uriad, order), who, armed with power to arrest all suspects on the spot, rapidly became the terror of the countryside.

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  • The district court, sitting with a jury, can try criminal cases without appeal, but only by special leave in each case of the court of appeal.

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  • This fact was recognized by the legislators of 1864, and beneath the statutory tribunals created in that year the special courts of the peasants were suffered to survive.

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  • It is a special feature of Russia that she has no free outlet to the open sea except on the ice-bound shores of the Arctic Ocean.

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  • The spring is exceptionally beautiful in central Russia; late as it usually is, it sets in with vigour, and vegetation develops with a rapidity which gives to this season in Russia a special charm, unknown in warmer climates.

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  • Sericulture is taught in a number of special schools and in a great number of village schools.

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  • The usual practice was for the whole of the people in one village to devote themselves to one special occupation.

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  • He met with such a favourable reception from the tsar that on his return to England a special envoy was sent to Moscow by Queen Mary, and he succeeded in obtaining for his countrymen the privilege of trading freely in Russian towns.

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  • That in the work of restoring its military position the Russian government had the support of the Russian parliament was proved by a subsidy of Li 1,000,000 voted by the Duma, on the 30th of December 1909, for the special service of the reorganization and redistribution of the army.

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  • It may be supposed that originally the public roads, when worn by the cartage of the coal, were repaired by laying planks of timber at the bottom of the ruts, and that then the planks were laid on the surface of special roads or ways' formed between the collieries and the river.

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  • This classification is based partly upon special conditions of service, which make some articles more economical to carry than others (with particular reference to the question whether the goods are offered to the companies in car-loads or in small parcels), but chiefly with regard to the commercial value of the article, and its consequent ability to bear a high charge or a low one.

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  • Besides the system of charges thus prescribed in the classification and rate-sheet, each tariff provides for a certain number of special rates or charges made for particular lines of trade in certain localities, independently of their relation to the general system.

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  • If these special rates are published in the tariff, and are offered to all persons alike, provided they can fulfil the conditions imposed by the company, they are known as commodity rates, and are apparently a necessity in any scheme of railway charges.

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  • Until 1870 railway companies were almost free from special acts of control; and, in general, any company that could raise or borrow the capital was allowed to build a railway wherever it saw fit.

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  • From the early days of railways parliament has also been careful to provide for the safety of the public by inserting in the general or special acts definite conditions, and by laying upon the Board of Trade the duty of protecting the public using a railway.

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  • A code of requirements in regard to the opening of new railways has been drawn up by the department for the guidance of railway companies, and as the special circumstances of each line are considered on their merits, it rarely happens that the department finds it necessary to prohibit the opening of a new railway.

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  • These special acts gradually gave way to general statutes under which railway corporations could be created without application to the legislature.

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  • In the west, general laws came rather as a result of the abuses of special legislation.

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  • Power was also given to prescribe uniform systems of accounts for all classes of carriers, and to employ special examiners to inspect the books and accounts.

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  • The law forbids a railway or any other common carrier to charge more for a short haul than for a long haul over the same line, unless, in special cases, it is authorized to do so by the Commission.

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  • To a less degree, the same is true of railways built for a special instead of a general commercial interest.

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  • In the earlier years of American railway building, each project was commonly the subject of a special law; then special laws were in turn succeeded by general railway laws in the several states, and these in turn have come to be succeeded in most parts of the country by jurisdiction vested in the' state railway commission.

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  • They are nearly always placed transversely, across the direction of the lines, the longitudinal position such as was adopted in connexion with the broad gauge on the Great Western in England having been abandoned except in special cases.

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  • In addition to the foregoing list, various special locomotive types have been developed for suburban service, where high rates of acceleration and frequent stops are required.

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  • Other special types are in limited use for " rack-railways," and operate either by engagement of gearing on the locomotive into a rack between the track rails, or by a combination of this and rail adhesion.

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  • But the extra charges levied for the use of parlour, sleeping and other special cars, of which some of the best trains are exclusively composed, in practice constitute a differentiation of class, besides making the real cost of travelling higher than the figures just given.

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  • The principal types to be found in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe are open wagons (the lading often protected from the weather by tarpaulin sheets), mineral wagons, covered or box wagons for cotton, grain, &c., sheep and cattle trucks, &c. The principal types of American freight cars are box cars, gondola cars, coal cars, stock cars, tank cars and refrigerator cars, with, as in other countries, various special cars for special purposes.

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  • On the continent of Europe the average carrying capacity is rather higher; though wagons of less than io tons capacity are in use, many of those originally rated at io tons have been rebuilt to hold 15, and the tendency is towards wagons of 15-20 tons as a standard, with others for special purposes holding 40 or 45 tons.

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  • Automatic couplers resembling the Janney are adopted in a few special cases in Great Britain and other European countries, FIG.

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  • Still, they do differ from ordinary tramways in the important fact that the procedure by which they have been authorized is simpler and cheaper than the methods by which special private acts of parliament have to he obtained for tramway projects.

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  • It should be mentioned that the act provided that the Treasury might advance a portion of the money required for a line in cases where the council of any county, borough or district had agreed to do the same, and might also make a special advance in aid of a light railway which was certified by the Board of Agriculture to be beneficial to agriculture in any cultivated district, or by the Board of Trade to furnish a means of communication between a fishing-harbour and a market in a district where it would not be constructed without special assistance from the s' ate.

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  • It provided that the powers of the light railway commissioners should continue until determined by parliament, and also provided, inter alia, that in cases where the Board of Trade thought, under section (9) subsection (3) of the original act, that a proposal should be submitted to parliament, the Board of Trade itself might submit the proposals to parliament by bringing in a bill for the confirmation of the light railway order, with a special report upon it.

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  • Except in special cases, gradients must not exceed 3 in moo; and between gradients in the opposite sense there must be not less than 60 metres of level for 1.44 m.

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  • The presence of certain "mediums" was required to form the link between the worlds of the living and of the dead, and Kate Fox and her sister were the first mediums. Spiritualists do not as yet claim to know what special qualities in mediums enable spirits thus to make use of them.

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  • What may broadly be called "conjuring" is a much more probable explanation of most of the recorded phenomena; and in the vast majority of cases the witnesses do not seem to have duly appreciated the possibilities of conjuring, and have consequently neither taken sufficient precautions to exclude it nor allowed for the accidental circumstances which may on any particular occasion favour special tricks or illusions.

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  • Besides the general arguments for supposing that the physical phenomena of spiritualism may be due to conjuring, there are two special reasons which gain in force as time goes on.

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  • The corpse may be burnt, in part or as a whole; portions may be assigned to the priest, the sacrificer and the gods; the skull, bones, &c., may receive special treatment; the fat or blood may be set aside, and they or the ashes may be singled out as the share of the god, to be offered upon the altar; the skin of the victim may be employed as a covering for the idol or material representative of the god, either permanently or till the next annual sacrifice.

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  • As results of Roberval's labours outside the department of pure mathematics may be noted a work on the system of the universe, in which he supports the Copernican system and attributes a mutual attraction to all particles of matter; and also the invention of a special kind of balance which goes by his name.

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  • Another special characteristic of Israel's religion in Canaan was the considerable increase of sacrificial offerings.

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  • As certain sanctuaries, Shiloh, Shechem, Bethel, &c., grew in importance, the priesthoods that officiated at them would acquire special prestige.

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  • The special quality which distinguished these prophetic gilds or companies was an intense patriotism combined with enthusiastic devotion to the cause of Yahweh.

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  • The Deutero-Isaiah closes a great prophetic succession, which begins with Amos, continues in Isaiah in even greater splendour with the added elements of hope and Messianic expectation, and receives further accession in Jeremiah with his special teaching on inward spiritual and personal religion which constituted the new covenant of divine grace.

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  • In Ireland, in Cromwell's time, wolves were particularly troublesome, and said to be increasing in numbers, so that special measures were taken for their destruction, such as the offering of large rewards for their heads, and the prohibition (in 1652) of the exportation of "wolf-dogs," the large dogs used for hunting the wolves.

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  • History had always been a favourite study with him, and Mably's Observations sur l'histoire appears to have had considerable influence in determining him to the choice of some special period for historic research.

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  • For general and special works on the town see Ulysse Chevalier, Topobibliographie (Montbeliard, 1894-1899), s.

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  • The others were all said to have "confessed in a manner" on the scaffold, but much weight cannot be placed on these general confessions, which were, according to the custom of the time, a declaration of submission to the king's will and of general repentance rather than acknowledgment of the special crime.

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  • He also read largely, though somewhat indiscriminately, in French literature, and appears to have been particularly struck with Pascal's Provincial Letters, which he tells us he reperused almost every year of his subsequent life with new pleasure, and which he particularly mentions as having been, along with Bleterie's Life of Julian and Giannone's History of Naples, a book which probably contributed in a special sense to form the historian of the Roman empire.

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  • It may be added that a special translation of the chapter on Roman Law (Gibbon's historische Ubersicht des romischen Rechts) was published by Hugo at Göttingen in 1839, and has frequently been used as a text-book in German universities.

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  • Such statistics of the special census of manufactures (under the factory system) of 1905 as are comparable with those of 1900 show 99 factories in 1900 and 115 in 1905, an increase of 16.2%.

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  • The San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake railway, also an important factor in east and west transcontinental traffic, opened in May 1905, has been of special value in the development of the southern part of the state.

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  • The legislative sessions are biennial and are limited to fifty days; special sessions are limited to twenty days.

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  • The constitution provides that a special state tax, at a rate of not over two mills on the dollar, may be levied for school purposes.

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  • The influence of Demeter, however, was not limited to corn, but extended to vegetation generally and all the fruits of the earth, with the curious exception of the bean, the use of which was forbidden at Eleusis, and for the protection of which a special patron was invented.

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  • Dionysus, as the god of vines, and (in a special procession) Poseidon 4ura?µcos (" god of vegetation ") were associated with Demeter.

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  • He gave special encouragement to the creation of national kitchens, the number of which had grown by the end of Aug.

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  • For pure mathematics he had a special gift - almost a passion.

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  • The subject has a special interest for Italy, which is devastated by malaria, and Italian science has contributed materially to the solution of the problem.

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  • In the case of oxen the alternate host of the parasite is a special tick (Smith and Kilborne).

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  • Suarez endeavoured to reconcile this view with the more orthodox doctrines of the efficacy of grace and special election, maintaining that, though all share in an absolutely sufficient grace, there is granted to the elect a grace which is so adapted to their peculiar dispositions and circumstances that they infallibly, though at the same time quite freely, yield themselves to its influence.

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  • The attempt proved abortive; Meagher was arrested in August, and in October was tried for high treason before a special commission at Clonmel.

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  • Imported vases of the second half of the 5th century B.C. prove the existence of trade with Greece at that period; and the town was famous in Aristotle's day for a special breed of fowls.

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  • In view of the not very great accuracy of thermochemical measurements, the precise definition of the heat-unit employed is not a matter of special importance.

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  • Although the latter have special late and unreliable features, they agree with the former in presenting the same general trend of past history.

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  • It was an age of literary activity which manifested itself, not in contemporary historical records - only a few of which have survived - but rather in the special treatment of previously existing sources.

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  • An outburst of Jewish religious feeling is dated in the second year of Darius (520), but whether Judah was making a bold bid for independence or had received special favour for abstaining from the above revolts, external evidence alone can decide.

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  • In 561 B.C. the captive Judaean king, Jehoiachin, had received special marks of favour from Nebuchadrezzar's son Amilmarduk.

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  • Pollio the Pharisee and Sameas his disciple were in special honour with him, Josephus says, when he re-entered Jerusalem and put to death the leaders of the faction of Antigonus.

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  • The Jews had been expelled from England by Edward I., after a sojourn in the country of rather more than two centuries, during which they had been the licensed and oppressed money-lenders of the realm, and had - through the special exchequer of the Jews - been used by the sovereign as a means of extorting a revenue from his subjects.

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  • The Leibzoll (body-tax) was also abolished, in addition to the special law-taxes, the passport duty, the nightduty and all similiar imposts which had stamped the Jews as outcast, for they were now (Dec. 19) to have equal rights with the Christian inhabitants."

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  • And first as to Italy, where the Jews in a special degree have identified themselves with the national life.

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  • In the same year it was decreed that the Jews should pay " a special tax of 40,000 florins for the right to import their citrons for the feast of booths."

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  • As time went on, a more progressive policy intervened, the special form of Jewish oath was abolished in 1846, and in 1848, as a result of the revolutionary movement in which Jews played an active part, legislation took a more liberal turn.

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  • But gradually the title was extended to ecclesiastical persons having a prominent office even without jurisdiction, and later still it has come to be applied to ecclesiastical persons marked by some special honour though without any definite office or jurisdiction.

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  • A special class of Roman prelatures exist at Rome, endowed as a kind of ecclesiastical majority to which those members of certain families who are destined for the clerical life naturally succeed.

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  • The real ruler and the chief officers of the state were members of the Tupou family, from which also the wife of the Tui Tonga was always chosen, whose descendants through the female line had special honours and privileges, under the title of tamaha, recalling the vasu of Fiji.

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  • This circumstance deserves attention owing to the special connexion traditionally existing between the Minyans of Iolcus and those of Orchomenus, the point of all others on this side where the early Cretan influence seems most to have taken root.

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  • In contrast to the palace of Phaestus, the contents of the royal villa proved exceptionally rich, and derive a special interest from the fact that the catastrophe which overwhelmed the building belongs to a somewhat earlier part of the Late Minoan age than that which overwhelmed Cnossus and Phaestus.

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  • Both the signet types and the other objects of art here discovered display the fresh naturalism that characterizes in a special way the first Late Minoan period.

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  • It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.

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  • The sanctity of special times was an idea absent from the minds of the first Christians.

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  • In accordance with authority conferred by the home-rule amendment of the state constitution, a charter, submitted by a special commission, was accepted by the citizens on July I 1913.

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  • It meets in regular session quadrennially, in special sessions in the middle of the interval to pass the appropriation and revenue bills, and in extraordinary session whenever the governor sees fit to call it.

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  • The constitution goes into minute detail in prohibiting local, private and special legislation.

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  • The public school system, established in 1846, never was universal, because of special legislation for various counties; public education was retarded during the Civil War and the Reconstruction period (when immense sums appropriated for schools were grossly mismanaged), but conditions gradually improved after 1875, especially through the concentration of schools.

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  • Congress granted another township (thirty-six sections) for the university in 1892, and its income is supplemented by legislative appropriations for current expenses and special needs.

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  • This body is not, however, a special board, as in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, but a kind of administrative cabinet as in Iowa, consisting of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, and the superintendent of 2 The changes made in 1875 were adopted in a convention, were ratified in 1876, and were so numerous that the amended constitution is frequently referred to as the Constitution of 1876.

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  • The word Orchis is used in a special sense to denote a particular genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae); very frequently, also, it is employed in a more general way to indicate any member of that large and very interesting group. It will be convenient here to use the word Orchis as applying to that particular genus which gives its name to the order or family, and to employ the term "orchid" in the less precise sense.

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  • Although for the purposes of geographical nomenclature, boundaries formed by a coast-line - that is, by depressions of the earth's solid crust below the ocean level - are most easily recog- Political nized and are of special convenience; and although such divisions.

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