When this is the case, if discharges are made across the spark gap oscillations are excited in the closed circuit, and these induce other syntonic oscillations in the antenna circuit.
In this case a closed condenser circuit is formed with a battery of Leyden jars, an inductance coil and a spark gap, and oscillations are excited in it by discharges created across the spark gap by an induction coil or transformer.
In many cases additional condensers or inductance coils are inserted in various places so that the arrangement is somewhat disguised, but by far the larger part of the electric wave wireless telegraphy in 1907 was effected by transmitters having antennae either inductively or directly coupled to a closed condenser circuit containing a spark gap.
an antenna of suitable capacity and inductance to a nearly closed electric circuit consisting of a condenser of large capacity, a spark gap and an inductance of low resistance.
Braun showed that oscillations suitable for the purposes of electric wave creation in wireless telegraphy could be set up in a circuit consisting of a Leyden jar or jars, a spark gap and an inductive circuit, and communicated to an antenna either by inductive or direct coupling (Brit.
When the methods for effecting this had been worked out practically it finally led to the inventions of Slaby, Braun and others being united into a system called the Telefunken system, which, as regards the transmitter, consisted in forming a closed oscillation circuit comprising a condenser, spark gap and inductance which at one point was attached either directly or through a condenser to the earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity, and at some other point to a suitably tuned antenna.
The receiving arrangements comprised also an open or antenna circuit connected directly with a closed condenser-inductance circuit, but in place of the spark gap in the transmitter an electrolytic receiver was inserted, having in connexion with it as indicator a voltaic cell and telephone.
The conversion of nitrogen into ammonia by electricity has received much attention, but the commercial aspect appears to have been first worked out by de Hemptinne in 1900, who used both the spark and silent discharge on mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen, and found that the pressure and temperature must be kept low and the spark gap narrow.
Hemsalech have observed that the insertion of a self-induction in a condenser discharge almost entirely obliterates the air lines, and the same effect is produced by diminishing the spark gap sufficiently.
When the spark gap is small, the sudden evaporation of the metal has a better chance of filling the interval between the poles, even without the introduction of a self-induction.
As soon as a spark-gap was introduced, or the condenser began to emit the humming sound peculiar to it, the beautiful blue glow so characteristic of argon immediately appeared.
The majority of the krypton lines which Baly identifies with auroral lines require for their production a Leyden jar and spark gap.
Such an arrangement constitutes in effect a condenser, and when the two plates respectively are connected to the secondary terminals of an induction coil in operation, the plates are rapidly and alternately charged, and discharged across the spark gap with electrical oscillations (see Electrokinetics).
electrode spacing on the average firing rate of the spark gap.
Several companies made small spark-gap transmitter unit to send Morse up to a 200 feet range for such experimenters.
resonant charging does not only apply to systems incorporating a rotary spark gap.
The first graph shows the effect of electrode spacing on the average firing rate of the spark gap.
Since the time of these early experiments, various other modes of detecting the existence of electric waves have been found out in addition to the spark-gap which he first employed, and the results of his observations, the earliest interest of which was simply that they afforded a confirmation of an abstruse mathematical theory, have been applied to the practical purposes of signalling over considerable distances (see Telegraphy, Wireless).
It has sometimes been claimed that Edison's proposed elevated plates anticipated the subsequent invention by Marconi of the aerial wire or antenna, but it is particularly to be noticed that Edison employed no spark gap or means for creating electrical high frequency oscillations in these wires.
Wien's method of impact excitation by employing a form of spark gap which quenches the primary discharge instantly and excites the free oscillations in the antenna by impact or shock.
In an attempt to make a spark gap quench at the first primary notch, several small gaps can be placed in series.
Wide static gaps, Resonant charging does not only apply to systems incorporating a rotary spark gap.
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