Spanish sentence example

spanish
  • Would it be read in Spanish or English?
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  • "Guess I'd better brush up on my Spanish," Dean said, but Fred shook his head.
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  • The Spanish brought them in the 1400's.
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  • The driver took them to a Spanish design home a few miles from the hacienda.
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  • If she wanted to learn French or Spanish, she'd take lessons.
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  • When Dean first introduced himself, the young lady continued with her engaging smile until it became obvious she had no idea what he was saying—even after he sputtered the half-dozen words of Spanish he knew.
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  • All this time I thought the company was interested in him because he could speak both Spanish and English.
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  • Of course, Spanish heritage.
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  • The note was handwritten in Spanish.
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  • He must minimize foreign influence, whether French, Spanish or German, in Italy.
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  • Dulce had hands on her hips, leaning slightly forward as she spoke to him in Spanish.
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  • Presumably, he speaks Spanish.
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  • Carmen doesn't speak Spanish.
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  • That explained the note, but why was it written in Spanish?
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  • Saundra didn't speak Spanish.
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  • Alex was teaching Saundra to speak Spanish.
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  • When everyone had settled down, he began reading in Spanish.
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  • The island remained a Spanish province until the War of the Spanish Succession, when in 1708 Cagliari capitulated to an English fleet, and the island became Austrian; the status quo was confirmed by the peace of Utrecht in 1713.
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  • In the Spanish plains, however, the young are often produced in nests built in trees, or among tall bamboos in FIG.
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  • There are also numerous editions and translations of separate works, especially the Method, in French, German, Italian, Spanish and Hungarian.
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  • It excited the admiration of Gonzales Clavijo, the Spanish envoy, when he passed through it on his way to visit the court of Timur at Samarkand (Clavijo, Historia del gran Tamorlan, p. 84); and Cardinal Bessarion, who was a native of the place, in the latter part of his life, when the city had passed into the hands of the Mahommedans, and he was himself a dignitary of the Roman Church, so little forgot the impression it had made upon him that he wrote a work entitled "The Praise of Trebizond" ('E-yac c uLovTpaire oiivros), which exists in manuscript at Venice.
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  • 1312), son of Sancho El Bravo, and his wife Maria de Molina, is a figure of small note in Spanish history.
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  • The language is Spanish.
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  • Originally the cattle were nearly all of the long-horned Spanish breed and of little value for their meat, except to the saladero establishments.
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  • The proceedings are, with but few exceptions, written, and the procedure is a survival of the antiquated Spanish system.
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  • It was endowed by its founder with a cabildo (corporation) and full Spanish municipal privileges.
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  • But the Spanish government was not content with the prohibition of sea-borne commerce.
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  • From this port foreign merchandise found its way duty free into the Spanish provinces of Buenos Aires, Tucuman and Paraguay, and even into the interior of Peru.
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  • The continual encroachments of the Portuguese at length led the Spanish government to take the important step of making Buenos Aires the seat of a viceroyalty with jurisdiction over the territories of the present republics of Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Argentine Confederation (1776).
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  • At the same time all this country was opened to Spanish trade even with Peru, and the development of its resources, so long thwarted, was allowed comparatively free play.
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  • The successful defence of Buenos Aires accentuated the growing feeling of dissatisfaction with the Spanish connexion, which was soon to lead to open insurrection.
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  • But his measures speedily gave dissatisfaction to the Argentine or Creole party, who had long chafed under the disabilities of Spanish rule, and who now felt themselves no longer bound by ties of loyalty to a country which was in the possession of the French armies.
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  • An attempt of the Spanish party to make Balthasar de Cisneros president of the junta failed, and the ex-viceroy retired to Montevideo.
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  • The combined forces of Buenos Aires and Chile defeated the Spaniards at Chacabuco in 1817, and at Maipu in 1818; and from Chile the victorious general Jose de San Martin led his troops into Peru, where on the 9th of July 1821, he made a triumphal entry into Lima, which had been the chief stronghold of the Spanish power, having from the time of its foundation by Pizarro been the seat of government of a viceroyalty which at one time extended to the river Plate.
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  • The Spanish government did not, however, formally acknowledge the independence of the country until the year 1842.
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  • The Garonne rises in the valley of Aran (Spanish Pyrenees), enters France near Bagnres-de-Luchon, has first a north-west course, then bends to the north-east, and soon resumes its first direction.
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  • The defences, of the Spanish frontier consist of the entrenched camps of Bayonne and Perpignan and the various small forts darrt of the Pyrenees.
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  • Negotiations for the marriage began during the reign of Charles I., were renewed immediately after the Restoration, and on the 23rd of June, in spite of Spanish opposition, the marriage contract was signed, England securing Tangier and Bombay, with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese crowns (about 300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval support against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine.
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  • Moratin, Leandro Antonio Eulogio Meliton Fernandez De (1760-1828), Spanish dramatist and poet, the son of N.
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  • houses, ran through several Spanish editions in a year, and was soon translated into a number of foreign languages.
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  • From 1814 to 182S Moratin lived in Italy and France, compiling a work on the early Spanish drama (Origenes del teatro espanol).
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  • MORATIN, NICOLAS FERNANDEZ DE (1737-1780), Spanish poet and dramatist, was born at Madrid in 1 737.
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  • It included, however, only twenty-four Spanish ships.
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  • The Sicilian and Neapolitan contingents were commanded by the marquess of Santa Cruz, and Cardona, Spanish officers.
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  • Eight thousand Spanish soldiers were embarked.
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  • MANUEL RUIZ ZORILLA, D ON (1834-189J), Spanish politician, was born at Burgo de Osma in 18 3 4.
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  • The eighty-one canons which were adopted reflect with considerable fulness the internal life and external relations of the Spanish Church of the 4th century.
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  • His father, Mathieu de Lesseps (1774-1832), was in the consular service; hi$ mother, Catherine de Grivegnee, was Spanish, and aunt of the countess of Montijo, mother of the empress Eugenie.
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  • Two burning questions at the outset confronted Margaret and Granvelle - the question of the new bishoprics and the question of the presence in the Netherlands of a number of Spanish troops.
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  • The continued presence of the Spanish troops caused also great dissatisfaction.
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  • The Netherlanders detested the Spaniards and everything Spanish, and this foreign mercenary force, together with the new bishops, was looked upon as part of a general plan for the gradual overthrow of their rights and liberties.
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  • So loud was the outcry that Margaret and Granvelle on their own responsibility sent away the Spanish regiments from the country (January 1561).
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  • In 1569 William in his capacity as sovereign prince of Orange issued letters-of-marque to a number of vessels to prey upon the Spanish commerce in the narrow seas.
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  • He gained a victory at Heiligerlee (May 23) over a Spanish force under Count Aremberg.
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  • In the spring of 1575 conferences with a view to peace were held at Breda, and on their failure Orange, in the face of Spanish successes in Zeeland, was forced to seek foreign succour.
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  • In June 1576 the long siege of Zierikzee, the capital of Schou.wen, ended in its surrender to the Spanish general Mondragon, after the failure of a gallant attempt by Admiral Boisot to break the leaguer, in which he lost The great his life.
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  • This tragedy, known as " the Spanish Fury."
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  • It was stipulated that there was to be toleration for both Catholics and Protestants; that the Spanish king should be recognized as de jure sovereign, and the prince of Orange as governor with full powers in Holland and Zeeland.
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  • After many delays he reached Luxemburg on the 4th of November (the date of the Spanish Fury at Antwerp) and notified his arrival to the council of state.
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  • The principal fortresses of the country were in the hands of Spanish garrisons, who refused obedience to the council.
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  • Through his exertions the Spanish troops had not only been expelled from Holland and Zeeland, but also from the citadels of Antwerp and Ghent, which were now in the hands of the patriots.
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  • It did not long remain French, for in 1521 the count of Nassau, Charles V.'s general, took it and added it to the Spanish provinces.
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  • Two more species of Hylactes are known, and 1 Of Spanish origin, it is intended as a reproof to the bird for the shameless way in which, by erecting its tail, it exposes its hinder parts.
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  • Most of the naturalized French citizens are of Spanish or Italian origin.
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  • In December 1654 Penn and Venables sailed for the West Indies with orders to attack the Spanish colonies and the French shipping; and for the first time since the Plantagenets an English fleet appeared in the Mediterranean, where Blake upheld the supremacy of the English flag, made a treaty with the dey of Algiers, destroyed the castles and ships of the dey of Tunis at Porto Farina on the 4th of April 1655, and liberated the English prisoners captured by the pirates.
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  • Great writers like Milton and Harrington supported Cromwell's view of the duty of a statesman; the poet Waller acclaimed Cromwell as "the world's protector"; but the London tradesmen complained of the loss of their Spanish trade and regarded Holland and not Spain as the national enemy.
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  • In spite of almost insuperable difficulties the colony took root, trade began, the fleet lay in wait for the Spanish treasure ships, the settlements of the Spaniards were raided, and their repeated attempts to retake the island were successfully resisted.
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  • In 1658 Colonel Edward Doyley, the governor, gained a decisive victory over thirty companies of Spanish foot, and sent ten of their flags to Cromwell.
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  • The Protector, however, did not live to witness the final triumph of his undertaking, which gave to England, as he had wished," the mastery of those seas,"ensuring the English colonies against Spanish attacks, and being maintained and followed up at the Restoration.
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  • LOUIS OF NASSAU (1538-1574), son of William, count of Nassau, and Juliana von Stolberg, and younger brother of William the Silent, took an active part in the revolt of the Netherlands against Spanish domination.
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  • In the spring of 1568 Louis invaded Friesland, and at Heiligerlee, on the 23rd of May, completely defeated a Spanish force under Count Aremberg, who was killed.
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  • Here he was attacked by a body of Spanish veterans under an experienced leader, Sancho d'Avila, and speedily routed.
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  • The age of these buildings is unknown, as they were already in ruins at the time of the Spanish Conquest.
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  • coast, with picturesque Spanish fortifications, constructed in 1602 by Philip III.; Rio dell' Elba and Rio Marina, both on the E.
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  • ALPHONSO DELLA CUEVA, MARQUIS OF BEDMAR (157216s5), Spanish diplomatist, became ambassador to the republic of Venice in 1667.
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  • Esparto grass, which grows freely in the vicinity, is the spartum, or Spanish broom, which gave the town its Roman designation of Carthago Spartaria.
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  • In 1904, exclusive of coasters and small craft trading with north-west Africa, 562 ships of 604,208 tons entered the port of Cartagena, 259 being British and 150 Spanish; while 90 vessels were accommodated at Porman.
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  • In 1706, in the War of the Spanish Succession, it was occupied by Sir John Leake; and in the next year it was retaken by the duke of Berwick.
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  • On the 23rd of August 1873 it was bombarded by the Spanish fleet under Admiral Lobos; on the 11th of October a battle took place off the town, between the ships of the government and the rebels, and on the 12th of January 1874 Cartagena was occupied by the government troops.
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  • BADAJOZ, the capital of the Spanish province described above; situated close to the Portugue.se frontier, on the left bank of the river Guadiana, and the Madrid-Lisbon railway.
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  • It was beleaguered by the Portuguese in 1660, and in 1705 by the Allies in the War of the Spanish Succession.
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  • During the Peninsular War Badajoz was unsuccessfully attacked by the French in 1808 and 1809; but on the 10th of March 1811, the Spanish commander, Jose Imaz, was bribed into surrendering to the French force under Marshal Soult.
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  • The Sicilians and Sardinians have something of Spanish dignity, but the former are one of the most mixed and the latter probably one of the purest races of the Italian kingdom.
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  • Civil Wan He lost the island, which gave itself to Aragon; and of Gue!phs thus the kingdom of Sicily was severed from that of anj Naples, the dynasty in the one being Spanish and Ghibelline, in the other French and Guelph.
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  • By a treaty signed at Granada, the French and Spanish kings were to divide the spoil.
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  • Whatever parts the Italians themselves played in the succeeding quarter of a century, the game was in the hands of French, Spanish and German invaders.
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  • During the next four years the Franco-Spanish war dragged on in Lombardy until the decisive battle of Pavia in 1525, when Francis was taken prisoner, and Italy lay open to the Spanish armies.
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  • A Spanish viceroy in Milan and another in Naples, supported by Rome and by the minor princes who followed the policy dictated to them from Madfid, were sufficient to preserve the whole peninsula in a state of somnolent inglorious servitude.
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  • much wrangling between the French and Spanish parties, the duchy was confirmed in 1586 to Ottaviano Farnese and his son Alessandro, better known as Philip II.s general, the prince of Parma.
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  • The peace of Cteau Cambresis, signed in 1559, left the Spanish monarch undisputed lord of Italy.
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  • The treaty of Cteau Cambresis in 1559, and the evacuation of the Piedmontese cities held by French and Spanish troops in 1574, restored his state.
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  • Meanwhile Spanish fanaticism, the suppression of the Huguenots in France and the Catholic policy of Austria combined to strengthen their authority as pontiffs.
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  • The dispute was fought out in Flanders; but Spanish Lombardy felt the shock, as usual, of the French and Austrian dynasties.
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  • Philip founded the Bourbon line of Spanish kings, renouncing in Italy all that his Habsburg predecessors had gained.
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  • Discontented with this diminution of the Spanish heritage, Philip V.
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  • At first, in 1745, the Sardinians were defeated by the French and Spanish troops.
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  • pre-revolutionary days was beneficial and far from oppressive, and helped Lombardy to recover from the ill-effects of the Spanish domination.
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  • left the Habsburgs and the Spanish Bourbons without ~ serious rivals.
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  • The Spanish Bourbons held Naples and Sicily, as well as the duchy of Parma.
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  • The Spanish national rising of 1808 and thereafter the Peninsular War diverted Napoleons attention from the affairs of south Italy.
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  • Etruria reverted to the French empire, but the Spanish princess and her son did not receive the promised indemnity.
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  • Calderai, who may be compared to the Black Hundreds of modern Russia, the revolutionary spirit continued to grow, but it was not at first anti-dynastic. The granting of the Spanish constitution of 1820 proved the signal for the beginning of the Italian.
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  • On the 10th of March the garrison of Alessandria mutinied, and its example was followed on the 12th by that of Turin, where the Spanish constitution was demanded, and the black, red and blue flag of the Carbonari paraded the Streets.
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  • At the same time an Austrian army was marching through the Legations, and Neapolitan and Spanish troops were advancing from the south.
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  • Among the philosophic Jews, the Spanish Avicebron, in his Fons Vitae, expounds a curious doctrine of emanation.
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  • Cesare's position was greatly shaken, and when he tried to browbeat the cardinals by means of Don Michelotto and his bravos, they refused to be intimidated; he had to leave Rome in September, trusting that the Spanish cardinals would elect a candidate friendly to his house.
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  • Cesare, who could still count on the Spanish cardinals, wished to prevent the election of Giuliano della Rovere, the enemy of his house, but the latter's chances were so greatly improved that it was necessary to come to terms with him.
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  • The Spanish governor, Gonzalo de Cordova, had given him a safe-conduct, and he was meditating fresh plans, when Gonzalo arrested him by the order of Ferdinand of Spain as a disturber of the peace of Italy (May 1504).
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  • A royal writ of the 16th century cited by Covarruvias (c. xxxv.) prohibits execution of the sentence of a Spanish court Christian pending an appeal to the pope.
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  • the counts, and of the auto-da-fes under the Spanish regime.
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  • In addition, a fine of 150,000 golden gulden was levied on the city, and used to build the "Spanish Citadel" on the site of what is now the public park.
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  • In the long struggle of the Netherlands against Spain, Ghent took a conspicuous part, and it was here that, on the 8th of November 1576, was signed the instrument, known as the Pacification of Ghent, which established the league against Spanish tyranny.
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  • The name is that given them by the Spanish.
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  • His mother Domitia Calvilla (or Lucilla) was a lady of consular rank, and the family of his father Annius Verus (prefect of the city and thrice consul), originally Spanish, had received patrician rank from Vespasian.
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  • The Leeward Islands are Tubai or Motuiti, a small uninhabited lagoon island, the most northern of the group; Marua or Maupiti - "Double Mountain," the most western; BolaBola or Bora-Bora; Huaheine; Raiatea or Ulietea (Spanish Princessa), the largest island of this cluster, and Tahaa, which approach each other very closely, and are encircled by one reef.
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  • To the Windward Islands belong Tapamanu or Majaiti (Wallis's Sir Charles Saunders's Island and Spanish Pelada); Moorea or Eimeo (Wallis's Duke of York Island and Spanish San Domingo); Tahiti - Cook's Otaheite (probably Quiros's Sagittaria; Wallis's King George's Island, Bougainville's Nouvelle Cythere and Spanish Isla d'Amat); Tetuaroa - "The Distant Sea" (?
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  • Quiros's Fugitiva; Bougainville's Umaitia and Spanish Tres Hermanos); and Maitea (?
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  • Quiros's La Dezana, Wallis's Osnaburg Island, Bougainville's Boudoir and Pic de la Boudeuse and Spanish Cristoval), the most eastern and southern of the archipelago.
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  • anbar, probably through the Spanish, but this word referred originally to ambergris, which is an animal substance quite distinct from yellow amber.
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  • According to Suetonius (Caesar, 56), many authorities considered Oppius to have written the histories of the Spanish, African and Alexandrian wars which are printed among the works of Caesar.
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  • ADELARDO LOPEZ DE AYALA Y HERRERA (1828-1879), Spanish writer and politician, was born at Guadalcanal on the 1st of May 1828, and at a very early age began writing for the theatre of his native town.
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  • They will at least ensure for him an honourable place in the history of the modern Spanish theatre.
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  • Neither the Spanish islands nor the Scillies contain tin, at least in serious quantities.
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  • The European country which had come the most completely under the influence of Arab culture now began to send forth explorers Spanish to distant lands, though the impulse came not from the Moors but from Italian merchant navigators in Spanish explora- service.
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  • In 1403 the Spanish king sent a knight of Madrid, Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, to the distant court of Timur, at Samarkand.
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  • His work Suma de Geografia, which was printed in 1519, is the first Spanish book which gives an account of America.
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  • The great desire of the Spanish government at that time was to find a westward route to the Moluccas.
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  • One important object of English maritime adventurers of those days was to discover a route to Cathay by the north-west, a second was to settle Virginia, and a third was to raid the Spanish settlements in the West Indies.
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  • in 1594, was attacked by a Spanish fleet, and, after a desperate naval engagement, was forced to surrender.
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  • The exploring enterprise of the Spanish nation did not wane after the conquest of Peru and Mexico, and the acquisition of the vast empire of the Indies.
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  • In the interior of South America the Spanish conquerors had explored the region of the Andes from the isthmus of Panama to Chile.
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  • He was followed by a Spanish mission under Garcia de Silva, who wrote an interesting account of his travels; and to Sir Dormer Cotton's mission, in 1628, we are indebted for Sir Thomas Herbert's charming narrative.
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  • The Dutch nation, as soon as it was emancipated from Spanish tyranny, displayed an amount of enterprise, which, for a long time, was fully equal to that of the British.
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  • On the 6th of May 1615 Spilbergen entered the Pacific Ocean, and touched at several places on the coast of Chile and Peru, defeating the Spanish fleet in a naval engagement off Chilca.
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  • for the establishment of this new form of Inquisition; and as the result of a long intrigue, in 1479 a papal bull authorized the appointment by the Spanish sovereigns of two inquisitors at Seville, under whom the Dominican inquisitions already established elsewhere might serve.
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  • These assessors were allowed a definite vote in temporal matters but not in spiritual, and the final decision was reserved to Torquemada himself, who in 1483 was appointed the sole inquisitor-general over all the Spanish possessions.
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  • Against this law, too, many petitions went to Rome for rehabilitation, until in 1498 the Spanish pope Alexander VI.
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  • Such were some of the methods that Torquemada introduced into the Spanish Inquisition, which was to have so baneful an effect upon the whole country.
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  • After serving in the Spanish army William Hayward Wakefield (1803-1848) emigrated to New Zealand in 1839.
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  • A relapse of the city led to a new ban of the emperor Matthias in 1613, and in the following year Spinola's Spanish troops brought back the recalcitrant city to the Catholic fold.
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  • His eldest son Charles (1536-1624), lord admiral of England in 1585, sailed as commander in chief against the Spanish Armada, and, although giving due weight to the counsel of Drake and his other officers, showed himself a leader as prudent as courageous.
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  • 1844), served in the artillery until 1870 and in the cavalry until 1879; he was appointed brigadiergeneral U.S. Volunteers in the Spanish War in 1898, and served in the Philippines.
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  • Like many of the Spanish Jews he united scholarly tastes with political ability.
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  • The aim of the grammatical studies of the Spanish school was ultimately exegesis.
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  • The fact that many of the most important works were written in Arabic, the vernacular of the Spanish Jews under the Moors, which was not understood in France, gave rise to a number of translations into Hebrew, chiefly by the family of Ibn Tibbon (or Tabbon).
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  • A pueblo or villa called Branciforte, one of the least important of the Spanish settlements (now a suburb of Santa Cruz), was founded in the vicinity in 1797, and before the American conquest was merged with the settlement that had grown up about the mission.
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  • In 1907, 26,105 Italian immigrants arrived, 21,927 Spanish, 2355 British, 2315 French and 1823 German.
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  • Besides a number of local banks, branches of German, Spanish, French and several British banks are established in Montevideo.
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  • The metric system of weights and measures has been officially adopted, but the old Spanish system is still in general use.
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  • The American rebellion, the French Revolution and the British invasions of Montevideo and Buenos Aires (1806-7), under GeneralsAuchmuty(i 756-1 822)andJohnWhitelocke (1757-1833), all contributed to the extinction of the Spanish power on the Rio de la Plata.
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  • For the Italian nobility see the eight magnificent folio volumes of Count Pompeo Litta, Celebri famiglie italiane, continued by various editors (Milan, 1819-1907); for Spanish, Fernandez de Bethencourt, Hist.
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  • Versions of it appeared in German, French, Italian, Spanish and Greek before the end of the 15th century.
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  • friendly relations are maintained with Spain, as the Spanish plantations in Fernando Po are to a great extent worked by Liberian labour.
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  • The public buildings include the cathedral (1760), the government palace, the municipal palace, the episcopal palace, the church of Santa Ana, a national theatre, a school of arts and trades, a foreign hospital, the former administration building of the Canal Company, Santo Tomas Hospital, the pesthouse of Punta Mala and various asylums. The houses are mostly of stone, with red tile roofs, two or three storeys high, built in the Spanish style around central patios, or courts, and with balconies projecting far over the narrow streets; in such houses the lowest floor is often rented to a poorer family.
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  • In the 16th century the city was the strongest Spanish fortress in the New World, excepting Cartagena, and gold and silver were brought hither by ship from Peru and were carried across the Isthmus to Chagres, but as Spain's fleets even in the Pacific were more and more often attacked in the 17th century, Panama became less important, though it was still the chief Spanish port on the Pacific. In 1671 the city was destroyed by Henry Morgan, the buccaneer; it was rebuilt in 1673 by Alfonzo Mercado de Villacorta about five miles west of the old site and nearer the roadstead.
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  • In 1417, however, the Spanish Dominican St Vincent Ferrer pleaded the cause of the flagellants with great warmth at the council of Constance, and elicited a severe reply from John Gerson 29 ` ' '?
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  • Several of the Meloidae (such as the, "Spanish fly," fig.
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  • The population, of which more than twothirds are Bulgarians, and about one-sixth Spanish Jews, was 20,501 in 1881, 30,428 in 1888, 46,593 in 1893 and 82,187 in 1907.
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  • FERNANDO DE VALENZUELA (1630-1692), Spanish royal favourite and minister, was born at Naples on the 19th of January 1630.
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  • gauge; the normal Spanish and Portuguese gauge is, however, 5 ft.
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  • In 1524 he went to the university of Paris, where he entered the .College of St Barbara, then the headquarters of the Spanish and Portuguese students, and in 1528 was appointed lecturer in Aristotelian philosophy at the College de Beauvais.
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  • He and the Savoyard Pierre Lefevre, who shared his lodging, had already, in 1529, made the acquaintance of Ignatius of Loyola - like Xavier a native of the Spanish Basque country.
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  • In appearance Xavier was neither Spanish nor Basque.
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  • distinguished the other Spanish mystics, St Theresa, Luis de Leon or Raimon Lull.
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  • Few Spanish towns have developed more rapidly than Baracaldo, which nearly doubled its population between 1880 and 1900.
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  • In April 1 559 Granvella was one of the Spanish commissioners who arranged the peace of Cateau Cambresis, and on Philip's withdrawal from the Netherlands in August of the same year he was appointed prime minister to the regent, Margaret of Parma.
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  • Among the more delicate negotiations of his later years were those of 1580, which had for their object the ultimate union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal, and those of 1584, which resulted in a check to France by the marriage of the Spanish infanta Catherine to Charles Emmanuel, duke of Savoy.
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  • It was not till the 19th of January 1826 that he recorded in the private memoranda begun by him in 1820 his decision "to embrace the gift of the Spanish subject."
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  • In February 1845 he received the announcement of his election as corresponding member of the French Institute in place of the Spanish historian Navarrete, and also of the Royal Society of Berlin.
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  • His misgivings as to its reception were at once set at rest, and it was speedily issued in translations into French, Spanish, German and Dutch, in addition to the English editions of New York, London and Paris.
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  • He had been fortunate in obtaining the aid of Don Pascual de Gayangos, then professor of Arabic literature at Madrid, by whose offices he was enabled to obtain material not only from the public archives of Spain but from the muniment rooms of the great Spanish families.
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  • Its long and noble resistance, told by the Roman historian Livy in no less noble language, ranks with the Spanish defence of Saragossa in the Peninsular War.
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  • NEVADA (a Spanish word meaning " snow-clad " or " snowy land," originally applied to a snow-capped mountain range on the Pacific slope), one of the far western states of the American Union, lying between 35° and 42° N.
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  • of his Works (San Francisco, 1890); Elliot Coues, On the Trail of a Spanish Cavalier, Francisco Garces (New York, 1900).
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  • It arose out of the attempt of the Spanish and Italian forces to relieve Ravenna, besieged by Gaston de Foix, duke of Nemours.
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  • The most celebrated captains of these wars were present on either side - under Gaston de Foix were Bayard, Yves d'Allegre, La Palisse; and under Cardona the Spanish viceroy of Naples, Pedro Navarro the great engineer, and Pescara the originator of the Spanish tactical system.
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  • After some preliminary manoeuvres the two armies drew up face to face on the left bank of the Roneo, the Spanish left and the French right resting on this river.
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  • The left wing was composed of the papal contingent, 6000 infantry and 800 gendarmes under Fabrizio Colonna; the centre, of half the Spanish contingent, 4000 infantry and 600 lancers under the viceroy; the right, of 1000 light horse under Pescara.
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  • Behind the centre was the rest of the Spanish contingent, 600 lancers and 4000 infantry.
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  • The battle opened with a prolonged cannonade from the Spanish lines.
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  • Disciplined troops as they were, they resisted the temptation to escape Ferrara's fire by breaking out to the front; but the whole Spanish line was enfiladed, and on the left of it the papal troops, who were by no means of the same quality, filled up the ditch in front of their breastworks and charged forward, followed by all the gendarmerie.
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  • The advantage of position being thus lost, the Spanish infantry rose and flung itself on the attackers; the landsknechts and the French bands were disordered by the fury of the counterstroke, being unaccustomed to deal with the swift, leaping, and crouching attack of swordsmen with bucklers.
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  • This was the end, but the remnant of the Spanish infantry retreated in order along the river causeway, keeping the pursuers at bay with their arquebuses.
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  • When it was known that Admiral Cervera, with a Spanish fleet, had left the Cape Verde Islands, Sampson withdrew a force from the blockade to cruise in the Windward Passage, and made an attack upon the forts at San Juan, Porto Rico.
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  • He reached the scene of battle as the last Spanish vessel surrendered, and the engagement was fought in accordance with his instructions.
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  • FRANCISCO SUAREZ (1548-1617), Spanish theologian and philosopher, was born at Granada on the 5th of January 1548, and educated at Salamanca.
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  • Characteristically, she temporized; but finding that O'Neill was in danger of becoming a tool in the hands of Spanish intriguers, she permitted him to return to Ireland, recognizing him as "the O'Neill," and chieftain of Tyrone; though a reservation was made of the rights of Hugh O'Neill, who had meantime succeeded his brother Brian as baron of Dungannon, Brian having been murdered in April 1562 by his kinsman Turlough Luineach O'Neill.
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  • The appearance of a Spanish force at Kinsale drew Mountjoy to Munster in 1601; Tyrone followed him, and at Bandon joined forces with O'Donnell and with the Spaniards under Don John D'Aquila.
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  • Having served with distinction for many years in the Spanish army, he was immediately recognized on his return to Ireland as the leading representative of the O'Neills.
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  • Released in 1652 on the representation of the Spanish ambassador that O'Neill was a Spanish subject, he repaired to Spain, whence he wrote to Charles II.
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  • While the Spanish period of Jewish history was thus brilliant from the point of view of public service, it was equally notable on the literary side.
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  • ] the Spanish Jews in Poland, Turkey, Italy and France, and thus in the end contributed to the Jewish emancipation at the French Revolution - for the time drove the Jews within their own confines and barred them from the outside world.'
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  • French Judaism was thus in a sense more human if less humane than the Spanish variety; the latter produced thinkers, statesmen, poets and scientists; the former, men with whom the Talmud was a passion, men of robuster because of more naïve and concentrated piety.
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  • If fugitives are for the next half-century to be met with in all parts of Europe, yet, especially in the Levant, there grew up thriving Jewish communities often founded by Spanish refugees.
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  • The pioneers of this emancipation in Holland and England were Sephardic (or Spanish) Jews - descendants of the Spanish exiles.
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  • In 1841 an independent reform congregation was founded, and the Spanish and Portuguese Jews have always maintained their separate existence with a IIaham as the ecclesiastical head.
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  • The cock has a fine yellow bill and a head bearing a rounded crest of filamentous feathers; lanceolate scapulars overhang the wings, and from the rump spring the long flowing plumes which are so characteristic of the species, and were so highly prized by the natives before the Spanish conquest that no one was allowed to kill the bird when taken, but only to divest it of its feathers, which were to be worn by the chiefs alone.
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  • MOZARAB [Spanish Mozdrabe, a corruption of the Arabic Musta`rib, coll.
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  • From Sicily and even the Spanish coast to the Troad, southern Asia Minor, Cyprus and Palestine, - from the Nile valley to the mouth of the Po, very similar forms were now diffused.
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  • The modern history of Yucatan begins with the expedition of Francis Hernandez de Cordova, a Spanish adventurer settled in Cub, who discovered the E.
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  • The c nquest of the peninsula was undertaken in 1527 by Francisco de Montejo, who en-, countered a more vigorous opposition than Cortes had on the high plateau of Anahuac. In 1549 Montejo had succeeded in establishing Spanish rule over barely one-half of the peninsula, and it was never extended further.
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  • Since the Spanish conquest, the Mayas have clung to the semi-barren, open plains of the peninsula, and have more than once revolted.
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  • Its population is estimated at 3000, but as its inhabitants never submitted to Spanish and Mexican rule, and have maintained their independence against overwhelming odds for almost four centuries, this estimate should be accepted as a conjecture.
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  • Buffalo-fish, paddle-fish, cat-fish, drum, crappie, black bass, rock bass, German carp, sturgeon, pike, perch, eels, suckers and shrimp inhabit the waters of the Mississippi and its tributaries, and oysters, shrimp, trout, Spanish mackerel, channel bass, black bass, sheepshead, mullet, croakers, pompano, pin-fish, blue-fish, flounders, crabs and terrapin are obtained from the Mississippi Sound and the rivers flowing into it.
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  • Here, too, grows Spanish moss, used by upholsterers.
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  • The history of Mississippi may be divided into the period of exploration (154 1699), the period of French rule (1699-1763), the period of English rule (1763-1781), the period of Spanish rule (1781-1798), the territorial period (1798-1817), and the period of statehood (1817 seq.).
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  • Hernando de Soto and a body of Spanish adventurers crossed the Tombigbee river, in December 1540, near the present city of Columbus, marched through the north part of the state, and reached the Mississippi river near Memphis in 1541.
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  • Most of Riley's work is in the Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society (Oxford, 1898 seq.), which he edited; see his Spanish Policy in Mississippi-after the Treaty of San Lorenzo, i.
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  • 167-184; and Transition from Spanish to American Rule in Mississippi, iii.
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  • Large numbers of shad, blue fish, weak fish (squeteague), alewives, Spanish mackerel, perch, bass, croakers (Micropogon undulatus), mullet, menhaden, oysters and clams are caught in the sounds, in the lower courses of the rivers flowing into them, or in the neighbouring waters of the sea.
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  • It is possible that some of the early French and Spanish explorers visited the coast of North Carolina, but no serious attempt was made by Europeans to establish a settlement until near the close of the 16th century.
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  • The gloom and harshness of these Spanish mystics are absent from the tender, contemplative spirit of Francois de Sales (1567-1622); and in the quietism Fof Mme Guyon (1648-1717) and Miguel de Molinos (1627-1696) there is again a sufficient implication of mystical doctrine to rouse the suspicion of the ecclesiastical authorities.
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  • It enters the Gulf of Cadiz between the Portuguese town of Villa Real de Santo Antonio and the Spanish Ayamonte, after a total course of 510 m.
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  • His egotism equalled Henry VIII.'s; his jealousy and ill-treatment of Richard Pace, dean of St Paul's, referred to by Shakespeare but vehemently denied by Dr Brewer, has been proved by the publication of the Spanish state papers; and Polydore Vergil, the historian, and Sir R.
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  • i.-iv., supplemented by the Spanish and Venetian Calendars, contain almost all that is known of Wolsey's public career, though additional light on the divorce has been thrown by Stephen Ehses' Romische Dokumente (1893).
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  • Tampa Bay was the landing-place of the expeditions of the Spanish explorers, Pamfilo de Narvaez and Hernando de Soto.
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  • above sea-level, where a decisive battle was fought between General Sucre and the Spanish viceroy La Serna in 1824, which resulted in the defeat of the latter and the independence of Peru.
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  • CHRISTOVAL DE ACUNA (1597-c. 1676), Spanish missionary and explorer, was born at Burgos in 1597.
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  • In 1639 he accompanied Pedro Texiera in his second exploration of the Amazon, in order to take scientific observations, and draw up a report for the Spanish government.
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  • In 1588 the leading persons of Pembrokeshire, with Bishop Anthony Rudd of St David's at their head, petitioned Queen Elizabeth to fortify the Haven against the projected Spanish invasion, upon which the block-houses of Dale and Nangle at either side of the mouth of the harbour were accordingly erected.
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  • The royalists of Toulon had admitted British and Spanish forces to share in the defence of that stronghold (29th of August 1793).
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  • Under their direction steady advance was made on the side which Bonaparte saw to be all important; a sortie of part of the British, Spanish and Neapolitan forces on the 30th of November was beaten back with loss, General O'Hara, their commander, being severely wounded and taken prisoner.
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  • Of their many maritime conquests the British retained only the Spanish island of Trinidad and the Dutch settlements in Ceylon.
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  • The occupation of Lisbon, which led on to Napoleon's intervention in Spanish affairs, resulted naturally from the treaty of Tilsit.
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  • On the 27th of October 1807 he signed with a Spanish envoy at Fontainebleau a secret convention with a view to the partitioning of Portugal between France and Spain.
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  • Another convention of the same date allowed him to send 28,000 French troops into Spain for the occupation of Portugal, an enterprise in which a large Spanish force was to help them; 40,000 French troops were to be cantonned at Bayonne to support the first corps.
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  • The north of Portugal was to go to the widow of the king of Etruria (a Spanish Infanta); her realm now passing into the hands of Napoleon.
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  • The situation was such as to tempt Napoleon on to an undertaking on which he had probably set his heart in the autumn of 1806, that of dethroning the Spanish Bourbons and of replacing them by a Bonaparte.
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  • He is said to have remarked with an oath after Jena that he would make the Spanish Bourbons pay for their recent bellicose proclamation.
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  • That the son of a Corsican notary should have been able to dispose of the Spanish Bourbons in this contemptuously easy way is one of the marvels of history.
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  • In his contempt for the rulers of Spain he forgot the Spanish people.
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  • Evidently then the Spanish dockyards and warships (when vigorously organized) were to count for much in the schemes for assuring complete supremacy in the Mediterranean and the ultimate overthrow of the British and Turkish empires, which he then had closely at heart.
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  • The Spanish rising of May - June 1808 ruined these plans irretrievably.
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  • The partition of Turkey had to be postponed; the financial collapse of England could not be expected now that she framed an alliance with the Spanish patriots and had their markets and those of their colonies opened to her; and the discussions with the tsar Alexander, which had not gone quite smoothly, now took a decidedly unfavourable turn.
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  • Still more important, perhaps, was the change in moral which the Spanish rising brought about.
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  • Napoleon, on the other hand, had utterly failed in his Spanish enterprise; and the tsar felt sure that his rival must soon withdraw French garrisons from the fortresses of the Oder to the frontier of Spain.
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  • The "Spanish insurgents" were equally placed out of court.
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  • ANTONIO DE HERRERA Y TORDESILLAS (1549-1625), Spanish historian, was born at Cuellar, in the province of Segovia in Spain.
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  • On the 5th of August, he recrossed the Vistula and established himself in Saxony, where his presence in the heart of Europe at the very crisis of the war of the Spanish Succession, fluttered all the western diplomats.
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  • Brehm has published a list of Spanish birds (Allgem.
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  • pp. II, 89,185) has given a list of the Spanish birds known to him.
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  • On Seavey's Island Admiral Cervera and other Spanish officers and sailors captured during the SpanishAmerican War were held prisoners in July - September 1898.
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  • Among the special collections are the George Ticknor library of Spanish and Portuguese books (6 393 vols.), very full sets of United States and British public documents, the Bowditch mathematical library (7090 vols.), the Galatea collection on the history of women (2193 vols.), the Barton library, including one of the finest existing collections of Shakespeariana (3309 vols., beside many in the general library), the A.
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  • He showed courage on the field of battle, both in Italy and Spain, during the War of the Spanish Succession, and was flattered by his courtiers with the title of El Animoso, or the spirited.
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  • colias, the "Spanish" mackerel; 1 a third, S.
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  • scomber, which is the most common there as well as in other parts of the North Atlantic, crossing the ocean to America, where it abounds; and the Spanish mackerel, S.
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  • The Spanish mackerel is, as the name implies, a native of the seas of southern Europe, but single individuals or small schools frequently reach the shores of Great Britain and of the United States.
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  • These early schools, which consist chiefly of one-year and two-year-old fishes, yield sometimes enormous catches, whilst in other years they escape the drift-nets altogether, passing them, for some hitherto Unexplained reason, at a greater depth than that to which the nets reach, 1 The term "Spanish mackerel" is applied in America to Cybium maculatum.
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  • In more southern latitudes, however, this species seems to deteriorate, specimens from the coast of Portugal, and from the Mediterranean and Black Sea, being stated to be dry and resembling in flavour the Spanish mackerel (S.
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  • PRAXEDES MATEO SAGASTA (1827-1903), Spanish statesman, was born on the 21st of July 1827 at Torrecilla de Cameros, in the province of Logrono.
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  • 6.6 French and Spanish settlements.
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  • ABALONE, the Spanish name used in California for various species of the shell-fish of the Haliotidae family, with a richly coloured shell yielding mother-of-pearl.
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  • From this time forward, Oldenbarneveldt at the head of the civil government and Maurice in command of the armed forces of the republic worked together in the task of rescuing the United Netherlands from Spanish domination (for details see Holland).
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  • As early as 970 the recovery of the territories lost to Mahommedanism in the East had been begun by emperors like Nicephoras Phocas and John Zimisces: they had pushed their conquests, if only for a time, as far as Antioch and Edessa, and the temporary occupation of Jerusalem is attributed to the East Roman arms. At the opposite end of the Mediterranean, in Spain, the Omayyad caliphate was verging to its fall: the long Spanish crusade against the Moor had begun; and in 1018 Roger de Toeni was already leading Normans into Catalonia to the aid of the native Spaniard.
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  • In 1269 James the Conqueror of Aragon, at the bidding of the pope, turned from the long Spanish Crusade to a Crusade in the East in order to atone for his offences against the law matrimonial.
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  • Here, in the centre of a small chapel, surrounded by his chief companions in arms, by Alvar Fanez Minaya, Pero Bermudez, Martin Antolinez and Pelaez the Asturian, were placed the remains of the mighty warrior, the truest of Spanish heroes, the embodiment of all the national virtues and most of the national vices.
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  • The Cid of romance, the Cid of a thousand battles, legends and dramas, the Cid as apotheosized in literature, the Cid invoked by good Spaniards in every national crisis, whose name is a perpetual and ever-present inspiration to Spanish patriotism, is a very different character from the historical Rodrigo Diaz - the freebooter, the rebel, the consorter with the infidels and the enemies of Spain.
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  • The king fish and tarpon are hunted for sport, while mullet, shad, redsnappers, pompano, trout, sheepshead and Spanish mackerel are of great economic value.
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  • The production of sugar, begun by the early Spanish settlers, declined, but that of syrup increased.
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  • The earliest explorations and attempts at colonization of Florida by Europeans were made by the Spanish.
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  • Only four of his men, including Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, succeeded after eight years' of Indian captivity and of long and weary wanderings, in finding their way to Spanish settlements in Mexico.
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  • On the same day that Ribaut landed, a Spanish expedition arrived in the bay of St Augustine.
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  • With the co-operation of the Indians under their chief Saturiba he captured Fort San Mateo in the spring of 1568, and on the spot where the garrison of Fort Caroline had been executed, he hanged his Spanish prisoners, inscribing on a tablet of pine the words, " I do this not as unto Spaniards but as to traitors, robbers and murderers."
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  • The Spanish settlements experienced many vicissitudes.
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  • No until the last decade of the 17th century did the Spanish authorities attempt to extend the settlements beyond the east coast.
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  • The Spanish were accused of inciting the Indians to make depredations on the English settlements and of interfering with English commerce and the Spanish were in constant fear of the encroachments of the British.
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  • In 1702, when Great Britain and Spain were contending in Europe, on opposite sides, in the war of the Spanish Succession, a force from South Carolina captured St Augustine and laid siege to the fort, but being unable to reduce it for lack of necessary artillery, burned the town and withdrew at the approach of Spanish reinforcements.
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  • In 1706 a Spanish and French expedition against Charleston, South Carolina, failed, and the Carolinians retaliated by invading middle Florida in 1708 and again in 1722.
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  • In 1740 General James Edward Oglethorpe, governor of Georgia, supported by a naval force, made an unsuccessful attack upon St Augustine; two years later a Spanish expedition against Savannah by way of St Simon's Island failed, and in 1745 Oglethorpe again appeared before the walls of St Augustine, but the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 prevented further hostilities.
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  • Pensacola, the other centre of Spanish settlement, though captured and occupied (1719-1723) by the French from Louisiana, had a more peaceful history.
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  • In the following year, Spain having declared war against Great Britain, Don Bernardo de Galvez (1756-1794), the Spanish governor at New Orleans, seized most of the English forts in West Florida, and in 1781 captured Pensacola.
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  • When it was found that the Spanish governor did not accept these plans in good faith, another convention was held on the 26th of September which declared West Florida to be an independent state, organized a government and petitioned for admission to the American Union.
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  • The American government asked the Spanish authorities of East Florida to permit an American occupation of the country in order that it might not be seized by Great Britain and made a base of military operations.
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  • About the same time an attempt to organize a government at St Mary's was made by American sympathizers, and a petty civil war began between the Americans, who called themselves " Patriots," and the Indians, who were encouraged by the Spanish.
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  • In 1818 General Jackson, believing that the Spanish were aiding the Seminole Indians and inciting them to attack the Americans, again captured Pensacola.
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  • Among other places of interest are Rynsburg, the site of a convent for nobles founded in 1133 and destroyed in the time of Spanish rule; Voorschoten; Wassenaar, all of which were formerly minor lordships; Loosduinen, probably the Lugdunum of the Romans, and the seat of a Cistercian abbey destroyed in 1579; Naaldwyk, an ancient lordship; and 's Gravenzande, which possessed a palace of the counts of Holland in the 12th century, when it was a harbour on the Maas.
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  • Apart from the important part which he took in helping to co-ordinate and draft the Civil Code, Cambaceres did the state good service in many directions, notably by seeking to curb the impetuosity of the emperor, and to prevent enterprises so fatal as the intervention in Spanish affairs (1808) and the invasion of Russia (1812) proved to be.
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  • P.) of St Jacques; and, following the advice of a Spanish monk, spent his vacations in Flanders, where he was helped by the rich Spanish merchants.
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  • At Bruges he became acquainted with the famous Spanish scholar, Juan Luis Vives, with whom he lodged.
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  • Ignatius wrote originally in Spanish, but the book was twice translated into Latin during his lifetime.
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  • The more elegant version (known as the common edition) differs but slightly from the Spanish.
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  • ALPHONSO X., El Sabio, or the learned (1252-1284), is perhaps the most interesting, though he was far from being the most capable, of the Spanish kings of the middle ages.
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  • He came to the front in the war of independence against Spain, and his military career, which began about 1810, was distinguished by the defeat of the Spanish forces at Mata de la Miel (1815), at Montecal and throughout the province of Apure (1816), and at Puerto Cabello (1823).
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  • The scenery of Formosa is frequently of majestic beauty, and to this it is indebted for its European name, happily bestowed by the early Spanish navigators.
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  • In the beginning of the 16th century it began to be known to the Portuguese and Spanish navigators, and the latter at least made some attempts at establishing settlements or missions.
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  • The more rugged districts and higher elevations are clad with such tropical forest trees as ebony, Spanish cedar, sandalwood, rosewood and mahogany.
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  • The principal local government is that of the municipalities or municipal districts, but for the Spanish municipal government the insular legislature has substituted one resembling that of small towns in the United States, and it has reduced the number of districts from 66 to 47.
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  • During the struggle of Spain against Napoleon, the island, in common with the other American dominions, was represented in the Spanish Cortes and had its first legislative assembly.
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  • Trade with the United States was permitted in 1815, although only in Spanish ships.
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  • Governor Miguel de la Torre, who ruled the island with vice-regal powers during the second period of Ferdinand's absolutism, sternly repressed all attempts at liberalism, and made the island the resort for loyal refugees from the Spanish mainland.
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  • This policy, coupled with certain administrative and revenue reforms, and some private attempts in behalf of public education, made the last seven years of his rule, from 1827 to 1834, the most prosperous in the Spanish regime.
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  • The Revolution of 1868 in Spain promised such salutary changes for the Antilles as the introduction of political parties, the restoration of representation in the Spanish Cortes, and the enfranchisement of the slaves; but the imprudent "Insurrection of Lares," and other outbreaks of 1867-68, delayed these anticipated reforms. The reactionaries feared separation from the mother country.
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  • Meanwhile the Spanish governor-general, Manuel Macias y Casado, had ordered the forces under his command in the southern part of the island to fall back towards the ridge of mountains intersecting it from east to west, just north of the town of Coamo.
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  • In 1910 the coffee industry had not yet recovered from the effect of the cyclone of 1899 and the unfortunate mortgage system that prevailed under the Spanish regime.
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  • The main source for the history under the Spanish is Fray Inigo Abbad, Historia geografica civil y natural de San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico (Madrid, 1788; a new edition with notes by Jose J.
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  • Abbad makes extensive quotations from early historians of Spanish America.
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  • The best modern critical account in Spanish is Salvador Brau, Puerto Rico y su historia (Valencia, 1894).
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  • In 1785, during the Spanish occupation of Louisiana, Juan Filhiol, commandant of the district of Ouachita, founded a settlement on the site of the present Monroe, which was called Ouachita Post until 1790 and then Fort Miro, in honour of the governor-general.
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  • For the next five years he sought every opportunity of inflicting defeat and humiliation on the Spanish navy, and he distinguished himself by his bravery in the engagement at Guetaria (1638), the expedition to Corunna (1639), and in battles at Tarragona (1641), Barcelona (1643), and the Cabo de Gata.
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  • HASDAI BEN ABRAHAM CRESCAS (1340 -, 410), Spanish philosopher.
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  • But through the intervention of the Spanish ambassador he made peace with Naples in July 1493 and also with the Orsini; the peace was cemented by a marriage between the pope's son Giuffre and Dona Sancha, Ferdinand's grand-daughter.
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  • with Spanish help was reinstated at Naples soon afterwards.
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  • Skeat suggests a possible connexion with Spanish rabo, tail, rabear, to wag the hind-quarters.
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  • In Italian, Spanish and Portuguese the word mappa has retained its place, by the side of carta, for marine charts, but in other languages both kinds of maps 1 are generally known by a word derived from the Latin charta, as carte in French, Karte in German, Kaart in Dutch.
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  • A chart, in French, is called carte hydrographique, marine or des cotes; in Spanish or Portuguese carta de marear, in Italian carta da navigare, in German Seekarte (to distinguish it from Landkarte), in Dutch Zeekaart or Paskaart.
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  • It is possible that these primitive efforts of American Indians might have been further developed, but the Spanish conquest put a stop to all progress, and for a consecutive history of the map and map-making we must turn to the Old World, and trace this history from Egypt and Babylon, through Greece, to our own age.
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  • Still hankering after Burgundy, Charles saw his French estates again seized; but after some desultory warfare, chiefly in Normandy, peace was made in March 1365, and he returned to his work of interference in the politics of the Spanish kingdoms. In turn he made treaties with the kings of Castile and Aragon, who were at war with each other; promising to assist Peter the Cruel to regain his throne, from which he had been driven in 1366 by his half-brother Henry of Trastamara, and then assuring Henry and his ally Peter of Aragon that he would aid, them to retain Castile.
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  • It is supposed, from their name, that they are of Spanish origin.
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  • ENRIQUE FLOREZ (1701-1773), Spanish historian, was born at Valladolid on the 14th of February 1701.
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  • In 1747 was published the first volume of Espana Sagrada, teatro geograficohistorico de la Iglesia de Espana, a vast compilation of Spanish ecclesiastical history which obtained a European reputation, and of which twenty-nine volumes appeared in the author's lifetime.
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  • It was continued after his death by Manuel Risco and others, and further additions have been made at the expense of the Spanish government.
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  • Before this time Columbus had proposed an exchange of his Carib prisoners as slaves against live stock to be furnished to Haiti by Spanish merchants.
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  • The English slave traders were at first altogether occupied in supplying the Spanish settlements.
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  • But the contract came to an end in 1739, when the complaints of the English merchants on one side and of the Spanish officials on the other rose to such a height that Philip V.
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  • He rose accordingly with a few followers, but was soon defeated and forced to take refuge in the Spanish part of the island.
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  • The whole island was now French, the Spanish portion having been ceded by the treaty of Basel.
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  • It was agreed that the Spanish slave trade should come to an end in 18 20, England paying to Spain an indemnification of £400,000.
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  • Several of the Spanish American states, on declaring their independence, had adopted measures for the discontinuance of slavery within their limits.
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  • The Spanish slave code, promulgated in 1789, is admitted on all hands to have been very humane in its character; and, in consequence of this, after Trinidad had become an English possession, the anti-slavery party resisted - and success fully - the attempt of the planters (1811) to have the Spanish law in that island replaced by the British.
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  • An act was passed by the Spanish legislature in 1870, providing that every slave who had then passed, or should thereafter pass, the age of sixty should be at once free, and that all yet unborn children of slaves should also be free.
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  • from the German and one from the Spanish.
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  • From the survivors: of a vessel of the Spanish Armada that went ashore in 1588 the natives are said to have acquired the art of knitting the coloured hosiery for which they are noted.
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  • Much of the river swamp region is covered with cypress trees festooned with Spanish moss.
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  • The " parishes " date from 1807; they were based on an earlier Spanish division for religious purposes - whence the names of saints in parish nomenclature.
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  • In Louisiana alone (as the state is known to-day), out of all the territory acquired from France as the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, was the civil law so established under French and Spanish rule that it persisted under American dominion.
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  • The United States left the task of altering the laws to the people, as far as there was no conflict between them and the Constitution of the United States and fundamental American legal customs. Copies of the Spanish codes were very rare, and some of them could not be had in the colonies.
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  • The earliest digest, completed in 1808, was mainly a compilation of Spanish laws.
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  • This evolution was little marked, so similar in large parts were the systems of France and Spain (although in other parts, due to the Gothic element in the Spanish, they were very different) - a similarity which explains the facility with which O'Reilly and his successors introduced the Spanish laws after 1769.
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  • The Louisiana code of 1808 was not, however, exhaustive; and the courts continued to go back to the old Spanish sources whenever the digest was inconclusive.
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  • Very little was done for education in the French and Spanish period, although the Spanish governors made commendable efforts in this regard; the first American Territorial legislature began the incorporation of feeble " colleges " and " academies."
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  • Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795), a distinguished Spanish naval officer and scholar, came to New Orleans in 1766 to take possession for his king.
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  • The fear of Spanish commercial laws powerfully stimulated resistance to the transfer, and though Ulloa made commercial and monetary concessions, they were not sufficient.
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  • Spanish law and Spanish tongue replaced the French officially, but the colony remained essentially French.
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  • The Spanish rulers made efforts to govern wisely and liberally, showing great complaisance, particularly in heeding the profit of the colony, even at the expense of Spanish colonial commercial regulations.
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  • The judicial system was much improved, a better grade of officials became the rule, many French Creoles were appointed to office, intermarriages of French and Spanish and even English were encouraged by the highest officials, and in general a liberal and conciliatory policy was followed, which made Louisiana under Spanish rule quiet and prosperous.
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  • Bernardo de Galvez (1756-1794), a brilliant young officer of twentyone, when he became the governor of the colony, was one of the most liberal of the Spanish rulers and of all the most popular.
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  • The chief interest of the Spanish period lies in the advance of settlement in the western territories of the United States, the international intrigues - British, French and Spanish - involving the future of the valley, the demand of the United States for free navigation on the Mississippi, and the growing consciousness of the supreme importance of the river and New Orleans to the Union.
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  • With the Spanish governor Estevan Miro, who succeeded Galvez in 1785, James Wilkinson of Kentucky, arrested at New Orleans with a flat-boat of supplies in 1787, intrigued, promising him that Kentucky would secede from the United States and would join the Spanish; but Wilkinson was unsuccessful in his efforts to carry out this plan.
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  • At the expiration of the three years the Spanish governor refused the use of New Orleans as a place of deposit, and contrary to the treaty named no other port in its place.
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  • Spanish rule, however, came unexpectedly to an end by the retrocession of Louisiana to France in 1800; and French dominion gave way in turn in 1803 - as the result of a chain of events even more unexpected, startling, and for the United States fortunate - to the rule of the last-named country.
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  • On the 30th of November 1803 the representatives of the French republic received formal possession from the Spanish governor, and on the 20th of December lower Louisiana was transferred to the United States.
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  • of 33° was organized as the Territory of Orleans, and was given a government less democratic than might otherwise have been the case, because it was intended to prepare gradually for self-government the French and Spanish inhabitants of the territory, who desired immediate statehood.
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  • Lamothe Cadillac. ..1713-1716Sieur de Bienville, acting governor.1716-1717De l'Epinay..1717-1718Sieur de Bienville.1718-17241 Terms of actual service in Louisiana; Gayarre is the authority for the French and Spanish period.
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  • Third Series of Lectures (N.Y., 1852); then, based upon the preceding, History of Louisiana: The French Domination (2 vols., N.Y., 1854) and The Spanish Domination (N.Y., 1854); a second edition of the last two works, supplemented by The American Domination (N.Y., 1866-1867, 4 vols.
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  • And see publications of the Louisiana Spanish Domination 1762 (1769)-1803.
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  • The province and city of Puerto Principe are officially known as Camaguey, their original Indian name, which has practically supplanted the Spanish name in local usage.
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  • Traditions of gold and silver, dating from the time of the Spanish conquest, still endure, but these metals are in fact extremely rare.
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  • Other woods, beautiful and precious, include guayacan (Guaiacum sanctum), baria (varia, Cordia gerascanthoides) - the fragrant, hard-wood Spanish elm - the quiebra-hacha (Copaifera hymenofolia), which three are of wonderful lasting qualities; the jiqui (Malpighia obovata), acana (Achras disecta, Bassia albescens), caigaran (or caguairan, Hymenaea floribunda), and the dagame (Calicophyllum candidissi- mum), which four, like the culla, are all wonderfully resistant to humidity; the caimatillo (Chrysophyllum oliviforme), the yaya (or yayajabico, yayabito: Erythalis fructicosa, Bocagea virgata, Guateria virgata, Asimina Blaini), a magnificent construction wood; the maboa (Cameraria latifolia) and the jocuma (jocum: Sideroxylon mastichodendron, Bumelia saticifolia), all of individual beauties and qualities.
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  • Among the most important are the robalo (Labrax), an exquisite food fish, the tunny, eel, Spanish sardine and mangua.
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  • Convincing evidence is offered by the qualities of the Spanish race in Cuba that white men of temperate lands can be perfectly acclimatized in this tropical island.
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  • Forest resources have been but slightly touched (more so since the end of Spanish rule) except mahogany, which goes to the United States, and cedar, which is used to box the tobacco products of the island, much going also to the United States.
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  • The first railroad in Cuba (and the first in Spanish lands) was opened from Havana to Gaines in 1837.
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  • There was ostensible government regulation of rates after 1877, but the roads were guaranteed outright against any loss of revenue, and in fact practically nothing was ever done in the way of reform in the Spanish period.
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  • The Spanish slave laws (although in practice often frightfully abused) were always comparatively generous to the slave, making relatively easy, among other things, the purchase of his freedom, the number of free blacks being always great.
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  • Of the voting population 53.2% of native white, and 37.3% of coloured Cuban citizens, and 71.6% of Spanish citizens could read.
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  • In the last days of Spanish rule (1894), there were 904 public and 704 private schools, and not more than 60,000 pupils enrolled; in 1900 there were 3550 public schools with an enrolment of 172,273 and an average attendance of 123,362.
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  • After the cession of the Spanish portion of San Domingo to France hundreds of Spanish families emigrated to Cuba, and many thousand more immigrants, mainly French, followed them from the entire island during the revolution of the blacks.
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  • Something of political freedom was enjoyed during the two terms of Spanish constitutional government under the constitution of 1812.
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  • Partly because of political and social divisions thus revealed, conspiracies being rife in the decade 1820-1830, and partly as preparation for the defence against Mexico and Colombia, who throughout these same years were threatening the island with invasion, the captains-general, in 1825, received the powers above referred to; which became, as time passed, monstrously in disaccord with the general tendencies of colonial government and with increasing liberties in Spain, but continued to be the spiritual basis of Spanish rule in the island.
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  • Politically his rule was marked by the proclamation at Santiago in 1836, without his consent, of the Spanish constitution of 1834; he repressed the movement, and in 1837 the deputies of Cuba to the Cortes of Spain (to which they were admitted in the two earlier constitutional periods) were excluded from that body, and it was declared in the national constitution that Cuba (and Porto Rico) should be governed by " special laws."
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  • From 1849 to 1851 there were three abortive filibustering expeditions from the United States, two being under a Spanish general, Narciso Lopez (1798-1851).
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  • in the matter of office-holding, a grievance centuries old in Cuba as in other Spanish colonies, and guarantees of personal liberties.
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  • The Spanish volunteers committed horrible excesses in Havana and other places; the rebels also burned and killed indiscriminatingly, and the war became increasingly cruel and sanguinary.
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  • The Spanish constitution of 1876 was proclaimed in Cuba in 1881.
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  • As for the representation accorded Cuba in the Spanish Cortes, as a rule about a quarter of her deputies were Cuban-born, and the choice of only a few autonomists was allowed by those who controlled the elections.
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  • entrenchments, barbwire fences, and lines of block-houses) across the narrow parts of the island, and " reconcentracion " of non-combatants in camps guarded by the Spanish forces.
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  • In October 1897 the Spanish premier, P. M.
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  • On the 20th of April the United States demanded the withdrawal of Spanish troops from the island.
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  • A fine Spanish squadron seeking to escape from Santiago harbour was utterly destroyed by the American blockading force on the 3rd of July; Santiago was invested by land forces, and on the 15th of July the city surrendered.
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  • Spanish authority ceased on the 1st of January 1899, and was followed by American " military " !rule (January 1, 1899 - May 20, 1902).
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  • Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
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  • (New York, for the Spanish legation, 1896); and compilations of Spanish colonial laws listed under article Indies, Laws Of The.
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  • Castelar et al., in Spanish reviews (1895-1898).
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  • The main islands and groups, beginning from the north-west, are as follows: Little and Great Abaco, with Great Bahama to the west; Eleuthera (a name probably corrupted from the Spanish Isla de Tierra), Cat, Watling, or Guanahani, and Rum Cay on the outer line towards the open ocean, with New Providence, the Exuma chain and Long Island forming an inner line to the west, and still farther west Andros (named from Sir Edmund Andros, governor of Massachusetts, &c., at the close of the 17th century; often spoken of as one island, but actually divided into several by narrow straits); and finally the Crooked Islands, Mayaguana and Inagua.
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  • From that date, until after the colonization of New Providence by the British, there is no record of a Spanish visit to the Bahamas, with the exception of the extraordinary cruise of Juan Ponce de Leon, the conqueror of Porto Rico, who passed months searching the islands for Bimini, which was reported to contain the miraculous "Fountain of Youth."
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  • In 1776 Commodore Hopkins, of the American navy, took the island of New Providence; he soon, however, abandoned it as untenable, but in 1781 it was retaken by the Spanish governor of Cuba.
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  • Spanish is a comomon language of the Jews, whose ancestors fled hither, during the 16th century, to escape the Inquisition.
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  • It induced many Spanish explorers to lead expeditions in search of treasure, but all failed.
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  • The Spanish town, according to Velasco, was founded in 1538 by Captain Pedro Angules on the site of an Indian village called Chuquisaca, or Chuquichaca (golden bridge), and was called Charcas and Ciudad de la Plata by the Spaniards, though the natives clung to the original Indian name.
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  • Sucre was the first city of Spanish South America to revolt against Spanish rule - on the 25th of May 1809.
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  • The gross receipts from this export trade amounted in the year1908-1909to £T99,564, and the profits approximately to £T12,000, in spite of the contest between Liverpool and Spanish salt merchants on the Calcutta market, which led to a heavy cutting of prices.
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  • south of Susa in Tunisia, and made this the centre of his piracies till, during his absence raiding the Spanish coasts, it was bombarded and destroyed by an expedition sent by Charles V.
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  • Charles VI., weary of the war for the Spanish succession, had shortly before concluded the peace of Rastadt (1715) and was anxious that Venice should not be too hardly pressed.
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  • Napoleon's short Spanish Campaign of 1809 is dealt with under Peninsular War (this article covering the campaigns in Spain, Portugal and southern France 1808-1814), and for the final drama of Waterloo the reader is referred to Waterloo Campaign.
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  • To meet these forces the emperor could not collect men in all, of whom upwards of 10o,000 were held by Wellington on the Spanish frontier, and more were required to watch the debouches from the Alps.
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  • On the 13th of June 1801 Rear-admiral Linois left Toulon with three sail of the line, to join a Spanish squadron at Cadiz and go on to Egypt.
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  • Saumarez, and driven to seek the protection of the Spanish batteries in Algeciras.
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  • On the 9th a Spanish squadron came to him assistance, and the combined force steered for Cadiz.
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  • Two Spanish three-deckers blew up, and a 74-gun ship was taken.
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  • The British government, treating this as a hostile action - as it was - seized the Spanish treasure ships on their way from America, near Cape Santa Maria, on €he 5th of October 1804, and Spain declared war on the 12th of December.
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  • New plans were now made including the co-operation of the Spanish fleet.
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  • Aided by lucky changes of wind, he reached Cadiz, was joined by 1 French and 6 Spanish ships under Admiral Gravina, which, added to the 1 r he had with him, gave him a force of 18 sail.
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  • On the 1st of June he was joined by a frigate and two line-of-battle ships sent with orders from Rochefort, and was told to remain in the West Indies till the 5th of July, and if not joined by Ganteaume to steer for Ferrol, pick up the French and Spanish ships in the port, and come on to the Channel.
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  • A confused action in a fog ended in the capture of 2 Spanish line-of-battle ships.
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  • In place of the movements of great fleets to a single end, we have a nine years' story (1805-1814) of cruising for the protection of commerce, of convoy, of colonial expeditions to capture French, Dutch or Spanish possessions and of combined naval and military operations in which the British navy was engaged in carrying troops to various countries, and in supporting them on shore.
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  • As in Spanish Islam, so in the lands of the eastern caliphate, the Jews were treated relatively with favour.
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  • So famous was the silk of Bagdad, manufactured in the Attabieh quarter (named after Attab, a contemporary of the Prophet), that the place-name passed over into Spanish, Italian, French and finally into English in the form of "tabby," as the designation of a rich-coloured watered silk.
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  • Thus in 1822, at the congress of Verona, in order to overcome the objection of Great Britain to any interference of the European concert in Spain, identical notes were presented to the Spanish government instead of a collective note.
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  • The preparation of the plans and the superintendence of the work were entrusted by the king to Juan Bautista de Toledo, a Spanish architect who had received most of his professional education in Italy.
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  • Each successive occupant of the Spanish throne has done something, however slight, to the restoration or adornment of Philip's convent-palace, and Ferdinand VII.
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  • (1516-1556), of Philip II., and of all their successors on the Spanish throne down to Ferdinand VII., with the exception of Philip V.
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  • de Cabrera de Cordova, Felipe Segundo (Madrid, 1619); James Wadsworth, Further Observations of the English Spanish Pilgrime (London, 1629, 1630); Ilario Mazzorali de Cremona, Le Reali Grandezze del Escuriale (Bologna, 1648); De los Santos, Descripcion del real monasterio, &c. (Madrid, 1657); Andres Ximenes, Descripcion, &c. (Madrid, 1764); Y.
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  • The western part remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it, too, after being retransferred to France, became a part of the United States with the rest of the Louisiana Purchase.
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  • Its noteworthy public buildings are the custom-house and its storehouses which occupy the old quadrangular fortress built by the Spanish government between 1770 and 1775, and cover 15 acres, the prefecture, the military and naval offices and barracks, the post-office, three Catholic churches, a hospital, market, three clubs and some modern commercial houses.
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  • The Callao fortifications were bombarded by a Spanish fleet under Admiral Mendez Nunez on the 2nd of May 1866, when there were heavy losses both in lives and material.
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  • Nelson having destroyed the French fleet at Trafalgar, Napoleon feared the possibility of a British army being landed on the Peninsular coasts, whence in conjunction with Portuguese and Spanish forces it might attack France from the south.
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  • Napoleon induced the king of Spain to allow French troops to occupy the country and to send the flower of the Spanish forces (15,000) under the marquis of Romana 1 to assist the French on the Baltic. Then Dupont de l'Etang (25,000) was ordered to cross the Bidassoa on the 22nd of November 1807; and by the 8th of January 1808 he had reached Burgos and Valladolid.
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  • The Spanish people, in an outburst of fury against the king and Godoy, forced the former to abdicate in favour of his son Ferdinand; but the inhabitants of Madrid having (May 2,18°8) risen against the French, Napoleon refused to recognize Ferdinand; both he and the king were compelled to renounce their rights to the throne, and a mercenary council of regency having been induced to desire the French emperor to make his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king, he acceded to their request.2 The mask was now completely thrown off, and Spain and Portugal rose against the French.
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  • Moncey (7000) had marched towards the city of Valencia, but been repulsed in attempting to storm it (June 28); Bessieres had defeated the Spanish general Joachim Blake at Medina de Rio Seco (June 14, 1808) and Dupont (13,000) had been detached (May 24) from Madrid to reduce Seville and Cadiz in Andalusia.
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  • Spanish levies, numbering nearly ioo,000 regulars and militia, brave and enthusiastic, but without organization, sufficient training, or a commander-in-chief, had collected together; 30,000 being in Andalusia, a similar number in Galicia, and others in Valencia and Estremadura, but few in the central portion of Spain.
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  • On the 7th of June 1808 he had sacked Cordova; but while he was laden with its spoils the Spanish general Castanos with the army of Andalusia (30,000), and also a large body of armed peasantry, approached.
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  • This victory, together with the in- Baylen, July trepid defence of Saragossa by the Spanish general l9 ' 1808.
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  • Wellesley began to land his troops, unopposed, near Figueira da Foz at the mouth of the Mondego; and the Spanish victory of Baylen having relieved Cadiz from danger, Spencer now joined him, and, without waiting for Moore the army, under 15,000 in all (which included some Portuguese)"with 18 guns, advanced towards Lisbon.
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  • The British government notified to Sir John Moore that some io,000 men were to be sent to Corunna under Sir David Baird; that he, with 20,000, was to join him, and then both act in concert with the Spanish armies.
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  • As the conduct of this campaign was largely influenced by the operations of the Spanish forces, it is necessary to mention their positions, and also the fact that greater reliance had been placed, both in England and Spain, upon them than future events justified.
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  • To do so by sea at this season was to risk delay, while in moving by land he would have the Spanish armies between him and the French.
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  • He then finally decided to attack Soult (intending subsequently to fall back through Galicia) and ordered up transports from Lisbon to Corunna and Vigo; thus changing his base from Portugal to the north-west of Spain; Blake's Spanish army, now rallying under the marquis de la Romana near Leon, was to co-operate, but was able to give little effective aid.
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  • News having been received that Napoleon had suffered a serious check at the battle of Aspern, near Vienna (May 22, 1809), Wellesley next determined - leaving Beresford (20,000) near Ciudad Rodrigo - to move with 22,000 men, in conjunction with Cuesta's Spanish army (40,000) towards Madrid against Victor, who, with 25,000 supported by King Joseph (50,000) covering the capital, was near Talavera.
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  • Sir Robert Wilson with 4000 Portuguese from Salamanca, and a Spanish force under Venegas (25,000) from Carolina, were to co-operate and occupy Joseph, by closing upon Madrid.
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  • Cuesta, during the advance up the valley of the Tagus, was to occupy the pass of Banos on the left flank; the Spanish authorities were to supply provisions, and Venegas was to be at Arganda, near Madrid, by the 22nd or 23rd of July; but none of these arrangements were duly carried out, and it was on this that the remainder of the campaign turned.
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  • By the 10th of July Cuesta had joined Wellesley at Oropesa;, and both then moved forward to Talavera, Victor falling back before them: but Cuesta, irritable and jealous, Battle of would not work cordially with Wellesley; Venegas - Talavera, counter-ordered it is said by the Spanish junta - did July 27, 28, not go to Arganda, and Wilson, though he advanced 1809.
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  • Henceforth he resisted all proposals for joint operations, on any large scale, with Spanish armies not under his own direct command.
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  • With the hope of raising the blockade of Cadiz, a force under Sir Thomas Graham (afterwards Lord Lynedoch [q.v.]) left that harbour by sea, and joining with Spanish troops near Tarifa, advanced by land against Victor's blockading force, a Spanish general, La Pena, being in chief command.
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  • One important result of the campaign was that the Spanish Cortes nominated Wellington (Sept.
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  • 22, 1812) to the unfettered command of the Spanish armies.
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  • Wellington had further organized the Spanish forces - Castanos (40,000), with the guerrilla bands of Mina, Longa and others, was in Galicia, the Asturias and northern Spain; Copons (io,000) in Catalonia; Elio (20,000) in Murcia; Del Parque (12,000) in the Sierra Morena, and O'Donell (15,000) in Andalusia.
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  • The allied army, raised by the junction of the Spanish troops in Galicia to 90,000, now concentrated near Toro, and moved towards the Pisuerga, when Joseph, blowing up the castle of Burgos, fell back behind the Ebro.
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  • The Spanish peninsula was, to all intents and purposes, free from foreign domination, although the war was yet far from concluded.
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  • The Portuguese and Spanish authorities were neglecting the payment and supply of their troops.
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  • Wellington had also difficulties of a similar kind with his own government, and also the Spanish soldiers, in revenge for many French outrages, had become guilty of grave excesses in France, so that Wellington took the extreme step of sending 25,000 of them back to Spain and resigning the command of their army, though his resignation was subsequently withdrawn.
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  • Wellington's columns, under Beresford, were now called upon to make a flank march of some two miles, under artillery, and occasionally musketry, fire, being threatened also by cavalry, and then, while the Spanish troops assaulted the north of the ridge, to wheel up, mount the eastern slope, and carry the works.
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  • It was introduced into the new world by early Spanish missionaries, and is now cultivated in the dry districts of the south-western United States and in Mexico.
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  • of the capital; Camargo (6815 in 1895), on the San Juan near the Rio Grande, once the old Spanish mission of San Augustin Laredo; and Reynosa (6137 in 18 95), 54 m.
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  • Another over-dress of the Romans was the paenula, a cloak akin to the poncho of the modern Spaniards and Spanish Americans, i.e.
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  • At subsequent conclaves he was twice nearly elected pope, but on each occasion was opposed by Spain on account of his work On the Monarchy of Sicily, in which he supported the papal claims against those of the Spanish government.
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  • Besides visiting Switzerland and other parts of Europe, he availed himself of his experiences in the United States and in Canada, and journeyed to Spanish America, Australia and New Zealand.
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  • The honorary title of count of Galicia has frequently been borne by younger sons of the Spanish sovereign.
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  • He also edited a Formulary of the Papal Penitentiary in the 13th century (Philadelphia, 1892), and in 1908 was published his Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies.
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  • The inconsistencies between the real and the epic Guillaume are often left standing in the poems. The personages associated with Guillaume in his Spanish wars belong to Provence, and have names common in the south.
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  • On the south of the gateway is a 13th-century building, known as the Spanish barn.
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  • After the defeat of the Spanish Armada, Don Pedro's galley was brought into Torbay; and William, prince of Orange, landed at Torbay on the 5th of November 1688.
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  • Brass cannon recovered from wrecked vessels of the Spanish Armada are mounted on the walls.
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  • The mouth of the Gulf of Lepanto was the scene of the great sea fight in which the naval power of Turkey was for the time being destroyed by the united papal, Spanish and Venetian forces (October 7, 1571).
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  • France once nearly broke off peaceful relations with Spain because her ambassador at London was assigned a place below the Spanish ambassador, and on another occasion she despatched troops into Italy because her ambassador at Rome had been insulted by the friends and partisans of the pope.
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  • The Spanish counts of old creation, some of whom are grandees and members of the Upper House, naturally take the highest rank; but the title, still bestowed for eminent public services or other reasons, is of value.
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  • PAMPLONA, or Pampeluna, the capital of the Spanish province of Navarre, and an episcopal see; situated 1378 ft.
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  • The Spanish and Portuguese crowns attempted to define the limits between their American colonies in 1750 and 1777, and the lines adopted still serve in great part to separate Brazil from its neighbours.
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  • The first named, which is poisonous in its native state, is the cassava of Spanish America.
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  • The dried leaves and smaller twigs of mate (Paraguayan tea-hlex paraguayensis) are exported to the southern Spanish American republics, where (as in Rio Grande do Sul) the beverage is exceedingly popular.
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  • took possession of the country in the name of the Spanish government, and carried home, as specimens of its natural productions, some drugs, gems and Brazil-wood.
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  • No sooner had Brazil passed under the Spanish crown, than English adventurers directed their hostile enterprises against its shores.
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  • In 1630 the Dutch attempted again to effect a settlement; and Olinda, with its port, the Recife-Olinda, was destroyed, but the Recife was fortified and held, reinforcements They had extended their limits southwards till they reached the Spanish settlements of La Plata.
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  • But the Brazilian colonists, now that the mother country had thrown off the Spanish yoke, determined even without assist ance from the homeland to rise in revolt against foreign Revolt g g against domination.
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  • The same infatuated passion for mining speculation which had characterized the Spanish settlers in South America now began to actuate the Portuguese; labourers and capital were drained off to the mining districts, and Brazil, which had hitherto in great measure supplied Europe with sugar, sank before the competition of the English and French.
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  • The same principle which dictated the conquest of French Guiana originated attempts to seize the Spanish colonies of Montevideo and Buenos Aires, Portugal being also at war with Spain.
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  • The chiefs of these colonies were invited to place them under the protection of the Portuguese crown, but these at first affecting loyalty to Spain declined the offer, then threw off the mask and declared themselves independent, and the Spanish governor, Elio, was afterwards defeated by Artigas, the leader of the independents.
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  • In Portugal the popular discontent produced the revolution of 1820, when representative government was proclaimed - the Spanish constitution of 1812 being provisionally adopted.
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  • The imperial legates and the captains of the Spanish guard in Siena crushed both government and people by continual extortions and by undue interference with the functions of the balia.
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  • The balia was reconstituted several times by the imperial agents - in 1530 by Don Lopez di Soria and Alphonso Piccolomini, duke of Amalfi, in 1540 by Granvella (or Granvelle) and in 1548 by Don Diego di Mendoza; but government was carried on as badly as before, and there was increased hatred of the Spanish rule.
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  • The townspeople, encouraged and reinforced by this aid from without, at once rose in revolt, and, attacking the Spanish troops, disarmed them and drove them to take refuge in the citadel (28th July).
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  • On 21st April the Spanish troops entered the gates; thereupon many patriots abandoned the city and, taking refuge at Montalcino, maintained there a shadowy form of republic until 1559.
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  • LUIS DE GRANADA (1504-1588), Spanish preacher and ascetic writer, born of poor parents named Sarria at Granada.
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  • His preaching gifts were developed by the orator Juan de Avila, and he became one of the most famous of Spanish preachers.
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  • He fell under the suspicion of the Inquisition; his mystical teaching was said to be heretical, and his most famous book, the Guia de Peccadores, still a favourite treatise and one that has been translated into nearly every European tongue, was put on the Index of the Spanish Inquisition, together with his book on prayer, in 1559 His great opponent was the restless and ambitious Melchior Cano, who stigmatized the second book as containing grave errors smacking of the heresy of the Alumbrados and manifestly contradicting Catholic faith and teaching.
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  • iii.), and Fitzmaurice Kelly, History of Spanish Literature, pp. 200 -202 (London, 1898), may also be consulted.
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  • At this time there was much uneasiness in the United States as a result of Spain's restoration of Louisiana to France by the secret treaty of San Ildefonso, in October 1800; and the subsequent withdrawal of the " right of deposit " at New Orleans by the Spanish intendant greatly increased this feeling and led to much talk of war.
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  • After negotiating with Don Pedro de Cevallos, the Spanish minister of foreign affairs, from January to May 1805, without success, Monroe returned to London and resumed his negotiations, which had been interrupted by his journey to Spain, concerning the impressment of American seamen and the seizure of American vessels.
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  • To begin with, there can be no doubt that from 1558, when the German imperial crown was transferred from the Spanish to the Austrian branch of the Habsburg family, royal Hungary 1 was regarded by the emperors as an insignificant barrier province yielding far more trouble than profit.
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  • This opportunity came when the emperor, involved in the War of the Spanish Succession, withdrew all his troops from Hungary except some 1600 men.
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  • should materially assist the Rak6czians and thus divert part of the emperor's forces at the very crisis of the War of the Spanish Succession, intervened, repeatedly and energetically, to bring about a compromise between the court and the insurgents, whose claims they considered to be just and fair.
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  • It was a fortunate thing for Hungary that the conclusion of the War of the Spanish Succession introduced a new period, in which, at last, the interests of the dynasty and the nation were identical, thus rendering a reconciliation between them desirable.
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  • The first Spanish settlement in the region now called Coahuila was at Saltillo in 1586, when it formed part of the province of Nueva Viscaya.
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  • Later it became the province of Nueva Estremadura under the Spanish regime, and in 1824, under the new republican organization, it became the state of Coahuila and included Texas and Nuevo Leon.
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  • In 1808 the Marquis La Romana, who with a body of Spanish troops garrisoned the fortress for France, revolted from his allegiance, and held out till he and a portion of his men escaped with the English fleet.
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  • The greatest of Spanish writers, Cervantes, was born at Alcala de Henares, and baptized in the otherwise insignificant church of S.
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  • (1503-1564) and the Spanish dramatist and historian Antonio de Solis (1610-1686).
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  • From Aurillac, while yet a young man (adolescens), he was taken to the Spanish march by "Borrell, duke of Hither Spain," prosecuting his studies.
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  • In this duke we may certainly recognize Borel, who, according to the Spanish chroniclers, was count of Barcelona from 967 to 993, while the bishop may probably be identified with Hatto, bishop of Vich or Ausona from about 060 to 971 or 972.
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  • He is also found confirming his old rival Arnulf in the see of Reims; summoning Adalbero or Azelmus of Laon to Rome to answer for his crimes; judging between the archbishop of Mainz and the bishop of Hildesheim; besieging the revolted town of Cesena; flinging the count of Angouleme into prison for an offence against a bishop; confirming the privileges of Fulda abbey; granting charters to bishoprics far away on the Spanish mark; and, on the eastern borders of the empire, erecting Prague as the seat of an archbishopric for the Sla y s.
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  • Despite his residence on the Spanish mark, he shows no token of a knowledge of Arabic, a fact which is perhaps sufficient to overthrow the statement of Adhemar as to his having studied at Cordova.
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  • JUAN EUSEBIO NIEREMBERG (1595-1658), Spanish Jesuit and mystic, was born at Madrid in, 1595, joined the Society of Jesus in 1614, and subsequently became lecturer on Scripture at the Jesuit seminary in Madrid, where he died on the 7th of April 1658.
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  • These works, together with the Prodigios del amor divino (1641), are now forgotten, but Nieremberg's version (1656) of the Imitation is still a favourite, and his eloquent treatise, De la hermosura de Dios y su amabilidad (1649), is the last classical manifestation of mysticism in Spanish literature.
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  • Hannibal was laid out as a town in 1819 (its origin going back to Spanish land grants, which gave rise to much litigation) and was first chartered as a city in 1839.
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  • ST JOHN OF THE CROSS (1542-1591), Spanish mystic, was born at Ontiveros (Old Castile) on the 24th of June 1542.
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  • Subsequently he served in the French army under Turenne, and in the Spanish under Conde, and was applauded by both commanders for his brilliant personal courage.
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  • (1) Jacob (1630-1695), rabbi (Hakham) of the Spanish Jews in London from 1680.
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  • These mines have produced as much as 181,040.2 Spanish oz.
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  • The metric weights and measures have been officially adopted by Venezuela, but the old Spanish units are still popularly used throughout the country.
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  • In 1550 the territory was erected into the captain-generalcy of Caracas, and it remained under Spanish rule till the early part of the 19th century.
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  • In 1810 Venezuela rose against the Spanish yoke, and on the 14th of July 1811 the independence of the territory was proclaimed.
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  • Watson, Spanish and Portuguese South America during the Colonial Period (2 vols., London, 1884); W.
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  • Wood, Venezuela: Two Years on the Spanish Main (London); and the Anuario estadistico de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela (Caracas); Diplomatic and Consular Reports.
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  • In 1535, like the rest of Lombardy, it fell under Spanish domina tion, and was compelled to furnish large money contributions.
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  • The surprise of the French garrison on the 2nd of February 1702, by the Imperialists under Prince Eugene, was a celebrated incident of the War of the Spanish Succession.
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