Forty years were now to elapse before any further efforts were made by the Spaniards to colonize any part of the territory of the river Plate and lower Parana.
Lava streams and other signs of volcanic action abound, but there has been no igneous activity since the Spaniards took possession.
Albuera is celebrated on account of the victory gained there on the 16th of May 1811 by the British, Portuguese and Spaniards, under Marshal Beresford, over the French army commanded by Marshal Soult.
It was captured by Pizarro in 1533, and it is said that its size and the magnificence of its principal edifices filled the Spaniards with surprise.
Philip Carteret first observed this settlement in May 1767, and on account of the hostility of the Spaniards preferred to put in at Masa-Fuera.
The history of the city is unknown, though it is regarded as probable that it preserved its independence long after the Spaniards had taken possession of the rest of the district.
It is pleasant to think that there is foundation for the familiar story of Sir Francis Drake playing bowls on Plymouth Hoe as the Armada was beating up Channel, and finishing his game before tackling the Spaniards.
In 1622 the Spaniards, under Spinola, made another attempt to take the town, but were forced to abandon the enterprise after a siege of ten weeks and the loss of 1200 men.
The former enterprise was soon abandoned, and the colonists of the latter were massacred by the Spaniards.
Of the immigrant arrivals for the forty-seven years given, 1,331,536 were Italians, 4 1 4,973 Spaniards, 170,293 French, 37,953 Austrians, 35,435 British, 30,699 Germans, 25,775 Swiss, 19,521 Belgians, and the others of diverse nationalities, so that Argentina is in no danger of losing her Latin character through immigration.
Of the arrivals 67,598 were Italians and 39,851 Spaniards.
Here, by the emperor's orders, the assembled Spaniards proceeded to the election of a captain-general, and their choice fell almost unanimously on Domingos Martinez de Irala, who was proclaimed captain-general of the Rio de la Plata (August 1538).
In the meantime the Spaniards had penetrated into the interior of what is now the Argentine Republic, and established themselves on the eastern slopes of the Andes.
Thus at the opening of the 17th century, after many adventurous efforts, and the expenditure of many lives and much treasure, the Spaniards found themselves securely established on the river Plate, and had planted a number of centres of trade and colonization in the interior.
The combined forces of Buenos Aires and Chile defeated the Spaniards at Chacabuco in 1817, and at Maipu in 1818; and from Chile the victorious general Jose de San Martin led his troops into Peru, where on the 9th of July 1821, he made a triumphal entry into Lima, which had been the chief stronghold of the Spanish power, having from the time of its foundation by Pizarro been the seat of government of a viceroyalty which at one time extended to the river Plate.
In 1703 she supported the Methuen Treaty, which cemented still further the alliance between Portugal and England, and in 1704 she was appointed regent of Portugal during the illness of her brother King Pedro II., her administration being distinguished by several successes gained over the Spaniards.
The islands were discovered early in the 26th century by Spaniards, who gave them their present name.
The Netherlanders detested the Spaniards and everything Spanish, and this foreign mercenary force, together with the new bishops, was looked upon as part of a general plan for the gradual overthrow of their rights and liberties.
But Philip's preparations were now complete, and Alva set out from Italy at the head of a force of some io,000 veteran troops, Spaniards and Italians, afterwards increased by a body of Germans, with which, after marching through Burgundy, Lorraine and Luxemburg, he reached the Netherlands (August 8), and made his entry into Brussels a fortnight later.
The Spaniards skilfully avoided a battle, and in Alva November the invaders were compelled to withdraw triumph- p ant.
Within three months of the capture of Brill, Amsterdam was the only town in Holland in the hands of the Spaniards.
Here he was shut in by a superior force of Spaniards, and made preparations to defend himself until relieved by the army which Orange was collecting on the eastern frontier.
Two members only, Vargas and del Rio, both Spaniards, had votes.
The assault of the Spaniards was repulsed, Alkmaar.
In February 1574 the Spaniards by the fall of Middleburg lost their last hold upon Walcheren and Zeeland.
The Spaniards laid siege to Leiden, and though stricken down by a fever at Delft the prince spared no exertion to save the town.
Although in the course of its long history it has undergone many sieges and was sacked at various epochs by the Vandals, Normans, French and Spaniards, it preserves many monuments of its ancient days.
French residents numbered 50,996, naturalized Frenchmen Spaniards 12,354, Italians 7368, Maltese 865, and other Europeans (chiefly British and Germans) 1652, besides 12,490 Jews.
The islet in front of the harbour, subsequently known as the Penon, had been occupied by the Spaniards as early as 1302.
In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the Penon.
Teumi, invited the brothers Arouj and Khair-ed-Din (Barbarossa) to expel the Spaniards.
Khaired-Din, succeeding Arouj, drove the Spaniards from the Penon (1530) and was the founder of the pashalik, afterwards deylik, of Algeria.
sought to capture the city, but a storm destroyed a great number of his ships, and his army of some 30,000, chiefly Spaniards, was defeated by the Algerians under their pasha, Hassan.
Gramuntia, also furnishes a fruit which, after acquiring sweetness by keeping, is eaten by the Spaniards.
Cromwell furnished 6000 men with a fleet to join in the attack upon Spain in Flanders, and obtained as reward Mardyke and Dunkirk, the former being captured and handed over on the 3rd of October 1657, and the latter after the battle of the Dunes on the 4th of June 1658, when Cromwell's Ironsides were once more pitted against English royalists fighting for the Spaniards.
In spite of almost insuperable difficulties the colony took root, trade began, the fleet lay in wait for the Spanish treasure ships, the settlements of the Spaniards were raided, and their repeated attempts to retake the island were successfully resisted.
In the hope of drawing away the Spaniards from the siege of Leiden by a diversion in the south, Louis, with his brothers John and Henry, at the head of a force of mixed nationalities and little discipline, crossed the frontier near Maastricht, and advanced as far as the Mookerheide near Nijmv,-egen.
Odoacer inaugurated that long series of foreign rulersGreeks, Franks, Germans, Spaniards and Austrians who have successively contributed to the misgovernment of Italy from distant seats of empire.
Quarrelling with the Venetians In 1508, he combined the forces of all Europe by the league of Cambray against them; and, when he had succeeded in his first purpose of humbling them even to the dust, he turned round in 1510, uttered his famous resolve to expel the barbarians from Italy, and pitted the Spaniards against the French.
had lost the game, and the Spaniards were triumphant.
Acting as lieutenant for the Spaniards, he subsequently (1555) subdued Siena, and bequeathed to his descendants the grand-duchy of Tuscany.
of Spain, and allied himself with Venice and the Grisons to expel the Spaniards from the Valtelline.
The French in the following year expelled both Spaniards and Swedes from his territories, but in March 1635 the Spaniards recaptured Trier and took the elector prisoner.
Finally, it was agreed that if Cesare were set at liberty he would surrender the castles; this having been accomplished, he departed for Naples, where the Spaniards were in possession.
The Spaniards in the Gulf of Darien were left by Ojeda under the command of Francisco Pizarro, the future conqueror of Peru.
Admiral de Coligny made several unsuccessful endeavours to form a colony in Florida under Jean Ribault of Dieppe, Rene de Laudonniere and others, but the settlers were furiously assailed by the Spaniards and the attempt was abandoned.
The voyage of Lord Anson to the Pacific in 1740-1744 was of a predatory character, and he lost more than half his men from scurvy; while it is not pleasant to reflect that at the very time when the French and Spaniards were measuring an arc of the meridian at Quito, the British under Anson were pillaging along the coast of the Pacific and burning the town of Payta.
Bougainville had first, to perform the unpleasant task of delivering up the Falkland Islands, where he had encouraged the formation of a French settlement, to the Spaniards.
The Spaniards under Quadra had begun a survey of north-western America and occupied Nootka Sound, which their government eventually agreed to surrender.
The great majority of the foreign population are Italians or Spaniards, with lesser numbers, in descending scale, of Brazilian, Argentine and French birth.
Trade is controlled by foreigners, the British being prominent in banking, finance, railway work and the higher branches of commerce; Spaniards, Italians and French in the wholesale and retail trade.
During the next fifty years three unsuccessful attempts were made by the Spaniards to subdue this courageous people.
It was gradually consummated by the military and commercial settlements of the Portuguese, and subsequently by the Spaniards, who established themselves formally in Montevideo under Governor Zavala of Buenos Aires in 1726, and demolished the rival Portuguese settlement in Colonia in 1777.
4 Principally Frenchmen, with Englishmen, Italians, Norwegians, Danes, Dutchmen and Spaniards.
The Spaniards were entrenched, with their heavy artillery distributed along the front, but, thanks to Navarro, they had a more mobile artillery in the shape of 200 arguebuses d croc mounted in groups upon carts, after the German fashion, and this was held ready to move wherever its services might be needed.
Sheltered behind the entrenchments, the Spaniards scarcely suffered, for they were lithe active troops accustomed to lie down and spring up from the ground.
This he did, and so came in sight of the prone masses of the Spaniards.
But La Palisse's reserve wheeled in upon the rear of the Spaniards, and they retreated to the entrenchments as fast as they had advanced.
Still the conflict continued, but at last La Palisse, with all the gendarmerie still in hand, rode completely round the entrenchments and charged the Spaniards' rear again.
The appearance of a Spanish force at Kinsale drew Mountjoy to Munster in 1601; Tyrone followed him, and at Bandon joined forces with O'Donnell and with the Spaniards under Don John D'Aquila.
Blinded by ungovernable hatred he joined with France (1555) in order to drive the "accursed Spaniards" from Italy.
Though the plateau region was settled soon after the arrival of the Spaniards in Mexico, there are large districts on the southern and Pacific slopes that still belong almost exclusively to the Indians.
In Gaul we with many other cities kept Easter on the fourteenth calends of May, others, as the Spaniards, on the twelfth calends of April."
The Spaniards found here the remains of a high aboriginal civilization which had already entered upon decline.
From the 8th century to the 13th it was held by the Moors, who finally failed to recapture it from the Spaniards in 1332.
As captain of the "Cornwall" (80),(80), the flagship of Sir Charles Knowles, he was in the battle with the Spaniards off Havana on the 2nd of October 1748.
It was a difficult operation, for the French and Spaniards had in all 46 line-of-battle ships to his 33, and in the exhausted state of the country it was impossible to fit his ships properly or to supply them with good crews.
13,696 of the Correspondence, is acknowledged to be a forgery - there is not a sign that he regarded the Spaniards as of any account.
In that letter Stein urged the need of a national rising of the Germans similar to that of the Spaniards, when the inevitable struggle ensued between Napoleon and Austria.
After spending a short time in Paris in order to supervise the transfer of his forces from Germany to the Pyrenees, he journeyed swiftly southwards, burst upon the Spaniards, and on the 3rd of December received the surrender of Madrid.
The failure of the archduke John to arrive in time at Wagram (5th of July), the lack of support accorded by the Spaniards to Wellesley before and after the battle of Talavera (28th of July), and the slowness with which the British government sent forth its great armada against Flushing and Antwerp, a fortnight after Austria sued for an armistice from Napoleon, enabled that superb organizer to emerge victorious from a most precarious situation.
The Spaniards invaded the duchy from Lombardy, and although the duke was defeated several times he fought bravely, gained some successes, and the terms of the peace of 1618 left him more or less in the status quo ante.
The Cid of romance, the Cid of a thousand battles, legends and dramas, the Cid as apotheosized in literature, the Cid invoked by good Spaniards in every national crisis, whose name is a perpetual and ever-present inspiration to Spanish patriotism, is a very different character from the historical Rodrigo Diaz - the freebooter, the rebel, the consorter with the infidels and the enemies of Spain.
With the co-operation of the Indians under their chief Saturiba he captured Fort San Mateo in the spring of 1568, and on the spot where the garrison of Fort Caroline had been executed, he hanged his Spanish prisoners, inscribing on a tablet of pine the words, " I do this not as unto Spaniards but as to traitors, robbers and murderers."
The charter of incorporation granted in 1614 states that by the invasion of the Spaniards it had been treacherously spoiled and burnt but that its strength, prosperity and usefulness for navigation, and the acceptable and laudable services of the inhabitants in rebuilding and fortifying it, and their enterprise in erecting a pier, have moved the king to grant the petition for its incorporation.
The ruthless methods by which the Spaniards forced the natives to labour for them caused a change in the attitude of the erstwhile friendly Borinquenos.
For a time the Borinquenos, aided by Caribs from the neighbouring islands, threatened to destroy all vestiges of white occupation in Porto Rico, but in the end the Spaniards prevailed.
For some decades the inevitable extermination was postponed by the fact that the Spaniards were not numerous enough to occupy the southern and eastern portions of the island.
By November the Spaniards had evacuated the greater part of the island; after Captain General Macias embarked for Spain, General Ricardo Ortega was governor from the 6th to the 18th of October, when the island was turned over to the American forces.
Taken by the Spaniards in 1587 Zutphen was recovered by Maurice, prince of Orange, in 1591, and except for two short periods, one in 1672 and the other during the French Revolutionary Wars, it has since then remained a part of the United Netherlands.
The help sought from James came only in the shape of useless embassies and negotiations; the two Palatinates were soon occupied by the Spaniards and the duke of Bavaria; and the romantic attachment and services of Duke Christian of Brunswick, of the 1st earl of Craven, and of other chivalrous young champions who were inspired by the beauty and grace of the "Queen of Hearts," as Elizabeth was now called, availed nothing.
He spent his youth in the merchant service, and obtained his first distinction in naval warfare by the capture of the island of Lerins from the Spaniards in May 1637.
About the same time his father was killed in an engagement with the Spaniards, and the news raised his hatred of the national enemy to the pitch of a personal and bitter animosity.
The revolt at Bordeaux, supported as it was by material aid from Spain, gave him the opportunity of at once serving his country and gratifying his long-cherished hatred of the Spaniards.
Breda was captured by surprise by the Spaniards in 1581; but in 1590 it fell again into the hands of Maurice of Nassau, 68 picked men contriving to get into the town concealed under the turf in a peat-boat.
Its surrender in 1625, after a ten months' siege, to the Spaniards under Spinola is the subject of the famous picture by Velasquez in the Museo del Prado in Madrid.
After a severe siege, Fuenterrabia surrendered to the duke of Berwick and his French troops in 1719; and in 1794 it again fell into the hands of the French, who so dismantled it that it has never since been reckoned by the Spaniards among their fortified places.
Virginio Orsini, who had been captured by the Spaniards, died a prisoner at Naples, and the pope confiscated his property.
The Orsini still remained very powerful, and Alexander could count on none but his 3000 Spaniards.
defeated the Spaniards in a naval action close by.
declared his 'The Spaniards, in the space of fifteen years subsequent to the discovery of the West Indies, had, as Robertson mentions, reduced the natives of Haiti from a million to 60,000.
22 The Spaniards were prevented from forming establishments on the African coast by the Bull of Demarcation (" Inter caetera ") of Pope Alexander VI.
Horses, asses, cows, deer, sheep, goats, swine, cats and dogs were introduced by the early Spaniards.
During and after the war of 1868-1878, when many Cuban estates were confiscated, many families emigrated, and many others were ruined, the ownership of plantations largely passed from the hands of Cubans to Spaniards.
How numerous they were when the Spaniards first came among them cannot be said; undoubtedly tradition has greatly exaggerated their number.
In 1544 the Indians, so far as they had not succumbed to the labour of the mines and fields to which they were put by the Spaniards, were proclaimed emancipated.
It is commonly stated that in 1629 the British formed a settlement in New Providence, which they held till 1641, when the Spaniards expelled them.
But the buccaneers or pirates who had made their retreat here offered heavy opposition; in 1680 there was an attack by the Spaniards, and in July 1703 the French and Spaniards made a descent on New Providence, blew up the fort, spiked the guns, burnt the church and carried off the governor, with the principal inhabitants, to Havana.
In October the Spaniards made a second descent and completed the work of destruction.
The Spaniards retained nominal possession of the Bahamas until 1783, but before peace was notified New Providence was recaptured by a loyalist,.
The Spanish town, according to Velasco, was founded in 1538 by Captain Pedro Angules on the site of an Indian village called Chuquisaca, or Chuquichaca (golden bridge), and was called Charcas and Ciudad de la Plata by the Spaniards, though the natives clung to the original Indian name.
The arrival of the Spaniards at Constance necessitating the formation of a fifth nation, Pierre d'Ailly availed himself of the opportunity to ask either that the English nation might be merged in the German, or that each great nation might be allowed to divide itself into little groups each equivalent to the English nation.
But Villeneuve, who was deeply impressed by the inefficiency of the ships of his fleet and especially of the Spaniards, and who was convinced that an overwhelming British force would be united against him in the Channel, lost heart, and on the 15th of August sailed south to Cadiz.
When their country was first invaded they fled into the forests, and the Spaniards, coming upon their huts, the doorways of which are built excessively low, supposed them to be dwarfs: hence the name.
They are an agricultural people, but made a gallant resistance to the Spaniards for nearly two centuries.
Falling back to Andujar, where he was reinforced to 22,000 strong, Dupont detached a force to hold the mountain passes in his rear, whereupon the Spaniards interposed between the detachment and the main body and seized Baylen.
Before them the Spaniards were routed in every direction: Castanos was defeated near Logrono (Oct.
Of the Spaniards, Palafox, after his defeat at Tudela had most gallantly defended Saragossa a second time (Dec. 20, 1808-Feb.
But his experience after Talavera had been akin to that of Moore; his expectations from the Spaniards had not been realized; he had been almost intercepted by the French, and he had narrowly escaped from a critical position.
26, 1811) and took it from the Spaniards (March to).
An unusually bloody battle ensued, in which the French efforts were chiefly directed against the allied right, held by the Spaniards.
Macdonald also retook Figueras which the Spaniards had taken on the 9th of April 1811 (Aug.
Some interesting manoeuvres now took place, Wellington moving parallel and close to Marmont, but more to the north, making for the fords of Aldea Lengua and Santa Marta on the Tormes nearer to Salamanca, and being under the belief that the Spaniards held the castle and ford at Alba on that river.
More Portuguese troops had been raised, and reinforcements received from England, so that the Allies, without the Spaniards above alluded to, now numbered some 75,000 men, and from near the Coa watched the Douro and Tormes, their line stretching from their left near Lamego to the pass of Banos, Hill being on the right.
He now, with about 80,000 men, took up a position with his left (the Spaniards) on the Bidassoa near San Sebastian.
The Spaniards were repulsed, but Beresford gallantly took Mont Rave and Soult fell back behind the canal.
When the Spaniards arrived the Aymaras had been long under the Inca domination, and were in a decadent state.
Another over-dress of the Romans was the paenula, a cloak akin to the poncho of the modern Spaniards and Spanish Americans, i.e.
Bizerta was captured by the Spaniards in 1535, but not long afterwards came under the Tunisian government.
In the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries its possession was disputed by French and Spaniards.
Maret also assisted in drawing up the constitution destined for Spain, which the Spaniards at once rejected.
For nearly thirty years the kings of Portugal paid no further attention to their newly-acquired territory than what consisted in combating the attempts of the Spaniards to occupy it, and dispersing the private adventurers from France who sought its shores for the purposes of commerce.
Behind them the Spaniards, who had an establishment at Asuncion, had penetrated almost to the sources of the waters of Paraguay, and had succeeded in establishing communication with Peru.
The fall of Bahia for once roused the Spaniards and Portuguese to joint action, and a great expedition speedily sailed from Cadiz and Lisbon for Bahia.
In 1640 the revolution which placed the house of Braganza on the throne of Portugal restored Brazil to masters more inclined to promote its interests and assert its possession than the Spaniards.
And finally by an agreement with Cosimo de' Medici, duke of Florence, the Spaniards were sent away on the 5th August 1552 and the Sienese took possession of their fortress.
He was quickly driven from that country, and his own electorate was devastated by the Bavarians and Spaniards.
The Chinese used also to employ it largely, and the Persians and Spaniards still mix it with their rice.
The population consists of a small percentage of whites of European descent, chiefly Spaniards, various tribes and settlements of Indians, largely of the Arawak and Carib families, and a large percentage of mestizos, or mixed bloods.
Wheat was introduced by the Spaniards immediately after their occupation of Venezuela, and is grown in the elevated districts of Aragua and the western states, but the production does not exceed home consumption.
In August he occupied Toulon on the invitation of the French royalists, and in co-operation with the Spaniards.
In August the Spaniards took Prato by storm and committed hideous atrocities on the inhabitants; Florence was in a panic, a group of the Ottimati, or nobles, forced Soderini to resign and leave the city, and Cardona's new terms were accepted, viz.
GUANCHES, GUANCHIS or Guanchos (native Guanchinet; Guan = person, Chinet = Teneriffe, - " ` man of Teneriffe," corrupted, according to Nunez de la Pena, by Spaniards into Guanchos), the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.
Many of the Guanches fell in resisting the Spaniards, many were sold as slaves, and many conformed to the Roman Catholic faith and married Spaniards.
In districts where cave-dwellings were impossible, they built small round houses and, according to the Spaniards, they even practised rude fortification.
During a war with the Apalachee Indians in 1638 the Spaniards, according to tradition, fortified a hill W.
In the age of discovery the Portuguese and Spaniards became the great disseminators of the cultivation of sugar; the cane was planted in Madeira in 1420; it was carried to San Domingo in 1494; and it spread over the occupied portions of the West Indies and South America early in the 16th century.
Sanders, however, found his opportunity in the following year, when a force of Spaniards and Italians was despatched to Smerwick to assist James Fitzmaurice and his Geraldines in stirring up an Irish rebellion.
The Spaniards were, however, annihilated by Lord Grey in 1580, and after nearly two years of wandering in Irish woods and bogs Sanders died of cold and starvation in the spring of 1581.
The habit of snuff-taking was observed and described by Ranton Pane, a Franciscan who accompanied Columbus on his second voyage (1494-1496), and the practice of tobacco-chewing was first seen by the Spaniards on the coast of South America in 1502.
But hardly was he settled at Marburg when the news came that the Spaniards had besieged and taken Oudewater, and murdered its inhabitants almost without exception.
The Spaniards remained at Goletta and made it a strong fortress, they also occupied the island of Jerba and some points on the south-east coast; but the interior was a prey to anarchy and civil war, until in 1570 'Ali-Pasha of Algiers utterly defeated IIamid, the son and successor of Masan, and occupied Tunis.
sent a strong expedition which drove the Spaniards from Tunis and Goletta, and reduced the country to a Turkish province.
The llama was the only beast of burden known to the South American natives before the arrival of the Spaniards and is highly serviceable on the difficult trails of the Andes.
In the following year the Incas made a brave attempt to expel the invaders, and closely besieged the Spaniards in Cuzco during February and March.
The curacas sorrowfully watched the gradual extinction of their people by the operation of the mita, protesting from time to time against the exactions and cruelty of the Spaniards.
The Creoles (Criallos) or American-born Spaniards had for long been aggrieved at being shut out from all important official positions, and at the restrictions placed upon their trade, but the bulk of the Creole population was not disloyal.
Its walls were completed in 1316; and it maintained itself as an almost independent republic until it was subdued in 1521 by the Spaniards, who had become masters of the kingdom of Naples in 1503.
He was most successful in his translation of popular song, in which he shows a rare sympathetic insight into the various feelings and ideas of peoples as unlike as Greenlanders and Spaniards, Indians and Scots.
In 1518 the town was held for a short time by Arouj Barbarossa, but Arouj was killed in a fight with the Spaniards.
It was captured by the Spaniards in 1531 and was raised to the rank of a city in 1655.
1686), commemorating the capture of the town by the Spaniards in 1575 and the subsequent sack and massacre.
It was held by the Spaniards from 1595 to 1598, but was restored to France by the treaty of Vervins.
But the internal quarrels between the Merli, or aristocratic faction, and the Malvezzi, or democratic faction, fomented as they were by the Spaniards, helped to ruin the city (1671-1678).
The Spaniards replied by appealing to Holland, who sent a fleet under Ruyter into the Mediterranean.
The Spaniards, who were too thoroughly monarchical to blame the king, held his favourite responsible for the misfortunes of the country.
They attempted in 512 to take Bougie from the Spaniards, but were beaten off, and Arouj lost an arm, shattered by an arquebus shot.
In 1514 they took Jijelli from the Genoese, and after a second beating at Bougie in 1515 were called in by the natives of Cherchel and Algiers to aid them against the Spaniards.
The Spaniards still held the little rocky island which gives Algiers its name and forms the harbour.
The rival party then called in the Spaniards, by whom Arouj was expelled and slain while fleeing at the Rio Salado.
Other famous preachers on the same side were the Spaniards Luiz of Granada and Thomas of Villanova, the Italians Cornelio Musso, Egidio of Viterbo and Carlo Borromeo, and the German Peter Canisius.
The Spaniards invaded the duchy, but after several years of hard fighting the peace of 1618 left his territory almost intact.
He seems to have tried to stir up both the Indians and the Spaniards to prevent the survey of the southern boundary of the United States in 1797 and 1798, and succeeded in delaying Commissioner Andrew Ellicott for several months in this important task.
The Maltese joined the Spaniards in a disastrous raid against Gerbi on the African coast in 1432.
The Sicilians under Roger the Norman took it in the 12th century, and in the 16th the Spaniards occupied it for a brief period.
Conspicuous among them were his famous combat with Eustace de Ribemont, near Calais, in 1349, and the hard-fought naval victory over the Spaniards off Winchelsea, in 1350.
Bolivar was entrusted with the command of the important post of Puerto Cabello, but not being supported he had to evacuate the place; and owing to the inaction of Miranda the Spaniards recovered their hold over the country.
In this expedition he proved eminently successful, driving the Spaniards from post to post, until arriving at the confines of Venezuela he boldly determined to enter that province and try conclusions with General Monteverde himself.
Caracas was retaken by the Spaniards in July; and before the end of the year 1814 the royalists were again the undisputed masters of Venezuela.
Being now at the head of the most numerous and best appointed army the republicans had yet assembled, he gained important advantages over the Spaniards under Morillo, and on the 25th of November 18 20 concluded at Truxillo an armistice of six months, probably in the hope that the Spaniards would come to terms, and that the further effusion of blood might be spared.
Bolivar therefore resolved, if possible, to strike a decisive blow; and this accordingly he did at Carabobo, where, encountering Torre, he so completely routed the Spaniards that the shattered remains of their army were forced to take refuge in Puerto Cabello, where two years after they surrendered to Paez.
On the 29th of June 1821 Bolivar entered Caracas, and by the close of the year the Spaniards were driven from every part of the province except Puerto Cabello.
The Spaniards, though expelled from Colombia, still held possession of the neighbouring provinces of Ecuador and Peru; and Bolivar determined to complete the liberation of the whole country.
A severe battle was fought at Pichincha, where, by the prowess of his colleague Sucre, the Spaniards were routed, and Quito was entered by the republicans in June 1822.
Owing, however, to the intrigues of the republican factions in Peru he was forced to withdraw to Truxillo, leaving the capital to the mercy of the Spaniards under Canterac, by whom it was immediately occupied.
The possessions of the Spaniards in Peru were now confined to the castles of Callao, which Rodil maintained for upwards of a year, in spite of all the means that could be employed for their reduction.
De Ruyter made his way to Palermo, which was in the hands of the Spaniards.
The Spaniards in the centre behaved very ill, and no victory was gained.
Operations On Land The contemporary military history of Europe included, first, the war between France and Spain, 1654-59, usually called the Spanish Fronde, of which the most notable incident was the great battle of the Dunes fought on the 14th of June 1658 between the French and English under Turenne and the Spaniards under Conde, in which a contingent of Cromwell's soldiers bore a conspicuous part.
William wintered in Holland, Montecucculi in Cologne and Julich, and the Spaniards, who had served with William, in their own provinces of the Meuse.
A century of ter the outbreak of the War of Independence the Dutch and the Spaniards are thus found making war as allies, a striking proof of the fact that all questions but those of dynastic interests had been effectually settled by the peace of Westphalia.
The resources of the French government were almost intact for the coming campaign; the corps of observation in Roussillon was continued, and its commander, Marshal Schomberg, made a successful campaign against the Spaniards, and the war was carried even into Sicily.
Conde, in the Spanish Low Countries, opposed with inferior forces the united army of Spaniards, Dutch and Austrians under William, and held the Meuse from Grave to Charleroi on the Sambre.
From the beginning of the 14th to the middle of the 15th century it was frequented by Italians and Spaniards, and in the 16th it was held for some time by Charles V., who strengthened its citadel.
The earliest explorations were made by the Spaniards, Cabeza de Vaca, 1528-36, and Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, 1540-42, but the first colony was that planted on Matagorda Bay in 1685 by the French under the Sieur de la Salle.
Spaniards of all shades, except Carlists and Ultramontanes, paid homage to his memory when he passed away at his Logrono residence on the 8th of January 1879.
In England he was incorporated with other rescued or escaped Spaniards, in a corps equipped by the British government, and was sent to Spain in 1814.
In the first, which was fought on the 5th and 6th of September 1634, the hitherto invincible Swedish army, commanded by Duke Bernhard of Saxe Weimar and Marshal Horn, was defeated with great loss by a somewhat superior army of Imperialists and Spaniards under General Gallas, Horn and 3000 men being made prisoners and 6000 killed or mortally wounded.
The palace occupies the site of the residence of Moctezuma, which was destroyed by the Spaniards, and that of Hernando Cortes, which was also destroyed in 1692.
For the water supply the Aztecs used the main causeway through their city as a dam to separate the fresh water from the hills from the brackish water of Texcoco, and obtained drinking water from a spring at the base of the hill of Chapultepec. The Spaniards added three other springs to the supply and constructed two long aqueducts to bring it into the city.
The town had reached its highest development when the Spaniards appeared in 1519, when it is said to have had, including suburban towns, a total of 60,000 dwellings, representing about 300,000 inhabitants.
As discovery revealed the existence of another vast domain to the north, the name spread to the whole of the pair of continents by customary use, in spite of the protests of the Spaniards, by whom it was not officially used of North America till the 18th century.
Hence he spoke of the "Indies," and "las Indies" continued to be the official name given to their American possessions by the Spaniards for many generations.
The pope drew a line from north to south one hundred leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands, and gave the Spaniards the claim to all to the west (May 4, 1493).
Thenceforward the Spaniards claimed the right to exclude all other peoples from trade or settlement "beyond the line."
The first aim of the Spaniards had been trade with the Indies.
European plants and animals were introduced into Hispaniola and Cuba, and sugar plantations were set up. But the main object of the Spaniards, who could not labour in the tropics even if they had wished to do so, was always gold, to be won by slave labour.
As the surface gold of the islands was exhausted, and the feeble island races perished before the invaders, the Spaniards were driven to go farther afield.
Hitherto the Spaniards had met only the weak islanders, or the more robust cannibal Caribs, both alike pure savages.
Between 1524 and 1535 Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro had completed the conquest of Peru, which was followed, however, by a long period of strife among the Spaniards, and of rebellions.
From Peru the Spaniards advanced southwards to Chile, which was first unsuccessfully invaded (1535-37) by Diego de Almagro, and afterwards occupied (1540-53) by Pedro de Valdivia.
Their advance to the south was checked by the indomitable opposition of the Araucanians, but from the southern Andes the Spaniards overflowed on to the great plains which now form the interior of the Argentine Republic. The first permanent settlement at the mouth of the river Plate at Buenos Aires dates from 1580.
What the Spaniards had then overrun from Mexico to Chile is still Spanish America.
Brazil, after a period of exploration which began in 1510, was gradually settled by the Portuguese, though its bounds on the south remained a subject of dispute with the Spaniards till the 18th century.
The towns had municipal franchises, exercised by a governing body comprised of Spaniards, either immigrants from Old Spain, or Creoles, i.e.
gave France a strong motive for assailing the Spaniards in the New World now revealed to the ambition of Europe.
These ventures were ruined partly by the hostility of the Spaniards and Portuguese, partly by the dissensions of the colonists.
The Spaniards disputed this interpretation of the treaty, and maintained that there was "no peace beyond the line," i.e.
Like the Spaniards it held that this trade should be confined to an exchange of colonial raw produce for home manufactures.
To the south, the English, French and Dutch, though often in rivalry with one another, combined to break in on the monopoly of the Spaniards.
In the river Plate region, where the dissensions of Spaniards and Portuguese afforded another opening, English traders smuggled.
The Spaniards, with monstrous fatuity, refused to make use of the superb waterways provided by the Parana and Paraguay, and endeavoured to stifle all trade.
When in July 1 53 5 the Spaniards under Charles V.
The Spaniards during their occupancy of Tunis strengthened the kasbah and built an aqueduct to supply it with water.
During the Peninsular War it was taken by the French in 1808, recaptured by the Spaniards in 1811, and retaken by the French in the same year.
It was made a military post by the Spaniards and used as an acclimatizing station.
This charge, in which many of the "Rough Riders" were killed or wounded, drove the Spaniards from the trenches and opened the way to the surrender of Santiago.
It was taken on the 4th of February 1860 by the Spaniards under O'Donnell, and almost transformed by them into a European city before its evacuation on the 2nd of May 1862, but so hateful were the changes to the Moors that they completely destroyed all vestiges of alteration and reduced the city to its former state.
1710 the British were expelled by the Spaniards, but they returned and the salt trade (largely with the American colonies) continued to be carried on by the Bermudians despite attacks by Spaniards and French, and counter-claims to the islands by the British authorities at the Bahamas, who about 1 765 made good their claim.
It is possible that they reached Australia) - more than sixty years before the .first voyage thither of which there is any clear record; but their cruise had no political significance, and the Spaniards and Portuguese remained without European competitors until the appearance of Sir Francis Drake in 1579.
But the English were simple traders or explorers; far more formidable were the Dutch, who came to the East partly to avenge the injuries inflicted on their country by the Spaniards, partly to break the commercial monopoly of the peninsular states.
the Spaniards had opened a canal (" El Dique ") through some marshes and lagoons into a small western outlet of the Magdalena, which gave access to that river at Calamar, about 81 m.
In 1579 it was besieged by the Spaniards under the duke of Parma, being captured and plundered after a heroic resistance.
In 1595 it was besieged and occupied by the Spaniards, but was restored to France by the treaty of Vervins (1598).
Here are a medieval fort, built by the Spaniards in 1284, and a modern fort, garrisoned by the French.
In the middle ages the possession of Jerba was contested by the Normans of Sicily, the Spaniards and the Turks, the Turks proving victorious.
Falling into the hands of the Spaniards he was recognized as having had a hand in the Antwerp disturbance, and was under sentence to be executed as a spy when he was saved by the intervention of a noble lady.
In 1829 he defeated a foolish attempt of the Spaniards to reassert their authority in Mexico.
Restored to England in 1763, the island remained in possession of the British till 1782, when it was retaken by the Spaniards.
In 1489, after a stubborn defence lasting seven months, it was captured by the Spaniards under Isabella of Castile, whose cannon still adorn the Alameda or public promenade.
The census showed that in addition to French settlers and their descendants (278,976) there were 117,475 Spaniards (most of whom are found in the department of Oran), 33,153 Italians (chiefly in the department of Constantine), 64,645 Jews, 6217 Maltese, and smaller communities of British, Germans, Levantines and Greeks.
Compared with the census of 1901 the figures of 1906 showed a decrease of 14,000 French, 36,000 Spaniards and 5000 Italians, but an increase of nearly ioo,000 in the foreigners naturalized.
The Jews, who enjoyed religious freedom under the Mahommedans, believed that the success of the Spaniards would but lead to their own persecution.
The Spaniards took Mers-el-Kebir (1505), Oran (1509), and Bougie and Tripoli (151o).
Two Turkish corsairs, Arouj and his brother, Khair-ed-Din (otherwise known as Barbarossa), at first established in the island of Jerba and afterwards at Jijelli, disputed with the Spaniards the dominion of the country.
This check completely discouraged the Spaniards and assured success to the Turks.
In the end, the only towns the Spaniards retained on the Algerian coast were Oran and Mers-el-Kebir.
These two towns, taken by the Turks in 1708 and retaken by the Spaniards in 1732, were finally abandoned in 1791.
For the same reason the British and Dutch fleets which sailed with the object of harrying the Spaniards, under Sir Francis Drake (1577-1580), Thomas Cavendish (1586-1593)593) and Oliver van Noort (1598-1601), were not, as regards the Pacific, of prime geographical importance.
Within the limits of the area under notice, his first voyage (1769) included visits to Tahiti and the Society group generally, to New Zealand and to the east coast of Australia, his second (1773-1774) to New Zealand, the Paumotu Archipelago, the Society Islands, Tonga and subsequently Easter Island, the Marquesas and the New Hebrides; and his third (1777-1778) to Tonga, the Cook or Norway group, and the Hawaiian Islands, of which, even if they were previously known to the Spaniards, he may be called the discoverer, and where he was subsequently killed.
This did not make Mary Tudor any more friendly,and,although the story that Elizabeth favoured Courtenay and that Mary was jealous is a ridiculous fiction, the Spaniards cried loud and long for Elizabeth's execution.
The Protestant martyrs and Calais between them removed all the alternatives to an insular national English policy in church and in state; and no sovereign was better qualified to lead such a cause than the queen who ascended the throne amid universal, and the Spaniards thought indecent, rejoicings at Mary's death on the 17th of November 1558.
The resident foreigners, who are mostly Spaniards, Italians, Germans and British subjects, numbered less than 8000 in 1904; immigration is, however, encouraged by the easy terms on which land can be purchased from the state.
In 1512 it was sacked by the Spaniards under General Cardona.
On the south side of the town pleasant gardens extend along the old Singel, or outer canal, and there is a large open space, the Van der Werf Park, named after the burgomaster, Pieter Andriaanszoon van der Werf, who defended the town against the Spaniards in 1574 This open space was formed by the accidental explosion of a powdership in 1807, hundreds of houses being demolished, including that of the Elzevir family of printers.
The most celebrated event in its history is its siege by the Spaniards in 1574.
The weaving establishments (mainly broadcloth) of Leiden at the close of the 15th century were very important, and after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. These industries afterwards declined, and in the beginning of the 19th century the baize manufacture was altogether given up. Linen and woollen manufactures are now the most important industries, while there is a considerable transit trade in butter and cheese.
It was conquered by the Moors in 712, but these invaders were in turn dispossessed by the Spaniards and the troops of Charlemagne in 788.
The Spaniards found no indigenous domestic animals in the country, and introduced their own horses, cattle, sheep and swine.
There are no fisheries of importance except the pearl fisheries on the eastern coast of Lower California, and the tortoise fisheries on the coasts of Campeche, Yucatan, and some of the states facing the Pacific. The pearl fisheries have been worked since the arrival of the Spaniards, and were once very productive notwithstanding the primitive methods employed.
There were of course some crude industries in existence before the arrival of the 'Spaniards, such as weaving and dyeing of fabrics made from various fibres, and making earthenware utensils, images, &c. The Spaniards introduced their own industries, including sugar-making, weaving, tanning, and leatherand metal-working, some of which still exist.
The institutions founded by the Spaniards were wholly under ecclesiastical control.
But they do not appear to have ever been so pronounced by the Spaniards, who naturally gave to the x its ordinary Spanish sound of the German ch.
The maize was ground with a stone roller on the grinding stone or metlatl, still known over Spanish America as the metate, and the meal baked into thin oval cakes called by Aztecs tlaxcalli, and by Spaniards tortilla, which resemble the chapati of India and the oatcake of Scotland.
The juice extracted by tapping the great aloe before flowering was fermented into an intoxicating drink about the strength of beer, octli, by the Spaniards called pulque.
Among the pure whites - who were practically all of Spanish extraction - there were two well-defined classes, the Gachupines or chapetones, Spaniards born in Europe, said, to be so named in allusion to their spurs, from Aztec words meaning " prickers with the foot," and the native-born or creoles: the former, though a small minority, had almost all the higher positions both in the public services and in commerce.
He proposed the convocation of a national congress, but was overthrown by a conspiracy of Spaniards under one Yermo, who feared that they would lose their privileged position through severance from Spain.
It was promulgated in Mexico, and the ecclesiastics and Spaniards, fearing that a Liberal Spanish government would force on them disendowment, toleration and other changes, induced Augustin de Iturbide, who had already been conspicuous in suppressing the risings, to take the field in order to effect what may be called a reactionary revolution.
Iturbide eventually combined with Guerrero, and proclaimed the " Plan of Iguala," which laid down, as the bases of the new state, the maintenance of the Roman Catholic religion and the privileges of the clergy, the establish ment of a limited monarchy, and equality of rights Emperor, for Spaniards and native-born Mexicans.
The more valuable kinds are known as: New kind, Black mauls, Spaniards, Glibskins, Long-bud, Long-skin, Lancashire red-bud, French, Italians, Pomeranians and Councillors and scores of other local names.
In 1573 he was taken prisoner by the Spaniards at Maaslandsluys, but was exchanged in the following year.
He took a conspicuous part in arranging the Union of Utrecht, and in 1583 was chosen burgomaster of Antwerp. In 1585 he surrendered the city, after a 1 3 months' siege, to the Spaniards.
In the meantime the Spaniards had formed the siege of Gibraltar.
The next purpose of the French was to combine with the Spaniards for an attack on Jamaica.
In the countries which bound its northern limit it is not frequently met with, but in South America it is quite common, and Don Felix de Azara states that when the Spaniards first settled in the district between Montevideo and Santa Fe, as many as two thousand were killed yearly.
Pop. (1906) of the town, 24,494 (of whom three-fourths are French or Spaniards); of the commune, 29,088;29,088; of the arrondissement, which includes 17 communes, 98,309.
Spaniards in speech and mode of life), comprise a large majority of half-castes (mestizos) and civilized Indians and a smaller proportion of whites.
Guatemala was conquered by the Spaniards under Pedro de Alvarado between 1522 and 1524.
He had helped in 1585 to drive the royal favourite James Stewart, earl of Arran, from power, and he made active preparations to assist the invading Spaniards in 1588.
The first Europeans to enter the limits of the present state of Alabama were Spaniards, who claimed this region as a part of Florida.
Its formation was due to a desire of the British government to protect South Carolina from invasion by the Spaniards from Florida and by the French from Louisiana, as well as to the desire of James Edward Oglethorpe to found a refuge for the persecuted Protestant sects and the unfortunate but worthy indigent classes of Europe.
He it was who made the peace of Brdmsebro between the Danes and the Swedes, and turned the latter once again against the empire; he it was who sent Lionne to make the peace of Castro, and combine the princes of North Italy against the Spaniards, and who made the peace of Ulm between France and Bavaria, thus detaching the emperor's best ally.
With regard to France he played a more patriotic part than Conde or Turenne, for he never treated with the Spaniards, and his letters show that in the midst of his difficulties he followed with intense eagerness every movement on the frontiers.
Jalisco was first invaded by the Spaniards about 1526 and was soon afterwards conquered by Nuno de Guzman.
Owing to the occupation of the southern part of the captaincy by the Spaniards, Governor Jose Marcellino de Figuereido selected this village in 1770 as his official residence and gave to it the name it now bears.
Even the position of the Solomon Islands was now in uncertainty, for the Spaniards, fearing lest they should lose the benefits expected to accrue from these discoveries, kept secret the narratives of Mendana and Quiros.
In 1630 it contained a population of 250 Spaniards, 700 Indians and about 50 half-breeds.
Four hundred Spaniards were massacred, and the remainder took refuge in Santa Fe, where they were closely besieged.
After Marshal Campos had failed to pacify Cuba, the Conservative government of Canovas del Castillo sent out Weyler, and this selection met the approval of most Spaniards, who thought him the proper man to crush the rebellion.
Three old-established inns, the Bull and Bush, the Spaniards, and Jack Straw's Castle (the name of which has no historical significance), claim many great names among former visitors; while the Upper Flask Inn, now a private house, was the meeting-place of the Kit-Cat Club.
Centuries of alien domination have left their mark upon the character and appearance of the Andalusians, a mixed race, who contrast strongly with the true Spaniards and possess many oriental traits.
The Caribs, holding a certain section of the river, named it the Ibirinoco, corrupted by the Spaniards into Orinoco.
The overweening arrogance of the Spaniards soon drove the pope back into the ranks of their enemies.
of the Spaniards, Paul IV., in the most violent and impolitic fashion, declared against the Habsburgs.
He negotiated an alliance between the Venetians and Spaniards, contributed ships and soldiers, and secured the election of Don John of Austria to the supreme command.
In both the Castiles the central plateau has a naturally fertile soil, for after rain a luxuriant vegetation appears; but drought is common, owing to the insufficient volume of the rivers, and the failure of the Spaniards to extend the fine system of irrigation which the Moors originated.
the Spaniards, the Danes and the Hansa together, the Italians, the English, the Portuguese and the Germans, were named at Antwerp, and over 1000 foreign merchants were resident in the city.
It is possible that the Portuguese visited Timor before the Spaniards did so in 1522.
Much labour has been given by various naturalists to ascertain the date of its introduction to Europe, to which we can at present only make an approximate attempt; 3 but after all that has been written it is plain that evidence concurs to show that the bird was established in Europe by 1530 - a very short time to have elapsed since it became known to the Spaniards, which could hardly have been before 1518, when Mexico was discovered.
In 1683, several families, chiefly Scotch, led by Henry Erskine, third Lord Cardross (1650-1693), established on the island a settlement named Stuart's Town (probably in honour of Cardross's family); but three years later most of the settlers were murdered by Spaniards from Florida and the remainder fled to Charleston.
in 1541, by which they escaped coming once more into the yoke of the Spaniards.
An outer circle of boulevards, planted with trees and commanding the view of the suburbs, lies just beyond the present walls of the city, erected by the Spaniards in the 16th century; the entire length of these boulevards is traversed by an electric tramway 7 m.
The number of European inhabitants (1905) was about 9000 (7500 Spaniards); of Jews about 10,000.
Their practice was to advance rapidly within such a distance of the Spaniards as would not leave the latter time to reload after firing.
In 1489 it was surprised by Francis van Brederode, and in 1572 it was plundered by the Spaniards, who were in possession for four months.
From 1581 onwards, Groningen still held by the Spaniards, was constantly at war with the "Ommelanden" which had declared against the king of Spain.
The StatesGeneral were but the delegates of a number of sovereign provinces, and amongst these Holland by its size and wealth (after the occupation by the Spaniards of Brabant and Flanders) was predominant.
Five thousand Spaniards were killed; seven hundred taken, and one hundred and five standards.
The disposition of the Spaniards to make concessions was further quickened by the destruction of their fleet at Gibraltar by the Dutch admiral Heemskerk, (April 1607).
The Spaniards on their side were obdurate on the subjects of freedom of trade in the Indies and of freedom of religious worship. At last, after the negotiations had been repeatedly on the point of breaking off, a compromise was effected by the mediation of the envoys of France and England.
He had to contend against a strong peace party in Holland the Spaniards sheltered themselves under the English Downs by the side of an English squadron.
A brave officer and an able diplomat, Ayala was one of the most cultivated Spaniards of his time, at once historian, translator and poet.
The staple diet of the Paraguayans is still, as when the Spaniards first came, maize and mandioca (the chief ingredient in the excellent chipa or, Paraguayan bread), varied, it may be, with the seeds of the Victoria regia, whose magnificent blossoms are the great feature of several of the lakes and rivers.
In 1572, while its fortifications were still slight, the Spanish city was attacked and was nearly captured by a force of Chinese pirates who greatly outnumbered the Spaniards.
The Spaniards, after making a rather weak defence, surrendered it on the 13th of August 1898.
The first of these was fought on August 19/29, 1622, between the forces of Count Mansfeld and Christian of Brunswick and the Spaniards under Cordovas, the latter being defeated.
The second battle was fought on the 1st of July 16go between 45, 000 French under Francois-Henri de Montgomery-Bouteville, duke of Luxemburg, and 37,000 allied Dutch, Spaniards and Imperialists under George Frederick, prince of Waldeck.
Only a quarter of the cavalry and 14 battalions of infantry (English and Dutch) remained intact, and Waldeck could do no more, but with these he emulated the last stand of the Spaniards at Rocroi fifty years before.
Curacao was discovered by Hojeda about 1499 and occupied by the Spaniards in 1527.
On the 29th of September 1342 he was made earl of Richmond; as a child he was present at the sea fight with the Spaniards in August 1350, but his first military service was in 1355, when he was knighted.
It was occupied by the Spaniards in 1614, by the Dutch in 1629, by the French in 1672, also during the Seven Years' War, and in 1805, and was ceded to Prussia in 1814.
9) as a mixed race of Celts and Spaniards (Iberians); in either case the name represents a geographer's theory rather than an ascertained fact.
In 1620 it was sacked by the Spaniards and in 1689 burnt by the French.
It was the scene of an engagement between the French and English fleets in 1380, was forcibly entered by the English in 1488, captured by the Spaniards and retaken by the English in 1601, and entered by the English in 1641, who expelled the Irish inhabitants.
He took command of the army which in 1654 invaded Catalonia, where he captured three towns from the Spaniards.
It was subdued by the Spaniards in 1580, but reconquered by Maurice of Nassau in 1594.
The Portuguese and Spaniards were better acquainted with Halmahera than with many other parts of the archipelago; they called it sometimes Batu China and sometimes Moro.
The Spaniards have had much trouble with the neighbouring tribes - turbulent Ruffians, hardly subject to the sultan of Morocco.
Severe fighting between the Spaniards and the tribesmen followed.
The Riffians having submitted, the Spaniards, in 1910, restarted the mines and undertook harbour works at Mar Chica.
The Scots invested very largely, for them, but their expeditions were ill-found and worse managed; the Spaniards seized one of their vessels with its crew; the colonists deserted the colony; a fresh expedition was expelled by Spain, and William refused to take up the Scottish quarrel (1695-1700).
Spain backed him in 1719, but the death of Charles XII., and the utter failure of a Spanish expedition to Scotland in 1719, when the Jacobites were scattered, and the Spaniards taken, in a fight at Glensheil, ruined what had seemed a fair chance of success.
Surprised by the Spaniards in 1597, the city was recaptured from them after a long siege by Henry IV.
Chamalari, which the Spaniards called El Corazon from its heartshaped appearance, is similarly destitute of a crater.
Cattle, horses, asses, sheep and swine were introduced by the Spaniards, and thrive well in some of the provinces.
The fortunate monarch, however, had not long to enjoy his success; for Pizarro and his Spaniards were already at the door, and by 1533 the fate of the country was sealed.
In executing it, however, he took care to make the terms as advantageous for England as possible, with express provision that the Spaniards should in nowise be allowed to interfere in the government of the country.
The season is almost continuous; in the winter the English, in the summer Russians, Spaniards and French fill the hotels of the town.
After much bloodshed, and with reinforcements from the mother country, the Spaniards, under Pedro de Vera, became masters of Grand Canary in 1483.
At the close he was threatened by Spaniards in the diet.
In 1819, after long negotiations, Adams succeeded in bringing the Spanish minister to the point of signing a treaty in which the Spaniards abandoned all claims to territory east of the Mississippi, and the United States relinquished all claim to what is now known as Texas.
The population of the city, probably about 3000 at the beginning of the 17th century, was doubled in the years following 1655 by the coming of Spaniards from Jamaica.
They began with a riot between the nobles and the burghers, but ended in an antiSpanish movement; and while the inhabitants called The rei n the French, the Spaniards, who could not crush the rising, called in the Dutch.
But at the peace of Nijmwegen (1679) Louis treacherously abandoned the Messinese, who suffered cruel persecution at the hands of the Spaniards and lost all their privileges.
In Sicily the Spaniards held their own until the peace of Utrecht in 1 713, when the island was given over to Duke Sicily Victor of Savoy, who assumed the title of king.
Although Doria was ambitious and harsh, he was a good patriot and successfully opposed the emperor Charles's repeated attempts to have a citadel built in Genoa and garrisoned by Spaniards; neither blandishments nor threats could win him over to the scheme.
After being sacked in turn by Mansfeld, Tilly and the Spaniards, it was taken by Oxenstierna in 1632, who held a convention here with his German allies.
When the Philippines were discovered by the Spaniards it was the only cultivated crop of importance, and until the 19th century it was the chief article of export, but as the culture of the more profitable crops of hemp, sugar and coco-nuts was extended it became an article of import.
The mixture of the races is principally that of the Chinese with the Malays or the Spaniards with the Malays.
The Spaniards, however, called the group the Islas de Poniente (Western Islands).
With the approval of Commodore Dewey, who allowed arms to be supplied him, Aguinaldo successfully renewed his campaign against the Spaniards until practically all Luzon, except the city of Manila and suburbs, was in his control.
In 1810 the French under Count Sebastiani here defeated the Spaniards.
The fame of its ten bells dates from the wars between Spaniards and Moors in which "Arcos of the Frontier" received its name.
It does not show that the namers were prophets or wise judges, for the Spaniards really knew California not at all for more than two centuries, and then only as a genial but rather barren land; but it shows that the conquistadores mixed poetry with business and illustrates the glamour thrown about the " Northern Mystery."
The Franciscans were mostly Spaniards in blood and in sympathies.
Despite the importation of cutlery from England and Germany, Albacete is still famous for its daggers, which are held in high repute by Spaniards.
In 1573 the Spaniards tried somewhat unsuccessfully to obtain a share of this commerce, but it was not until 1580, when a dethroned sultan appealed to them for asistance and by their agency was restored to his own, that they attained their object.
Thereafter the Spaniards maintained a fitful intercourse with Brunei, varied by not infrequent hostilities, and in 1645 a punitive expedition on a larger scale than heretofore was sent to chastise Brunei for persistent acts of piracy.
No attempt at annexation followed upon this action, commerce rather than territory being at this period the prime object of both the Spaniards and the Portuguese, whose influence upon the natives was accordingly proportionately small.
Meanwhile the Dutch and British East India Companies had been formed, had destroyed the monopoly so long enjoyed by the Portuguese, and to a less extent the Spaniards, in the trade of the Malayan Archipelago, and had gained a footing in Borneo.
It is often asserted that these rapids were artificially formed by the Spaniards themselves to prevent the buccaneers from penetrating to Lake Nicaragua.
The Spaniards overran the country with great rapidity, both from this centre northwards, and southwards from the Honduras coast.
Her commercial policy was one of most irrational and intolerable restriction and repression; and till the end of Spanish rule on the American continent, the whole political power was retained by the court at Madrid, and administered in the colonies by an oligarchy of home-bred Spaniards.
The most advanced folk were the "Chamorros" of the Ladrones, owing to the greater natural resources of the islands, and perhaps more frequent contact with influences from the west; but as a separate people they no longer exist, having been nearly exterminated by the Spaniards in the 17th century.
The Austrians under Prince Eugene occupied it in 1706, the French in 1733 and the French and Spaniards in 1743 and the Austrians were again in possession from 1746 till 1796.
The Spaniards became one nation by the conquest of Granada and the union of the crowns of Castile and Aragon.
It was followed by the expulsion of Jews and Moors, and by arts the establishment of the Inquisition on a solid basis, with powers formidable to the freedom of all Spaniards from the peasant to the throne.
They, following the lead of Portuguese and Spaniards, combating the Counter-Reformation on the seas, opened for England her career of colonization and plantation.
The Spaniards called them "bolsons " (purses), a term that geologists have retained.
The existence of valuable mineral deposits was early known to the Spaniards.
To the existence of an Old-World myth New Mexico owes its early exploration by the Spaniards.
The stories that he told grew in their passage from mouth to mouth until the Spaniards believed that in the north were cities " very rich, having silversmiths, and that the women wore strings of gold beads and the men girdles of gold."
Forty years elapsed before the Spaniards again entered New Mexico.
It was about this time, apparently, that the Spaniards in Mexico adopted the term New Mexico to designate the land to the north; Rodriguez had called the country San Felipe, and Espejo had named it Nueva Andalucia.
Over 400 Spaniards were massacred, and the remnant, after enduring a siege in Santa Fe, fled southward to a mission near the present El Paso.
As some pretext, he intended to affirm that his life was in danger from these men, who were in league with the Spaniards.
After ineffectual conferences at Noyon in 1516 and at Montpellier in 1518, an active effort was made in 1521 to establish him in the de facto sovereignty; but the French troops which had seized the country were ultimately expelled by the Spaniards.
Thus the English, who cannot give up animal food and spirituous liquors, are less able to sustain the heat of the tropics than the more sober Spaniards and Portuguese.
There are, however, certain cases in which the sources of error above mentioned are reduced to a minimum, and cannot seriously affect the results; such as those of the Jews, the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope and in the Moluccas, and the Spaniards in South America.
The slightest tincture of red or black blood bars entry into any of the old families who are descendants of Spaniards from the Provincias Vascongadas or those bordering the Bay of Biscay, where the morals are perhaps the purest (as regards the intercourse of the sexes) of any in Europe, and where for a girl, even of the poorest class, to have a child before marriage is the rarest thing possible.
These instances, so well stated by Spruce, seem to demonstrate the complete acclimatization of Spaniards in some of the hottest parts of South America.
In 1620 Lippstadt was occupied by the Spaniards and in 1757 by the French.
The Chateau Neuf, built in 1563 by the Spaniards, overlooks the old port.
Fort St Philippe, south of the kasbah, replaces the old Castle of the Saints of the Spaniards.
The Grand Mosque (in rue Philippe) was erected at the end of the 18th century to commemorate the expulsion of the Spaniards, and with money paid as ransom for Christian slaves.
Animated by the patriotic enthusiasm of Cardinal Ximenes, the Spaniards determined to put a stop to these expeditions which were carrying off their countrymen, destroying their commerce, and even ravaging their country.
Meanwhile the Turks had become masters of Algeria, and expelled the Spaniards from all their possessions except Oran.
The Spaniards recovered possession in 1732, but found the maintenance of the place a burden rather than a benefit, the neighbouring tribes having ceased to deal with the Christians.
The southern coast and its inland waters are frequented by several species of petrel, among which are the Procellaria gigantea, whose strength and rapacity led the Spaniards to call it quebranta huesos (breakbones), the Puffinus cinereus, which inhabits the inland channels in large flocks, and an allied species (Puffinuria Berardii) which inhabits the inland sounds and resembles the auk in some particulars of habit and appearance.
The territory north of the Bio-Bio was originally divided into 13 provinces, besides which the Spaniards held Chiloe, Juan Fernandez and Valdivia, the latter being merely a military outpost.
When the country first became known to the Spaniards in the 16th century the northern tribes were found to be more civilized and much more submissive than those of the south.
34° 10' S.), and, though their control of the country was slight, the Peruvian influence led to the introduction of a higher civilization, and, by weakening the power of the tribes, paved the way for the' invasion of the Spaniards.
Settlements and forts were never free from assault and were taken and retaken; if one Indian army was destroyed another took its place, if one toqui was killed another was chosen; when defeated, the Indians retired to their forests, marshes and hills, recruited their forces, and fell on the pursuing Spaniards.
For three years the Spaniards maintained their hold on Chile, ruling the country with tyrannical harshness, but in the spring of 1817 a patriot force which had been organized at Mendoza in the Argentine by Jose de San Martin, an Argentine officer, and by O'Higgins, crossed the Andes and overwhelmed the royalists at the battle of Chacabuco.
Mitre's life of San Martin, describing the fighting in the wars of independence; Lord Cochrane, Narrative of Services in Chile, Peru and Brazil (London, 1859), an autobiography describing the naval exploits that helped to secure the expulsion of the Spaniards; B.
Castelnuovo is a picturesque town, with a dismantled 14thcentury citadel, which has, at various times, been occupied by Bosnians, Turks, Venetians, Spaniards, Russians, French, English and Austrians.
It is to the Spaniards that we owe this valuable esculent..
The Spaniards met with it in the neighbourhood of Quito, where it was cultivated by the natives.
The plant (which is not a native of Virginia) was probably introduced there in consequence of the intercourse of the early settlers with the Spaniards.
The dye was introduced into Europe from Mexico, where it had been in use long before the entrance of the Spaniards in the year 1518, and where it formed one of the staple tributes to the crown for certain districts.
Bitter experience had shown him that their federal doctrines and revolutionary methods could lead to nothing in harmony with the aspirations of the majority of Spaniards.
He established a senate of 300 members, drawn from Roman emigrants, with probably a sprinkling of the best Spaniards, and surrounded himself with a Spanish bodyguard.
But owing to jealousies among the Roman officers who served under him and the Spaniards of higher rank he could not maintain his position, and his influence over the native tribes slipped away from him, though he won victories to the last.
The peasantry, especially in the north, are closely akin to the Galician and Asturian Spaniards in character, physique and dialect; and these three ethnical groups - Portuguese of the north, Galicians, Asturians - may perhaps be regarded as the purest representatives of the Spanish stock.
Estevao Soares, archbishop of Braga, placed himself at the head of the nobles and churchmen who threatened to usurp the royal power during Sancho II.'s minority, and negotiated an alliance with Alphonso IX., by which it was arranged that the Portuguese should attack Elvas, the Spaniards Badajoz.
Matheus d'Albuquerque defeated the Spaniards under the baron of Molingen at Montijo (May 26, 1644), and throughout the reign of John IV.
Spaniards under D.
The Spaniards failed to gain any compensating advantage, and on the 13th of February 1668 peace was concluded at Lisbon, Spain at last consenting to recognize the independence of the Portuguese kingdom.
The Spaniards were at first successful, and captured Braganza and Almeida; but they were subsequently defeated at Villa Velha and Valencia de Alcantara, and the Portuguese fully held their own up to the signature of peace at Fontainebleau, in February 1763.
Until the Restoration of 1640 the stage remained spellbound by the Spaniards, and when a court once more came to Lisbon it preferred Italian opera, French plays, and zarzuelas to dramatic performances in the vernacular, with the result that both Portuguese authors and actors of repute disappeared.
In the early part of the 16th century the corsair Dragut seized the town and made it his capital, but in 1550 the place was captured by the Spaniards, who held it until 1574.
Before evacuating the town the Spaniards dismantled the fortifications.
After the conquest of Peru by the Spaniards in the 16th century the natives were subjected to much tyranny and oppression, though it must in fairness be said that much of it was carried out in defiance of the efforts and the wishes of the Spanish home government, whose legislative efforts to protect the Indians from serfdom and ill-usage met with scant respect at the hands of the distant settlers and mine-owners, who bid defiance to the humane and protective regulations of the council of the Indies, and treated the unhappy natives little better than beasts of burden.
Four years of warfare, in which victory was alternately with the Spaniards and the patriots, was terminated in 1815 by the total rout of the latter in a battle which took place between Potosi and Oruro.
Many of these are decorated with inscriptions and bas-reliefs, some of which commemorate the battle on the Zuider Zee in 1573, in which the Beggars defeated the Spaniards under Count Bossu.
The Pimas and Papagoes were early converted by the Spaniards, and retain to-day a smattering of Christianity plentifully alloyed with paganism.
Arizona history begins with the arrival in Sonora in 1536 of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, who, although he had not entered Arizona or New Mexico, had heard of them, and by his stories incited the Spaniards to explore the unknown north in hope of wealth.
The Spaniards probably provoked some inter-tribal intercourse among the Indians, and did something among some tribes for agriculture.
The decay of the military power of the presidios during the Mexican war of independence, the expulsion of loyal Spaniards - notably friars - and the renewal of Apache wars, led to the temporary abandonment of all settlements except Tubac and Tucson.
It was surrendered without a siege to the Spaniards, under Ferdinand and Isabella, in 1489.
They were always at war with the Spaniards, and Juan Diaz de Solis was killed by them in 1516.
He particularly distinguished himself by beating a body of the French ashore at the head of a naval brigade of English and Spaniards.
Cortes met them in 1525, but they preserved their independence till 1697, when the Spaniards destroyed the city and temples, and a library of sacred books, written in hieroglyphics on bark fibre.
of Castile and his Genoese troops, but speedily ' retaken and held by the Moors until 1489, when it was finally secured by the Spaniards.
At the beginning of the 17th century it was transferred to B randenburg, and during the Thirty Years' War was alternately occupied by the Spaniards and the Dutch.
He marched rapidly to the south, and was joined by Tyrone at Bandon; but a nightattack on the English besieging the Spaniards in Kinsale having utterly failed, O'Donnell, who attributed the disaster to the incapacity of the Spanish commander, took ship to Spain on the 6th of January 1602 to lay his complaint before Philip III.
Enclosing the town is a stone wall, built by the Spaniards as a defence against attack during the rebellion of 1868-1878.
When Coligny came to court, he received him very warmly, and seemed at first to accept the idea of an intervention in the Netherlands against the Spaniards.
From Bogota the Spaniards constructed two partially-paved highways, one leading down to the Magdalena in the vicinity of Honda, while the other passed down into the upper valley of the same river in a south-westerly direction, over which communication was maintained with Popayan and other settlements of southern Colombia and Ecuador.
Along its coast there were several isolated establishments presided over by Spaniards, who were deprived of a convenient market for the produce of the soil by the monopolies imposed by the mother country.
As the Spaniards would not recognize the right of other races to make settlements, or even to trade in the West Indies, the governments of France, England and Holland would do nothing to control their subjects who invaded the islands.
For buccaneering had now become a most profitable employment, operations were extended, and a storehouse secure from the attacks of the Spaniards was required.
It began a little before 1630, and was suppressed by the Spaniards in 1641.
Eight years later, however, watching their opportunity when many buccaneers were absent in the larger island, the Spaniards attacked Tortuga, and massacred every settler they could seize.
In 1654 the Spaniards regained Tortuga from the French, into whose hands it again, however, fell after six years.
The Spaniards had, however, removed the treasure before the city was taken.
In 1680 a body of marauders over 300 strong, well armed and provisioned, landed on the shore of Darien and struck across the country; and the cruelty and mismanagement displayed in the policy of the Spaniards towards the Indians were now revenged by the assistance which the natives eagerly rendered to the adventurers.
With John Coxon as commander they entered the Bay of Panama, where rumour had been before them, and where the Spaniards had hastily prepared a small fleet to meet them.
It is known that within thirty years after the discovery of the Pacific Ocean the Spaniards had explored the western coasts of the American continent from the isthmus to the vicinity of the forty-second parallel of north latitude, and it is possible that the Spanish pilot Bartolome Ferrelo (or Ferrer), who in 1 543 made the farthest northward voyage in the Pacific recorded in the first half of the 16th century, may have reached a point on the Oregon coast.
The profitable trade between the Spanish colonies and the Far East, however, soon occupied the whole attention of the Spaniards, and caused them to neglect the exploration of the coast of north-western America for many years.