Spain Sentence Examples
Antonio and Francesco both having died childless, the duchy passed to Charles of Bourbon (Don Carlos), infante of Spain, who, becoming king of Naples in 1734, surrendered Parma and Piacenza to Austria, but retained the artistic treasures of the Farnese dynasty which he had removed from Parma to Naples.
In 1526 he was sent out in command of an expedition fitted out for the purpose of determining by astronomical observations the exact line of demarcation, under the treaty of Tordesillas, between the colonizing spheres of Spain and Portugal, and of conveying settlers to the Moluccas.
Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
Sebastian Cabot had in 151 9 deserted England for Spain, and had received from King Charles the post of pilot-major formerly held by Juan de Solis.
In 1542 the settlement of Buenos Aires was re-established by an expedition sent for the purpose from Spain, under a tried adelantado, Cabeza de Vaca.Advertisement
But the Christian states in Spain were becoming too well organized to be overrun by the Mahommedans, and the Muwahhadis made no permanent advance against them.
He then entered into fresh intrigues with the court of Spain, acting in concert with the marchioness of Verneuil and her father d'Entragues.
Torquemada to be grand inquisitor of Spain; and he offered plenary indulgence to all who would engage in a crusade against the Waldenses.
From Corpus Christi, Mendoza sent out various bodies to explore the interior in the direction of Peru, but without much success, and at length, thoroughly discouraged and broken in health, he abandoned his enterprise, and returned to Spain in 1537.
In Spain the wood is of some value, being hard and close-grained, and the inner bark is used for tanning.Advertisement
A few months after her return from Spain her father was killed by a fall from his horse.
The olives and white wine of Aguilar are celebrated in Spain, although the wine, which somewhat resembles sherry, is known as Montilla, from the adjacent town of that name.
Having served in the army in Spain and Sardinia, he became curule aedile, praetor and (after an unsuccessful attempt in 117) consul in 115.
In the same period Spain received exports from France averaging 4,700,000.
Thereafter a considerable trade grew up between Algiers and Spain.Advertisement
Algiers, however, continued of comparatively little importance until after the expulsion from Spain of the Moors, many of whom sought an asylum in the city.
It may be added that fossil remains of the African elephant have been obtained from Spain, Sicily, Algeria and Egypt, in strata of the Pleistocene age.
He travelled into Spain and France, and finally returned to Padua, and at Sacco on the 30th of October 1576 his youngest son, Enrico Caterino, was born.
Leo at once formed a new league with the emperor and the king of Spain, and to ensure English support made Wolsey a cardinal.
His constitution of the 1st of March 1519 condemned the king of Spain's claim to refuse the publication of papal bulls.Advertisement
The revolutionary outbreak of 1820, which extended from Spain to Naples, seemed to afford the patriots an opportunity to secure the independence of Italy.
At the present time, so far as the Roman Catholic Church is concerned, apparelled albs are only in regular use at Milan (Ambrosian Rite), and, partially, in certain churches in Spain.
He was destined by his family for the church, but entered business, and became a partner in a firm at Lyons for which he travelled in the Levant, in Italy, Spain and Portugal.
His policy was steadily directed towards maintaining the peace of Utrecht, and this made him the main opponent of the schemes of Cardinal Alberoni for the aggrandizement of Spain.
June 1596 and signed by Napier, giving a list of his inventions for the defence of the country against the anticipated invasion by Philip of Spain.Advertisement
This untoward disaster led to the abandonment of the expedition, which forthwith returned to Spain, bringing with them the news of the discovery of a fresh-water sea.
Four years later (1520) the Portuguese seaman, Ferdinand Magellan, entered the estuary in his celebrated voyage round the world, undertaken in the service of the king of Spain (Charles I., better known as the emperor Charles V.).
This illicit commerce went on steadily till 1739, when it led to an outbreak of war between England and Spain, which put an end to the asiento.
Pedro de Zeballos, the first viceroy, took with him from Spain a large military force with which he finally expelled the Portuguese from the banks of the river Plate.
The great majority of the two hundred galleys and eight galeasses, of which the fleet was composed, came from Venice, under the command of the proveditore Barbarigo; from Genoa, which was in close alliance with Spain, under Gianandrea Doria; and from the Pope whose squadron was commanded by Marc Antonio Colonna.
Hardly a noble house of Spain or Italy was not represented in the fleet, and the princes headed the boarders.
Dio Cassius says that Bocchus sent his sons to support Sextus Pompeius in Spain, while Bogud fought on the side of Caesar, and there is no doubt that after Caesar's death Bocchus supported Octavian, and Bogud Antony, During Bogud's absence in Spain, his brother seized the whole of Numidia, and was confirmed sole ruler by Octavian.
On the arrival of Amadeus in Spain, Ruiz Zorilla became minister of public works for a short time, and resigned by way of protesting against Serrano and Topete entering the councils of the new king.
During the last two years of his life Ruiz Zorilla became less active; failing health and the loss of his wife had decreased his energies, and the Madrid government allowed him to return to Spain some months before he died at Burgos, on the 1 3 th of June 1895, of heart disease.
Among such settlements may be mentioned Phaselis in Lycia, perhaps also Soli in Cilicia, Salapia on the east Italian coast, Gela in Sicily, the Lipari islands, and Rhoda in north-east Spain.
De Quiros returned to Spain to re-engage in the work of petitioning the king to despatch an expedition for the purpose of prosecuting the discovery of the Terra Australis.
There the nineteen bishops and twenty-four presbyters, from all parts of Spain, but chiefly from the south, assembled, probably at the instigation of Hosius of Cordova, but under the presidency of Felix of Accis, with a view to restoring order and discipline in the church.
He himself never felt at home at Brussels, and in August 1559 he set sail for Spain, never again to revisit the Netherlands.
It was believed that its object was the introduction of the dreaded form of the Inquisition established in Spain, and in any case more systematic and stringent measures for the stamping out of heresy.
At their instance, and carrying with them instructions from the regent and the council, the marquis of Berghen and Hoorn's brother (the lord of Montigny) were persuaded to go to Spain and lay before Philip the serious character of the crisis.
The wood is very heavy and hard, weighing 70 lb the cubic foot; the colour is dark brown; it is used in Spain and Italy for furniture, and in the former country for firewood and charcoal.
Ballota, a closely allied species abundant in Morocco, bears large edible acorns, which form an article of trade with Spain; an oil, resembling that of the olive, is obtained from them by expression.
Cromwell wisely inclined towards France, for Spain was then a greater menace than France alike to the Protestant cause and to the growth of British trade in the western hemisphere; but as no concessions could be gained from either France or Spain, the year 1654 closed without a treaty being made with either.
These naval victories were followed by a further military alliance with France against Spain, termed the treaty of Paris (the 23rd of March 1657).
Cromwell furnished 6000 men with a fleet to join in the attack upon Spain in Flanders, and obtained as reward Mardyke and Dunkirk, the former being captured and handed over on the 3rd of October 1657, and the latter after the battle of the Dunes on the 4th of June 1658, when Cromwell's Ironsides were once more pitted against English royalists fighting for the Spaniards.
Great writers like Milton and Harrington supported Cromwell's view of the duty of a statesman; the poet Waller acclaimed Cromwell as "the world's protector"; but the London tradesmen complained of the loss of their Spanish trade and regarded Holland and not Spain as the national enemy.
The war with France, Holland and Spain offered opportunities of gaining additional territory.
According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first of all the Greeks to undertake distant voyages, and made known the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain.
Arganthonius, king of Tartessus in Spain, invited them to emigrate in a body to his dominions, and, on their declining, presented them with a large sum of money.
Spain, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Valens the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia.
This was a very important position owing to the amount of information concerning European affairs which passed through the hands of the representative of Spain.
When Bedmar took up this appointment, Venice had just concluded an alliance with France, Switzerland and the Netherlands, to counterbalance the power of Spain, and the ambassador was instructed to destroy this league.
Assisted by the duke of Ossuna, viceroy of Naples, he formed a plan to bring the city into the power of Spain, and the scheme was to be carried out on Ascension Day 1618.
From what is known, however, of the policy of Spain at this time, it is by no means unlikely that such a scheme was planned.
Together with Ferrol and San Fernando near Cadiz, the other great naval stations of Spain, it is governed by an admiral with the title of captain-general.
The harbour, the largest in Spain after that of Vigo, and the finest on the east coast, is a spacious bay, deep, except near its centre, where there is a ledge of rock barely 5 ft.
Perry commanded the "Java" in the Mediterranean expedition of 1815-1816, and he died at Port of Spain in Trinidad on the 23rd of August 1819, of yellow fever contracted on the coast of Brazil.
A year or two later he went into Spain to preach to the Moors, but had again to return without accomplishing his object (1215 probably).
In the civil war between Caesar and Pompey Pollio sided with Caesar, was present at the battle of Pharsalus (48), and commanded against Sextus Pompeius in Spain, where he was at the time of Caesar's assassination.
Southern Italy indeed has in general a very different climate from the northern portion of the kingdom; and, though large tracts are still occupied by rugged mountains of sufficient elevation to retain the snow for a considerable part of the year, the districts adjoining the sea enjoy a climate similar to that of Greece and the southern provinces of Spain.
The exportation in I902 only reached about 45 million gallons (and even that is double the average), while an equally abundant vintage in France and Spain rendered the exportation of the balance of 1907 impossible, and fiscal regulations rendered the distillation of the superfluous amount difficult.
Spain, France, Germany, with their Swiss auxiliaries, had been summoned upon various pretexts to partake her provinces.
Leo for a while relied on Francis; for the vast power of Charles V., who succeeded to the empire in 1519, as in 1516 he had succeeded to the crowns of Spain and Lower Italy, threatened the whole of Europe.
The country was exposed to anarchy, Settlement of which this had been the last and most disgraceby Spain.
By the treaty of Barcelona in 1529 the pope and emperor made terms. By that of Cambray in the same year France relinquished Italy to Spain.
The rest of Italy, however parcelled, henceforth became but a dependence upon Spain.
In 1556 Philip II., by the abdication of his father Charles V., became king of Spain.
Of free commonwealths there now survived only Venice, which, together with Spain, achieved for Europe the victory of Lepanto in 1573; Genoa, which, after the ineffectual Fieschi revolution in 1547, abode beneath the rule of the great Doria family, and held a feeble sway in Corsica; and the two insignificant republics of Lucca and San Marino.
Charles Emmanuel was now checkmated by France, as he had formerly been by Spain.
Prolonged warfare with the Otto- and mans, who forced her to abandon Candia in 1669, Spain.
The three branches of the Bourbon house, ruling in France, Austrian Spain and the Sicilies, joined with Prussia, Bavaria and the kingdom of Sardinia to despoil Maria Theresa of her heritage.
The papacy, during this period, had to reconsider the question of the Jesuits, who made themselves universally odious, not only in Italy, but also in France and Spain.
This ambitious marshal, brother-in-law of Napoleon, foiled in his hope of gaining the crown of Spain, received that of Naples in the summer of 1808, Joseph Bonaparte being moved M
The outbreak of war in Spain, followed by the rupture with Austria in the spring of 1809, distracted the attention of the emperor.
On the other hand, they suffered from the rigorous measures of the continental system, which seriously crippled trade at the ports and were not compensated by the increased facilities for trade with France which Napoleon opened up. The drain of men to supply his armies in Germany, Spain and Russia was also a serious loss.
The French system of taxation was maintained because it brought in ampler revenues; but feudalism, the antiquated legislation and bureaucracy were revived, and all the officers and officials still living who had served the state before the Revolution, many of them now in their dotage, were restored to their posts; only nobles were eligible for the higher government appointments; all who had served under the French administration were dismissed pr reduced in rank, and in the army beardless scions of the aristocracy were placed over the, heads of war-worn veterans who had commanded regiments in Spain and Russia.
For a century, from Maximian to Maximus (286-388), it was (except under Julian, who preferred to reside in Paris) the administrative centre from which Gaul, Britain and Spain were ruled, so that the poet Ausonius could describe it as the second metropolis of the empire, or "Rome beyond the Alps."
In 1617 and 1621 the college allowed him to act as chaplain to Sir John Digby, ambassador in Spain.
The Spanish governor, Gonzalo de Cordova, had given him a safe-conduct, and he was meditating fresh plans, when Gonzalo arrested him by the order of Ferdinand of Spain as a disturber of the peace of Italy (May 1504).
In August he was sent to Spain, where he remained a prisoner for two years; in November i 506 he made his escape, and fled to the court of his brother-in-law, the king of Navarre, under whom he took service.
Thus Westminster Abbey is sometimes styled the British "Pantheon," and the rotunda in the Escorial where the kings of Spain are buried also bears the name.
Spain appears to have permitted and recognized appeals to the pope.
In Spain causes of nullity and divorce a thoro, in Portugal causes of nullity between Catholics, are still for the court Christian.
Over the rest of western continental Europe and in the colonies of Spain, Portugal and France, ecclesiastical jurisdiction remained generally in the state which we have already described the court of the cardinal vicar-general consists of such vicargeneral and four other prelates (Smith, ubi supra).
In the long struggle of the Netherlands against Spain, Ghent took a conspicuous part, and it was here that, on the 8th of November 1576, was signed the instrument, known as the Pacification of Ghent, which established the league against Spanish tyranny.
The period of study is eighteen months in Denmark or Norway, and two in Austria, Finland, Germany, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, three in Belgium, France, Greece and Italy, four to six in Holland, and five in Spain.
Two or three years of apprenticeship is required in most countries, including Great Britain, but none in Belgium, Greece, Italy or Spain.
Later writers, Posidonius, Diodorus, Strabo and others, call them smallish islands off (Strabo says, some way off) the north-west coast of Spain, which contained tin mines, or, as Strabo says, tin and lead mines - though a passage in Diodorus derives the name rather from their nearness to the tin districts of north-west Spain.
Later, when the west was better explored, it was found that tin actually came from two regions, north-west Spain and Cornwall.
Neither of these could be called "small islands" or described as off the north-west coast of Spain, and so the Cassiterides were not identified with either by the Greek and Roman geographers.
Instead, they became a third, ill-understood source of tin, conceived of as distinct from Spain or Britain.
Small islands off the coast of north-west Spain, the headlands of that same coast, the Scillies, Cornwall, the British Isles as a whole, have all in turn been suggested.
Neither Britain nor Spain can be called "small islands off the north-west of Spain."
The western emporium known in the scriptures as Tarshish was probably situated in the south of Spain, possibly at Cadiz, although some writers contend that it was Carthage in North Africa.
In the height of their power the Romans had surveyed and explored all the coasts of the Mediterranean, Italy, Greece, the Balkan Peninsula, Spain, Gaul, western Germany and southern Britain.
Masudi, a great traveller who knew from personal experience all the countries between Spain and China, described the plains, mountains and seas, the dynasties and peoples, in his Meadows of Gold, an abstract made by himself of his larger work News of the Time.
Among these was Benjamin of Tudela, who set out from Spain in i 160, travelled by land to Constantinople, and having visited India and some of the eastern islands, returned to Europe by way of Egypt after an absence of thirteen years.
After a journey into Spain he set out once more for Central Africa in 1352, and reached Timbuktu and the Niger, returning to Fez in 1353.
The discoveries of Columbus awakened a spirit of enterprise in Spain which continued in full force for a century; adventurers flocked eagerly across the Atlantic, and discovery followed Sp aniards discovery in rapid succession.
The activity and love of adventure, which became a passion for two or three generations in Spain and Portugal, spread to other, countries.
Sebastian afterwards made a voyage to Rio de la Plata in the service of Spain, but he returned to England in 1548 and received a pension from Edward VI.
The Portuguese, in the early part of the 17th century (1578-1640), were under the dominion of Spain, and their enterprise was to some extent damped; but their missionaries extended geographical knowledge in Africa.
Spain appointed two accomplished naval officers, the brothers Ulloa, as coadjutors.
Torquemada had always been strong in his advice that she should marry Ferdinand of Aragon and thus consolidate the kingdoms of Spain.
For a long time he had pondered over the confusion in which Spain was, which he attributed to the intimate relations allowed between Christians and infidels for the sake of commerce.
He saw Jews, Saracens, heretics and apostates roaming through Spain unmolested; and in this lax toleration of religious differences he thought he saw the main obstacle to the political union of the Spains, which was the necessity of the hour.
He represented to Ferdinand and Isabella that it was essential to their safety to reorganize the Inquisition, which had since the 13th century (1236) been established in Spain.
The result of this harsh law was that numerous applications were made to Rome for secret absolution; and thus much money escaped the Inquisition in Spain.
The loss to Spain was enormous, and from this act of the Dominican the commercial decay of Spain dates.
The town lies among hills, has an excellent climate, and in colonial times was (like Holguin) an acclimatization station for troops fresh from Spain; it now has considerable repute as a health resort.
On the death of Alphonso in 1481, his counsellors and favourites were harshly treated by his successor John, and Abrabanel was compelled to flee to Spain, where he held for eight years (1484-1492) the post of a minister of state under Ferdinand and Isabella.
When the Jews were banished from Spain in 1492, no exception was made in Abrabanel's favour.
While the schools of Babylonia were flourishing as the religious head of Judaism, the West, and especially Spain under Moorish rule, was becoming the home of Jewish scholarship. On the breaking of the schools many of the fugitives fled o- g up Y g?
Africa were in close relation with those of Spain, and as early as the beginning of the 9th century Judah ben Quraish of Tahort had composed his Risalah (letter) to the Jews of Fez on grammatical subjects from a comparative point of view, and a dictionary now lost.
The activity in North Africa reacted on Spain.
Unlike his contemporaries in Spain, he seems to have confined himself wholly to Jewish learning, and to have known nothing of Arabic or other languages except his native French.
In the 12th and 13th centuries literature maintained a high level in Spain.
Meanwhile the literary activity of the Jews in Spain had its effect on those of France.
Both the 14th and 15th centuries in Spain were largely taken up with controversy, as by Isaac ibn Pulgar (about 1350), and Shem Tobh ibn Shaprut (about 1380), who translated St Matthew's gospel into Hebrew.
Norman warriors had long before helped the Christians of Spain in their warfare with the Saracens of the Peninsula, and in Sicily it was from the same enemy that they won the great Mediterranean island.
The town, which dates from the rlth century, was governed by its own lords till 1248, after which date it passed through the ownership of the counts of Flanders, the dukes of Burgundy, and the sovereigns of Austria and Spain.
Of the imports about 27% in value are from Great Britain, 14%% from Germany, and smaller proportions from France, Argentina, Italy, Spain, the United States and Belgium.
In the 16th century the city was the strongest Spanish fortress in the New World, excepting Cartagena, and gold and silver were brought hither by ship from Peru and were carried across the Isthmus to Chagres, but as Spain's fleets even in the Pacific were more and more often attacked in the 17th century, Panama became less important, though it was still the chief Spanish port on the Pacific. In 1671 the city was destroyed by Henry Morgan, the buccaneer; it was rebuilt in 1673 by Alfonzo Mercado de Villacorta about five miles west of the old site and nearer the roadstead.
In the 16th century it subsisted in Italy, Spain and southern France.
The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
Thus, in spite of his academic sympathy with liberal ideas, he became, together with Metternich, a champion of political stagnation, and co-operated willingly in the reactionary measures against the revolutionary movements in Germany, Italy and Spain.
His father, Don Francisco de Valenzuela, a gentleman of Ronda, had been compelled to flee from Spain in consequence of a brawl, and had enlisted as a soldier in Naples, where he married Dona Leonora de Encisa.
In February 1823 his opposition to the proposed expedition into Spain to help Ferdinand VII.
But in 1767 France ceded the islands to Spain, De Bougainville being employed as intermediary.
In 1771, however, Spain yielded the islands to Great Britain by convention.
Here he helped to arrange the alliance between the Papacy, Venice and Spain against the Turks, an alliance which was responsible for the victory of Lepanto.
Among the more delicate negotiations of his later years were those of 1580, which had for their object the ultimate union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal, and those of 1584, which resulted in a check to France by the marriage of the Spanish infanta Catherine to Charles Emmanuel, duke of Savoy.
In the following year he made his first acquaintance with the literature of Spain under the influence of his friend and biographer, Ticknor; and, while its attractiveness proved greater than he had at the outset anticipated, the comparative novelty of the subject as a field for research served as an additional stimulus.
He had been fortunate in obtaining the aid of Don Pascual de Gayangos, then professor of Arabic literature at Madrid, by whose offices he was enabled to obtain material not only from the public archives of Spain but from the muniment rooms of the great Spanish families.
He was thus connected with the Omayyad rulers in Spain, and seems to have kept up a correspondence with them and to have sent them some of his works.
In the Virginia convention of 1776 he favoured the postponement of a declaration of independence, until a firm union of the colonies and the friendship of France and Spain had been secured.
This change of attitude is thought to have been due chiefly to his suspicion of the North aroused by John Jay's proposal to surrender to Spain for twentyfive or thirty years the navigation of the Mississippi.
Marcy, who had ordered American ministers to wear a plain civilian costume), and by joining with James Buchanan and Pierre Soule, ministers to Great Britain and Spain respectively, in drawing up (Oct.
Having roused the ire of Sir Henry Bagnal (or Bagenal) by eloping with his sister in 1591, he afterwards assisted him in defeating Hugh Maguire at Belleek in 1593 and then again went into opposition and sought aid from Spain and Scotland.
In April 1596 Tyrone received promises of help from Spain.
After an inconclusive campaign in Munster in January 1600, he returned in haste to Donegal, where he received supplies from Spain and a token of encouragement from Pope Clement VIII.
O'Donnell went to Spain, where he died soon afterwards, and Tyrone with a shattered force made his way once more to the north, where he renewed his policy of ostensibly seeking pardon while warily evading his enemies.
Warned, however, that his arrest was imminent, and possibly persuaded by Rory O'Donnell (created earl of Tyrconnel in 1603), whose relations with Spain had endangered his own safety, Tyrone resolved to fly from the country.
Released in 1652 on the representation of the Spanish ambassador that O'Neill was a Spanish subject, he repaired to Spain, whence he wrote to Charles II.
He probably died in Spain, but the date of his death is unknown.
These last years of his life were spent in journeying backwards and forwards between Toulouse and Rome, where his abode was at the basilica of Santa Sabina on the Aventine, given to him by the pope; and then in extended journeys all over Italy, and to Paris, and into Spain, establishing friaries and organizing the order wherever he went.
Having filled the post of nuncio in England and Spain, he served successive popes as adviser in matters pertaining to heresy and reform.
He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity, which Spain had never possessed since the fall of the Visigoth kingdom.
Commercial intercourse with Asia Minor, Arabia, Tarshish (probably in Spain) and Ophir filled his coffers, and his realm extended from the Euphrates to the border of Egypt.
There were Jews in the Byzantine empire, in Rome, in France and Spain at very early periods, but it is with the Arab conquest of Spain that the Jews of Europe began to rival in culture and importance their brethren of the Persian gaonate.
It is in Spain that above all the new spirit manifested itself.
The Jews of Spain attained to high places in the service of the state from the time of the Moorish conquest in 711.
From Hasdai ibn Shaprut in the 10th century and Samuel the nagid in the 11th the line of Jewish scholar-statesmen continued till we reach Isaac Abrabanel in 1492, the date of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain.
But it is to Spain that we must look for the best of the medieval poets of the synagogue, greatest among them being Ibn Gabirol and Halevi.
In Spain Jewish life had participated in the general life, but the expulsion - while it dispersed 1 On the writers mentioned below see articles s.v.
Nor was there any widening of the general horizon such as was witnessed in Spain.
In Spain and North Africa persecution created that strange and significant phenomenon Maranism or crypto-Judaism, a public acceptance of Islam or Christianity combined with a private fidelity to the rites of Judaism.
The Inquisition in Spain led to the expulsion of the Jews (1492), and this event involved not only the latter but the whole of the Jewish people.
In Spain there has been of late a more liberal attitude towards the Jews, and there is a small congregation (without a public synagogue) in Madrid.
Harwich has always had a considerable trade; in the 14th century merchants came even from Spain, and there was much trade in wheat and wool with Flanders.
In 1832 the Registro Trimestre, a literary and scientific journal printed at Mexico, contained a communication by Dr. Pablo de la Llave, describing this species (with which he first became acquainted before 1810, from examining more than a dozen specimens obtained by the natural-history expedition to New Spain and kept in the palace of the Retiro near Madrid) under the name by which it is now known, Pharomacrus mocino.3 Quezal, male and female.
It was applied by the Moslems in Spain to the Christian communities existing among them, in Cordova, Seville, Toledo and other large cities, in the exercise of their own laws and religion.
Spain took military possession in 1781, and in the Treaty of Paris (1783) both of the Floridas were ceded back to her.
Spain adhered to the line of 1764-1767, and retained possession of the territory in dispute.
The seizure of West Florida was supplemented by the treaty of 1819-1821, in which Spain surrendered all of her claims.
Another daughter was the wife of Charles III., king of Spain, but she predeceased her father.
After doing some research work at Simancas in Spain, he became professor of history at the university of Dorpat in 1867; and was then in turn professor at Konigsberg, Bonn and Leipzig.
It has profoundly affected and to a large extent subjugated all western Asia including India, all eastern and northern Africa as well as Spain, and all eastern Europe.
At the end of the 15th century they were expelled from Spain and many of the exiles moved eastwards.
They successfully invaded India and central Asia in the east, Spain and Morocco in the west.
The Arab rule in Spain, which once threatened to overwhelm Europe and was turned back near Tours by Charles Martel, was distinguished by its tolerance and civilization, and lingered on till the 15th century.
Islam has twice obtained a footing in Europe, under the Arabs in Spain and under the Turks at Constantinople.
The Turks, and to some extent the Arabs in Spain, were successful because they first conquered the parts of Asia and Africa adjoining Europe, so that the final invaders were in touch with Asiatic settlements.
The island remained in the hands of Spain until the peace of Utrecht (1714), by which it was assigned to Austria.
But the costume and physiognomy of the inhabitants, the narrow streets and flatroofed, whitewashed houses, and more than all, the thousands of palm-trees in its gardens and fields, give the place a strikingly Oriental aspect, and render it unique among the cities of Spain.
The blanched fronds are also sold in large quantities for the processions of Palm Sunday, and after they have received the blessing of the priest they are regarded throughout Spain as certain defences against lightning.
From the neighbourhood of Badajoz it forms the boundary between Spain and Portugal as far as a point near Monsaraz, where it receives the small river Priega Munoz on the left, and passes into Portuguese territory, with a southerly direction.
The king has been held responsible for the fall of Spain, which was, however, due in the main to internal causes beyond the control of the most despotic ruler, however capable he had been.
The king of Spain, Philip IV., received the author coldly, and it is said even tried to suppress his book, fearing that the Portuguese, who had just revolted from Spain (1640), would profit by its information.
In Spain its revival was due to the Saracens, and by them, and their successors the Moors, agriculture was carried to a high pitch of excellence.
In one of these exceptional years, 1898, the average rose to 34s., but this was due entirely to a couple of months of inflated prices in the early half of the year, when the outbreak of war between Spain and the United States of America coincided with a huge speculative deal in the latter country.
In fulfilment of a vow to visit the Holy Sepulchre, which he could not accomplish in person, Bruce requested Douglas to carry his heart there, but his faithful follower perished on the way, fighting in Spain against the Moors, and the heart of Bruce, recovered by Sir William Keith, found its resting-place at Melrose.
The arrival of the Bonapartes at Toulon coincided with a time of acute crisis in the fortunes of the republic. Having declared war on England and Holland (1st of February 1793), and against Spain (9th of March), France was soon girdled by foes; and the forces of the first coalition invaded her territory at several points.
The news of the ratification of peace with Spain brought at once the thought that an offensive plan of campaign in Piedmont was thenceforth inevitable.
His own violations of the treaties of Luneville and Amiens were overlooked; and in particular men forgot that the weakening of the Knights of St John by the recent confiscation of their lands in France and Spain, and the protracted delay of Russia and Prussia to guarantee their tenure of power in Malta, furnished England with good reasons for keeping her hold on that island.
Exactions at the expense of Hanover and Naples helped to lighten the burdens of French finance; Napoleon's sale of Louisiana to the United States early in 1803 for 60,000,000 francs brought further relief to the French treasury; and by pressing hard on his ally, Spain, he compelled her to exchange the armed help which he had a right to claim, for an annual subsidy of 2,880,000.
Through Spain he then threatened Portugal with extinction unless she too paid a heavy subsidy, a demand with which the court of Lisbon was fain to comply.
He controlled all the lands from the Elbe to the Pyrenees, and had Spain and Italy at his beck and call.
On the 27th of October 1807 he signed with a Spanish envoy at Fontainebleau a secret convention with a view to the partitioning of Portugal between France and Spain.
Another convention of the same date allowed him to send 28,000 French troops into Spain for the occupation of Portugal, an enterprise in which a large Spanish force was to help them; 40,000 French troops were to be cantonned at Bayonne to support the first corps.
Seeing that Godoy, the all-powerful minister at Madrid, had given mortal offence to Napoleon early in the Prussian campaign of 1806 by calling on Spain to arm on behalf of her independence, it passes belief how he could have placed his country at the mercy of Napoleon at the end of the year 1807.
The French reinforcements which entered Spain managed to secure some of the strongholds of the northern provinces; and the disgraceful feuds in the royal family left the country practically at the emperor's mercy.
Looking at the surface of the life of Spain, he might well believe in its decay.
Godoy, having the prospect of the Algarve before him, likewise offered no opposition to the advance of Napoleon's troops to the capital; and so it came about that Murat, named by Napoleon his Lieutenant in Spain, was able to enter Madrid in force and without opposition from that usually clannish populace.
Murat, now acting very warily in the hope of gaining the crown of Spain for himself, refused to recognize this act as binding, still more so the accession of Ferdinand VII.
The same prospect was held out to Charles IV., the queen and Godoy, with the result that the rivals for the throne proceeded to the north of Spain to meet the arbiter of their destinies.
Princely abodes in France and annuities (the latter to be paid by Spain) - such was the price at which Napoleon bought the crown of Spain and the Indies.
In his contempt for the rulers of Spain he forgot the Spanish people.
I think of you for the throne of Spain.
The first signs of the rising ferment in Spain were wasted on him.
He intended that Spain should very soon have ready twenty-eight sail of the line - "ce qui est certes bien peu de chose" - so as to drive away the British squadrons, and then he would strike "de grands coups" in the autumn.
Indeed, along with other serious checks in Spain, which involved the conquest of that land, it cut through the wide meshes of his policy both in Levantine, Central European and commercial affairs.
The tsar saw his chance of improving on the terms arranged at Tilsit; and obviously Napoleon could not begin the conquest of Spain until he felt sure of the conduct of his nominal ally.
A letter written by the Prussian statesman, Baron vom Stein, had fallen into the hands of the French and revealed to the emperor the ferment produced in Germany by news of the French reverses in Spain.
Napoleon, on the other hand, had utterly failed in his Spanish enterprise; and the tsar felt sure that his rival must soon withdraw French garrisons from the fortresses of the Oder to the frontier of Spain.
Already he had shown that the sword must decide affairs in Spain.
Thereafter he never entered Spain; and the French operations suffered incalculably from the want of one able commander-in-chief.
France had subjected half the continent; but her hold on Spain was weakened by Wellington's blow at Salamanca; and now Frenchmen heard that their army in Russia was "dead."
The return of French prisoners from Russia, Germany, England and Spain would furnish him with an army far larger than that which had won renown in 1814.
Carteret took the popular side in the outcry against Walpole for not making war on Spain.
When in October 1761 Pitt, who had information of the signing of the "Family Compact" wished to declare war on Spain, and declared his intention to resign unless his advice was accepted, Granville replied that "the opinion of the majority (of the Cabinet) must decide."
Considerable trade was carried on with France and Spain, cloth, Purbeck stone and, later, clay being largely exported.
The custom, indeed, so far from dying out, was adopted by the barbarian conquerors and spread among the Christian Goths in Spain, Franks in Gaul, Alemanni in Germany, and Anglo-Saxons in Britain.
He continued the latter's policy of profiting by the rivalry of France and Spain in order to round off and extend his dominions.
In the war between France and Spain Charles sided with the latter, with varying success.
He now meditated a further enterprise against Geneva; but his attempt to capture the city by treachery and with the help of Spain (the famous escalade) in 1602 failed completely.
The next few years were filled with negotiations and intrigues with Spain and France which did not lead to any particular result, but on the death in 1612 of Duke Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua, who was lord of Monferrato, Charles Emmanuel made a successful coup de main on that district.
In 1628 he was in alliance with Spain in the war against France; the French invaded the duchy, which, being abandoned by Spain, was overrun by their armies.
The wild boar is still found in Europe, in marshy woodland districts where there is plenty of cover, and it is fairly plentiful in Spain, Austria, Russia and Germany, particularly in the Black Forest.
The settlement of the peninsula by Charles V.'s coronation at Bologna in 1530 secured the preponderance to Spain, and the combination of Spain and the church dominated the politics of Italy.
Dread of the Turks and dread of Spain were the two terrors which haunted Venice till the republic fell.
On the extinction of the male line of the house of Habsburg in Spain he was named heir by the will of Charles II.
He showed courage on the field of battle, both in Italy and Spain, during the War of the Spanish Succession, and was flattered by his courtiers with the title of El Animoso, or the spirited.
If he had a strong passion, it was to provide for his succession to the throne of France, if his nephew, Louis XV., should die, and he indulged in many intrigues against the house of Orleans, whose right to the succession was supposed to be secured by Philip's solemn renunciation of all claim to the French throne, when he became king of Spain.
The best account of Philip's character and reign is still that given by Coxe in his Memoirs of the Kings of Spain of the House of Bourbon (London, 1815).
Spain.-Cotton was formerly grown in southern Spain on an extensive scale, and as recently as during the American Civil War a crop of 8000 to 10,000 bales was obtained.
Stilicho and Serena were named guardians of the youthful Honorius when the latter was created joint emperor in 394 with special jurisdiction over Italy, Gaul, Britain, Spain and Africa, and Stilicho was even more closely allied to the imperial family in the following year by betrothing his daughter Maria to his ward and by receiving the dying injunctions of Theodosius to care for his children.
Sicily was still more the meeting-place of East and West than the kingdom of Jerusalem; and the Arabs of Spain gave more to the culture of Europe than the Arabs of Syria.
In IIIo, for example, he was enabled to capture Sidon by the aid of Sigurd of Norway, the Jorsalafari, who came to the Holy Land with a fleet of 55 ships, starting in 1107, and in a three years' "wandering," after the old Norse fashion, fighting the Moors in Spain, and fraternizing with the Normans in Sicily.
They rode incessantly to battle over burning sands, in full armour 1 For instance, the abbey of Mount Sion had large possessions, not only in the Holy Land (at Ascalon, Jaffa, Acre, Tyre, Caesarea and Tarsus), but also in Sicily, Calabria, Lombardy, Spain and France (at Orleans, Bourges and Poitiers).
The Jesuit Masdeu stoutly denies that he had any real existence, and this heresy has not wanted followers even in Spain.
The Cid of history, though falling short of the poetical ideal which the patriotism of his countrymen has so long cherished, is still the foremost man of the heroical period of Spain - the greatest warrior produced out of the long struggle between Christian and Moslem, and the perfect type of the Castilian of the 12th century.
For a time the Cid, already renowned throughout Spain for his prowess in war, was even advanced by the king's favour and entrusted with high commissions of state.
His true place in history is that of the greatest of the guerrilleros - the perfect type of that sort of warrior in which, from the days of Viriathus to those of Juan Diaz, El Empecinado, the soil of Spain has been most productive.
The Cid of romance, the Cid of a thousand battles, legends and dramas, the Cid as apotheosized in literature, the Cid invoked by good Spaniards in every national crisis, whose name is a perpetual and ever-present inspiration to Spanish patriotism, is a very different character from the historical Rodrigo Diaz - the freebooter, the rebel, the consorter with the infidels and the enemies of Spain.
In the popular literature of Spain he holds a place such as has no parallel in other countries.
He returned through Gaul into Spain, and then proceeded to Mauretania, where he suppressed an insurrection.
He returned to Spain in 1514, and obtained from the king a grant to colonize " the island of Bimini and the island of Florida," of which he was appointed adelantado, and in 1521 he made another expedition, this one for colonization as well as for discovery.
In 1567 he returned to Spain in the interest of his colony.
In 1702, when Great Britain and Spain were contending in Europe, on opposite sides, in the war of the Spanish Succession, a force from South Carolina captured St Augustine and laid siege to the fort, but being unable to reduce it for lack of necessary artillery, burned the town and withdrew at the approach of Spanish reinforcements.
In the following year, Spain having declared war against Great Britain, Don Bernardo de Galvez (1756-1794), the Spanish governor at New Orleans, seized most of the English forts in West Florida, and in 1781 captured Pensacola.
By the treaty of Paris (1783) Florida reverted to Spain, and, no religious liberty being promised, many of the English inhabitants left East and West Florida.
Livingston that West Florida was ceded by Spain to France in 1800 along with Louisiana, and was therefore included by France in the sale of Louisiana to the United States in 1803, declared West Florida to be under the jurisdiction of the United States.
When the request was refused, American forces seized Fernandina in the spring of 1812, an action that was repudiated by the American government after protest from Spain, although it was authorized in official instructions.
By the treaty of 1819 Spain formally ceded East and West Florida to the United States; the treaty was ratified in 1821, when the United States took formal possession, but civil government was not established until 1822.
He here continued to render great service to Abu Salem (Ibrahim III.), Abu Inan's successor, but, having offended the prime minister, he obtained permission to emigrate to Spain, where, at Granada, he was received with great cordiality by Ibn al Ahmar, who had been greatly indebted to his good offices when an exile at the court of Abu Salem.
The great work by which he is known is a "Universal History," but it deals more particularly with the history of the Arabs of Spain and Africa.
In the course of the year 1795, as president of the Committee of Public Safety, and as responsible especially for foreign affairs, he was largely instrumental in bringing about peace with Spain.
During the war with Spain the town was devastated in 1595.
With the spread of their empire to Spain the Arabs took with them their knowledge of Greek medicine and science, including alchemy, and thence it passed, strengthened by the infusion of a certain Jewish element, to the nations of western Europe, through the medium of Latin translations.
Laredo was named from the seaport in Spain, and was founded in 1767 as a Mexican town; it originally included what is now Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, and was long the only Mexican town on the left bank of the river.
Arago, with whom he had already carried out investigations on the refractive properties of different gases, in the measurement of an arc of the meridian in Spain, and in subsequent years he was engaged in various other geodetic determinations.
Dolet, &c. For a time her influence with her brother, to whom she was entirely devoted, and whom she visited when he was imprisoned in Spain, was effectual, but latterly political rather than religious considerations made him discourage Lutheranism, and a fierce persecution was begun against both Protestants and freethinkers, a persecution which drove Des Periers to suicide and brought Dolet to the stake.
Euric's code remained in force among the Visigoths of Spain until the reign of Leovigild (568-586), who made a new one, improving upon that of his predecessor.
He left Paris for Spain in the autumn of 1535, leaving Faber in charge of his companions to finish their studies.
Falling ill again he went to other parts of Spain to transact business for his companions.
At Venice Ignatius was again accused of heresy, and it was said that he had escaped from the Inquisition in Spain and had been burnt in effigy at Paris.
Unhappily for himself and for Spain, he wanted the singleness of purpose required by a ruler who would devote himself to organization, and also the combination of firmness with temper needed for dealing with his nobles.
He came to the front in the war of independence against Spain, and his military career, which began about 1810, was distinguished by the defeat of the Spanish forces at Mata de la Miel (1815), at Montecal and throughout the province of Apure (1816), and at Puerto Cabello (1823).
Two lines of steamboats afford regular communication between San Juan and New York; one of them runs to Venezuelan ports and one to New Orleans; and there are lines to Cuba and direct to Spain.
Only 13,872, or about 1.5% of the total population of 1899, were foreign-born, and of these more than one-half were born in Spain.
The buccaneers or filibusters, who during the 17th century were drawn to the West Indies by the prospect of plundering the possessions of decadent Spain, often invaded Porto Rico, but that island escaped the conquest which Haiti experienced.
During the struggle of Spain against Napoleon, the island, in common with the other American dominions, was represented in the Spanish Cortes and had its first legislative assembly.
The unsettled political condition of Spain during the next forty years was reflected in the disturbed political conditions of Porto Rico and Cuba.
The Revolution of 1868 in Spain promised such salutary changes for the Antilles as the introduction of political parties, the restoration of representation in the Spanish Cortes, and the enfranchisement of the slaves; but the imprudent "Insurrection of Lares," and other outbreaks of 1867-68, delayed these anticipated reforms. The reactionaries feared separation from the mother country.
Under the short-lived republican government in Spain Porto Rico was in1870-1874a province with a provincial deputation, and in 1873 slavery was abolished.
By November the Spaniards had evacuated the greater part of the island; after Captain General Macias embarked for Spain, General Ricardo Ortega was governor from the 6th to the 18th of October, when the island was turned over to the American forces.
During the 14th century trade was carried on with Germany, Spain and Holland, and in 1346 Hartlepool provided five ships for the French war, being considered one of the chief seaports in the kingdom.
The revolt at Bordeaux, supported as it was by material aid from Spain, gave him the opportunity of at once serving his country and gratifying his long-cherished hatred of the Spaniards.
Peace with Spain was concluded in 1659, and for some years afterwards Duquesne was occupied in endeavours to suppress piracy in the Mediterranean.
On the revolt of Messina from Spain, he was sent to support the insurgents, and had to encounter the united fleets of Spain and Holland under the command of the celebrated Admiral de Ruyter.
He attempted, though vainly, to use his influence to moderate Napoleon's policy, especially in the matter of Spain and the treatment of the pope.
In 1 575 a conference was held here between the ambassadors of Spain and those of the United Provinces; in 1667 a peace was signed between England, Holland, France and Denmark; and in 1746-1747 the representatives of the same powers met in the town to discuss the terms of another treaty.
His son Paul, called the duc de Beauvillier, was several times ambassador to England; he became' chief of the council of finance in 1685, governor of the dukes of Burgundy, Anjou and Berri from 1689 to 1693, minister of state in 1691, and grandee of Spain in 1701.
He remained in office in 1761, when his brother Lord Temple and his brother-in-law Pitt resigned upon the question of the war with Spain, and in the administration of Lord Bute he was entrusted with the leadership of the House of Commons.
Representations of St Giles are very frequently met with in early French and German art, but are much less common in Italy and Spain.
Lothair and his brother Pippin joined the rebels, and after Judith had been sent into a convent and Bernard had fled to Spain, an assembly was held at Compiegne, when Louis was practically deposed and Lothair became the real ruler of the Empire.
Towards the close of the 19th century the town became popular as a summer resort for visitors from the interior of Spain, and, in consequence, its appearance under went many changes and much of its early prosperity returned.
Fuenterrabia formerly possessed considerable strategic importance, and it has frequently been taken and retaken in wars between France and Spain.
He was born (January 1, 1431) at Xativa, near Valencia in Spain, and his father's surname was Lanzol or Llancol; that of his mother's family, Borgia or Borja, was assumed by him on the elevation of his maternal uncle to the papacy as Calixtus III.
Ferdinand appealed to Spain for help; but Spain was anxious to be on good terms with the pope to obtain a title over the newly discovered continent of America and could not afford to quarrel with him.
But a reaction against Charles soon set in, for all the powers were alarmed at his success, and on the 31st of March a league between the pope, the emperor, Venice, Lodovico it Moro and Ferdinand of Spain was formed, ostensibly against the Turks, but in reality to expel the French from Italy.
Alexander hoped that Louis's help would be more profitable to his house than that of Charles had been and, in spite of the remonstrances of Spain and of the Sforza, he allied himself with France in January 1499 and was joined by Venice.
Louis XII., having succeeded in the north, determined to conquer southern Italy as well, and concluded a treaty with Spain for the division of the Neapolitan kingdom, which was ratified by the pope on the 25th of June, Frederick being formally deposed.
As France and Spain were quarrelling over the division of Naples and the Campagna barons were quiet, Cesare set out once more in search of conquests.
The war between France and Spain for the possession of Naples dragged on, and Alexander was ever intriguing, ready to ally himself with whichever power promised at the moment most advantageous terms. He offered to help Louis on condition that Sicily be given to Cesare, and then offered to help Spain in exchange for Siena, Pisa and Bologna.
The rabbit is believed to be a native of the western half of the Mediterranean basin, and still abounds in Spain, Sardinia, southern Italy, Sicily, Greece, Tunis and Algeria;.
New maps of Spain and Portugal appeared in 1560, the former being due to Pedro de Medina, the latter to Fernando Alvarez Secco and Hernando Alvaro.
After passing through the Ecole Polytechnique he became ingenieur-q cier in 1808, and saw active service with the imperial troops in Spain from 1810 to 1812, and again in France in 1814.
At this time the Visigoths who settled in Spain early in the 5th century were menaced by two powerful enemies, the Suevi who had a small kingdom in the north-west of the peninsula, and the Byzantines who had answered Athanagild's appeal for help by taking possession of a stretch of country in the south-east.
In 1885 he successfully arbitrated between Germany and Spain in a dispute concerning the Caroline Islands.
There was a regular importation to Rome of slaves, brought to some extent from Africa, Spain and Gaul, but chiefly from Asiatic countries - Bithynia, Galatia, Cappadocia and Syria.
The western part of St Domingo, nominally belonging to Spain, had been occupied by buccaneers, who were recognized and supported by the French government, and France.
It was agreed that the Spanish slave trade should come to an end in 18 20, England paying to Spain an indemnification of £400,000.
But notwithstanding this slaves; he said to Jefferson that it was " among mildness of the code, its provisions were habitually and glaringly violated in the colonies of Spain, and in Cuba particularly the conditions of slavery were very bad.
As early as 1450 a company of Jewish converts in Spain, at the head of which were Paul de Heredia, Vidal de Saragossa de Aragon, and Davila, published compilations of Kabbalistic treatises to prove from them the doctrines of Christianity.'
This evolution was little marked, so similar in large parts were the systems of France and Spain (although in other parts, due to the Gothic element in the Spanish, they were very different) - a similarity which explains the facility with which O'Reilly and his successors introduced the Spanish laws after 1769.
English law has largely moulded, for example, criminal and commercial law and the law of evidence; the development of the law of corporations, damages, prohibitions and such extraordinary remedies as the mandamus has been very similar to that in other states; while in the fusion of law and equity, and the law of successions, family relations, &c., the civil law of Spain and France has been unaffected.
Spain set up no claim to the region, and when Robert Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle, came down the river in 1682 from the French possessions to the north, he took possession in the name of France, which hereby gained her first title to the vast drainage basin of the Mississippi.
By a secret treaty of the 3rd of November 1762, " Louisiana " was transferred from France to Spain.
This treaty was not made public for a year and a half, and Spain did not take full possession of the colony until 1769.
The news of the cession of the colony to Spain roused strong discontent among the colonists.
On the 18th of August 1769 Louisiana was formally transferred to Spain.
During the American War of Independence he gave valuable aid to the United States; and when Spain finally joined in the war against Great Britain, Galvez, in a series of energetic and brilliant campaigns (1779-1781), captured all the important posts in the British colony of West Florida.
In 1794 Spain, hard pressed by Great Britain and France, turned to the United States, and by the treaty of 1794 the Mississippi river was recognized by Spain as the western boundary of the United States, separating it from Louisiana, and free navigation of the Mississippi was granted to citizens of the United States, to whom was granted for three years the right " to deposit their merchandise and effects in the port of New Orleans, and to export them from thence without paying any other duty than a fair price for the hire of the stores."
In the quinquennial period 1890-1894 (immediately preceding the War of Independence) the average yearly commerce of the island in and out was $86,875,663 with the United States; and $28,161,726 with Spain.'
During the American military occupation of the island in 1899-1902, of the total imports 45.9% were from the United States, 14 from other American countries, 15 from Spain, 14 from the United Kingdom, 6 from France and 4 from Germany; of the exports the corresponding percentages for the same countries were 70.7, 2, 3, To, 4 and 7.
The corresponding figures for Spain were $7,265,142 and $20,035,183; and for the United Kingdom, $714,837 and $11,971,129, the trade with other countries being of much less amount.
The trade of the United States with the island was as great in 1900-1907 as with Mexico and all the other West Indies combined; as great as its trade with Spain, Portugal and Italy combined; and almost as great as its trade with China and Japan.
Two chief courts of justice (audiencias) sat at Havana (after 1832) and Puerto Principe (1800-1853); appeals could go to Spain; below the audiencias were "alcaldes mayores " or district judges and ordinary " alcaldes " or local judges.
Lotteries which were an important source of revenue under Spain were abolished under the Republic. The debt resting on the colony in 1895 (a large part of it as a result of the war of 1868-1878, the entire cost of which was laid upon the island, but a part as the result of Spain's war adventures in Mexico and San Domingo, home loans, &c.) was officially stated at $168,500,000.
The attainment of independence freed the island from this debt, and from enormous contemplated additions to cover the expense incurred by Spain during the last insurrection.
Under the colonial rule of Spain the head of government was a supreme civil-military officer, the governor and captaingeneral.
It was returned to Spain the next year in exchange for the Floridas.
The government of Spain, beginning in 1764, made notable breaches in the old monopolistic system of colonial trade throughout America; and Cuba received special privileges, also, that were a basis for real prosperity.
Spain paid increasing attention to the island, and in harmony with the policy of the Laws of the Indies many decrees intended to stimulate agriculture and commerce were issued by the crown, first in the form of monopolies, then with increased freedom and with bounties.
Under a succession of liberal governors (especially Luis de las Casas, 1790-1796, and the marques de Someruelos, 1799-1813), at the end of the 18th century and the first part of the 19th, when the wars in Europe cut off Spain almost entirely from the colony, Cuba was practically independent.
Partly because of political and social divisions thus revealed, conspiracies being rife in the decade 1820-1830, and partly as preparation for the defence against Mexico and Colombia, who throughout these same years were threatening the island with invasion, the captains-general, in 1825, received the powers above referred to; which became, as time passed, monstrously in disaccord with the general tendencies of colonial government and with increasing liberties in Spain, but continued to be the spiritual basis of Spanish rule in the island.
Politically his rule was marked by the proclamation at Santiago in 1836, without his consent, of the Spanish constitution of 1834; he repressed the movement, and in 1837 the deputies of Cuba to the Cortes of Spain (to which they were admitted in the two earlier constitutional periods) were excluded from that body, and it was declared in the national constitution that Cuba (and Porto Rico) should be governed by " special laws."
Spain, the United States, England, France, Colombia and Mexico were all involved in it, the first four continually.
The American people had sent food to the reconcentrados; President McKinley, while opposing recognition of the rebels, affirmed the possibility of intervention; Spain resented this attitude; and finally, in February 1898, the United States battleship " Maine " was blown up - by whom will probably never be known - in the harbour of Havana.
By the treaty of Paris, signed on the 10th of December, Spain " relinquished " the island to the United States in trust for its inhabitants; the temporary character of American occupation being recognized throughout the treaty, in accord with the terms of the American declaration of war, in which the United States disclaimed any intention to control the island except for its pacification, and expressed the determination to leave the island thereupon to the control of its people.
This reign saw the end of the Mussulman rule in Spain, Turkey's naval power not being yet sufficient to afford aid to her co-religionists.
After capturing Algiers, an attack by this famous admiral on Tunis was repulsed with the aid of Spain, but in the Mediterranean he maintained a hotlycontested struggle with Charles's admiral, Andrea Doria.
With Spain the war continued, and on the 24th of August 1574 Tunis - which had been taken by Don John of Austria in 1572 - was recaptured by the Turks, who from this new base proceeded, under Sinan Pasha and Kilij Ali, to ravage Sicily.'
Napoleon's short Spanish Campaign of 1809 is dealt with under Peninsular War (this article covering the campaigns in Spain, Portugal and southern France 1808-1814), and for the final drama of Waterloo the reader is referred to Waterloo Campaign.
On his return from Spain, seeing war imminent, he issued a series of march orders (which deserve the closest study in detail) by which on the 15th of April his whole army was to be concentrated for manoeuvres between Regensburg, Landshut, Augsburg and Donauwbrth, and sending on the Guard in wagons to Strassburg, he despatched Berthier to act as commander-in-chief until his own arrival.
Though he had control of what remained of the navies of Holland and Spain, as well as of the French, he was outnumbered at every point, while the efficiency of the British fleet gave it a mobility which doubled its material superiority.
Spain, which was bound by treaty to join Napoleon, was allowed to preserve a show of neutrality by paying a monthly subvention.