How to use Sovereigns in a sentence
This defiance to the sovereigns of Russia and Austria rekindled the flames of war.
The abbot seems to have held a market from very early times, and charters for the holding of markets and fairs were granted by various sovereigns from Edward I.
In 1814 Consalvi went, as the pope's representative, to England to meet and confer with the allied sovereigns, and later in the year was sent as papal plenipotentiary to the congress of Vienna.
Later charters were granted by various sovereigns, and it was incorporated by Elizabeth in 1598 under the style of a mayor, 6 brethren and 12 capital burgesses.
Neustadt was founded in 1192, and was a favourite residence of numerous Austrian sovereigns, acquiring the title of the "everfaithful town" (die allezeit getreue Stadt) from its unfailing loyalty.Advertisement
Thus at the close of the 14th century, despite the constant wars between the feudal sovereigns who held sway in the Netherlands, the vigorous municipal life had fostered industry and commerce, and had caused Flanders in particular to become the richest possession in the world.
It became in effect the principal feast of the Church, the procession of the Sacrament a gorgeous pageant, in which not only the members of the trade and craft gilds, with the magistrates of the cities, took part, but princes and sovereigns.
As their tenure of power grew firmer, they advanced dynastic claims, assumed titles, and took the style of petty sovereigns.
At the same time, the change which had now come over Italian politics, the desire on all sides for a settlement, and the growing conviction that a federation was necessary, proved advantageous to the popes as sovereigns.
By removing the capital from Chambry to Turin, he completed the transformation of the dukes of Savoy from Burgundian into Italian sovereigns.Advertisement
The grand-duke of Tuscany was the first of the European sovereigns who made peace with, and recognized the French republic, early in 1795.
Royal honors were attributed to the pope (Article 3), who was ftirther guaranteed the same precedence as that accorded to him by other Catholic sovereigns, and the right to maintain his Noble and Swiss guards.
Halifax and the Commons in declaring the prince and princess joint sovereigns.
In 1473 Torquemada and Gonzalez de Mendoza, archbishop of Toledo, approached the sovereigns.
The sovereigns saw that wealth was beginning to flow in to the new tribunals by means of fines and confiscations; and they obliged Torquemada to take as assessors five persons who would represent them in all matters affecting the royal prerogatives.Advertisement
In the next year he ceded to Diego Deza, a Dominican, his office of confessor to the sovereigns, and gave himself up to the congenial work of reducing heretics.
The sovereigns, too, saw the stream of money, which they had hoped for, diverted to the coffers of the Holy Office, and in 1493 they made complaint to the pope; but Torquemada was powerful enough to secure most of the money for the expenses of the Inquisition.
But in 1496, when the sovereigns again complained that the inquisitors were, without royal knowledge or consent, disposing of the property of the condemned and thus depriving the public revenues of considerable sums, Alexander VI.
For many years Torquemada had been persuading the sovereigns to make an attempt once for all to rid the country of the hated Moors.
Torquemada went with the sovereigns to Cordova, to Madrid or wherever the states-general were held, to urge on the war; and he obtained from the Holy See the same spiritual favours that had been enjoyed by the Crusaders.Advertisement
He then hurried back to Andalusia where he joined the sovereigns, who were now besieging Granada, which he entered with the conquering army in January 1492 and built there a convent of his order.
For a long time Torquemada had tried to get the royal consent to a general expulsion; but the sovereigns hesitated, and, as the victims were the backbone of the commerce of the country, proposed a ransom of 300,000 ducats instead.
Unable to bear up against the Dominican's fiery denunciations, the sovereigns, three months after the fall of Granada, issued a decree ordering every Jew either to embrace Christianity or to leave the country, four months being given to make up their minds; and those who refused to become Christians to order had leave to sell their property and carry off their effects.
The Mowbray match had already brought to the Howards the representation of an elder line of the Fitzalan earls, who sat in the seats of their ancestors, the Aubignys and Warennes, great earls near akin to their sovereigns.
The town, which dates from the rlth century, was governed by its own lords till 1248, after which date it passed through the ownership of the counts of Flanders, the dukes of Burgundy, and the sovereigns of Austria and Spain.Advertisement
Peter, and that Sophia should act as regent during the (IL), minority of the two young sovereigns.
During the first years of the French Revolution Catherine's sympathy with philosophic liberalism rapidly evaporated, and the European sovereigns to the democratic movement; but she carefully abstained from joining the Coalition, and waited patiently for the moment when the complications in western Europe would give her an opportunity of solving independently the Eastern Question in accordance with Russian interests.
The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
He compressed into a single chapter the domestic history and policy of the emperors from the son of Heraclius to Isaac Angelus; and did no justice to the remarkable ability and the indefatigable industry shown in the service of the state by most of the sovereigns from Leo III.
He was now one of the most powerful sovereigns of Europe, for besides ruling over Provence and Anjou and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, he was imperial vicar of Tuscany, lord of many cities of Lombardy and Piedmont, and as the pope's favourite practically arbiter of the papal states, especially during the interregnum between the death of Clement IV.Advertisement
He invited all the German sovereigns to meet him in conference, and laid before them a plan for the reconstruction of the confederation.
There were formerly (till the early 18th century) two sovereigns; the higher of these, called Tui Tonga (chief of "Tonga), was greatly reverenced but enjoyed little power.
Mitres were also sometimes bestowed by the popes on secular sovereigns, e.g.
Its medieval history consists of struggles between the native sovereigns and Tamil invaders.
The word "monarchy" has, however, outlived this original meaning, and is now used, when used at all, somewhat loosely of states ruled over by hereditary sovereigns, as distinct from republics with elected presidents; or for the "monarchical principle," as opposed to the republican, involved in this distinction.Advertisement
These charters were confirmed by later sovereigns.
He was not only one of the most learned, but also one of the most statesmanlike sovereigns of the earlier middle ages.
It was ordered that these territories should be at once restored to that province under the crown of France, and several independent sovereigns were cited to appear before two chambers of inquiry, called chambres de reunion, which Louis had established at Brisach and Metz.
The Scottish sovereigns, however, did not wholly neglect Dumfries.
The grandeur and antiquity of the empire and the vicissitudes through which it passed, their long series of wars and the magnificent monuments erected by their ancient sovereigns, could not fail to leave numerous traces in the memory of so imaginative a people as the Persians.Advertisement
Venice was placed under interdict (1606), but she asserted the rights of temporal sovereigns with a courage which was successful and won for her the esteem and approval of most European sovereigns.
To all these various forces must be added the knights and native levies of the great orders, whose masters were practically independent sovereigns like the princes of Antioch and Tripoli; 3 and with these the total levy of the kingdom may be reckoned at some 25,000 men.
They built up great estates, especially in the principality of Tripoli; they quarrelled with one another, until their dissensions prevented any vigorous action; they struggled against the claims of the clergy to tithes and to rights of jurisdiction; they negotiated with the Mahommedans as separate powers; they conducted themselves towards the kings as independent sovereigns.
The mission which he undertook with his chancellor for this purpose (1362-1365) only produced a crop of promises or excuses from sovereigns like Edward III.
But unlike some sovereigns, whose reigns have been agitated, but whose personal character has left little trace, Maria Theresa had a strong and in the main a noble individuality.Advertisement
The chronicler tells how, having given peace to his people, he, first of the Visigothic sovereigns, assumed the attire of a king and made Toledo his capital.
He was chosen one of the commissioners to negotiate with the allied sovereigns.
Its decision, of ter being communicated to the sovereigns of the powers signatory to the treaty of Berlin, in a series of autograph letters from the emperor Francis Joseph, was made known to Bosnia and Herzegovina in an imperial rescript published on the 7th of October 1908.
After the conquest of the imperial city the sultans began to adopt the pomp and splendour of eastern sovereigns, and largely copied the system, ready to hand, of the Byzantine emperors.
In 1869 the visit was returned by many sovereigns and princes on their way to the opening of the Suez Canal, among these being the empress Eugenie.Advertisement
Twenty-one out of the thirty-four sovereigns who have occupied the throne of 'Osman have left verses, and among these Selim I.
Napoleon had from the first been aware of the secret alliance between Prussia and Russia, sworn by their respective sovereigns over the grave of Frederick the Great, and this knowledge had been his principal reason for precipitating hostilities with the former.
At the end of the 7th century the dynasty of S'rutavarman ceased to rule over the whole of Cambodia, which during the next century was divided into two portions ruled over by two sovereigns.
But he showed admirable judgment in his choice of subordinates; Robert of Meulan, who died in 1118, and Roger of Salisbury, who survived his master, were statesmen of no common order; and Henry was free from the mania of attending in person to every detail, which was the besetting sin of medieval sovereigns.
Ulm is mentioned as early as 854, and under the Carolingian sovereigns it was the scene of several assemblies.
Even before the end of the Empire (1806) the right of bestowing the title of count was freely exercised by the various German territorial sovereigns.
Those privileges were renewed and extended by various sovereigns, and especially by a general charter granted by James VI.
The primate is the archbishop of Esztergom, who also bears the title of prince, and whose special privilege it is to crown the sovereigns of Hungary.
For works on special periods see the separate articles on the sovereigns and other notabilities of Hungary.
These sovereigns were succeeded by another dynasty, under which, at the end of the 3rd century B.C., the Chinese invaded the country, and eventually established there a supremacy destined to last, with little intermission, till the 10th century A.D.
Three lines of sovereigns followed that of Dinh, under the last of which, about 1407, Annam again fell under the Chinese yoke.
During the greater part of this period, however, the titular sovereigns were mere puppets, the reality of power being in the hands of the family of Trinh in Tongking and that of Nguyen in southern Annam, which in 1568 became a separate principality under the name of CochinChina.
Charters were granted by subsequent sovereigns down to Charles I., who reincorporated the town under the title of the mayor, jurats, bailiffs and burgesses of Queenborough.
There are, however, no outward signs enabling us to distinguish conclusively between both categories of laws in the codes, nor is it possible to draw a line between permanent laws and personal ordinances of single sovereigns, as has been attempted in the case of Frankish legislation.
During the honeymoon a pastrycook named Otero fired at the young sovereigns as they 'were driving in Madrid.
If he failed in his wider schemes of reform, this was only one more illustration of a truth of which other " enlightened " sovereigns besides himself had experienced the force, namely, that it is impossible to impose any system, however admirable, from above on a people whose deepest convictions and prejudices it offends.
On the other hand, at Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) the powers, in response to the representations of the aggrieved parties, admonished the German sovereigns to respect the rights of the mediatized princes subject to them.
Isvolsky was ignorant of the " personal " treaty of defensive alliance " between Germany and Russia, entered into by the respective sovereigns at Bjorko."
Sardinia continued to be governed by native "judges" who were like petty sovereigns, but were now subject to the sway of Pisa.
They adorned Tunis with mosques, schools and other institutions, favoured letters, and in general appear to have risen above the usual level of Moslem sovereigns.
These works appear to have been erected by powerful sovereigns with unlimited command of labour, possibly with the object of giving employment to subjugated people, while feeding the vanity or pleasing the taste of the conqueror.
In addition to the king of Saxony, the sovereigns of England and of the Belgians are his direct descendants.
From 1619 to 1633 there were two actual sovereigns, Tsar Michael and his father, the most holy Patriarch Philaret.
It is a species of saga, setting forth not only the heavenly beginnings of the Japanese race, but also the story of creation, the succession of the various sovereigns and the salient events of their reigns, the whole interspersed with songs, many of which may be attributed to the 6th century, while some doubtless date from the fourth or even the third.
In the former, JinkOshOtOhi (History of the True Succession of the Divine Monarchs), Kitabatake Chikafusa (1340) undertook to prove that of the two sovereigns then disputing for supremacy in Japan, Go-Daigo was the rightful monarch; in the latter, Taihei-ki (history of Great Peace), Kojima (1370) devoted his pages to describing the events of contemporaneous history.
The sovereigns palace itself Irl was merely a wooden hut.
In the gth century, after the capital had been established at KiOto, the palace of the sovereigns and the mansions of ministers and nobles were built on a scale of unprecedented grandeur.
This was confirmed by subsequent sovereigns from Henry III.
Casimir belongs to that remarkable group of late medieval sovereigns who may be called the fathers of modern diplomacy, inasmuch as they relegated warfare to its proper place as the instrument of politics, and preferred the councilchamber to the battle-field.
With his wife, often called "the aunt of all Europe," he was related to nearly all the European sovereigns.
Manetho, likewise a priest, living at Sebennytus in Lower Egypt in the 3rd century B.C., wrote in Greek a history of Egypt, with an account of its thirty dynasties of sovereigns, which he professed to have drawn from genuine archives in the keeping of the priests.
But the policy of the Catholic sovereigns, who desired to establish unity of faith among their subjects, and the influence of the Church, soon led to violations of the treaty.
The crown of St Edward, with which the sovereigns were crowned, had a narrow circlet from which rose alternately four crosses and four fleurs-de-lys, and from the crosses sprang two arches, which at their crossing supported an orb and cross.
In reality those Powers were far more occupied with the Polish and Eastern questions than with the affairs of France; and the declaration of Pilnitz, drawn up by the sovereigns of Austria and Prussia, which appeared to threaten France with intervention, was recognized by all well-informed persons to be "a loud-sounding nothing."
The great natural advantages it thus enjoyed were artificially increased to an enormous extent by the care of the sovereigns of Egypt.
The Catholic sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella, adapted an existing hermandad to the purpose of a general police acting under officials appointed by themselves, and endowed with large powers of summary jurisdiction even in capital cases.
After many disappointments he persuaded the Catholic sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to furnish him with a squadron of three smalljvessels.
The Catholic sovereigns applied to Pope Alexander VI., a Spaniard, for a confirmation of their rights.
As England was in general alliance with the sovereigns of Spain during the early 16th century, Englishmen turned their attention at first towards the discovery of a route to the Spice Islands round the north of Asia.
Such a polity, surrounded as it was by territory dependent on European sovereigns, could not be without a profound influence on its neighbours.
In 1724 the Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah established the independent line of the nizams of Hyderabad, and thenceforth the latter claimed to be de jure sovereigns of Berar, with exception of certain districts (Mehkar, Umarkhed, &c.) ceded to the peshwa in 1760 and 1795.
Andros in Massachusetts was received, they took possession on the 31st of May 1689 of Fort James (at the southern end of Manhattan Island), renamed it Fort William and announced their determination to hold it until the arrival of a governor commissioned by the new sovereigns.
Up to 1909 only sovereigns and half-sovereigns were struck at these establishments, but in Iwo arrangements were made for a Commonwealth silver coinage.
A mint at Ottawa was opened in 1908 for the manufacture of all Canadian coins as well as English sovereigns.
The amount of gold in standard ounces (916.6 fine) corresponding to the " imported " bullion is thus ascertained, and on the application of the importer the gold is coined and delivered to him in the form of sovereigns and half-sovereigns at the rate of £3, 17s.
The lowest current weight is 1 22.5 grains for sovereigns and 61.125 grains for half-sovereigns corresponding to losses by wear of about o.
The average age on withdrawal is about 24 years for sovereigns and 15 years for half-sovereigns.
Bars from which sovereigns are to be coined are 22 in.
The Treaty provided for the cession by Turkey to the allied Balkan sovereigns of all European Turkey west of the line Enos - Midia, but excluding Albania; for the delimitation of Albania's frontiers by the Great Powers; for the cession of Crete to Greece; and for the destination of other;Turkish islands being left to the same Powers.
The power of these old sovereigns extended far beyond Ma'rib, for their names are found on buildings and monuments in the Jauf.
Nominally such companies are the delegates of some states; in reality they act as if they were true sovereigns.
In the Book of Wisdom, again, the composition of an Egyptian Hellenist, who from internal evidence is judged to have lived somewhat earlier than Philo, Solomon is introduced uttering words of admonition, imbued with the spirit of Greek philosophers, to heathen sovereigns.
He said that he did not feel that he belonged to the "Club" of European sovereigns until he received this decoration.
The extent of her family connexions, and the correspondence she maintained with foreign sovereigns, together with the confidence inspired by her personal character, often enabled her to smooth the rugged places of international relations; and she gradually became in later years the link between all parts of a democratic empire, the citizens of which felt a passionate loyalty for their venerable queen.
The laws of the sovereigns who have reigned at Bangkok form the most notable part of this branch of Siamese literature.
He waged war, not only against the clergy, but against the church and its sovereigns.
He was full of the idea of a league of republics against the league of sovereigns; but he was unaware that the Jacobins themselves were already considering the best mode of detaching Prussia, Poland's worst enemy, from the anti-French coalition.
The visit of the allied sovereigns to England and the pressing engagements of the emperor Alexander and Lord Castlereagh delayed the congress until the autumn, when all Europe sent its representatives to accept the hospitality of the impoverished but magnificent Austrian court.
Ferdinand was one of the first sovereigns to enter into diplomatic relations with the French republic (1793); and although, a few months later, he was compelled by England and Russia to join the coalition against France, he concluded peace with that power in 1795, and by observing a strict neutrality saved his dominions from invasion by the French, except for a temporary occupation of Livorno, till 1799, when he was compelled to vacate his throne, and a provisional Republican government was established at Florence.
Spain undoubtedly owed to Isabella's clear intellect, resolute energy and unselfish patriotism much of that greatness which for the first time it acquired under "the Catholic sovereigns."
The Bourbon sovereigns threatened to make war on the pope in return (France, indeed, seizing on the county of Avignon), and a joint note demanding a retractation, and the abolition of the Jesuits, was presented by the French ambassador at Rome on the 10th of December 1768 in the name of France, Spain and the two Sicilies.
Seeing then that the Catholic sovereigns had been forced to expel them, that many bishops and other eminent persons demanded their extinction, and that the Society had ceased to fulfil the intention of its institute, the pope declares it necessary for the peace of the Church that it should be suppressed, extinguished, abolished and abrogated for ever, with all its houses, colleges, schools and hospitals; transfers all the authority of its general or officers to the local ordinaries; forbids the reception of any more novices, directing that such as were actually in probation should be dismissed, and declaring that profession in the Society should not serve as a title to holy orders.
Far from submitting to the papal breve, the ex-Jesuits, after some ineffectual attempts at direct resistance, withdrew into the territories of the free-thinking sovereigns of Russia and Prussia, Frederick II.
In Tunis "bey" has become the hereditary title of the reigning sovereigns (see Tunisia).
They claimed that they, as vicars of Christ, had the right to interfere in the temporal concerns of princes, and even to depose sovereigns of whom they disapproved.
He edited for a short time a patriotic journal, the Prussian Correspondent, joined the headquarters of the allied sovereigns, and witnessed the battle of Bautzen, and was subsequently employed in some minor negotiations.
A story is told that de Courci when imprisoned in the Tower volunteered to act as champion for King John in single combat against a knight representing Philip Augustus of France; that when he appeared in the lists his French opponent fled in panic; whereupon de Courci, to gratify the French king's desire to witness his prowess, "cleft a massive helmet in twain at a single blow," a feat for which he was rewarded by a grant of the privilege for himself and his heirs to remain covered in the presence of the king and all future sovereigns of England.
Wellington's intimate association for several years with the sovereigns and statesmen of the Grand Alliance, and his experience of the evils which the Alliance existed to hold in check, naturally led him to dislike Canning's aggressive attitude towards the autocratic powers, and to view with some apprehension his determination to break with the European concert.
In 1849, after the failure of the German parliament at Frankfort, the king had joined with the sovereigns of Prussia and Saxony to form the "three kings' alliance"; but this union with Prussia was unreal, and with the king of Saxony he soon transferred his support to Austria and became a member of the "four kings' alliance."
The Allied sovereigns were for continuing the fight; Schwarzenberg, however, knowing the exhaustion of his troops decided to retreat.
These now took the place of the old heterogeneous areas, governed by their respective sovereigns without reference to any idea of nationality or of national representation.
The marriage had strengthened the claims of both, and they were proclaimed joint sovereigns of England on the 12th of February 1689, Scotland following the example of England on the 11th of April.
However, any danger that menaced the prestige of Rome disappeared when the emperor Honorius removed the imperial residence to Ravenna, and still more so when the Western emperors were replaced in the north of Italy by barbarian sovereigns, who were Arians.
When orthodox Christianity had Pyrenees, the episcopate of those countries grouped sovereigns.
But these lay officials could not long be content with a subordinate position, and hence arose incessant friction, which called for constant intervention on the part of the Frankish sovereigns.
Gregory claimed that the same condition should apply to bishops, and these were the grounds of the dispute about investitures - a dispute which could find no solution, for it was impossible for the Teutonic sovereigns to renounce all interest in a matter of such importance in the workings of their state.
Since the time of Clovis the German sovereigns had never ceased to intervene in such matters.
He simultaneously excommunicated several sovereigns and mercilessly persecuted the archbishops and bishops who were hostile to reform.
These conciliatory prelates were sincere supporters of the reformation, and combated simony, the marriage or concubinage of priests, and the immorality of sovereigns with the same conviction as the most ardent followers of Gregory VII.
Indeed, a great part of his life was passed in hearing pleadings and pronouncing judgments, and few sovereigns have ever worked so industriously or shown such solicitude for the impartial exercise of their judicial functions.
And, in fact, he exercised or` claimed suzerain rights, together with the political and pecuniary advantages accruing, over the greater number of the lay sovereigns of his time.
From this time the sovereign of Rome, like other sovereigns, had to submit to French influence.
The continued efforts of the popes to drain Christian gold to Rome were limited only by the fiscal pretensions of the lay sovereigns, and it was this financial rivalry that gave rise to the inevitable conflict between Boniface VIII.
On his return to Paris, during its occupation by the allied sovereigns, he was well received by the emperor Alexander I.
He hoped not only to regain the French possessions but to establish members of his own family as sovereigns in Italy and the Empire.
Their rights, after having been recognized by successive Spanish sovereigns from Ferdinand theCatholic to Ferdinand VII., were, at the death of the latter in 1833, set aside by the government of Castaiios.
In a tertiary sense the word appears to have been occasionally employed as equivalent to the Latin miles - usually translated by thegn - which in the earlier middle ages was used as the designation of the domestic as well as of the martial officers or retainers of sovereigns and princes or great personages.
In this way funds for war were placed at the free disposal of sovereigns, and, although the feudatories and their retainers still formed the most considerable portion of their armies, the conditions under which they served were altogether changed.
Besides consideration for the mutual convenience of sovereigns and their feudatories, there were other causes which materially contributed towards bringing about those changes in The the military system of Europe which were finally accomplished in the 13th and 14th centuries.
In the middle ages it was a common practice for sovereigns and princes to dub each other knights much as they were afterwards, and are now, in the habit of exchanging the stars and ribbons of their orders.
There is now only one class, for princes of the reigning house, foreign sovereigns and eminent men of the state.
Exclusive of the sovereign and princes of the blood, and foreign sovereigns and princes, it consists of twelve capitular knights of the rank of count or Freiherr.
The Order of the Norwegian Lion, founded in 1904 by Oscar II., has only one class; foreigners on whom the order is conferred must be sovereigns or heads of states or members of reigning houses.
The recipients eligible for the various classes are graded, from the first grade of the first class for reigning sovereigns down to the fifth class for merchants and manufacturers.
The States-General never seriously considered the question of giving in their submission to the new sovereigns.
When this fur is symmetrically spotted with black lamb pieces it is styled miniver, in which form it is used at the grand coronation functions of British sovereigns.
He entered into relations with the eastern empire, and swore a "perpetual peace" with the emperor Heraclius; and it is probable that the two sovereigns took common measures against the Slav and Bulgarian tribes, which ravaged in turn the Byzantine state and the German territories subject to the Franks.
The advent of the new sovereigns, of officially known as " the archdukes," though greeted ands the r" with enthusiasm in the Belgic provinces, was looked upon with suspicion by the Dutch, who were as firmly resolved as ever to uphold their independence.
This agreement was ratified by the Belgian and French sovereigns on the 10th and 24th of November, by the British on the 6th of December, but the Austrian and Prussian and Russian governments, whose sympathies were with the " legitimate " King William rather than with a prince who owed his crown to a revolution, did not give their ratification till some five months later.
He was a zealous churchman, and, though he had qualified himself for municipal office by taking the oaths to the sovereigns in possession, was to the last a Jacobite in heart.
The title is German emperor, not emperor of Germany, being intended to show that the Kaiser is but primus inter pares in a confederation o.f territorial sovereigns; his authority as territorial sovereign (Landesherr) extends over Prussia, not over GermaAy.
Patronage of art is among the cherished traditions of the German princes; and even whereas for instance at Casselthere is no longer a court, the artistic impetus given by the former sovereigns has survived their fall.
These schools are in close touch with the sovereigns and the governments, and the more promising pupils are thus from the first assured of a career, especially in connection with the decoration of public buildings and monuments.
Music in Germany also receives a great stimulus from the existence, in almost every important town, of opera-houses partly supported by the sovereigns or by the civic authorities.
The sovereigns of the chief states are entitled to nominate the lower grades of officers, and the king of Bavaria has reserved to himself the special privilege of superintending the general administration of the three Bavarian army corps; but all appointments are made subject to the emperors approval.
After Conrads death Germany passed under the rule of one of the greatest of her sovereigns, Frederick I., called Barbarossa, nephew of the late king and son of Frederick, that duke Frederick!.
The emperor made stupendous efforts to secure for Victor and then for his successor, Paschal III., recognition by the sovereigns of Europe, but in vain; and almost the only support which the anti-pope received came from the German clergy.
Thus the prelates possessed nearly all the rights of sovereigns, and regarded the pope in Italy and not the king in Germany as their head, a state of affairs which was fatal to the unity, nay, even to the existence of the Empire.
Practically they became independent sovereigns, and to make their victory more complete serious restraints were laid upon the freedom of the towns.
The reasor for this was not that the Empire was stronger, but that in crown was worn by a succession of princes who were greal sovereigns in their own right.
Ferdinand L, who like all the German sovereigns after him was recognized as emperor without being crowned by the pope, made it a prime object of his short reign to defend and and enforce the religious peace of Augsburg for which he was largely responsible.
Those which remained were injurious rather than beneficial, since they often gave an appearance of lawfulness to the caprices of arbitrary sovereigns.
It did not occur to him, any more than to the other German sovereigns of the 18th century, to associate his people with him in the govern.ment of the country; he was in every respect a thoroughly absolute sovereign.
Frederick had excited the envy of surrounding sovereigns, and had embittered them against him by stinging sarcasms. Not only France, therefore, but Russia, Saxony and ultimately Sweden, willingly came to terms with Austria, and the aim of their union was nothing short of the partition of Prussia.
For the rest the sovereigns of Wflrttemberg and Saxony retained the title of king bestowed upon them by Napoleon, and this title was also given to the elector of Hanover; the dukes of Weimar, Mecklenburg and Oldenburg became grand dukes; and LUbeck, Bremen, Hamburg and Frankfort were declared free cities.
Soon, in Eaden, in Wurttemberg, in Bavaria, the sovereigns and the chambers were at odds, united only in a common opposition to the central authority.
The Carlsbad Decrees, hurried through the diet under Austrian pressure, excited considerable opposition among the lesser sovereigns, who resented the claim of the diet to interfere in the internal concerns of their states, and whose protests at Frankfort had been expunged from the records.
Neither Austria nor Prussia was for some time in a position to thwart it, and the sovereigns of the smaller states were too much afraid of the revolutionary elements manifested on all sides to oppose its will.
With as little delay as possible he formed an imperial cabinet, and there were hopes that, as his appointment was generally approved both by the sovereigns and the people, more rapid progress would,be made with the great and complicated work in hand.
The king of Wurttemberg was forced to accede to it; and in Saxony, Baden and Rhenish Bavaria armed multitudes kept the sovereigns in.
On the 1st of September it passed, with some slight modifications, the Austrian proposals for the reconstruction of the Bund under a supreme Directory, an assembly of delegates from the variotis parliaments, a federal court of appeal and periodical conferences of sovereigns.
Prussia thus made a bid for the sympathy of the democracy at the same time as she declared war against the dynasties; and her power was revealed by the fact that her veto was sufficient to wreck a proposal seconded by the all but unanimous vote of the German sovereigns.
It received a charter of incorporation from Edward III., having previously been a borough by prescription, and its privileges were confirmed and extended by various subsequent sovereigns.
From the 4th century ceremonial foot-washing became yearly more common, till it was regarded as a necessary rite, to be performed by the pope, all Catholic sovereigns, prelates, priests and nobles.
From the first, however, it was no more than a title, which represented but ill the actual relation of the Habsburg sovereigns to their several states.
The circular letter of Count Kaunitz, dated the 6th of July 1791, calling on the sovereigns to unite against the Revolution, was at once the beginning of the Concert of Europe, and in a sense the last manifesto of the Holy Roman Empire as " the centre of political unity."
Many further authorities, whether works, memoirs or collections of documents, are referred to in the lists appended to the articles in this book on the various Austrian sovereigns and statesmen.
Unlike the other Mameluke sovereigns, who were Turks or Circassians, this man had originally been a Greek slave.
The original municipal rights of the city had been confirmed and extended by a succession of sovereigns, and in 1609 it received a charter constituting it a county of a city, and also incorporating a society of merchants of the staple, with the same privileges as the merchants of the staple of Dublin and Waterford.
Alike for what he did and for what he was, there is none to equal Alfred in the whole line of English sovereigns; and no monarch in history ever deserved more truly the epithet of Great.
Maria Theresa had never given up hope that she would recover Silesia; and as all the neighbouring sovereigns were bitterly jealous of Frederick, and somewhat afraid of him, she had no difficulty in inducing several of them to form a scheme for his ruin.
The Corpus Juris of Justinian continued to be, with naturally a few additions in the ordinances of succeeding emperors, the chief law-book of the Roman world till the time of the Macedonian dynasty when, towards the end of the 9th century, a new system was prepared and issued by those sovereigns, which we know as the Basilica.
This charter was confirmed by successive sovereigns, with some additional privileges.
The politicians hoped that Elizabeth might convert Mary to her own invisible shade of Protestantism if the sister sovereigns could but meet, and for two years the promise of a meeting was held up before Mary.
The Assyrian kings also maintained magnificent parks, or "paradises," in which game of every kind was enclosed; and perhaps it was from them that the Persian sovereigns borrowed the practice mentioned both by Xenophon in the Cyropaedia and by Curtius.
For some years thereafter Jomini held both a French and a Russian commission, with the consent of both sovereigns.
From the middle of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century the ruler of Tunisia was also called dey, a title frequently used during the same period by the sovereigns of Tripoli.
Giustiniani printed 2000 copies at his own expense, including fifty in vellum for presentation to the sovereigns of Europe and Asia; but the sale of the work did not encourage him to proceed with the New Testament, which he had also prepared for the press.
Chilperic may be regarded as the type of Merovingian sovereigns.
Charles's ally, Edward IV., invaded France in June 1475, but Louis bought him off on the 29th of August at Picquigny - where the two sovereigns met on a bridge over the Somme, with a strong grille between them, Edward receiving 75,000 crowns, and a promise of a pension of 50,000 crowns annually.
The political power was also divided, although Buddhist sovereigns predominated.
The men of the vill were made quit of toll in 1337, and in 1342 the town was incorporated by a charter frequently confirmed by later sovereigns.
The empire was by this time practically reduced to the province of Bagdad; Khorasan and Transoxiana were in the hands of the Samanids, Fars in those of the Buyids; Kirman and Media were under independent sovereigns; the Hamdanids possessed Mesopotamia; the Sajids Armenia and Azerbaijan; the Ikshidites Egypt; as we have seen, the Fatimites Africa, the Carmathians Arabia.
In Italy, where titles of nobility give no precedence at court, that of duke (duca) has lost nearly all even of its social significance owing to lavish creations by the popes and minor sovereigns, and to the fact that the title often passes by purchase with a particular estate.
In other cases the title of landgrave is borne by German sovereigns as a subsidiary title; e.g.
The following days were take up with tournaments, in which both kings took part, banquets and other entertainments, and after Wolsey had said mass the two sovereigns separated on the 24th.
In the meanwhile the king, who had no intention of respecting the constitution, went to Laibach to confer with the sovereigns of the holy alliance assembled there, leaving his son as regent.
Political Gallicanism maintained that lawful sovereigns held their power directly of God,.
Bossuet and the old-fashioned divines had believed in an elaborate system of checks and balances - popes, councils, bishops, temporal sovereigns each limiting and controlling the other - just as Montesquieu and Alexander Hamilton had believed in a careful separation of the executive from the legislative power.
The time had gone by when sovereigns could decide what particular shade of Catholicism their subjects should assume.
The castle of Nuremberg was a favourite residence of the German sovereigns in the later middle ages, and the imperial regalia were kept here from 1424 to 1796.
With the peaceful absorption of the Principality into the realm of the Tudor sovereigns, the subsequent course of Welsh history assumes mainly a religious and educational character.
The mission failed, as the mutual jealousy of the sovereigns would not allow either to begin operations.
The whole building, however, had been extensively and judiciously restored, and is the finest church in Norway and the scene of the coronation of the Norwegian sovereigns.
His devotion to Austrasia made him very bitter against, and perhaps unjust to, the sovereigns of Neustria, Chilperic and Fredegond.
The nobility attempted to escape taxation as cheaply as possible by stipulating that the 6th of November 1632, the day of Gustavus Adolphus's death, should be the extreme limit of any restrospective action on the part of the crown in regard to alienated crown property, and that the present subsidy should be regarded as " a perpetual ordinance " unalterably to be observed by all future sovereigns - in other words, that there should be no further restitution of alienated crown property.
Thus it is all the more worthy of recognition that the Sassanian Empire was a fairly orderly empire, with an excellent legal administration, and that the later sovereigns did their utmost to repress the encroachments of the nobility, to protect the commonalty, and, above all, to carry out a just system of taxation.
Peace was concluded between the two sovereigns in 1590; but the terms were unfavourable to Persia, who lost thereby Tabriz and one or more of the Caspian ports.
But there was no open rupture between the two sovereigns until 1821, when the frontier disputes and complaints of Persian travellers, merchants and pilgrims culminated in a declaration of war.
Sir John Campbell, in less than a year after the sovereigns installation, went home, and was succeeded as British envoy by Henry Ellis.
Accordingly the troops dispersed, and the sovereigns presence at Teheran was taken advantage of by the British minister to renew his attem?ts in the cause of peace.
Gustavus was inspired by a burning enthusiasm for the greatness and welfare of Sweden, and worked in the same reformatory direction as the other contemporary sovereigns of the "age of enlightenment."
His profound knowledge of popular assemblies enabled him, alone among contemporary sovereigns, accurately to gauge from the first the scope and bearing of the French Revolution.
For long only the principal village of the Hova chiefs, Antananarivo advanced in importance as those chiefs made themselves sovereigns of the greater part of Madagascar, until it became a town of some 80,000 inhabitants.
Later sovereigns gave it other privileges, and the whole were finally confirmed by a charter of James VI.
This last institution indeed is not found in the ancient Vinaya, but was almost certainly modelled on the traditional account of the similar assemblies convoked by Asoka and other Buddhist sovereigns in India every fifth year.
The royal title of the Bohemian sovereigns was continued uninterruptedly from that date.
New dissensions between the two sovereigns broke out almost immediately.
While planning a warlike expedition against Poland, on which country the Bohemian sovereigns now again maintained their claim, he was murdered by unknown assassins (1306).
It was stated in an imperial decree that the new title of the sovereign should in no way prejudice the ancient rights of Bohemia and that the sovereigns would continue to be crowned as kings of Bohemia.
The two sovereigns made a reciprocal arrangement as to their rights and pretensions to the crown of Brittany, but in the event of Charles predeceasing her, Anne undertook to marry the heir to the throne.
The marriage contract was ostensibly directed in favour of the independence of Brittany, for it declared that Brittany should revert to the second son or to the eldest daughter of the two sovereigns, and, failing issue, to the natural heirs of the duchess.
The sovereigns of Spain, too, made use of the same material; and in the Byzantine empire leaden bullae seem to have been universally employed, not only by emperors and state officials but also by private persons.
As the father of King James I., Darnley is the direct ancestor of all the sovereigns of England since 1603.
From the 16th century (and possibly earlier) down to the close of the 19th century the Lunda peoples formed a more or less homogeneous state, the successive sovereigns being known as the Muata Yanvo.
Confucius's own ancestry is traced up, through the sovereigns of the previous dynasty of Shang, to Hwang-ti, whose figure looms out through the mists of fable in prehistoric times.
The Nieuwe Kerk (St Catherine's), in which the sovereigns of Holland are crowned, is a fine Gothic building dating from 1408.
At the same time the leading part played by the province of Holland in the history of the republic has not been unrecognized, for the country ruled over by the sovereigns of the house of Orange is always popularly, and often officially, known as Holland.
His earliest work, entitled Reloj de principes, published at Valladolid in 1529, and, according to its author, the fruit of eleven years' labour, is a didactic novel, designed, after the manner of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, to delineate, in a somewhat ideal way for the benefit of modern sovereigns, the life and character of an ancient prince, Marcus Aurelius, distinguished for wisdom and virtue.
But the peculiar fame of the Abbey lies not in its architecture, nor in its connexion with the metropolis alone, but in the fact that it has long been the place of the coronation of sovereigns and the burial-place of many of them and of their greatest subjects.
From 1340 to 1539 its governors asserted a precarious independence, and arrogated the position of sovereigns on their own account.
Devizes became a borough by prescription, and the first charter from Matilda, confirmed by successive later sovereigns, merely grants exemption from certain tolls and the enjoyment of undisturbed peace.
From the days of Diocletian one finds occasionally two emperors, but not, at any rate in theory, two Empires; the two emperors are the dual sovereigns of a single realm.
It was thus applied, and is still applied, to the rulers of China and Japan; it was attributed to the Mogul sovereigns of India; and since 1876 it has been used by British monarchs in their capacity of sovereigns of India (Kaiser-i-Hind) .2 Since the French Revolution and during the course of the 19th century the term emperor has had an eventful history.
The claim to the style of emperor, as a badge of equal rank, played a considerable part in the diplomatic relations between the Sultan and certain European sovereigns.
All taxes and customs dues must be paid in gold, and, owing to the small quantities issued from the Rumanian mint, foreign gold is current, especially French 20-franc pieces (equal at par to 20 lei), Turkish gold lire (22.70), Old Russian Imperials (20.60) and English sovereigns of (25.22).
On the 7th of December he wrote confidentially to the sovereigns whose representatives had signed the treaty of Paris, suggesting that the future of Rumania should be regulated by a European congress.
The handsome halls known as the Spanish and German halls were erected by Ferdinand I., and additions were made by other sovereigns also.
The cathedral contains the chapel of St Wenceslaus, where the insignia of the Bohemian kings are preserved, the tomb of St John of Nepomuk, and a monument to the Bohemian sovereigns who are buried here, the work of Colin of Malines.
Besides these mediatized princes, who transmit their titles and their privilege of " royal " blood to all their legitimate descendants, there are also in Austria and Germany " princes," created by the various German sovereigns, and some dating from the period of the old empire, who take a lower rank, as not being " princes of the Holy Roman Empire " nor entitled to any royal privileges.
This was too much for even the adverse European powers; and in 1670 a treaty was concluded between England and Spain, proclaiming peace and friendship among the subjects of the two sovereigns in the New World, formally renouncing hostilities of every kind.
He had twice sworn, with gratuitous solemnity, to maintain the new constitution; but he was hardly out of Naples before he repudiated his oaths and, in letters addressed to all the sovereigns of Europe, declared his acts to have been null and void.
Few sovereigns have left behind so odious a memory.
On the entablature surmounting the Ionic columns are panels containing medallions of Scots sovereigns from James I.
Popes and sovereigns gradually encroached on the rights of the monks, until in Italy the pope had usurped the nomination of all abbots, and the king in France, with the exception of Cluny, Premontre and other houses, chiefs of their order.
But it was not till after the Mussulman power was firmly established in northern India that the Mahommedan sovereigns of Delhi attempted the conquest of the south.
In the middle of the 14th century the weakness of the Delhi sovereigns tempted the governors of provinces to revolt against their distant master, and to form independent kingdoms. In this way the Bahmani kingdom was established in the Deccan, and embraced a part of the Bombay presidency.
Among the numerous methods which have been adopted by sovereigns everywhere to obtain support from their people, that of demanding gifts has frequently found a place, and consequently it is the word and not the method which is peculiar to English history.
On the 2nd of January 1492 he occupied the town in the name of the Catholic sovereigns.
Though his life was worldly, and though he was more soldier and statesman than priest, the "Great Cardinal," as he was commonly called, did not neglect his duty as a bishop. He used his influence with the queen and also at Rome to arrange a settlement of the disputes between the Spanish sovereigns and the papacy.
By 1492 he had become sufficiently notorious to attract the attention of King Henry's government and of foreign sovereigns.
Several European sovereigns were moved to help him by the same kind of reason.
Kent once more became a kingdom, and two successive Mercian sovereigns, Beornwulf and Ludica, fell in battle while vainly trying to recover Offas supremacy over East Anglia and Wessex.
The minor sovereigns of Britain owned him as overlord, as they had owned his grandfather Edgar.
Holding respectively the great earidoms of West Mercia, Wessex and Northumbria, they reigned almost like petty sovereigns in their domains, and there seemed some chance that England might fall apart into semi-independent feudal states, just as France had done in the preceding century.
It was the zenith of the power of the baronial anarchists, who moved from camo to camp with shameless rapidity, wresting from one or other of the two rival sovereigns some royal castle, or some dangerous grant of financial or judicial rights, at each change of allegiance.
The English nation began to have some conception of a rgime of fixed custom, in which its rights depended on some other source than the sovereigns personal caprice.
The kings of England became perforce much more home-keeping sovereigns after 1204.
The royal courts are no longer to attend the kings persona vexatious practice when sovereigns were always on the move, and litigants and witnesses had to follow them from manor to manorbut are to be fixed at Westminster.
The futile and thriftless yet busy and self-important king was one of those sovereigns who irritate their subjects into opposition by injudicious activity.
Few sovereigns in history have accomplished such a disastrous lifes work as this much-admired prince.
Edward IV., first among English sovereigns, had been able to dispense with parliaments for periods of many years, because he did not need their grants save at long intervals.
During the first few years of the cardinals ascendancy the elder race of European sovereigns, the kings with whom Henry VII.
The Revolution, as it was called, was more than a mere change of sovereigns.
The Tudor sovereigns had rightfully asserted the principle that in a well-ordered nation only one supreme power can be allowed to exist; but in so doing they had enslaved religion.
He did not indeed declare war against France; bitt he sought to set a limit to her conquests in the winter, though he had not sought to set a limit to the conquests of the allied sovereigns in the preceding summer.
The Corporation buildings, a blend of the Scots Baronial and French Gothic styles, contain busts of several Scottish sovereigns a statue of Robert Burns, and Sir Noel Paton's painting of the "Spirit of Religion."
After the senate and people of Rome had ceased to be the sovereigns of the Roman world, and their authority had been vested in the sole person of the emperor, the eternal city could no longer claim to be the rightful throne of the state.
Even during the period when relations between England and Scotland were strained, the sovereigns of both countries recognized it to be their duty to protect property and regulate the lawlessness of the borders.
But there was no mutual confidence between the sovereigns, who were at that very time pursuing opposite policies with regard to Poland.
Fear of revolution at home was one of the motives which led continental sovereigns to attack revolution in France.
Royalty and chieftainship in Madagascar had many peculiar customs. It had a semi-sacred character; the chief was, in heathen tribes, while living, the high priest for his people, and after death, was worshipped as a god; in its modern development among the Hova sovereigns it gathered round it much state and ceremony.
There were many curious examples of the taboo with regard to actions connected with royalty, and also in the words used which relate to Malagasy sovereigns and their surroundings.
At the same time the position of woman is much higher in Madagascar than in most heathen countries; and, the fact that for nearly seventy years there were (with a few months' exception) only female sovereigns, helped to give women considerable influence in native society.
Yet they were loyal to their Spanish sovereigns, and no part of the country offered a more determined or more skilful resistance to Napoleon.
The kingdoms of France and Germany, still too large, owed their existence to a series of dispossessions imposed on sovereigns too feeble to hold their own, and consisted of a great number of small states united by a very slight bond.
Ministers followed the example of their self-seeking masters, thinking it no shame to accept pensions from foreign sovereigns.
The preponderating consideration everywhere was direct material advantage; there was disproportion everywhere between the means employed and the poverty of the results, a contradiction between the interests of the sovereigns and those of their subjects, which were associated by force and not naturally blended.
Vainly did Louis, brought back a captive to Paris, swear on the I4th of September 1791 solemnly mere lip-service to the constitution; the mistrustful party of revolution abandoned the constitution they had only just obtained, and to guard against the sovereigns mental reservations and the selfish policy of the middle classes, appealed to the main force of the people.
The curiales remained as before the victims of the fisc. How far the fact that Theudis and the four next sovereigns were Arians affected their government is not very clear.
Every one of the kingdoms grouped round the two sovereigns who shared modern Spain was itself a loose conglomeration of classes.
The new sovereigns immediately began the work of establishing order and obedience in their dominions.
Their commandaries were used to pay, or pension, the servants of the sovereigns.
It continued to be summoned by the Catholic sovereigns and their successors of the Habsburg line, but it was needed only to grant money.
All this did not bear its full fruit during the reign of the Catholic sovereigns, but by the end of the 16th century it had reduced Spain to a state of Byzantine regulation in which every kind of work had to be done under the eye and subject to the interference of a vast swarm of government officials, all ill paid, and often not paid, all therefore necessitous and corrupt.
The policy of the Catholic sovereigns towards the Church was of essentially the same character as their treatment of the nobles or the cities.
Between 1481 and 1492 the Catholic sovereigns completed the work of the reconquest by subjugating the one surviving Conquest of Mahommedan state of Granada.
Having secured the unity of their territory in the Peninsula, the Catholic sovereigns were free to begin the work of expansion.
Among older writers Juan de Mariana, who ends with the Catholic sovereigns, professedly took Livy as a model, and wrote a fine example of a rhetorical history published in Latin (1592-1609), and then in Spanish translated and largely re-written by himself.
Here, living in royal state, he put himself at the head of the counter-revolutionary movement, appointing ambassadors, soliciting the aid of the European sovereigns, and especially of Catherine II.
The conquest of Granada in 1492 by the Catholic sovereigns of Spain drove many Moors into exile.
The king himself was anxious to be reconciled with the Vatican, but the pope, or rather his entourage, rejected all overtures, and the two sovereigns dwelt side by side in Rome until death without ever meeting.
When the storm burst, he remained entrenched behind the barriers of his own disciplined empire; sovereigns truckling in a panic to insurgent democracies he would not lift a finger to help;' it was not till Francis Joseph of Austria in 1849 appealed to him in the name of autocracy, reasserting its rights, that he consented to intervene, and, true to the promise made at Miinchengratz in 1833, crushed the insurgent Hungarians and handed back their country as a free gift to the Habsburg king.
Beneficent sovereigns had always been in perfect concord with the gratefully loyal people, who had never been disobedient and rebellious.
The 1989 was available as a proof only, indeed no ordinary uncirculated sovereigns were issued from 1983 to 1999.
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Their are some dates which exist in Manx sovereigns which do not exist in British sovereigns.
William and Mary became joint sovereigns, the former insisting on a ' Loyalty Act ' .
However, the British Empire was not the first instance of English sovereigns ruling overseas territories.
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The university of Oxford conferred on him the honorary degree of D.C.L.; and in the following year he was sworn of the privy council, and took a prominent part in the reception given to the duke of Wellington and the allied sovereigns.
Maximilian harboured the idea of driving the Turks from Europe; but his appeal to all Christian sovereigns was ineffectual.
It is a melancholy history, telling of the invasion of the Northmen, and of the dynastic struggles between the petty feudal sovereigns who carved out counties and lordships Growth of the for themselves during the dark centuries which feudal followed the fall of the Carolingian empire.
Milan sided with Henry; and this is perhaps the first eminent instance of cities being reckoned powerful allies in the Italian disputes of sovereigns.
Depretis, fearing to jeopardize the impending conclusion of the Franco-Italian commercial treaty, would have preferred the visit to take the form of an act of personal courtesy between sovereigns.
It broke out in the following year, and after the battles of Austerlitz (December 1805) and Friedland (June 1807), in which the Russians were completely defeated, the two sovereigns had their famous interviews at Tilsit, at which they not only made peace but agreed to divide the world between them, with a sublime indifference to the interests of other states.
It then became a formidable nest of pirates and a great slave mart; it defied all the efforts of the Byzantine sovereigns to recover it till the year 960, when it was reconquered by Nicephorus Phocas.
When, ex ruler of Tabriz, and one of Jenghiz Khan's lieutenants, the Seljukian Empire was at the point of dissolution, most of its feudatory vassals helped rather than hindered its downfall in the hope of retaining their fiefs as independent sovereigns.
The pope and other sovereigns donated vast sums for this new bulwark of Christianity, but, as its ramparts grew in strength, the knights were slow to seek the enemy in his own waters, and became false to their traditional strategy as a naval power.
The hosts of the Gur Khan are called by Moslem historians Al-Turk-al-Kuffar, the kafir or infidel Turks; and in later days the use of this term "kafir" led to misapprehensions, as when Vasco da Gama's people were led to take for Christians the Banyan traders on the African coast, and to describe as Christian sovereigns so many princes of the Farther East of whom they heard at Calicut.
On the other hand, the upstart Latin emperors, far from proving submissive and humble tools, assumed with the purple the habits and pretensions of the sovereigns they had dispossessed.
But when the sovereigns power decayed, the imperial cities were really free republics, governing themselves according to their own ideas of law and justice (see COMMUNE).
Like other German sovereigns Maximilian pursued the phantom of religious union.
To sovereigns whose nerves had been shattered by the vicissitudes of the revolutionary epoch these symptoms were in the highest degree alarming; and Metternich was at pains to exaggerate their significance.
Another instance of the emperors interference, constitutionally of more importance as directly affecting the rights of the German sovereigns, was in the question of the succession to the principality of Lippe (see LIPPE).
It is a furious invective against these sovereigns, their characters, personal conduct and government, with attacks on Belisarius and his wife Antonina, and; on other noted officials in the civil and military services of the empire.
The connecting link between the general use of the signet, which was required by the Roman law for legal purposes, but which had died out by the 7th century, and the revival of seals in the middle ages is to be found in the chanceries Early of the Merovingian and Carolingian sovereigns, where s m $d seval the practice of affixing the royal seal to diplomas appears to have been generally maintained (see Diplomatic).
The greatest value of his work naturally lies in his account of transactions of which he had personal knowledge, notably in his relation of the church history of Scotland, of the Popish Plot, of the proceedings at the Hague previous to the expedition of William and Mary, and of the personal relations between the joint sovereigns.
In that reunion of great sovereigns we should have discussed our interests like one family, and have rendered account to the peoples as clerk to master.
I should have demanded the freedom of all navigable rivers for everybody, that the seas should be common to all, and that the great standing armies should be reduced henceforth to mere guards for the sovereigns.
The source of this contradiction lies in the fact that the historians studying the events from the letters of the sovereigns and the generals, from memoirs, reports, projects, and so forth, have attributed to this last period of the war of 1812 an aim that never existed, namely that of cutting off and capturing Napoleon with his marshals and his army.
One old Irishman offered a purse of sovereigns if they would spare him but they were knocked aside and he was thrown over.
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William and Mary became joint sovereigns, the former insisting on a ' Loyalty Act '.
He took up his residence in Avila, where he had built a convent; and here he resumed the common life of a friar, leaving his cell in October 1497 to visit, at Salamanca, the dying infante, Don Juan, and to comfort the sovereigns in their parental distress.
The importance of the Act of Settlement appears from the fact that, in all the regency acts, it is mentioned as one of the 4 The title of king of France was retained by the British sovereigns until 1801.
Whatever the European sovereigns and commanders may do to countenance Bonaparte, and to cause me, and us in general, annoyance and mortification, our opinion of Bonaparte cannot alter.
He cannot endure the notion that Buonaparte is negotiating on equal terms with all the sovereigns of Europe and particularly with our own, the grandson of the Great Catherine!