Sovereign Sentence Examples
Yet Greece was the sovereign power in all the world of ancient culture.
The age of majority of the sovereign is eighteen.
Under a kingly government office bestowed by the sovereign holds the same place which office bestowed by the people holds in a popular government.
When he was presented to his former sovereign, George III.
His exile, however, was brief, and some years after his return he became involved in a dispute with his sovereign, Christian III., king of Denmark, because he refused to further the progress of Lutheranism in the island.Advertisement
The Jews had been expelled from England by Edward I., after a sojourn in the country of rather more than two centuries, during which they had been the licensed and oppressed money-lenders of the realm, and had - through the special exchequer of the Jews - been used by the sovereign as a means of extorting a revenue from his subjects.
But it will please our sovereign the Emperor Napoleon if we take this bridge, so let us three go and take it!' 'Yes, let's!' say the others.
Incidents were related evidently confirming the opinion that everything was going from bad to worse, but whether telling a story or giving an opinion the speaker always stopped, or was stopped, at the point beyond which his criticism might touch the sovereign himself.
All the efforts of those who surrounded the sovereign seemed directed merely to making him spend his time pleasantly and forget that war was impending.
Or, secondly, the concordat may result from two identical separate acts, one emanating from the pope and the other from the sovereign; this was the form of the first true concordat, that of Worms, in 1122.Advertisement
On Napoleon's deposition, the island was ceded to him with full sovereign rights, and he resided there from the 5th of May 1814 to the 26th of February 1815.
This donation of Pippin in 756 confirmed the papal see in the protectorate of the Italic party, and conferred upon it sovereign rights.
He pursued his policy of playing into the hands of the sovereign whilst keeping up the appearances of a Liberal, almost democratic, leader, skilful in debate, a trimmer par excellence, and abler in opposition than in office.
Each of these followed the procedure and the law of the high court; but each was independent of the high court, and formed a sovereign court without any appeal.
By an agreement dated the 13th of January 1905 the sultan of Zanzibar ceded his sovereign rights in the Benadir ports to Italy in return for the payment of a lump sum of £144,000.Advertisement
At the present day the canonization of saints is reserved in the Roman Church to the sovereign pontiff.
On the death of James in December 1542 he attempted to assume office as one of the regents for the infant sovereign Mary, founding his pretensions on an alleged will of the late king; but his claims were disregarded, and the earl of Arran, head of the great house of Hamilton, and next heir to the throne, was declared regent by the estates.
Of such a union the dominions of the sovereign as they exist to-day are only the raw material."
In permanent remuneration of certain services to be rendered to the state, the sovereign assigned to civil or military functionaries territorial regions for the purpose, and with the power, of collecting land taxes imposed by Mussulman and Imperial law, i.e.
On the 3rd of February 1830 was signed a protocol embodying the principle of an independent Greece under Leopold of Coburg as " sovereign prince."Advertisement
The intervention of the powers, based on the convention of London of the i 5th of July 1840, led to the withdrawal of Ibrahim from Syria, and the establishment by the firman of the 13th of February 1841 of Mehemet Ali as hereditary pasha of Egypt under conditions intended to safeguard the sovereign rights of the Ottoman sultan.
But Abd-ul-Hamid had issued a free pardon to the mutineers, and the committee had now decided that the new regime would never be secure while the sovereign favoured reaction.
Turkey was willing to concede the fullest local autonomy, but not to abandon its sovereign rights over the island.
All this, and the almost mutinous discontent of his generals and his enemies of the court circle, shook his resolution of acting as anvil for the Russians, of whose delay also he was aware, and about the 8th of Octoberhedetermined to march out north-eastward across the French lines of communication and save his sovereign's army by taking refuge if necessary in Saxony.
But on the 4th of February Blucher, chafing at this inaction, obtained the permission of his own sovereign to transfer his line of operations to the valley of the Marne; Pahlen's corps of Cossacks were assigned to him to cover his left and maintain communication with the Austrians.Advertisement
In 1820 the city became the principal residence of the sovereign and soon afterwards of foreign consuls, and thus practically the seat of government.
When Holland rose in revolt against French domination in 1813, after eighteen years of exile he landed at Scheveningen (on the 19th of November) and was on the 3rd of December, amid universal rejoicing, proclaimed prince sovereign of the Netherlands.
After abolishing the cabinet council system in favour during the rule of the two Annes, and reconstituting the senate as it had been under Peter the Great, - with the chiefs of the departments of state, all of them now Russians again, as ex-officio members under the presidency of the sovereign, - the first care of the new empress was to compose her quarrel with Sweden.
The honorary title of count of Galicia has frequently been borne by younger sons of the Spanish sovereign.
These were drawn up in the language of the country, a Romance dialect (1288 being the date of the most ancient written code), and are remarkable for the manner in which they define the rights of the sovereign, determining the reciprocal obligations of the viscount and his subjects or vassals.
The abbe again declared "it is impossible for me honestly and sincerely to make the act of absolute retractation and submission exacted by the sovereign pontiff."
The Khivans contested the advance of the Tekkes, but ultimately, about 1856, the latter became the sovereign power in the country, and remained so until the Russians occupied the oasis in 1883.
His vision of the ideal state was that of a patriarchial monarchy, surrounded and advised by the traditional estates of the realm - nobles, peasants, burghers - and cemented by the bonds of evangelical religion; but in which there should be no question of the sovereign power being vested in any other hands than those of the king by divine right.
From him also the reigning sovereign is lineally descended, and he is the liege lord of whom all the chiefs or nobles hold their lands in feu, for services which they or their ancestors had performed, or in virtue of their relationship to the family.
It was held that although generally speaking every sovereign may decide to whom he will accord the right to fly his flag, yet in this case such right was limited by the general act of the Brussels conference of July 1890 relative to the African slave trade, an act which was ratified by France on the 2nd of June 1892; that accordingly the owners and master of dhows who had been authorized by France to fly the French flag before the last-named date retained this authorization TABLE II.
In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.
Dom Pedro II.," in honour of the sovereign who encouraged its construction.
The two Andradas, who imagined they could govern the young emperor as a sovereign of their own creation, encountered great opposition in the constitutional assembly, which had been opened in Rio in May 1823, to discuss the project of a new constitution.
He had given himself up to the influence of the Portuguese; the most popular men who had worked for the independence were banished; and a continual change of ministry showed a disposition on the part of the sovereign to prosecute obstinately measures of which his advisers disapproved.
In May each year the sovereign appoints a representative as lord high commissioner to the General Assembly of the Established Church, who takes up his abode usually in the palace of Holyrood, and thence proceeds to the High Church, and so to the assembly hall on the Castle Hill.
Of the thirteen parliaments summoned by that sovereign, only one, the last, was held at Edinburgh, but his assassination in the Blackfriars' monastery at Perth led to the abrupt transfer of the court and capital from the Tay to the Forth.
As the chief councillor of Prince Zsigmond Bathory, he advised his sovereign to contract an alliance with the emperor instead of holding to the Turk, and rendered important diplomatic services on frequent missions to Prague and Vienna.
Joseph was an idealist and a doctrinaire, whose dream was to build up his ideal body politic; the first step toward which was to be the amalgamation of all his dominions into a common state under an absolute sovereign.
The new sovereign was a lad of eighteen, who for the present was likely to be the mere mouthpiece of Schwarzenberg's policy.
Shortly after the battle of Carabobo (June 24, 1821), by which the power of Spain in this part of the world was broken, Venezuela was united with the federal state of Colombia, which embraced the present Colombia and Ecuador; but the Venezuelans were averse to the Confederation, and an agitation was set on foot in the autumn of 1829 which resulted in the issue of a decree (December 8) by General Paez dissolving the union, and declaring Venezuela a sovereign and independent state.
Dion's idea seems to have been to make Dionysius something like a constitutional sovereign, and with this view he brought him into contact with Plato.
He was a strong advocate of the groupflashing system as a means of differentiating lights, and invented an arrangement for carrying it into effect optically, his plan being first adopted for the catoptric light of the Royal Sovereign lightship, in the English Channel off Beachy Head.
Of the same character is the use of incense carried in a perfuming pan before the sovereign at his coronation in the procession from Westminster Hall to the Abbey.
The present London residence of the sovereign is Buckingham Palace, on the west side of St p James's Park, with beautiful gardens behind it.
The order holds that sovereign authority is of divine sanction, and that the execution of Charles I.
For a Prussian official to venture to give uncalled-for advice to his sovereign was a breach of propriety not calculated to increase his chances of favour; but it gave Gentz a conspicuous position in the public eye, which his brilliant talents and literary style enabled him to maintain.
The divine attributes with which the Semitic kings of Babylonia had been invested disappeared at the same time; the title of " god " is never given to a Kassite sovereign.
The British sovereign has 36 "Chaplains in Ordinary," who perform service at St James's in rotation, as well as "Honorary Chaplains" and "Chaplains of the Household."
It is possible that Fersen would have spent most of his life at Versailles, but for a hint from his own sovereign, then at Pisa, that he desired him to join his suite.
It is thus not only a general word for a prince or sovereign, but also the common word for a feudal superior, and particularly of a feudal tenant holding directly of the king, a baron (q.v.), hence a peer of the realm, a member of the House of Lords, constituted of the lords temporal and the lords spiritual; this is the chief modern usage.
Although he talked of helping his sovereign, his troops took no part in the battle of Agincourt (1415), where, however, two of his brothers, Anthony, duke of Brabant, and Philip, count of Nevers, fell fighting for France.
The providence or government of God, while sovereign, is exercised in harmony with the nature of the creatures governed, i.e.
He held a portion of a foreign sovereign, the emperor, and other portions of the duke of Burgundy, of two archbishops, of four bishops, and of the abbot of St Denis.
The mission, reduced in numbers by the death of its archaeologist, von Haven, again visited Taiz in June 1763, where after some delay permission was obtained to visit Sana, the capital of the province and the residence of the ruling sovereign or imam.
It contains also the highest judicial, financial, military and administrative official authorities of Austria, and is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Vienna enjoys autonomy for communal affairs, but is under the control of the governor and the Diet of Lower Austria, while the election of the chief burgomaster requires the sanction of the sovereign, advised by the prime minister.
But in fact the chief authority was still vested in the nobles, who, both in Pisa and in Sardinia, exercised almost sovereign power.
Piero de' Medici, made alliance with the Neapolitan sovereign whose kingdom was claimed by Charles.
From this time forth the poet enjoyed the constant favour of the sovereign, though he could never be moulded into a conventional courtier.
In 929 he married Edith, daughter of Edward the Elder, king of the English, and sister of the reigning sovereign ZEthelstan.
In 1080 the Almoravide sovereign Yusef ibn Tashfin, after besieging and sacking Agadir, built a new town on the site of his camp. The new town, called Tagrart, became the commercial quarter, whilst Agadir remained the royal residence.
The sovereign, whether speaking by rescript or by ordinance, never addressed the bulk of his subjects.
In his relations with the German empire, too, Frederick proved himself rather a great German noble than a sovereign prince actuated by particularist ambitions; and his position as husband of the emperor William I.'s only daughter, Louise (whom he had married in 1856), gave him a peculiar influence in the councils of Berlin.
It was he who after Austerlitz aggrandized the margravate at the expense of Austria; transformed it into a sovereign principality and raised it to a grand-duchy.
Louis Auguste de Bourbon, sovereign prince of Dombes, having transferred his parliament to Trevoux, set up a printing press, and was persuaded by two Jesuits, Michel le Tellier and Philippe Lalleman, to establish the Me-moires pour servir d l'histoire des sciences et des arts (1701-1767), more familiarly known as the Journal des Trevoux, long the best-informed and best-written journal in France.
When the disasters of the American war had at last made a change of ministry necessary, and the king applied to the Whigs, through the intermediary of Lord Shelburne, Fox made a very serious mistake in persuading the marquess of Rockingham not to insist on dealing directly with the sovereign.
Through the fact, however, that from 1501 onwards the Lithuanians and the Poles were ruled over by one sovereign and from 1569 onwards had a common legislature, the former, though ever anxious to break away, gradually sank into a state of dependence.
Never since Principal Carstairs had any Scottish clergyman been on such terms with his sovereign.
However, after the peace between Charles and Louis in 860 Robert came to terms with his sovereign, who made him count of Anjou and of Blois, and entrusted him with the defence of that part of his kingdom which lay between the Seine and the Loire, a district which had suffered greatly from the ravages of the Normans and the Bretons.
He again led the vanguard in the emperor Henry's expedition against Burilas the Bulgarian, and he is represented by the Valenciennes scribe as encouraging his sovereign to the attack in a long speech.
When Charles offered an alternative scheme (1679) for limiting the powers of a Catholic sovereign, Sacheverell made a great speech in which he pointed out the insufficiency of the king's terms for securing the object desired by the Whigs.
In the case of important despatches and correspondence, these, with the drafts of answers, are sent first to the permanent under-secretary, then to the prime minister, then to the sovereign and, lastly, are circulated among the members of the cabinet.
In 1742 Anand Rao received Dhar as a fief from Bail Rao, the peshwa, the victory of the Mahrattas thus restoring the sovereign power to the family which seven centuries before had been expelled from this very city and country.
Though the stadtholders of the house of Orange-Nassau were of princely rank and intermarried with the royal families of Europe, they were not sovereign princes.
Charles IV., a cautious sovereign with many cares, was as anxious for the maintenance of peace as Casimir himself.
Dissatisfaction arose under Aragonese rule from the periodical grants of Malta, as a marquisate or countship, to great officers of state or illegitimate descendants of the sovereign.
This famous book is an analysis of the methods whereby an ambitious man may rise to sovereign power.
The peninsula was, roughly speaking, divided into principalities and sovereign cities, each of which claimed autocratic j urisdiction.
The act of liege homage to a particular lord did not interfere with the vassal's allegiance as a subject to his sovereign, or with his duty to any other suzerain of whom he might hold lands.
If he had not become sovereign of the Low Countries, as heir of Mary of Burgundy through his father, Philip would in all probability have devoted himself to warfare with the Turks in the Mediterranean, and to the conquest of northern Africa.
The abdication of his father on the 16th of January 1556 constituted Philip sovereign of Spain with its American possessions, of the Aragonese inheritance in Italy, Naples and Sicily, of the Burgundian inheritance - the Netherlands and Franche Comte, and of the duchy of Milan, which his father separated from the empire for his benefit.
The "service of God and his majesty" was the formula which expressed the belief of the sovereign and his subjects.
There is no doubt that Leo recognized Charles as sovereign of Rome.
In 1141 the assistance of this Khitaian prince was invoked by the shah of Kharezm against Sanjar, the Seljuk sovereign of Persia, who had expelled the shah from his kingdom and killed his son.
At the same time the great powers guaranteed the neutrality of the grand-duchy, and although a member of the German Zollverein, Luxemburg now forms a sovereign and independent state.
If faith to him had not been broken he would have been sent back to Bohemia to be punished by his sovereign, the king of Bohemia.
Franklin contended that the governor, as a mere agent of the king, could have nothing to do with the assembly's appointment of its agent to the king; that " the King, and not the King, Lords, and Commons collectively, is their sovereign; and that the King, with their respective Parliaments, is their only legislator."
From 1809 to 1812 Speranski was all-powerful in Russia, so far as any minister of a sovereign so suspicious and so unstable as Alexander could be so described.
In the Anglican Church the bishops (subject to appeal to the sovereign) have the right of excommunicating, and their sentence, if sustained, may in certain cases carry with it civil consequences.
Edward's crown" as that with which the late queen was to be crowned, it was actually the state or imperial crown worn by the sovereign when leaving the church after the ceremony that was used.
The new sovereign offered him the portfolio for foreign affairs; but Talleyrand signified his preference for the embassy in London.
Nevertheless, despite the mystery surrounding him, he was well aware of his imperial origin,and always called himself gosudar(sovereign).
Sometimes again it connotes the meaning of "sovereign lord," in which sense it was early assumed by the princes of Sind and by the rulers of Afghanistan and Bokhara, the title implying a lesser dignity than that of sultan.
His short administration was one of the most disgraceful and incompetent in English history, originating in an accident, supported only by the will of the sovereign, by gross corruption and intimidation, the precursor of the disintegration of political life and of a whole series of national disasters.
Yet Bute had good principles and intentions, was inspired by feelings of sincere affection and loyalty for his sovereign, and his character remains untarnished by the grosser accusations raised by faction.
The new sovereign's first proclamation was directed against all such preaching as might lead to contention and the breaking of the common quiet.
As supreme governor of the Church of England the sovereign strictly controlled all ecclesiastical legislation and appointed royal delegates to hear appeals from the ecclesiastical courts, to be a " papist " or to " hear Mass " (which was construed as the same thing) was to risk incurring the terrible penalties of high treason.
The commonwealth, for example, is still denominated " sovereign," and education is not declared a constitutional duty of the commonwealth.
The first decided protests against the exercise of sovereign power by the crown, the first general moral and political revolt that marked the approach of the American War of Independence, took place in Massachusetts; so that the most striking events in the general history of the colonies as a whole from 1760 to 1775 are an intimate part of her annals.
In Utrecht, however, power was henceforth concentrated in the gilds, which became not only trade but political associations, which together constituted the sovereign community.
The new liberties, as might be expected, did not tend to improve the relations between the town of Utrecht and its ecclesiastical sovereign; and the feud reached its climax (1481-84) in the "groote vorlag," or great quarrel, between the citizens and Bishop David, the Bastard of Burgundy, who had been foisted upon the unwilling chapter by the combined pressure of Duke Philip of Burgundy, his half-brother, and the pope.
It is usually said that, at the synod which deposed Benedict, Leo conceded to the emperor and his successors as sovereign of Italy full rights of investiture, but the genuineness of the document on which this allegation rests is more than doubtful.
The vast territories acquired by Spain in this brief period were held to be, by virtue of the pope's bull, the peculiar property of the sovereign.
Europe is still possessed of some measure of sovereign power in the New World, in Canada, in Guiana and in the West Indian islands.
It is a contracted form of khagan (khakan), a word equivalent to sovereign or emperor, used among the Mongol and Turki-nomad hordes.
He also defeated in turn the Chola, Pandya and Kerala kings, and by 630 was beyond dispute the most powerful sovereign in the Deccan.
One of the most important duties of the warden was the collection from the contractor of the seigniorage which was claimed by the sovereign by virtue of his prerogative as a source of revenue to the Crown.
In the sovereign it is 0.2 grain or about 1.62 per moo.
As the mean thickness of a sovereign is 0.0466 in., the remedy for weight corresponds to a difference of less than in.
As Christianity passed to Gentile soil, the sovereign assembly (ecclesia) of privileged citizens in each Greek city furnished an analogy to the latter usage.
The new king was offended by Williams's advice to proceed with caution in dealing with the parliament, with the result that within a few months of Charles's accession the Great Seal was taken from Williams. In the quarrel between the king and the Commons over the petition of right, Williams took the popular side in condemning arbitrary imprisonment by the sovereign.
After the prompt suppression of this rebellion, the Committee became sovereign in the direction of Ottoman affairs.
There is everywhere a readiness to handle traditional, largely historical, materials with a sovereign freedom, controlled and limited by doctrinal convictions and devotional experiences alone.
Eventually, in 1861, he sold his sovereign rights to the Free State for 4000 and removed with his followers to the district now known as Griqualand East.
Waterboer's claims were based on the treaty concluded by his father with the British in 1834, and on various arrangements with the Kok chiefs; the Free State based its claim on its purchase of Adam Kok's sovereign rights and on long occupation.
He believes the United States to be a unified republic, a sovereign nation; and not a federation of independent states united only for mutual benefit and protection.
At the peace of Posen (11th December 1806) Frederick assumed the title of king of Saxony, and entered the Confederation 'of the Rhine as an independent sovereign, promising a contingent of 20,000 men to Napoleon.
The limitations of the compiler's interest in past times appear in the omission, among other particulars, of David's reign in Hebron, of the disorders in family and the revolt of Absalom, of the circumstances of Solomon's accession, and of many details as to the wisdom and splendour of that sovereign, as well as of his fall into idolatry.
When the power of the emperor was weakened, and the idea of a universal ruler was gone, a new test of sovereignty was applied - that of external independence; the true sovereign states were universitates superiorem non recognoscentes.
It may not exist as to some regions of conduct; as to others it may be weak and mutable; only in certain conditions is the sovereign power supreme as to all matters of conduct.
Another deduction from the same proposition is that any corporation or private body which appears to exercise sovereign powers together with the state does so only by delegation.
There are sovereign and non-sovereign states; international law recognizing both.
States which have complete independence, complete autonomy, external and internal, and which are recognized in international law as sovereign states.
Even before the independence of the two firstnamed states, they undoubtedly were for many purposes sovereign.
In the middle ages the question was often mooted whether states subject to feudal superiors, or the states forming the empire, were sovereign.
The prevalent opinion, however, was that sovereignty was compatible with rights such as were possessed by the Reich over the princes of Germany; that there might be fiefs held in full sovereignty; and that vassal states, when subject only to "nude vassalage," were sovereign.
C. Calhoun, the states had entered into an agreement from which they might withdraw if its terms were broken, and they were sovereign.
In point of fact, there are fields of action in which A is sovereign, others in which B is sovereign, and certain others in which A and B are jointly or alternately sovereign.
To take the American constitution, for example, the states are sovereign as to some matters, the Federal government as to others.
According to modern usage the appellation "sovereign state" belongs only to states of considerable size and population exercising without control the usual powers of a state, e.g.
It is more accurate to say that as to certain matters the legislature of the Canadian Dominion is sovereign, and as to certain others that it is not (Lefroy, 244; Quick and Garran, Australian Commonwealth, 328; Dicey, 106); and as to some matters they are in fact, if not in form, universitates superiorem non recognoscentes (Quick and Garran, 319); or that they are states in process of making.
At all events, the self-governing colonies may be classed as "half sovereign states" or "quasisovereign."
The vizier stood between sovereign and subjects, representing the former in all matters touching the latter.
In modern usage the term is used in the East generally for any important official under the sovereign.
Since the conditions of the age no longer allow the pope to depose a temporal sovereign, the practical application of this conception of the relationship between the spiritual and temporal powers has taken other forms, all of which, however, clearly show that the superiority of the Church over the state is assumed.
It was not till tie following day that the sovereign's style was altered to Victoria simply, and this necessitated the issuing of a new declaration and a re-signing of the peers' roll.
But it was arranged that the sovereign's procession to the abbey through the streets should be made a finer show than on previous occasions; and it drew to London 400,000 country visitors.
It was an untoward coincidence that Lady Flora Hastings died on the 5th of July, for though, she repeated on her deathbed, and wished it to be published, that the queen had taken no part whatever in the proceedings which had shortened her life, it was remarked that the ladies who were believed to have persecuted her still retained the sovereign's favour.
His acquittal was to be deprecated as establishing a dangerous precedent in regard to outrages on the sovereign.
Peel added that a sovereign must do all things in order, not seeking praise for doing one particular thing well, but striving to be an example in all respects, even in dinner-giving.
It was the first visit ever paid by a king of France to a sovereign of England, and Louis Philippe was much pleased at receiving the Order of the Garter.
The sovereign as compared with her ministers has, because she is the sovereign, the advantage of long experience, wide survey, elevated position and entire disconnexion from the bias of party.
Eventually, on 31st January 1854, Lord John Russell took occasion to deny most emphatically that Prince Albert interfered unduly with foreign affairs, and in both houses the statesmen of the two parties delivered feeling panegyrics of the prince, asserting at the same time his entire constitutional right to give private advice to the sovereign on matters of state.
Her letter to the emperor, pervaded with he religious and almost mystic sentiments which predominate in the queen's mind, particularly since the death of Prince Albert, seems to have made a deep impression on the sovereign who, amid the struggles of politics, had never completely repudiated the philanthropic theories of his youth, and who, on the battlefield of Solferino, covered with the dead and wounded, was seized with an unspeakable horror of war."Moreover, Disraeli's two premierships (1868, 1874-80) did a good deal to give new encouragement to a right idea of the constitutional function of the crown.
A somewhat different conception of the sovereign's functions was that of Disraeli's great rival, Gladstone, who, though his respect for the person and office of the sovereign was unbounded, not only expected all people, the queen included, to agree with him when he changed his mind, but to become suddenly enthusiastic about his new ideas.
It met with much opposition, and Disraeli was accused of ministering simply to a whim of the sovereign, whereas, in fact, the title was intended to impress the idea of British suzerainty forcibly upon the minds of the native princes, and upon the population of Hindustan.
In London the day itself was kept by a solemn service in Westminster Abbey, to which the queen went in state, surrounded by the most brilliant, royal, and princely escort that had ever accompanied a British sovereign, and cheered on her way by the applause of hundreds of thousands of her subjects.
Soon afterwards her majesty went to Biarritz, and the occasion was made memorable by a visit which she paid to the queen-regent of Spain at San Sebastian, the only visit that an English reigning sovereign had ever paid to the Peninsula.
In February she launched the battleship "Royal Sovereign" at Portsmouth; a week later she visited the Horse Show at Islington.
In September 1896 the queen's reign had reached a point at which it exceeded in length that of any other English The sovereign; but by her special request all public celebrations of the fact were deferred until the follow ing June, which marked the completion of sixty years from her accession.
While a son or daughter of the sovereign of Spain is by right infante or infanta of Spain, the title, alone, is granted to other members of the blood royal by the sovereign.
The arrangement was fraught with danger to the public tranquillity, and one of the reforms of the last sovereign was the abolition of the office of "Chao Uparach and a decree that the throne should in future descend from the king to one of his sons born of a queen, which decree was immediately followed by the appointment of a crown prince.
The wars with Cambodia continued with varying success for some 400 years, but Cambodia gradually lost ground and was finally shorn of several provinces, her sovereign falling entirely under Siamese influence.
The sovereign, Phra Paramendr Maha Mongkut, was a very accomplished man, an enlightened reformer and devoted to science; his death, indeed, was caused by fatigue and exposure while observing an eclipse.
Many of his predecessors, too, were men of different fibre from the ordinary Oriental sovereign, while his son Chulalong Korn, who succeeded him in 1868, showed himself an administrator of the highest capacity.
Neither eastern nor southern Siam was included in this agreement, but nothing was said to impair or lessen in any way the full sovereign rights of the king of Siam over those parts of the country.
The friends met again at Kalisch shortly before the signature of the Russo-Prussian alliance of the 10th of February 1813, and Czartoryski was in the emperor's suite at Paris in 1814, and rendered his sovereign material services at the congress of Vienna.
On the 10th of August 1 535 the Protestant faith was formally adopted by Geneva, but an offer of help from France having been refused, as the city was unwilling to give up any of its sovereign rights, the duke's party continued its intrigues.
For further details as to the development of the priestly caste and wisdom in India the reader must refer to Brahminism; here it is enough to observe that among a religious people a priesthood which forms a close and still more an hereditary corporation, and the assistance of which is indispensable in all religious acts, must rise to practical supremacy in society except under the strongest form of despotism, where the sovereign is head of the Church as well as of the state.
In each state the sovereign is still held to be the summus episcopus.
On his return to Rome Claudius was impeached by P. Cornelius Dolabella on the ground of having violated the sovereign rights of the people.
As an ecclesiastic he was pious, pure, simple in his mode of life, charitable, and a learned and liberal patron of letters; but as a sovereign he proved weak, timid and incapable.
He was not to use the word haeres, not being an hereditary sovereign.
While other vassals might hold of a graduated hierarchy of overlords up to the crown, the burgess always held directly of the sovereign.
The Protestant martyrs and Calais between them removed all the alternatives to an insular national English policy in church and in state; and no sovereign was better qualified to lead such a cause than the queen who ascended the throne amid universal, and the Spaniards thought indecent, rejoicings at Mary's death on the 17th of November 1558.
No sovereign since Harold had been so purely English in blood; her nearest foreign ancestor was Catherine of France, the widow of Henry V., and no English king or queen was more superbly insular in character or in policy.
In the Church of England the word is applied to a private place of worship, attached either to the palaces of the sovereign, "chapels royal," or to the residence of a private person, to a college, school, prison, workhouse, &c. Further, the word has particular legal applications, though in each case the building might be and often is styled a church.
But the prophetic societies were in their origin one symptom of that upheaval of national life of which the institution of the human sovereign reigning under the divine King was the chief fruit; they preserved the traditions of that great movement;.
All matters connected with the horses and hounds of the sovereign, as well as the stables and coachhouses, the stud, mews and kennels, are within his jurisdiction.
The practical management of the royal stables and stud devolves on the chief or crown equerry, formerly called the gentleman of the horse, who is never in personal attendance on the sovereign and whose appointment is permanent.
The clerk marshal has the supervision of the accounts of the department before they are submitted to the Board of Green Cloth, and is in waiting on the sovereign on state occasions only.
Exclusive of the crown equerry there are seven regular equerries, besides extra and honorary equerries, one of whom is always in attendance on the sovereign and rides at the side of the royal carriage.
They are youths aged from twelve to sixteen, selected by the sovereign in person, to attend on him at state ceremonies, when two of them, arrayed in an antique costume, assist the groom of the stole in carrying the royal train.
As well as the superintendence of the royal stables, he had that of the retinue of the sovereign, also the charge of the funds set aside for the religious functions of the court, coronations, &c. On the death of a sovereign he had the right to all the horses and their equipment in the royal stables.
Distinct from this officer and independent of him, was the first equerry ("Premier Ecuyer"), who had charge of the horses which the sovereign used personally ("la petite ecurie"), and who attended on him when he rode out.
In 1753 Spain and Portugal exchanged certain American provinces with each other, which involved a transfer of sovereign rights over Paraguay; but it was also provided that the populations should severally migrate also, that the subjects of each crown might remain the same as before.
Under the Constitution of the 5th of February 1857, subsequently modified in many important particulars, the government of Mexico is described as a federation of free and sovereign states invested with representative and democratic institutions.
The state is nominally sovereign within its own boundaries, and the authority of its officers and courts in local questions is supreme except in cases where federal intervention or supervision is provided for by the federal constitution.
He supplied the momentum which was necessary to counteract the caution of Burghley and Elizabeth; but it was probably fortunate that his headstrong counsels were generally overruled by the circumspection of his sovereign.
And for a time, in the reign of Masa`ud II_ (1098-1114), Lahore was the place of residence of the Ghaznevid sovereign.
In 1176 he conquered Saif-ud-din of Mosul beyond the Euphrates and was recognized as sovereign by the princes of northern Syria.
It was not frequently employed as a legislative body after the two assemblies of the tribes, which were easier to summon and organize, had been recognized as possessing sovereign rights.
Thou Almighty Sovereign,didst create all things for thy name's sake, and food and drink thou didst give to men for enjoyment, that they should give thanks unto thee; but to us thou didst of thy grace give spiritual food and drink and life eternal through thy servant.
They are dipped in water, which is given to ailing cattle and human beings as a sovereign remedy for diseases.
After the murder of Kurgan the contentions which arose among the many claimants to sovereign power were arrested by the invasion of Toghluk Timur of Kashgar, a descendant of Jenghiz.
At the close of 1369 Hosain was assassinated and Timur, having been formally proclaimed sovereign at Balkh, mounted the throne at Samarkand, the capital of his dominions.
In 1807 Schwarzburg-Sondershausen entered the Confederation of the Rhine and became a sovereign state.
While nearly all important measures are brought into parliament by the ministers of the sovereign, and nominally under his instructions, the American president cannot introduce bills either directly or through his the secretary of the treasury, the secretary of war, the attorneygeneral, the postmaster-general, the secretary of the navy, the secretary of the interiorthis order to apply only to such officers as shall have been appointed by the advice and consent of the Senate.
In 1648 the sovereign courts of Paris procured their momentary suppression in a kind of charter of liberties which they imposed upon the crown, but which was ephemeral.
It lodges above 300 monks, and the establishment of the hegumenos is described as resembling the court of a petty sovereign prince.
No longer was a trading company to discharge the duties of a sovereign.
Some thought that, under a Protestant sovereign, the Canadian Catholics would be rapidly converted to Protestantism.
The chief executive authority is vested in the sovereign, as is the supreme command g p of the military and naval forces.
He holds office for five years, and his powers are strictly limited, as in the case of the sovereign, all executive acts being done on the advice of his cabinet, the members of which hold office only so long as they retain the confidence of the people as expressed by their representatives in parliament.
The donations of Pippin and Charlemagne established him as sovereign de facto; the donation of Constantine was to proclaim him as sovereign de jure.
It contains the Albert Memorial Hall and the barracks for the sovereign's bodyguard, used when the king is in residence at Balmoral.
Appointments to this office are now made only for special occasions, such as the coronation of a sovereign or the trial of a peer by his peers.
During his father's lifetime he ruled Moravia, but when in 1248 some discontented Bohemian nobles acknowledged him as their sovereign, trouble arose between him and his father, and for a short time Ottakar was imprisoned.
Sub-leases for a term of years are granted by the crown to private individuals; local control, including the policing of the settlement, is managed by a municipal council elected under regulations promulgated by the British minister in China, acting by authority of the sovereign's orders in council.
In protest, the Georgia House of Representatives, holding that the United States Supreme Court had no constitutional power to try suits against a sovereign state, resolved that any Federal marshal who should attempt to execute the court's decision would be " guilty of felony, and shall suffer death, without benefit of clergy, by being hanged."
The National government, until the administration of President Jackson, regarded the Indian tribes as sovereign nations with whom it alone had the power to treat, while Georgia held that the tribes were dependent communities with no other right to the soil than that of tenants at will.
Adams treated the Cherokees with the courtesy due to a sovereign nation, and held that the United States had done all that was required to meet the obligation assumed in 1802.
When once the sovereign power had been thus divided, the natural consequence was civil war and the intervention of the French king, who had long watched for some such opportunity.
In 1910 the sultan of Great Comoro ceded his sovereign rights to France.
Thus the bituminous and fatty matters found about the mummies and their wrappings were employed as a sovereign remedy, particularly for wounds and contusions, and a brisk trade began in these "exudations" of mummies.
In 1469 they recognized Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, as their sovereign, but in 1490 they came again under the rule of the Bohemian king.
Though he carefully guarded his autocratic rights and privileges, and obstinately resisted all efforts to push him farther than he felt inclined to go he acted for several years somewhat like a constitutional sovereign of the continental type.
The old city palace facing upon Praca 15 de Novembro, once the residence of the fugitive Portuguese sovereign Dom Joao VI., is a good example.
After the death of Theobald in 1161, John continued as secretary to Thomas Becket, and took an active part in the long disputes between that primate and his sovereign, Henry II.
Africa had passed to Rome, and Cyrenaica itself, bequeathed by Apion, the last Ptolemaic sovereign, was become (in combination with Crete) a Roman province (after 96 B.C.), this competition told more severely than ever, and the Greek colonists, grown weaker, found themselves less able to hold their own against the Libyan population.
By the law of Hanover a woman could not ascend the throne, and accordingly Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland, the fifth son of George III., and not Victoria, succeeded William as sovereign in 1837, thus separating the crowns of Great Britain and Hanover after a union of 123 years.
Many of the Hanoverians remained loyal to their sovereign; some of them serving in the Guelph Legion, which was maintained largely at his expense in France, where a paper, La Situation, was founded by Oskar Meding (1829-1903) and conducted in his interests.
It was established, we are told, "because simple folks cannot distinguish the spiritual power from the sovereign power, and suppose that a supreme spiritual pastor is a second sovereign, the spiritual authority being regarded as higher and better than the temporal."
On the death of Anne in 1714, George, elector of Hanover, eldest son of Sophia (youngest child of the princess Elizabeth), and Ernest, elector of Brunswick-Luneburg, or Hanover, consequently became sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland, and, notwithstanding somewhat formidable attempts in behalf of the elder Stuart line in 1715 and 1745, the Hanoverian succession has remained uninterrupted and has ultimately won universal assent.
These incidents led to a representation on the part of the native sovereign to the" governments of Great Britain, France and the United States, and the independence of the islands (recognized by the United States in 1842) was recognized in 1844 by France and Great Britain.
About this time the Boeotian League comprised eleven groups of sovereign cities and associated townships, each of which elected one Boeotarch or minister of war and foreign affairs, contributed sixty delegates to the federal council at Thebes, and supplied a contingent of about a thousand foot and a hundred horse to the federal army.
The sovereign power was vested in the popular assembly, which elected the Boeotarchs (between seven and twelve in number), and sanctioned all laws.
The choice of the pope was then subject to the pleasure of the sovereign of Germany, against whom the Roman feudal lords, devoted as they were to the old abuses, were in constant revolt.
Daimbert, the first patriarch of Jerusalem, was convinced that the Roman Church alone could be sovereign of the new state, and attempted to compel Godfrey of Bouillon to hand over to him by a solemn agreement the town and citadel of Jerusalem, and also Jaffa.
To warn Eugenius against pride, Bernard reminds him in biblical terms that an insensate sovereign on a throne resembles " an ape upon a housetop," and that the dignity with which he is invested does not prevent him from being a man, that is, " a being, naked,!
He wished to be at once pope and emperor, leader of religion and universal sovereign.
In 1213 the pope, became not only the nominal suzerain but, de facto and de jure, the veritable sovereign of England, and during the last years of John and the first years of Henry III.
From this time the sovereign of Rome, like other sovereigns, had to submit to French influence.
In this case, too, the Sicilian Vespers was the rock on which the hopes and pretensions of the sovereign of Naples suffered shipwreck.
That a sovereign like St Louis should be able to associate himself officially with the feudalism of his realm to repress abuses of church jurisdiction; that a contemporary of Philip the Fair, the lawyer Pierre Dubois, should dare to suggest the secularization of ecclesiastical property and the conversion of the clergy into a class of functionaries paid out of the royal treasury; and that Philip the Fair, the adversary of Boniface VIII., should be able to rely in his conflict with the leader of the Church on the popular consent obtained at a meeting of the Three Estates of France - all point to a singular demoralization of the sentiments and principles on which were based the whole power of the pontiff of Rome and the entire organization of medieval Catholicism.
The sovereign direction of this enormous monarchy belonged to the pope alone, who was assisted in important affairs by the advice and collaboration of the College of Cardinals, who had become the sole electors to the papacy.
There was hardly a sovereign or a government in Christendom against which Pius IX.
These were the considerations that had caused 1 By - the Law of Guarantees the pope was recognized as an independent sovereign, with jurisdiction over his own palaces and their extensive precincts and tho right to receive diplomatic representatives accredited to him.
But in all cases the disciplinary authority is evidently the same; we need only note that acts concerning individuals do not claim the force of general law; the legal decisions serve at most to settle matters of jurisprudence, like the judgments of all sovereign courts.
In return for his services, Kublai invested Phagspa with sovereign power over (1) Tibet proper, comprising the thirteen districts of U and Tsang, (2) Khalil and (3) Amdo.
In his chief's most important work, the establishment of the Prussian Zollverein, Ancillon had no share, while the entirely subordinate role played by Prussia in Europe during this period, together with the personal part taken by the sovereign in the various congresses, gave him little scope for the display of any diplomatic talents he may have possessed.
On certain days the cross was washed, and the water in which it had been washed was a sovereign charm for curing sickness in men and animals and for bringing fertility to the land.
The support she received from the French envoy was given on the understanding that she should serve the interests of her native sovereign.
The right of the burgesses to self-government and self-taxation is acknowledged and confirmed, they, on the other hand, being held bound to a constitutional obedience and subjection to the sovereign, particularly to the payment of definite imperial taxes, and the rendering of a certain amount of military service (as the ancient municipia had been).
She faced the peril boldly, and reconquered her influence over the sovereign, but from this time she must have realized that when the empress was dead she would have to defend herself against her husband.
Whatever else Catherine may have been she was emphatically a sovereign and a politician who was in the last resort guided by the reason of state.
Catherine would have preferred to control the country through a vassal sovereign of the type of Stanislaus Poniatowski, the old lover whose election she secured in 1763.
In France, under the Concordat, the sovereign - and under the republic the president - had the right of nomination.
One of the marshal's sons, known as the duke of Liria, was settled in Spain, and was counselled by his father not to shrink from doing his duty and fighting for his sovereign.
Since then we discover in the Capitularies of Charlemagne actual mention of "caballarii " as a class of warriors, it may reasonably be concluded that formal investiture with arms applied to the " caballarii " if it was a usage extending beyond the sovereign and his heir-apparent.
Then there grew up all over Europe a system of fining the knights who failed to respond to the sovereign's call or to stay their full time in the field; and in England this fine developed, from the reign of Henry II.
And such bodies placed under the command of a sovereign or grand master, regulated by statutes, and enriched by ecclesiastical endowments would have been precisely what in after times such orders as the Garter in England, the Golden Fleece in Burgundy, the Annunziata in Savoy and the St Michael and Holy Ghost in France actually were.4 During the 14th and 15th centuries, as well as somewhat earlier and later, the general arrangements of a European army were always and everywhere pretty much the same.5 Under the sovereign the constable and the marshal g or marshals held the chief commands, their authority being partly joint and partly several.
In our days when a knight is personally made he kneels before the sovereign, who lays a sword drawn, ordinarily the sword of state, on either of his shoulders and says, " Rise," calling him by his Christian name with the addition of " Sir " before it.
It is now therefore peculiar to the British Empire, existing where, although very frequently conferred by letters patent, it is yet the only dignity which is still even occasionally created - as every dignity was formerly created - by means of a ceremony in which the sovereign and the subject personally take part.
It consisted of the king and the Black Prince, and 24 knights divided into two bands of 12 like the tilters in a hastilude - at the head of the one being the first, and of the other the second; and to the companions belonging to each, when the order had superseded the Round Table and had become a permanent institution, were assigned stalls either on the sovereign's or the prince's side of St George's Chapel.
The original companionship had consisted of the sovereign and 25 knights, and no change was made in this respect until 1786, when the sons of George III.
N i colas says, that the right was always restricted in operation to sovereign princes, to those acting under their authority or sanction, and to a few other personages of exalted rank and station.
In modern times, however, by certain regulations, made in 1823, and repeated and enlarged in 1855, not only is it provided that the sovereign's permission by royal warrant shall be necessary for the reception by a British subject of any foreign order of knighthood, but further that such permission shall not authorize " the assumption of any style, appellation, rank, precedence, or privilege appertaining to a knight bachelor of the United Kingdom."
It consisted of the sovereign and eight knights companions, and fell into abeyance at the Revolution of 1688.
In 1703 it was revived by Queen Anne, when it was ordained to consist of the sovereign and 12 knights companions, the number being increased to 16 by statute in 1827.
Exclusive of the sovereign, royal princes and distinguished foreigners, the order is limited to 55 military and 27 civil knights grand cross, 145 military and 108 civil knights commanders, and 705 military and 298 civil companions.
It consists of the sovereign, chancellor, secretary and five classes - knights grand commanders, knights commanders, commanders and members of the fourth and fifth classes, the distinction between these last divisions lying in the badge and in the precedence enjoyed by the members.
The number of British members has been fixed at twenty-four, with the addition of such foreign persons as the sovereign shall appoint.
The sovereign's permission by royal warrant is necessary before a British subject can receive a foreign order of knighthood.
The members were to be gentilshor y nznes de nom et d'armes et sans reproche, not knights of any other order, and vowed to join their sovereign in the defence of the Catholic faith, the protection of Holy Church, and the upholding of virtue and good morals.
The sovereign undertook to consult the knights before embarking on a war, all disputes between the knights were to be settled by the order, at each chapter the deeds of each knight were held in review, and punishments and admonitions were dealt out to offenders; to this the sovereign was expressly subject.
The Order of St Stephen of Hungary, the royal Hungarian order, founded in 5764 by the empress Maria Theresa, consists of the grand master (the sovereign), 20 knights grand cross, 30 knights commanders and 50 knights.
The order, exclusive of the sovereign and his sons, is limited to 30 knights, who must be of the Protestant religion.
Exclusive of the sovereign and princes of the blood, and foreign sovereigns and princes, it consists of twelve capitular knights of the rank of count or Freiherr.
It is of one class only, and the sons and nephews of the sovereign are born knights of the order.
During the rule of thirty-seven successive grand masters, similarly chosen, the influence and wealth of the order gradually increased until the Knights of Alcantara were almost as powerful as the sovereign.
Exclusive of the sovereign and the princes of the blood, the order is limited to 23 Swedish and 8 foreign members.
Peltigera canin g, which formed the basis of the celebrated " pulvis antilyssus " of Dr Mead, long regarded as a sovereign cure for hydrophobia; Platysma juniperinum, lauded as a specific in jaundice, no doubt on the similia similibus principle from a resemblance between its yellow colour and that of the jaundiced skin; Peltidea aphthosa, which on the same principle was regarded by the Swedes, when boiled in milk, as an effectual remedy for the aphthae or rash on their children.
He came back to assert the ancient doctrine that the sovereign authority resided in his person only.
His constant obligations to the emperor drained Brandenburg of money which might have been employed more profitably at home, and prevented her sovereign from interfering in the politics of northern Europe.
His arms were successful both in Europe and Asia, and he was the first Ottoman sovereign to be styled "sultan," which title he induced the titular Abbasid caliph to confer on him.
Elizabeth, by the mouth of her chief justice, formally rebuked the audacity of the subjects who durst bring such a charge against their sovereign, and challenged them to advance their proofs.
In spite of her first refusal to submit, she was induced by the arguments of the vice-chamberlain, Sir Christopher Hatton, to appear before this tribunal on condition that her protest should be registered against the legality of its jurisdiction over a sovereign, the next heir of the English crown.
The name appears to have been derived from the Yussuf ben-Serragh, the head of the tribe in the time of Mahommed VII., who did that sovereign good service in his struggles to retain the crown of which he was three times deprived.
The Protestants have the same civil rights as the Roman Catholics, and the sovereign may be either Roman Catholic or Protestant.
The title of the sovereign is king of Bavaria, that of his presumptive heir is crown-prince of Bavaria, and during the minority or incapacity of the sovereign a regency is declared, which is vested in the nearest male agnate capable of ascending the throne.
By this instrument, though Bavaria became an integral part of the new German empire, she reserved a larger measure of sovereign independence than any of the other constituent states.
There can be no doubt that he was a busy intriguer, or that the king, acting on the then very generally accepted doctrine that the sovereign has a right to act for the public interest without regard to forms of law, gave orders to Antonio Perez that he was to be put out of the way.
The heads of departments are appointed and dismissed at the pleasure of the sovereign, usually determined, however, as in all constitutional states, by the will of the nation as indicated by its representatives.
All communications from the sovereign to the states-general and from the states to the sovereign, as well as all measures relating to internal administration or to foreign possessions, are first submitted to the consideration of the council of state, which consists of 14 members appointed by the sovereign, who is the president.
The state council also has the right of making suggestions to the sovereign in regard to subjects of legislation and administration.
The president of the communal council is the burgomaster, who is named by the sovereign in every instance for six years, and receives a salary varying from £40 to over £600.
The StatesGeneral were but the delegates of a number of sovereign provinces, and amongst these Holland by its size and wealth (after the occupation by the Spaniards of Brabant and Flanders) was predominant.
Leicester, on landing in Holland, was in the presence of the States-General and of Maurice of Nassau invested with the title of governor-general and practically sovereign powers (February 1586).
These two provinces were unwilling to have any sovereign but William himself, and after considerable hesitation he agreed to become their Count (24th of July 1581).
It became a question of the extent of the rights of sovereign princes under the Union.
The conclu sions arrived at were that all sovereign powers resided in the provinces, and that to them severally, each within its own borders, belonged the control of the military forces and of religion.
The States-General were but the delegates, the stadholders the servants, of a number of sovereign provinces, each of which had different historical traditions and a different form of government, and one of which - Holland - in wealth and importance outweighed the other six taken together.
The consent of the States-General was refused, but by of a secret treaty Holland, under the influence of de Witt, accepted it in their own name as a sovereign province.
Under the constitution the king, as hereditary sovereign, possessed full executive powers, and the initiative in proposing laws.
The singing of this is followed by bidding prayers for the peace and unity of the church, for the pope, the clergy, all ranks and conditions of men, the sovereign, for catechumens, the sick and afflicted, heretics and schismatics, Jews and heathen.
To secede is a sovereign right; secession, therefore, is based on the theory that the sovereignty of the individual states forming a confederacy or federal union has not been absorbed into a single new sovereignty.
The right to secede was based, the secessionists claimed, upon the fact that each state was sovereign, becoming so by successful revolution against England; there had been no political connexion between the colonies; the treaty of 1783 recognized them "as free, sovereign and independent states"; this sovereignty was recognized in the Articles of Confederation, and not surrendered, they asserted, under the Constitution; the Union of 1787 was really formed by a secession from the Union of 1776-1787.
Two early commentators on the Constitution, St George Tucker in 1803 and William Rawle in 1825, declared that the sovereign states might secede at will.
The treaty of Irvine, by which these Scottish nobles agreed to acknowledge Edward as their sovereign lord, is printed in Rymer's Foedera.
Indeed, as a sovereign, Dagobert was reckoned superior to the other barbarian kings.
In a donative advowson, the sovereign, or any subject by special licence from the sovereign, conferred a benefice by a simple letter of gift, without any reference to the bishop, and without presentation and institution.
As sovereign of lands on both sides of the Pyrenees, he was affected by very different influences.
Subsequently, as the central power of the German sovereign became weakened, the Rhineland followed the general tendency and split up into numerous small independent principalities, each with its separate vicissitudes and special chronicles.
The Belgian constitution stipulates for " freedom of conscience, of education, of the press and also of the right of meeting," but the sovereign must be a member of the Church of Rome.
The functions of the king are those that appertain everywhere to the sovereign of a constitutional state.
Brabant and Flanders were still indeed under the control of the prince of Orange, and through his influence accepted in 1582 the duke of Anjou as their sovereign.
Philip was now nearing his end, and in 1598 he gave his eldest daughter Isabel Albert in marriage to her cousin the archduke Albert, and erected the Netherlands into a sovereign state under their joint rule.
Meanwhile from 1692 onwards brighter prospects were opened out to the unfortunate Belgians by the nomination by the Spanish king of Maximilian Emanuel, elector of Bavaria, to be governorgeneral with well-nigh sovereign powers.
It was desirable that the new sovereign should be able to count upon the friendly support of the great powers, and yet not be actually a member of their reigning dynasties.
He pours much hackneyed scorn on the common herd, declares the sovereign to be the source of law, and asserts that popular freedom is dangerous.
In 1706 the Mahrattas acquired the right of levying tribute in southern India, and their principal chief, the Peshwa of Poona, became a practically independent sovereign.
The king being dead, and the royalist cause appearing to be hopelessly lost, he did not scruple, in closing the work with a general " Review and Conclusion," to raise the question of the subject's right to change allegiance when a former sovereign's power to protect was irrecoverably gone.
In politics the revulsion from his particuar conclusions did not prevent the more clear-sighted of his opponents from recognizing the force of his supreme demonstration of the practical irresponsibility of the sovereign power, wherever seated, in the state; and, when in a later age the foundations of a positive theory of legislation were laid in England, the school of Bentham - James Mill, Grote, Molesworth - brought again into general notice the writings of the great publicist of the 17th century, who, however he might, by the force of temperament, himself prefer the rule of one, based his whole political system upon a rational regard to the common weal.
He was undoubtedly the most powerful sovereign of his time and the most remarkable and imposing of the native rulers of India.
History shows that states forming unions of the second class are certain in after time to deny or assert that the sovereignty of the state is one of the rights reserved, according as the state belongs to a stronger or weaker section or faction; state sovereignty being the defence of the weaker state or faction, and being denied by the stronger group of states which controls the government and which asserts that a new sovereign state was created by a union of the former independent ones.
Philip consented to a reconciliation with the king of France, and agreed to recognize him as his legitimate sovereign on condition that he should not be required to pay him homage during his lifetime.
The want of a central government opelated injuriously, for it often happened that intricate negotiations and solemn treaties between several sovereign states were required before a line could be constructed; and, moreover, the course it was to take was often determined less by the general exigencies of commerce than by many trifling interests or desires of neighboring states.
The title is German emperor, not emperor of Germany, being intended to show that the Kaiser is but primus inter pares in a confederation o.f territorial sovereigns; his authority as territorial sovereign (Landesherr) extends over Prussia, not over GermaAy.
The free cities of Lbeck, I-Iamburg and Bremen, as sovereign states, form a separate class.
In the Protestant states the ecclesiastical authority remains purely territorial, and the sovereign remains effective head of the established church.
During the I9th century, however, a large measure of ecclesiastical self-government (by means of general synods, &c.) was introduced, pan passu with the growth of constitutional government in the state; and in effect, though the theoretical supremacy of the sovereign survives in the church as in the state, he cannot exercise it save through the general synod, which is the state parliament for ecclesiastical purposes.
Where a sovereign rules over a state containing a large proportion of both Catholics and Protestants, which is usually the case, both systems coexist.
Besides these ten-mark pieces, there are Doppclkronen (double crowns), about equivalent in value to an English sovereign (the average rate of exchange being 20 marks 40 pfennige per LI sterling), and, formerly, half-crowns (halbe Kronen =5 marks) in gold were also issued, hut they have been withdrawn from circulation.
They saw that the independence they had hitherto enjoyed would be much more imperilled by powerful local governors than by a sovereign who necessarily regarded it as part of his duty to protect the church.
Among the Slays between the Elbe and the Oder the kinj was represented by Margrave Gero, a warrior well fitted for th rough work he had to do, loyal to his sovereign, but capabl of any treachery towards his enemies, who conquered much 0 the country north of Bohemia between the Oder and the uppe and middle Elbe.
His successors steadily followed his example, and the sovereign crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle claimed as his Germany right coronation by the pope in Rome.
Instead of strengthening the allegiance of the Germans towards their sovereign, the imperial title was the means of steadily undermining it.
They received great gifts of land, were endowed with jurisdiction in criminal as well as civil cases, and obtained several other valuable sovereign rights.
From all these circumstances it curiously happened that the sovereign who did more than almost any other to raise the royal power, was also the sovereign who, more than any other, wrought its decay.
Boleslaus of Poland, who was now a very powerful sovereign, having conquered Lusatia and Silesia, brought Bohemia also under his rule and was soon at variance with the German king.
Hitherto a sovereign crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle had been king of the West Franks, or king of the Franks and Saxons.
This reluctance was due largely to the increasing independence of this class of landholders, who were beginning to learn that the sovereign, and not their immediate lord, was the protector of their liberties; the independence in its turn arose from the growth of the principle of heredity.
And Henrys now a pope attempted to drag from his throne the excomsuccessor of this very sovereign.