How to use South-africa in a sentence

south-africa
  • On the polar side of the high-pressure area a west wind drift is under the control of the " roaring forties," and on reaching South Africa part of this is deflected and sent northwards along the west coast as the cold Benguella current which rejoins the equatorial.

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  • In 1893 a contract was made with the Eastern and South Africa Telegraph Company for the construction, laying and maintenance of a cable from Zanzibar to the Seychelles and Mauritius, a distance of 2210 m., for a subsidy of £28,000 a year for twenty years.

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  • The following year the rates to and from East and South Africa were reduced, by negotiation, from charges varying from 7s.

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  • In 1900 direct telegraph working was established between London and Genoa, and a third cable was laid to South Africa via St Helena and Ascension.

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  • On the outbreak of the South African War in 1899 Grant was at first disposed to be hostile to the policy of Lord Salisbury and Mr Chamberlain; but his eyes were soon opened to the real nature of President Kruger's government, and he enthusiastically welcomed and supported the national feeling which sent men from the outlying portions of the Empire to assist in upholding British supremacy in South Africa.

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  • It was replaced by the Glossopteris flora which is assumed to have originated in a vast continental area (Gondwana land), of which remnants remain in South America, South Africa and Australia.

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  • On the other hand, it is the headquarters of Mutisiaceae, represented in South Africa by such genera as Oldenburgia and Gerbera and by Triehocline in Australia.

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  • As the whole coastline of Liberia thus fronts the sea route from Europe to South Africa it is always likely to possess a certain degree of strategical importance.

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  • Of this total there were in the British Empire about 380,000 Jews (British Isles 240,000, London accounts for 150,000 of these; Canada and British Columbia 60,000; India 18,000; South Africa 40,000).

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  • On this island Bartholomew Diaz made his second landing in South Africa some time after the 3rd of February 1488, and from the cross which he is thought to have erected on it the island gets its name.

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  • Gondwanaland, however, did not long survive, and the portion which lay between India and South Africa sank beneath the waves in Tertiary times.

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  • Hundreds of acres of wheat are lost annually in America by the ravages of the Hessian fly; the fruit flies of Australia and South Africa cause much loss to orange and citron growers, often making it necessary to cover the trees in muslin tents for protection.

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  • It was founded in 1868 and is the chief town of the Marico district, one of the most fertile regions of South Africa.

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  • The true oryx of classical writers was probably the East and North-east African beisa-oryx (Oryx beisa), which is replaced in South Africa by the gemsbuck (oryx gazella).

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  • In 1818 he joined the Rev. John Campbell in his second journey to South Africa to inspect the stations of the London Missionary Society, and reported that the conduct of the Cape Colonists towards the natives was deserving of strong reprobation.

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  • His recommendations were adopted by the House of Commons, but his unpopularity in South Africa was great, and in 1830 he was convicted of libelling a Cape official.

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  • Arrangements were concluded with the British South Africa Company for the formation of a small syndicate for working in Rhodesia.

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  • Heaths, generally somewhat rare in South Africa outside the Cape peninsula, are abundant in Basutoland.

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  • The conversion of Basuto A land into a crown colony contributed alike to the Y pros perityof the Basuto,the security of the property of neighbouring colonists and a peaceful condition among the natives of South Africa generally.

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  • Many books dealing with South Africa generally have chapters relating to Basutoland, e.g.

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  • Consult also Theal's History of South Africa (1908-9 ed.).

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  • In January 1870 the first piece of real foreign missionary work was begun at Fernando Po, followed in December of the same year by the mission at Aliwal North on the Orange River in South Africa.

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  • It is the starting point of a railway to Mrogoro, and is connected by overland telegraph via Ujiji with South Africa.

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  • The states of British South Africa have each their surveyor-general, and a reconnaissance survey has been in progress since 1903.

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  • In April Lord Rosmead resigned his posts of high commissioner for South Africa and governor of Cape Colony.

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  • The appointment was avowedly made in order that an acceptable British statesman, in whom public confidence was reposed, might go to South Africa to consider all the circumstances, and to formulate a policy which should combine the upholding of British interests with the attempt to deal justly with the Transvaal and Orange Free State governments.

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  • He came to the conclusion that there could be no hope of peace and progress in South Africa while there remained the "permanent subjection of British to Dutch in one of the Republics."

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  • Convinced that the existing state of affairs, if continued, would end in the loss of South Africa by Britain, Milner came to England in November 1898.

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  • He left South Africa while the economic crisis was still acute and at a time when the voice of the critic was audible everywhere; but, in the words of the colonial secretary (Mr Alfred Lyttelton) he had in the eight eventful years of his administration "laid deep and strong the foundation upon which a united South Africa would arise to become one of the great states of the empire."

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  • Experience in South Africa had shown him that underlying the difficulties of the situation there was the wider problem of imperial unity.

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  • Walfish Bay forms a detached portion of the Cape province of the Union of South Africa.

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  • On the departure of Lord Roberts for South Africa the duke succeeded him as commander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland, 9th of January 1900.

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  • In this part of its course the river receives from the south the streams, often intermittent, which rise on the northern slopes of the Stormberg, Zuurberg and Sneeuwberg ranges - the mountain chain which forms the water-parting between the coast and inland drainage systems of South Africa.

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  • The fauna shows striking analogies with that of the Bokkeveld beds of South Africa on the one hand and of the Hamilton group of North America on the other.

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  • Some of the plants are European forms, others belong to the Glossopteris flora characteristic of India and South Africa.

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  • The terrace formation of the land characteristic of other coast regions of South Africa prevails in Natal.

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  • The works which have made Port Natal the finest harbour in South Africa are described under Durban.

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  • The first railway built in South Africa was a 2-m.

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  • Land lines connect Natal with every part of South Africa and with Nyasaland and Ujiji.

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  • The South Africa Act 1909 established a Supreme Court of South Africa, the former supreme court of Natal becoming a provincial division of the new supreme court.

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  • In 1576 Manuel de Mesquita Perestrello, commanded by King Sebastian to explore the coast of South Africa and report on suitable harbours, -made a rough chart, even then of little use to navigators, which is of value as exhibiting the most that was known of the country by its discoverers before the advent of their Dutch rivals, who established themselves at Cape Town in 1652.

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  • Public opinion of the hour in each section of the community was the only force in the land" (History of South Africa 1834 - 1854, chap. xliv.).

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  • But in 1860 and for many years afterwards these consequences were not foreseen, and alone among the South Africa states Natal offered a welcome to Asiatics.

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  • The action of the British cabinet caused both astonishment and indignation throughout South Africa and in the other selfgoverning states of the empire.

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  • Mr Chamberlain on his visit to South Africa came first to Natal, where he landed in the last days of 1902, and conferred with the leading colonists.

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  • The intercolonial commission had dealt with the native question as it affected South Africa as a whole; it was felt that Native a more local investigation was needed, and in August Affairs' 1906 a strong commission was appointed to inquire Corn- into the condition of the Natal natives.

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  • Mr Moor remained premier until the office was abolished by the establishment of the Union of South Africa.

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  • In Natal, especially among the older colonists, who feared that in a united South Africa Natal interests would be overborne, the proposals for union were met with suspicion and opposition, and the Natal ministry felt bound to submit the question to the people.

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  • On that date the Union of South Africa was established, Natal becoming one of the original provinces of the Union.

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  • For further historical works and for information on flora, fauna, climate, law, church, &c. see the bibliography under SOUTH AFRICA.

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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to South Africa.

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  • In 1910 the control of the railways passed to the harbours and railway board of the Union of South Africa.

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  • There is a provincial division of the Supreme Court of South Africa sitting at Pretoria (consisting of a judge president and six puisne justices) with original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters.

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  • A strong garrison of the British army is maintained in the province, the headquarters of all the imperial military forces in South Africa being at Pretoria.

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  • Schoemansdal, a village at the foot of the Zoutpansberg, was the most important settlement of the district, and the most advanced outpost in European occupation at that time in South Africa.

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  • They earned the reputation of being the most lawless white inhabitants in the whole of South Africa.

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  • And now the proclamation of Pretorius was followed by protests on the part of the British high commissioner, Sir Philip Wodehouse, as well as on the part of the consul-general for Portugal in South Africa.

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  • In June Sir Garnet Wolseley went to South Africa as commander of the forces against the Zulus, and as high commissioner " for a time," in the place of Sir Bartle Frere, of the Transvaal and Natal.

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  • These terms practically conceded all that the Boers demanded, and were never regarded as anything else than surrender either by the Boers or the loyalists in South Africa.

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  • No arrangement was possible on such terms. Meanwhile feeling was running high at Johannesburg and throughout South Africa.

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  • Certain departmental details were despatched to South Africa to form a working nucleus for military bases, and early in September the cabinet sanctioned the despatch to Natal from India of a mixed force, 5600 strong, while two battalions were ordered to South Africa from the Mediterranean.

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  • On the following day the Boer attack on an armoured train at Kraaipan, a railway station in Cape Colony south of Mafeking and close to the western frontier of the Transvaal, witnessed the first hostile shot of a bloody war, destined to plunge South Africa into strife for two years and a half.

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  • On their return to South Africa the Boer generals and their colleagues aided to some extent in the work of.resettlement, but the seats offered to the Boers on the executive council were declined.

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  • At this period Mr Chamberlain determined to visit South Africa and use his personal influence to help forward the settlement of the country.

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  • By the introduction of the Chinese the gold output from the mines was greatly increased, with the result that the Transvaal suffered less than any other part of South Africa from the restriction of commerce, which lasted for several years.

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  • One of the first problems which confronted the Botha ministry was the attitude to be adopted towards the other British colonies in South Africa.

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  • Mr Chamberlain when in South Africa in 1903 had also put forward federation as the desired goal.

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  • Subsequently he was agent-general for the Transvaal in London, and (1910) agentgeneral for the Union of South Africa.

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  • The establishment of the Union of South Africa removed from the competence of the Transvaal provincial council all legislation specially or differentially affecting Asiatics.

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  • Harrismith has a dry, bracing climate and enjoys a high reputation in South Africa as a health resort.

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  • On the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910 Pretoria became its administrative capital, the seat of the legislature being however at Cape Town.

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  • Frere was convinced that the peace of South Africa could be Frere's preserved only if the power of Cetywayo was curtailed.

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  • News of Isandhlwana reached England on the iith of February, and on the same day about Io,000 men were ordered out to South Africa.

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  • On the day that the Union of South Africa was established (31st of May 1910), the Botha ministry released Dinizulu from prison.

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  • Skips are sometimes of very large capacity, holding 5, 7, and even 10 tons of ore; such are used, for example, in several shafts at Butte, Montana, in the Lake Superior copper district, and in South Africa.

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  • Recent investigations have shown an alarming increase in mortality from miners' phthisis in Cornwall, South Africa and elsewhere.

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  • Without yielding fortunes for speculators, like South Africa or Australia, it returns a fair percentage upon genuine hard work.

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  • The genus Widdringtonia of tropical and South Africa is also known locally as cedar.

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  • The African Monthly (Grahamstown, 1907) and the State of South Africa (Cape Town, 1909) are monthly reviews, while the South African Railway Magazine (1907) is of wider interest than its name denotes.

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  • It is the most populous city and the commercial capital of South Africa.

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  • The square itself, a quarter of a mile long, is the largest in South Africa.

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  • Among the regions not previously important as gold-producers which now contribute to the annual output, the most remarkable are the goldfields of South Africa (Transvaal and Rhodesia, the former of which were discovered in 1885).

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  • India likewise has been added to the list, its active production having begun at about the same time as that of South Africa.

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  • This variety surrounds the tropical parts of the continental shelves of South America, South Africa and eastern China.

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  • In Karagwe certain quartzites, slates and schistose sandstones resemble the ancient gold-bearing rocks of South Africa.

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  • The church dates from 1699 and is the oldest church in South Africa.

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  • The house was the property of Cecil Rhodes, and was bequeathed by him for the use of the prime minister of Federated South Africa.

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  • By its railway connexions Cape Town affords the quickest means of reaching, from western Europe, every other town in South Africa.

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  • The word as spelled represents the pronunciation of the Cape Dutch milje, an adaptation of milho (da India), the millet of India, the Portuguese name for millet, used in South Africa for maize.

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  • Excepting the barren lands of the Antarctic regions, with which Patagonia is somewhat associated by a broken string of islands, the nearest continental lands of a more habitable kind are South Africa and New Zealand., In contrast to the sub-Arctic land ring, here is a sub-Antarctic ocean ring, and as a result the land flora and fauna of South America to-day are strongly unlike the life forms of the other south-ending continents.

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  • The desire of New Zealanders to strike a blow for the mother-country took the practical shape of despatching to South Africa ten successive contingents.

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  • The country forms part of the inner tableland of South Africa and has an elevation of between 4000 and 5000 ft.

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  • Over the greater part of the plains little now grows save veld, the coarse long grass of South Africa.

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  • The Bushmen are, presumably, the oldest inhabitants of this, as of many other parts of South Africa.

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  • The " Conquered Territory," that is the valley of the Caledon, is the most fertile region and is styled the granary of South Africa.

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  • Bloemfontein is the seat of the Supreme Court of the Union of South Africa and also of a provincial division of the same court.

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  • A treaty was signed at Thaba Bosigo in April 1866, but war again broke out in 1867, and the Free State attracted to its side a large number of adventurers from all parts of South Africa.

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  • It has ever since been known as the Conquered Territory, and it forms to-day one of the richest corn-growing districts in South Africa.

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  • During the period of Brand's presidency a great change, both political and economic, had come over South Africa.

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  • From 1881 onwards they cherished the idea of an independent South Africa.

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  • At the same time his policy was guided by a sincere patriotism, which looked to the true prosperity of the Free State as well as to that of the whole of South Africa.

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  • On the part of the Free State there was obviously a genuine desire to further the best interests of the state, together with the general prosperity of the whole of South Africa.

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  • This agitation, as far as the Orange River Colony was concerned, coincided with the return to South Africa of ex-President Steyn.

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  • He returned to South Africa early in 1903 and was admitted to the bar of the Orange Colony.

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  • West-Ridgeway, was sent to South Africa to inquire into and report upon various.

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  • McCall Theal, History of South Africa since 1795 [up to 1872], vols.

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  • She reviewed the departing regiments; she entertained the wives and children of the Windsor soldiers who had gone to the war; she showed by frequent messages her watchful interest in the course of the campaign and in the efforts which were being made throughout the whole empire; and her Christmas gift of a box of chocolate to every soldier in South Africa was a touching proof of her sympathy and interest.

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  • Before Christmas she made her usual journey to Osborne, and there on the 2nd of January she received Lord Roberts on his return from South Africa and handed to him the insignia of the Garter.

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  • In the more important British colonies - Australasia, Canada and South Africa - there are now a considerable number of hospital schools and other institutions formed and conducted on the English model.

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  • Salaries and fees are very much the same in Australia; in Canada and South Africa they are higher.

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  • In 1874 Lord Carnarvon, then colonial secretary, sent Froude to South Africa to report on the best means of promoting a confederation of its colonies and states, and in 1875 he was again sent to the Cape as a member of a proposed conference to further confederation.

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  • This district was the headquarters of the Huguenot refugees who settled in South Africa at the close of the 17th century.

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  • The protectorate is administered by a resident commissioner, responsible to the high commissioner for South Africa.

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  • In 1891 the northern frontier of the protectorate was extended to its present boundaries, and the whole of it placed P P under the administration of a resident commissioner, a protest being made at the time by the British South Africa Company on the ground that the protectorate was included in the sphere of their charter.

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  • These cannot be compelled to serve outside the Dominion, though special corps may be enlisted for this purpose, as was done during the war in South Africa (1899-1902).

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  • The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.

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  • The task of clearing up after the war, both in South Africa and at home, lay before him; but his cordial relations with Mr Chamberlain, and the enthusiastic support of a large parliamentary majority, made the prospects fair.

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  • Mr Chamberlain went to South Africa in the late autumn, with the hope that his personality would influence the settlement there; and the session of 1903 opened in February with no hint of troubles to come.

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  • The heavy taxation of the war years was still retained, to the disgust especially of the income-tax payers; and new issues arose over the Education Act, labour questions, and the introduction of Chinese labour into South Africa (in 1904), which were successfully used against the government in the constituencies.

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  • Upper Canada had its conference in 1834, France in 1852, Australia in 1855, South Africa in 1882.

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  • In East and South Africa there is a genus of Mustelidae known as Ictonyx (Zorilla) which possesses a foetid odour and is warningly coloured with black and white bands after the manner of skunks.

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  • There also occurs in South Africa another member of this family (Poecilogale albinucha), which is very similarly coloured.

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  • In South Africa too the males of a species of Eresidae (Seothyra) resemble and are found in company with a large ant (Camponotus fulvopilosus), which is common on the veld.

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  • The South Africa General Mission, the North Africa Mission, and the Congo Balolo Mission come next in importance; but there are several smaller bodies working in different countries.

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  • The Moravians, represented by George Schmidt, who arrived at Cape Town in July 1737, were the first to undertake mission work in South Africa.

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  • The province of South Africa has ten dioceses, the bishop of Cape Town being metropolitan.

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  • There are in South Africa several vicariates and prefectures of the Roman Church, the principal missions being French, those of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Oblates of Mary.

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  • P. capensis from South Africa is hardy south of the Thames and in favoured localities.

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  • Is found in India and north and south Africa.

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  • C. Selous, in South Africa the black-maned lion and others with yellow scanty manes are found, not only in the same locality, but even among individuals of the same parentage.

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  • It thus corresponds with the standard time of British South Africa.

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  • The bishop of Calcutta received letters patent as metropolitan of India when the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; and fresh patents were issued to Bishop Broughton in 1847 and Bishop Gray in 1853, as metropolitans of Australia and South Africa respectively.

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  • It was first assumed by the metropolitans of Canada and Rupert's Land, at the desire of the Canadian general synod in 1893; and subsequently, in accordance with a resolution of the Lambeth conference of 1897, it was given by their synods to the bishop of Sydney as metropolitan of New South Wales and to the bishop of Cape Town as metropolitan of South Africa.

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  • Again, after Mr Kruger's ultimatum in October 1899, Lord Rosebery spoke upon the necessity of the nation closing its ranks and supporting the government in the prosecution of war in South Africa.

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  • It is also the centre of one of the richest coalfields in South Africa.

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  • The Spion Kop incident led to much controversy; for an admirable elucidation of the facts see The Times History of the War in South Africa.

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  • The name itself (Dutch for "Look-out Hill") is fairly common as a place-name in South Africa.

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  • Parties in South Africa are not divided on provincial lines; it may, however, be recorded that the majority of the Cape members of Parliament have favoured the maintenance of the British connexion and the fusion of Dutch and British interests.

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  • A considerable number of men who came from South Africa or Great Britain to serve against the Germans remained in Nyasaland as planters, and the area under cultivation largely increased.

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  • The Antipodean-American element in the Sokotran flora probably arrived via the Mascarene Islands or South Africa from a former Antarctic continent.

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  • Although during the Gondwana period the flora of India differed greatly from that of Europe, it was strikingly similar to the contemporaneous floras of South America, South Africa and Australia.

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  • These beds are the result of ice-action, and it is interesting to note that a similar boulder bed is associated with the Glossopterisbearing deposits of Australia, South Africa and probably South America.

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  • It is now very generally believed that in Jurassic and Cretaceous times a great land-mass stretched from South Africa through Madagascar to India, and that the Cretaceous deposits of Cutch, &c., were laid down upon its northern shore, and those of Pondicherry and Trichinopoly upon its southern shore.

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  • It differs conspicuously in this respect from such countries as Australia or South Africa.

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  • Many Mauritian Creoles have emigrated to South Africa.

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  • The rice comes principally from India and Madagascar; cattle are imported from Madagascar, sheep from South Africa and Australia, and frozen meat from Australia.

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  • In 1898 the House of the Resurrection at Mirfield, near Huddersfield, became the centre of the community; in 1903 a college for training candidates for orders was established there, and in the same year a branch house, for missionary work, was set up in Johannesburg in South Africa.

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  • Sir Bartle Frere, who became high commissioner of South Africa in March 1877, found evidence which convinced him that the Kaffir revolt of that year on the eastern border of Cape Colony was part of a design or desire "for a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization"; and the Kaffirs undoubtedly looked to Cetywayo and the Zulus as the most redoubtable of their champions.

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  • Extensive deposits are mined in the United States, particularly at Butte in Montana, and in Namaqualand, South Africa.

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  • The plants often bear spines, especially those growing in arid districts in Australia or tropical and South Africa.

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  • Between 1821 and 1904, about 22 millions landed from Europe in the United States; about 22 millions in Canada; 2 millions in Australia, besides a good number in Brazil, the Argentine and South Africa.

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  • In South Africa the Dutch have been settled and nearly isolated for over 200 years, and have kept themselves almost or quite free from native intermixture.

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  • The little rooibek of South Africa (Estrilda astrild) has been so long and well established in St Helena that it is known in the bird trade as the St Helena waxbill, and the brilliant scarlet weaver of Madagascar (Foudia madagascariensis) inhabits as an imported bird Mauritius, the Seychelles and even the remote Chagos Islands.

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  • The "Place of Slaughter," as the Zulu word Bulawayo is interpreted, was founded about 1838 by Lobengula's father, Mosilikatze, some distance south of the present town, and continued to be the royal residence till its occupation by the British South Africa Company's forces in November 1893, when a new town was founded.

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  • While eggs from North Africa present a perfectly smooth surface, those from South Africa are pitted.

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  • Douglass, Ostrich Farming in South Africa (London, 1881); modern anatomical work on the group is referred to in the article BIRDS.

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  • But the results of the saner researches of Randall Maclver, announced first at the South Africa meeting of the British Association (1905) and later communicated to the Royal Geographical Society, have robbed these structures of much of their glamour; from being the centres of Phoenician and Hebrew industry they have sunk to be mere magnified kraals, not more than three or four hundred years old.

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  • The attempt, which ended in failure, is interesting as the first recorded settlement of English in South Africa.

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  • As a geographical unit South Africa is usually held to be that part of the continent south of the middle course of the Zambezi.

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  • Other writers confine the term to the British possessions south of the Zambezi, but in this case British South Africa is the proper designation.

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  • There is a marked uniformity in physical features throughout South Africa.

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  • The cereal most grown is maize (known in South Africa as mealies); kaffir corn, wheat, barley and oats are also largely cultivated.

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  • The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots, now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

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  • The table on p. 464 shows the inhabitants, white and coloured, in the different territories into which South Africa is divided, and also the area of these territories.

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  • The scanty rainfall in many parts of South Africa and its unequal distribution necessitates a system of artificial irrigation unless much of the land be allowed to remain uncultivated.

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  • In 1909 an irrigation congress representative of all the governments of British South Africa was held at Robertson, in the Cape province.

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  • There is internal free trade throughout the Union of South Africa.

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  • In 1909 the value of the imports into British South Africa was returned at £29,842,000; the value of the exports at £51,151,000.3 Of the imports over £16,850,000 came from the United Kingdom, over £2,240,000 from Australia, £2,450,000 from Germany, and £2,195,000 from the United States.

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  • Next to Great Britain the countries doing most trade with South Africa are Australia and New Zealand, Germany, the United States, Canada, Brazil, India, Belgium, Holland and France.

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  • The work of this society's agents has had a greater influence on the history of South Africa than that of any other religious body save the Dutch Reformed Church.

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  • Next in order came the Wesleyans and the Glasgow Missionary Society (Presbyterian), the last-named society founding in 1824 the station of Lovedale - now the most important institution in South Africa in connexion with native missions.

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  • In the period which has elapsed since the establishment of British rule at the Cape the law has been considerably modified and altered, both by legislation and by judicial decisions, and it is not too much to say that at the present time there exists hardly any material difference in principle over the greater part of the field of jurisprudence between the law of England and the law of South Africa.

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  • In South Africa there is a rigid and universal application of the principle of registration.

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  • There is absolute freedom of testamentary disposition in the Cape province and in some other parts of South Africa.

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  • The languages spoken in South Africa by the inhabitants of European descent are English and Dutch, the latter chiefly in the form of a patois colloquially known as the Taal.

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  • The basis of the language as spoken to-day is that 17th-century Dutch of Holland which the first settlers brought to the country; and although the Dutch of Holland and the Dutch of South Africa differ very widely to-day, Cape Dutch differs less widely from the Dutch language of the 17th century than from the modern Dutch of Holland.

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  • Under the influence of Africander nationalism strenuous efforts have been made to teach the language in the schools throughout the greater part of South Africa.

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  • Officially throughout the Union of South Africa both languages are now on a footing of equality.

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  • Throughout South Africa a number of words, mainly Dutch, are in general use by the English-speaking inhabitants and also, to a considerable extent, among the natives.

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  • Four of the nominated members are selected on the ground mainly of their thorough acquaintance with " the reasonable wants and wishes " of the coloured races in South Africa.

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  • A Supreme Court of Judicature for South Africa was created at the establishment of the Union.

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  • The difference arises from the fact that the Commonwealth is a federation of states; whereas the Union of South Africa is but one state with but one Supreme Court.

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  • One result of this unification of the courts of South Africa is that any provincial or local division of the Supreme Court in which an action is begun can order its transference to another division if that course be deemed more convenient.

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  • For many years subsequent to this date South Africa represented merely an inconvenient promontory to be rounded on the voyage to the Indies.

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  • On the west coast their southernmost settlement for a long period was Benguella, and the history of Angola had not until the last quarter of the 19th century any close connexion with that, of South Africa.

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  • Before tracing the history of South Africa during the 19th century, the early relations of the white settlers with the natives may be briefly reviewed.

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  • Of these, only 4000 were selected and shipped to South Africa.

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  • The publication in 1828 of his book Researches in South Africa had an important effect on the future of the country.

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  • The fair fame of Great Britain has more than once been upheld in South Africa at the instigation and by the conduct of these intrepid pioneers.

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  • Strong testimony to the beneficial result of their labours was borne by a thoroughly impartial commission, presided over by Sir Godfrey Lagden, which in1903-1905investigated the status and condition of the natives of South Africa.

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  • Thus at this time (1836) a critical state had arisen in South Africa.

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  • An act passed in 1836 (the Cape of Good Hope Punishment Act) empowered the colonial courts to deal with offences committed by British subjects in any part of South Africa up to the 25th degree of south latitude.

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  • At the beginning of that time there was but one civilized government in South Africa - Cape Colony; at its close there were five separate states or provinces, three, the Cape, Natal and British Kaffraria, owning allegiance to Great Britain, and two forming Boer republics - the Transvaal and Orange Free State.

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  • Experience has shown that the views which led to the dismemberment of South Africa were mistaken ones....

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  • In bringing the matter before the Cape parliament in March 1859 Grey stated that in his opinion it would confer a lasting benefit upon Great Britain and upon the inhabitants of South Africa if it could succeed in devising a form of federal union.

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  • The first project for reunion thus came to naught, but from that time forward it was recognized in South Africa that federation would afford the best solution of most of the difficulties that beset the country.

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  • From that time down to the annexation of the Transvaal in 1877, to quote The Carnar- once more the homely phrase of Paul Botha, Great - Britain "blew hot" in South Africa.

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  • He now returned to the Colonial Office filled with the idea of doing for South Africa what had been done in British North America.'

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  • Recent events in South Africa had appeared for a brief period to favour a union of its various colonies and states.

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  • Union with the neighbouring states would, he thought, cure its ills and promote the general welfare of South Africa.

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  • Froude to visit South Africa unofficially, and by travelling through its different states find out what were the obstacles to confederation and the means by which such obstacles could be removed.

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  • These views coincided with those of Lord Carnarvon, who looked to federation as a means of relieving the Imperial government of some of the heavy responsibilities pressing upon it in South Africa, and he asked Froude to return to the Cape to take part in a conference in South Africa on the federation scheme.

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  • A motion was carried in the Cape parliament affirming that any movement for federation should originate in South Africa and not in England.

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  • The secretary of state sought the aid of Sir Bartle Frere as his chief agent in carrying through confederation, the then governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner for South Africa, Sir Henry Barkly, sharing the views of the Cape ministry that the time was inopportune to force such a step upon South Africa.

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  • I am indeed now considering the details of a bill for their confederation, which I desire to introduce next session, and I propose to press, by all means in my power, my confederation policy in South Africa.

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  • He was inclined to regard Shepstone's act as premature, and he realized that it stirred very deeply Dutch national feeling throughout South Africa.

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  • They were largely influenced by an important section of the Dutch community in western Cape Colony, which carried on a campaign against annexation, seeing in it a blow to the ideal they had begun to entertain of a united South Africa of a Dutch republican type.

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  • Shepstone, the Liberal cabinet were prepared to get rid of the chief British representative in South Africa - partly to please the extreme Radicals among their followers.

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  • But the success of the Transvaal Boers both in war and diplomacy had quickened the sense of racial unity among the Dutch throughout the country, and there arose a spirit of antagonism between the Dutch and the British which affected the whole future of South Africa.

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  • It was not on the west coast only that Germany made efforts to secure a footing in South Africa.

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  • Now a definite effort was made to build up a united South Africa on antiBritish lines.

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  • While in itself acknowledging no single form of government as the only suitable form, and whilst acknowledging the form of government existing at present [the Bond] means that the aim of our national development must be a united South Africa under its own flag.

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  • He fully admitted that the cry which had become so popular since 1881 of " Africa for the Afrikanders " expressed a reasonable aspiration, but he constantly pointed out that its fulfilment could most had from the 16th century onward maintained a Y advantageously be sought, not, as the Kruger party and extremists of the Bond believed, by working for an independent South Africa, but by working for the development of South Africa as a whole on democratic, self-reliant, self-governing lines, under the shelter of the British flag.

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  • During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

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  • The treaty was followed by the formation of the British South Africa Company, which obtained a royal charter in 1889, and by the occupation of Mashonaland in 1890.

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  • While in the rest of South Africa there was a growing feeling of trust between the Dutch and British, accompanied by in creasing trade and the development of agriculture, the condition of the Transvaal was becoming serious.

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  • Rhodes, who had large interests in the Rand mines, had consistently endeavoured to conciliate the extreme Boer section in the Transvaal and win it over (as had happened in the case of the Cape Dutch) to a policy which should benefit the whole of South Africa.

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  • This action, finally blocking the Boer road to the sea, taken by a Liberal government, was clear indication that Great Britain was determined to maintain her supremacy in South Africa.

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  • To lay before South Africa the true position of affairs in the Transvaal Charles Leonard issued a manifesto as chairman of the National Union.

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  • The Jameson raid had a profound effect on the history of South Africa.

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  • It also gave a much desired opportunity for the intrusion of other powers in the affairs of the Transvaal; 3 and it led Kruger to revive the scheme for a united South Africa under a Dutch republican flag.

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  • Rhodes informed the House of Commons Select Committee that the belief that the Boers intended to introduce the influence of another foreign power in the already complicated system of South Africa " greatly influenced " him in promoting the revolt.

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  • I can see nothing which will put a stop to this mischievous propaganda but some striking proof of the intention of Her Majesty's government nDt to be ousted from its position in South Africa.

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  • The fact is that the Boers had made up their minds to a trial of strength with Great Britain for supremacy in South Africa.

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  • Henceforth, save for the German and Portuguese possessions, on the west and east coasts respectively, there was but one flag and one allegiance throughout South Africa.

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  • These provisions - subsequently adopted in the electoral law of the Union of South Africa - were made to secure equal rights for the British and Dutch sections of the community.

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  • He left South Africa in April 1905, and was succeeded as high commissioner and governor of the Transvaal and Orange River colonies by Lord Selborne.

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  • Moreover, the cabinet looked forward, without forcing it in any way, to the federation of South Africa.

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  • In a time of acute trade depression this commercial rivalry was disastrous to the welfare of South Africa.

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  • Only by the creation of a central government could South Africa be wisely and successfully governed.

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  • Nevertheless they unanimously resolved " that the best interests and the permanent prosperity of South Africa can only be secured by an early union, under the crown of Great Britain, of the several self-governing colonies," and they recommended the calling of a national convention entrusted with the task of drawing up a draft constitution.

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  • Thus for the first time for two generations both the chief white races of South Africa were found working in cordial cooperation.

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  • He became in the same year chief justice of South Africa.

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  • Nevertheless the advocates of unification gained a complete victory and a form of government was agreed to which made the union of South Africa as close as that of the United Kingdom.

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  • The measure, known as the South Africa Act 1909 received the Royal Assent on the 10th of September, and subsequently the 31st of May 1910 - the eighth anniversary of the signing of the articles of peace at Pretoria - was fixed as the date for the formal establishment of the Union.

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  • The interval between the passing of the South Africa Act and the establishment of union was employed by the various colonies in putting their houses in order.

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  • The native protectorates, Basutoland, Swaziland and Bechuanaland had been left by the South Africa Act under direct imperial control.

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  • Lists of the British Parliamentary papers concerning South Africa will be found in the Colonial Office List (yearly).

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  • They form the two intermediate "steps" between the coast-lands and the inner plateau which constitutes the largest part of South Africa.

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  • Such parts of the Karroo as are under perennial irrigation are among the most productive lands in South Africa.

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  • From early Palaeozoic times the peninsula of India has been dry land, a part, indeed, of a great continent which in Mesozoic times extended across the Indian Ocean towards South Africa.

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  • The British government was ready to make concessions, but more than one collision took place between Portuguese troops in Manica and the forces of the British South Africa Company.

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  • His cabinet promised only slightly better terms to the foreign bondholders, but it relieved the financial tension in some degree; and by coming to an agreement with Germany in East Africa and with Great Britain in South Africa as to the delimitation of frontiers, he minimized the risks of conflict with either country.

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  • Farther west is a large hospital, one of the finest institutions of its kind in South Africa.

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  • Port Elizabeth indeed possesses few natural amenities, but its golf links are reputed the finest in South Africa.

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  • These jetties are provided with hydraulic cranes, &c., and railways connect them with the main line, so that goods can be sent direct from the jetties to every part of South Africa.

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  • Railway work was begun in 1873 and Port Elizabeth is now in direct communication with all other parts of South Africa.

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  • These tracts had practically never been traversed before, and on the appearance of the published account of his journey and experiences under the title of Narrative of an Explorer in Tropical South Africa (1853) Galton was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society.

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  • The Paarl is one of the oldest European towns in South Africa.

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  • Large contingents of troops from New South Wales were sent to South Africa during 1899 and 1900.

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  • From its situation and the character of its buildings Durban is one of the finest cities in South Africa.

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  • Although nearly half the citizens are British, the large number of Indians engaged in every kind of work gives to Durban an oriental aspect possessed by no other town in South Africa.

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  • Both are considered to represent the Karroo formation of South Africa.

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  • Themeda Forskalii, which occurs from the Mediterranean region to South Africa and Tasmania, is the kangaroo grass of Australia, where, as in South Africa, it often covers wide tracts.

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  • The Adigrat Sandstone possibly represents some portion of the Karroo formation of South Africa.

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  • A single genus, Stangeria, confined to South Africa.

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  • The genus is confined to certain localities in Damaraland and adjoining territory on the west coast of tropical South Africa.

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  • The islands are regarded as a remnant of the continental land which in remote geological ages united South Africa and India.

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  • Though then uninhabited there is a strong tradition, probably well founded, that the Seychelles had been from Arab times a rendezvous of the pirates and corsairs who infested the high seas between South Africa and India.

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  • Similarly in South Africa species of the genus Solpuga, another member of the Solifugae, were employed for the same purpose under the name tarantula.

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  • Saldanha Bay is so named after Antonio de Saldanha, captain of a vessel in Albuquerque's fleet which visited South Africa in 1503.

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  • This was the only achievement, so far as South Africa was concerned, of the expedition despatched to seize Cape Town during the war of 1781-1783.

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  • He told his story in his Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa (18J7) with straightforward simplicity, and with no effort after literary style, and no apparent consciousness that he had done anything extraordinary.

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  • From 1872 to 1910 a self-governing colony, in the last-named year it entered the Union of South Africa as an original province.

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  • The " provinces " referred to are the colonial divisions existing before the passing of the South Africa Act 1909, except in the sections Constitution and Government and Law and Justice, where the changes made by the establishment of the Union are set forth.

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  • The outstanding orographic feature of the country is the terrace-formation of the land, which rises from sea-level by well-marked steps to the immense plateau which forms seven-eighths of South Africa.

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  • That part of the inner tableland of South Africa which is in the colony has an average elevation of 3000 ft., being higher in the eastern than in the western districts.

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  • It may be pointed out here that the same name is repeatedly applied throughout South Africa to different streams, Buffalo, Olifants (elephants') and Groote (great) being favourite designations.

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  • That white men can thrive and work in Cape Colony the history of South Africa amply demonstrates.

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  • Rocks of the Cape System have only been met with in the southern and eastern parts of South Africa.

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  • The Karroo System is par excellence the geological formation of South Africa.

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  • Both the leopards and cheetahs are commonly spoken of in South Africa as tigers.

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  • The standard gauge in South Africa is 3 ft., 6 in.

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  • By the South Africa Act 5909 this constitution was abolished as from the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910.

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  • The South Africa Act 5909 created a Supreme Court of South Africa, the supreme court of the Cape of Good Hope, which sits at Cape Town, becoming a provincial division of the new supreme court, presided over by a judge-president.

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  • The two other superior courts of Cape Colony, namely the eastern districts court which sits at Graham's Town, and the high court of Griqualand which sits at Kimberley, became local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa.

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  • Next in number of adherents among the white community come the Anglicans - Cape Colony forming part of the Province of South Africa.

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  • In other words noon in South Africa corresponds to Io.o A.M.

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  • Out of the organization of these commandoes, with their fieldcommandants and field-cornets, has grown the common system of local government in the Dutch-settled districts of South Africa.

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  • In 1848 a circular was sent by the 3rd Earl Grey, then colonial secretary, to the governor of the Cape (and to other colonial governors), asking him to ascertain the feelings of the colonists regarding the reception of a certain class of convicts, the intention being to send to South Africa Irish peasants who had been driven into crime by the famine of 1845.

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  • Theal's History and Geography of South Africa (3rd ed., London, 1878), from which this account is condensed.

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  • The policy, imposed by the home government, of abandoning responsibility beyond the Orange river, was, he perceived, a mistaken one, and the scheme he prepared in 1858 for a confederation of all South Africa (q.v.) was rejected by Great Britain.

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  • From that date the development of modern South Africa may be said to have fairly started, and in spite of political complications, arising from time to time, the progress of Cape Colony down to the outbreak of the Transvaal War of 1899 was steadily forward.

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  • In 1858 the scheme of Sir George Grey for the federation of the various colonies and states of South Africa had been rejected, as.

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  • In 1874 the 4th earl of Carnarvon, secretary of state for the colonies, who had been successful in aiding to bring about the federation of Canada, turned his attention to a similar scheme for the confederation of South Africa.

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  • A resolution was passed (June 11, 1875) stating that any scheme in favour of confederation must in its opinion originate within South Africa itself.

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  • James Anthony Froude, the distinguished historian, was sent out by Lord Carnarvon to further his policy in South Africa.

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  • As a diplomatist and a representative of the British government, the general opinion in South Africa was that Froude was not a success, and he entirely failed to induce the colonists to adopt Lord Carnarvon's views.

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  • Lord Carnarvon, still bent on confederation, now appointed Sir Bartle Frere governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner of South Africa.

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  • Each country had a provincial committee with district committees, and branches were distributed throughout the whole of South Africa.

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  • It is his will to unite us as a people " - " to make a united South Africa free from British authority."

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  • Schreiner objected that the Bond aimed ultimately at the overthrow of British rule and the expulsion of the British flag from South Africa.

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  • In the face of this testimony with reference to two of the most prominent of the Bond's promoters, it is impossible to deny that from its beginning the great underlying idea of the Bond was an independent South Africa.

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  • In 1883, during a debate on the Basutoland Dis-annexation Bill, Rhodes openly charged Mr Hofmeyr in the House with a desire to see a " United States of South Africa under its own flag."

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  • In justice to Mr Hofmeyr, however, it is only fair to say that after the Warren expedition in 1885, which was at least evidence that Great Britain did not intend to renounce her supremacy in South Africa altogether, he adopted a less hostile or anti-British attitude.

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  • During 1895 Sir Hercules Robinson was reappointed governor and high commissioner of South Africa in succession to Sir Henry Loch, and in the same year Mr Chamberlain became secretary of state for the colonies.

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  • Whilst premier of Cape Colony, by means of the customs union and in every other way, Rhodes endeavoured to bring about a friendly measure of at least commercial federation among the states and colonies of South Africa.

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  • In 1897 Sir Alfred Milner was appointed high commissioner of South Africa and governor of Cape Colony, in succession to Sir Hercules Robinson, who had been created a peer under the title of Baron Rosmead in August 1896.

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  • In 1898 commercial federation in South Africa advanced another stage, Natal entering the customs union.

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  • He evinced, as premier of the Cape Colony, the same inability to understand the Uitlanders' grievances, the same futile belief in the eventual fairness of President Kruger, as he had shown when giving evidence before the British South Africa Select Committee into the causes of the Jameson Raid.

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  • In South Africa they might hope that a similar policy would attain a similar result with the Boers.

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  • The office of high commissioner in South Africa was now separated from the governorship of the Cape and associated with that of the Transvaal - an indication of the changed conditions in South Africa.

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  • The Progressive party, the name taken by those who sought a permanent settlement under the British flag, lost their leader, and South Africa its foremost statesman by the death, in May 1902, of Cecil Rhodes, a few weeks before the end of the war.

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  • The Bond, on its side, sought to draw closer to Het Volk, the Boer organization in the Transvaal, and similar bodies, and at its 1906 congress, held in March that year at Ceres, a resolution with that aim was passed, the design being to unify, in accordance with the original conception of the Bond, Dutch sentiment and action throughout South Africa.

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  • In January 1905 an inter-colonial native affairs commission reported on the native question as it affected South Africa as a whole, proposals being made for an alteration of the laws in Cape Colony respecting the franchise exercised by natives.

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  • The privileged position of the Cape native was seen to be an obstacle to the federation of South Africa.

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  • The careful industry and the lucidity which characterize Mr Theal's work stamp him as a historian of whom South Africa may well be proud.

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  • P. Greswell's Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi (Oxford, 1892) deals specially with Cape Colony; the Illustrated Official Handbook of the Cape and South Africa (Cape Town, 1893) includes chapters on the zoology, flora, productions and resources of the colony.

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  • For books dealing with Roman-Dutch law, see South Africa.

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  • By its constitution of that year the English Church in South Africa adopts the laws and usages of the Church of England, as far as they are applicable to an unestablished church, accepts the three creeds, the ThirtyNine Articles, the Book of Common Prayer, the decisions of the undisputed general councils, the Authorized English Version of the Scriptures, disclaims the right of altering any of these standards of faith and doctrine, except in agreement with such alterations as may be adopted by a general synod of the Anglican Communion.

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  • But in interpreting these standards of faith and doctrine, the Church of the Province of South Africa is not bound by decisions other than those of its own Church courts, or such court as the Provincial Synod may recognize as a tribunal of appeal.

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  • The Provincial Synod is the legislative authority subject to a general synod of the Anglican Communion, provided such latter synod include representatives from the Church of South Africa.

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  • Between South Africa and Australia the waters form a part of the great west wind drift.

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  • He began as a gardener, but in 1814, when employed at High Leigh in Cheshire, offered himself to the London Missionary Society, and in 1816 was sent out to South Africa.

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  • Administration, &c. - Swaziland forms a crown colony under the government of the High Commissioner for South Africa.

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  • They captured from Sikukuni certain "rain medicine," the possession of which has since greatly increased the prestige of the paramount chief of the Swazis among the Kaffirs of South Africa.

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  • When the Union of South Africa was established in 1910, Swaziland, with other native territories, remained under direct Imperial control.

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  • Other works by Mahan are a Life of Admiral Farragut (1892); The Interest of America in Sea Power (1897); Lessons of the War with Spain (1899); The Story of the War with South Africa and The Problem of Asia (1900); Types of Naval Officers drawn from the History of the British Navy (1901); Retrospect and Prospect, studies of international relations (1902).

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  • Argas persicus has been introduced in the same way into South Africa from Europe.

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  • Finally Margaropus annulatus, of which there are several geographical races, is the carrier of the germ causing the de tructive cattle-disease variously known as "Texas" or "red water" fever in America, South Africa and Australia.

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  • In South Africa a still more serious difficulty was already commencing.

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  • At the time at which Lord Beaconsfields administration began, British territory in South Africa was practically confined to Cape Colony and Natal.

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    0
  • In South Africa still more important events were in the meanwhile progressing.

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    0
  • Ignorant of the strength of Great Britain, and elated by the recollection of their previous successes, the Boers themselves believed that a new struggle might give them predominance in South Africa.

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  • The Boer War had at last been brought to an end in May 1902 (5eeTRANsvAAL), and the king had the satisfaction of seeing South Africa settle down and eventually receive self -government.

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    0
  • In 1910 when the colony became a province of the Union of South Africa under its old designation of Orange Free State, Bloemfontein was chosen as the seat of the Supreme Court of South Africa.

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    0
  • Carey embarked for South Africa in the following July, and was murdered on board ship by Patrick O'Donnell, who was brought to England, convicted, and hanged on the 17th of December 1883.

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  • Horsebreeding is a favourite pursuit in Slavonia; and between 1900 and 1902 many thousands of remounts were shipped to the British army in South Africa.

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  • Reports of rich discoveries attracted considerable attention in South Africa and Europe during 1904-1906, but experts, sent from the Transvaal, came to the conclusion that Madagascar would not become one of the rich goldfields of the world.

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  • On this account South Africa has a general resemblance to an inverted saucer.

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  • Some unfossiliferous conglomerates, sandstones and dolomites in South Africa and on the west coast are considered to belong to the Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian formations, but merely from their occurrence beneath strata yielding Devonian fossils.

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  • This is par excellence the African formation, and covers immense areas in South Africa and the Congo basin, with detached portions in East Africa.

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  • Preserved in the formation known as the Dwyka Conglomerate, are evidences that at this time the greater portion of South Africa was undergoing extreme glaciation, while the same conditions appear to have prevailed in India Table Of Formations Sedimentary.

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  • The close of the Stormberg period (Rhaetic) was one of great volcanic activity in South Africa.

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  • In northern Africa a continuous sequence of volcanic events has taken place from Eocene times to latest Tertiary; but in South Africa it is doubtful if there have been any intrusions later then Cretaceous.

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