How to use Soundings in a sentence
While Cook was speculating on the cause of this phenomenon, and was in the act of ordering out the boats to take soundings, the " Endeavour " struck heavily, and fell over so much that the guns, spare cables, and other heavy gear had at once to be thrown overboard to lighten the ship. As day broke, attempts were made to float the vessel off with the morning tide; but these were unsuccessful.
Borings and soundings taken at Funafuti in 1897 indicate almost beyond doubt that the whole of this Polynesian region is an area of comparatively recent subsidence.
A few soundings made outside this coast seem to indicate that the fjords continue as deep submarine valleys far out into the sea.
The variations themselves are detected by the method of seasonally repeated hydrographic soundings.
There the bottom slopes very abruptly, descending precipitously at a point not far from the north-east coast of the main island, where soundings have shown 4655 fathoms. This, the deepest sea-bed in the world, is called the Tuscarora Deep, after the name of the United States man-of-war which made the survey.Advertisement
Deep soundings were made in the Atlantic coasts of the North Sea and Baltic, when the rise may amount for this purpose by vessels both of the British and of the American to very many feet.
In the region of tropical hurricanes the navies, while in the Mediterranean and in the Indian Ocean converging wind system of a circular storm causes a heaping many soundings were made in connexion with submarine up of water capable of devastating the low coral islands of the cables to the East.
The last-named vessel secured 157 trustworthy deep soundings, Deep-sea Soundings.
Polar explorers making sections across the great expanses of water with everfrequently repeated those experiments in deep-sea soundings, increasing accuracy, and in that work the government surveying both William Scoresby and Sir John Ross obtaining notable ships have also been engaged, vast stretches of the Indian and results, though not reaching depths of more than 1200 fathoms. Pacific Oceans having been opened up to knowledge by H.M.SS.
The soundings of the Dutch expedition on hung on the sounding-tube that it was automatically released the " Siboga " during1899-1900in the eastern part of the on striking the bottom and left behind, while the light brass tube Malay seas and those of the German surveying ship " Planet " containing a sample of the deposit was easily hauled up. This in 1906 in the South Atlantic, Indian and North Pacific Oceans principle has been adopted universally for deep soundings, and were notable, and Sir John Murray's expedition on the " Michael is now applied in many forms. In 1855 Maury published Sars " in the Atlantic in 1910 obtained important results.Advertisement
The soundings are made by means of a special machine fitted with a brake so adjusted that the revolution of the drum is stopped automatically the instant the lead touches the bottom, and the depth can then be read directly from an indicator.
It is improbable, however, that the smooth and slender wire is much influenced by currents, and the best deep-sea soundings may be taken as accurate to within 5 fathoms.
Particularly steep slopes are found in the case of submarine domes, usually incomplete volcanic cones, and there have been cases in which after such a dome has been discovered by the soundings of a surveying ship it could not be found again as its whole area was so small and the deep floor of the ocean from which it rose so flat that an error of 2 or 3 m.
In spite of the increase of deep-sea soundings in the last few decades, they are still very irregularly distributed in the open ocean, and the attempt to draw isobaths (lines of equal depth) on a chart of the world is burdened with many difficulties which can only be evaded by the widest generalizations.
The existence of the latter, which extends to the African continent, was announced by Sir Wyville Thomson in 1876 as a result of his discussion of the deep-sea temperature observations of the " Challenger " expedition, though the fact was not confirmed by soundings until many years later.Advertisement
From the floor of this vast and profound depression numerous isolated volcanic cones rise with abrupt slopes, and even between the islands of the Hawaiian group there are depths of more than 2000 fathoms. The Society Islands and Tahiti crown a rise coming within 150o fathoms of the surface, two similar rises form the foundation of the Paumotu group where Agassiz found soundings of.
The Mediterranean Sea, the best-known member of the intercontinental class, is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a ridge running from Cape Spartel to Cape Trafalgar on which the greatest depth is only 175 fathoms. The depth increases so rapidly towards the east that soundings exceeding 500 fathoms occur off Gibraltar.
Globigerina ooze was recognized as an important deposit as soon as the first successful deep-sea soundings had been made in the Atlantic. It was described simultaneously in 1853 by Bailey of West Point and Ehrenberg in Berlih.
The soundings made by the "Challenger" and "Gazelle" and the affinities which in certain respects exist between the islands, seem to point to the existence at one time of an extensive land area in this quarter, of which Kerguelen, Prince Edward's Islands, the Crozets, St Paul and Amsterdam are the remains.
He went to the mines for a season, and there he began to write in the local newspapers, adopting the pen name of "Mark Twain," from a call used in taking soundings on the Mississippi steamboats.Advertisement
The average depth varies from 1500 to 2500 fathoms, and from this level innumerable volcanic ridges and peaks rise almost or quite to the surface, their summits for the most part occupied by atolls and reefs of coral formation, while interspersed with these are depressions, mostly of small area, among which the deepest soundings recorded have been obtained.
His careful and detailed maps, lake soundings, hydrographic, geological, meteorological and other investigations gave him the highest rank among modern explorers.
This journey practically removed from the map the doubtful Keenan Land (reported vaguely in the 'seventies of last century), while soundings taken during the drift of the " Karluk " and other journeys of the expedition show a narrow continental shelf, and reduce the probability of land existing in the western part of the Beaufort Sea.
Large portions of the bed still remain unexplored, but a fair knowledge of its general form has been gained from the soundings of H.M.S.
Here the tidal phenomenon called the bore, or Pororoca, occurs, where the soundings are not over 4 fathoms. It commences with a roar, constantly increasing, and advances at the rate of from 10 to 5 m.Advertisement
This length has been standardized to a measure of 6 ft., and as such is used mainly in soundings as a unit for measuring the depth of the sea.
Second only to the compass in its value to the sailor is Thomson's sounding apparatus, whereby soundings can be taken in 100 fathoms by a ship steaming at 16 knots; and by the employment of piano-wire of a breaking strength of 140 tons per square inch and an iron sinker weighing only 34 lb, with a selfregistering pressure gauge, soundings can be rapidly taken in deep ocean.
Morgan has taken 240 million soundings in the last four years.
Below 20m water depth a 1.5 degree beamformer will not have 2 soundings per 1m bin, even directly under the vessel.
One legend tells how he lured a Revenue cutter to its doom in a dangerous cove of which he alone knew the soundings.Advertisement
The poll will take place once a shortlist has been compiled following informal soundings within the partnership.
The initial soundings had evidently revealed a considerable reluctance from her parents to give her such consent.
There will be many soundings per meter even at the swath edges, allowing full confidence checking and detection of features and shoalest points.
Race and Equal Opportunities bodies say secret soundings are flawed.
The geezer standing on the stem appears to be taking depth soundings or possibly dropping some form of anchor.Advertisement
Numerous echo soundings were taken which were of unusual character.
The combined analysis of surface measurements, balloon soundings, direct observations, weather maps, and satellite images completed the data base.
Large numbers of additional soundings have been made in recent years by cable ships, by the expeditions of H.S.H.
The wire being paid out without slack measures the actual distance and speed over the ground, and the engineer in charge is relieved of all anxiety in estimating the depth from the scattered soundings of the preliminary survey, or in calculating the retarding strain required to produce the specified slack, since the brakesman merely has to follow the indications of the instrument and regulate the strain so as to keep the pointer at the figure required - an easy task, seeing that the ratio of speed of wire and cable is not affected by the motion of the ship, whatever be the state of the sea, whereas the will I',/ OW= o a ' 30 30 ao.
It is scarcely possible from the preliminary survey, with soundings several miles apart, to obtain more than a general idea as to the average depth along the route, while the nature of the constituents of the sea bed can only be revealed by a few small specimens brought up at isolated spots, though fortunately the globigerine ooze which covers the bottom at all the greater ocean depths forms an ideal bed for the cable.Advertisement
It must be noted, however, that since 1895 the soundings of Nansen in the north polar area, of the " Valdivia," " Belgica," " Gauss " and " Scotia " in the Southern Ocean, and of various surveying ships in the North and South Pacific, have proved that the mean depth of the ocean is considerably greater than had been supposed, and mean-sphere level must therefore lie deeper than the calculations of 1895 show; possibly not far from the position deduced from the freer estimate of 1888.
He had compiled a sea-atlas (the Bahrije) of the Aegean and Mediterranean seas, every nook and cranny of which he had explored, with an account of the currents, soundings, landing-places, inlets and harbours.
The soundings of Nansen and Sverdrup on the " Fram " expedition indicate that northward from the Siberian Shelf the great North Polar Basin has an area of about 4,000,000 sq.
Soundings made of this year 's students reveal the majority of teaching to be covering material new to their experience.
Early soundings taken in the pre-consultation period made it clear that, for many stakeholders, the current heritage protection systems were complex.Advertisement
Race and Equal Opportunities bodies say Secret Soundings are flawed.
The government 's Your Say campaign also cost about £ 25,000, with Mr Prescott 's soundings exercise estimated to have cost £ 4,000.