By Arabia, and S., approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somaliland, and Cape Comorin in India.
Cif Italian influence to a part of northern Somaliland and to the Benadir coast, had, with the support of France and Russia, completed his preparations for asserting his authority as independent ruler of Ethiopia.
These British possessions, together with the whole of Somaliland and southern Abyssinia, are satisfactorily represented on the maps of the British general staff.
SOMALILAND, a country of East Africa, so named from its Somali inhabitants.
Inland the limits of Somaliland correspond roughly with the Shoan and Harrar Hills, and the Galla district south of Shoa and east of Lake Rudolf.
It is partitioned between Great Britain, Italy, France, and Abyssinia as under: - Somaliland was not generally adopted as the name of the country until the early years of the 19th century.
- The Somaliland plateau is chiefly composed of gneiss and schist.
The highlands, which in an almost continuous line traverse East Africa, have to a great extent isolated the flora of Somaliland in spite of the general resemblance of its climate and soil to the country on the western side of the band of high ground.
In the northern mountainous regions of Somaliland the flora resembles, however, to some extent, that of the Galla country and Abyssinia.
Of herbaceous plants the kissenia, the sole representative of the order Loasaceae, which is common in America but very rare elsewhere, is found in Somaliland, which also possesses forms belonging to the eastern Mediterranean flora.
Somaliland is rich in the larger wild animals.
There are four classes in Somaliland: (I) nomads who breed ponies, sheep, cattle and camels, live entirely on milk and meat, and follow the rains in search of grass; (2) settled Somali, comparatively few, living in or near the coasts; (3) outcast races, not organized in tribes but living scattered all over Somaliland; they are hunters, workers in iron and leather, and the chief collectors of gum and resin; (4) traders.
Their domain comprises the whole of British Somaliland, and probably most of Italian Somaliland.
The discovery of flint implements of the same types as those found in Egypt, Mauritania, and Europe show Somaliland to have been inhabited by man in the Stone age.
Somaliland was one of the last parts of Africa to be explored by Europeans.
Cavendish (1896-1897) followed somewhat in Donaldson Smith's steps, and the last named traveller again crossed Somaliland in his journey from Berbera via Lake Rudolf to the Upper Nile (1899-Igoo).
British Somaliland The British Somaliland protectorate extends along the Gulf of Aden for about 400 m.
By French Somaliland, S.W.
It was then determined that in the further operations against the mullah the main advance should be from a base on the east coast of Italian Somaliland - the open roadstead of Obbia being chosen.
Cordeaux, who had served in Somaliland since 1898.
French Somaliland French Somaliland (Cote francaise des Somalis) lies at the entrance to the Red Sea.
By British Somaliland; W.
In 1897 an agreement was come to that from the point on the British Somaliland frontier where 47° E.
C. Swayne, Seventeen Trips through Somaliland (3rd ed., London, 1903), perhaps the best general book on the country, contains a special fauna section; G.
Drake-Brockman, The Mammals of Somaliland (London, 1910); J.
For the various protectorates, (I) British - the annual reports issued by the Colonial Office, London; Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, 1901-1904 (2 vols., London, 1907); War Office maps on the scale of I :1,000,000, also sketch map 1:3,000,000 (1907).
He attended King Edward's coronation in 1902, and accompanied the British army in person in the Chinese campaign of Igoe in command of the Bikanir Camel Corps, which also did good service in Somaliland in 1904.
The river, from its mouth to the confluence of the Daua and Ganale, forms the frontier between the British East Africa protectorate and Italian Somaliland; and from that point to about 4° 20' N.
Famelicus), whose range extends apparently from Egypt and Somaliland through Palestine and Persia into Afghanistan, seems to form a connecting link between the more typical foxes and the small African species properly known as fennecs.
For practical purposes the northern limit of Glossina, as at present known, may be shown on the map by drawing a line from Cape Verde to the Nile a little to the south-east of El Obeid, and thence to the coast of Somaliland at 4° N; while the southern boundary of the genus may similarly be represented by the Cunene river, in the south of Angola, and a line thence to the north-eastern end of St Lucia lake, in Zululand.
In the region of Somaliland, now the western part of the British protectorate of that name, the Arabs established the Moslem state of Adel or Zaila, with their capital at Zaila on the Gulf of Aden.
2, ranging from the Cape to Somaliland, and the smaller S.
The dibatag or Clarke's gazelle (Ammodorcas clarkei), of Somaliland, forms a kind of connecting link between the true gazelles and the gerenuk, this being especially shown in the skull.
Although local, these animals are fairly common in the interior of Somaliland, where they are known by the name of dibatag.
Strepsiceros) is the scientific name of the true kudu, which ranges from the Cape to Somaliland; but there is also a much smaller species (S.
GERENUK, the Somali name of a long-necked aberrant gazelle, commonly known as Waller's gazelle (Lithocranius walleri), and ranging from Somaliland to Kilimanjaro.
Gerenuk are browsing ruminants, and, in Somaliland, are found in small family-parties, and feed more by browsing on the branches and leaves of trees and shrubs than by grazing.
BERBERA, chief town and principal port of the British Somaliland protectorate, North-East Africa, 155 m.
It is the residence of the commissioner of the protectorate and the headquarters of the Somaliland battalion of the King's African Rifles.
The most remarkable members of the family are the sand-rats of Somaliland and Shoa, forming the genera Heterocephalus and Fornarina, in which the premolars may be reduced to two pairs.
Northward and far back in the foot-hills is the Ptolemaic temple of Deir el Medina, and beyond under the cliffs of Deir el Bahri the terrace temple of Queen Hatshepsut, the walls of which are adorned with scenes from her expedition to Puoni (Somaliland) in search of incense trees, and many other subjects.
Cedar wood was brought from the forests of Lebanon, ivory, leopard skins and gold from the south, all kinds of spices and ingredients of incense from Somaliland and Arabia, fine linen and beautifully worked vessels from Syria and the islands.
JIBUTI (DJIBOUTI), the chief port and capital of French Somaliland, in 11° 35' N., 43° 10' E.
(For statistics see Somaliland, French.) The inhabitants are of many races - Somali, Danakil, Gallas, Armenians, Jews, Arabs, Indians, besides Greeks, Italians, French and other Europeans.
Among the "harbours of incense" exploited by various Pharaohs during some twentyfive centuries it is impossible to believe that the island could be missed by the Egyptian galleys on their way to the "Land of Punt," identified by several writers with Somaliland; nor that, though the roadsteads of the African coast were perhaps oftener frequented, and for other freights besides myrrh and frankincense, the shores of Sokotra were neglected by such ardent explorers as those, for instance, of Queen Hatshepsut of the r8th dynasty.
The French possessions in Somaliland are reached.
The frontiers were further defined by a French-Italian convention (24th of January 1900) fixing the frontier between French Somaliland and the Italian possessions at Raheita, and also by various agreements with Great Britain and Abyssinia.
KLIPSPRINGER, the Boer name of a small African mountainantelope (Oreotragus saltator), ranging from the Cape through East Africa to Somaliland and Abyssinia, and characterized by its blunt rounded hoofs, thick pithy hair and gold-spangled colouring.
MUKDISHU (Magodoxo), a seaport of Italian Somaliland, East Africa, in 2° 1' N., 45° 24' E.
The eastern group - British East Africa; Uganda; Zanzibar and Pemba (sometimes described as " a sphere of influence "); Somaliland; and the Sudan.
Stone implements, more or less approaching the European Palaeolithic type, were found in Africa from Egypt southwards, wherein such parts as Somaliland and Cape Colony they lie about.
I 1 in the Plate shows the usual Somaliland types.
By the British, Italian and French possessions in Somaliland and on the Red Sea.
Tigre, Amhara, Gojam, &c.), Shoa, Kaffa and Galla land - all these form a geographical unit - and central Somaliland with Harrar.
M., of which Abyssinian Somaliland covers fully a third.
Through Somaliland, though the Shebeli fails to reach the Indian Ocean; and by the Omo, the main feeder of the closed basin of Lake Rudolf.
Somaliland and the Danakil lowlands have a hot, dry climate producing semi-desert conditions; the country in the lower basin of the Sobat is hot, swampy and malarious.