Solution sentence example

solution
  • I have a solution that might work.
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  • In no case did these methods and efforts secure a long-term solution to poverty.
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  • Is there possibly a solution to it?
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  • I'm trying a new solution to my issue.
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  • Disease is a problem of technology; thus, its solution will be technological.
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  • By dissolving it in concentrated sulphuric acid and warming the solution, the anhydrous salt is obtained.
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  • Iggy found a temporary solution to stop the spread, and I sealed the area around the town.
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  • She could do a lot worse than Davis, but marriage wasn't a solution to her problems.
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  • He recommended that yeast should be purified by cultivating it in a solution of sugar containing tartaric acid, or, in wort containing a small quantity of phenol.
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  • A record of all human activity, with anonymity safeguards in place, will allow us all to become part of the solution by putting our minds to work on the problems of the world.
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  • And one person's solution may be another person's problem.
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  • I have a solution ready, but have no time now--I'll think it all out later on!
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  • I need a solution, now.
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  • Electrolysis of a solution in hydrofluoric acid gives cobaltic fluoride, CoF3.
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  • It would be a colossal mistake to assume some sort of collectivist or communistic solution to hunger in the world.
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  • If this solution works, you owe me a favor of my choosing.
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  • By the addition of excess of ammonia to a cobalt chloride solution in absence of air, a greenishblue precipitate is obtained which, on heating, dissolves in the solution, giving a rose-red liquid.
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  • Are we moving in the direction of the solution now?
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  • He didn't have a solution to her tumor.
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  • All the contradictions and obscurities of history and the false path historical science has followed are due solely to the lack of a solution of that question.
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  • It's not a solution but it will help a lot more than doing nothing while this guy may be getting closer.
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  • On boiling their solution in caustic alkalis, ammonia is liberated.
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  • A parking garage, which offers discounted rates for patrons, is located across the street providing a solution for an otherwise busy downtown location.
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  • Turning her over to Jule was the easiest solution, but he didn't feel done with her yet.
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  • Berzelius took 8 grams of copper, converted it into the coloured chloride, and sealed up the whole of this in solution, together with a weighed strip of copper.
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  • My circumstances are without solution and his life would be ruined if the world were to know the truth of our love.
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  • The solution is to survive until reinforcements arrive from overseas.
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  • One day when they were sitting on the porch steps together, Brandon proposed a solution.
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  • You don't have a solution.
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  • The scent of pine trees disappeared, replaced by the overpowering smell of cleaning solution.
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  • It is only, however, when we deal with comparatively concentrated solutions that the heat-effect of diluting the solutions is at all great, the heat-change on diluting an already dilute solution being for most practical purposes negligible.
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  • Thomsen by direct experiment found that the heat-capacity of a dilute aqueous solution diverged in general less than i per cent.
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  • The unfortunate Niger expedition of 1841 was directed to similar ends; and it has been more and more felt by all who were interested in the subject that here lies the radical solution of the great problem.
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  • Among the analytical methods worked up by him the best known is that for the estimation of sugars by "Fehling's solution," which consists of a solution of cupric sulphate mixed with alkali and potassium-sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt).
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  • The concentration of the simple copper ions is then so much diminished that the copper plate becomes an anode with regard to zinc. Thus the cell - copper I potassium cyanide solution I potassium sulphate solution - zinc sulphate solution I zinc - gives a current which carries copper into solution and deposits zinc. In a similar way silver could be made to act as anode with respect to cadmium.
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  • Rarely in history has a government wrested away a functioning, privately funded solution in favor of a government entitlement.
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  • So fresh instructions were sent for the solution of difficulties that might be encountered, as well as fresh people who were to watch Kutuzov's actions and report upon them.
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  • In our time the majority of so-called advanced people--that is, the crowd of ignoramuses--have taken the work of the naturalists who deal with one side of the question for a solution of the whole problem.
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  • All I'll I need do is prepare a rag with my special solution...
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  • It was Molly, not me, who devised a possible solution.
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  • And if I tell Darkyn you've got a solution?
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  • Carmen and I have talked it over and decided this is the best solution.
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  • She focused on Jonny again, willing him to accept her solution.
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  • She didn't say that she thought Damian would run circles around the boy and find a better solution.
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  • I can't See any other solution.
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  • The iodide, Co12, is produced by heating cobalt and iodine together, and forms a greyish-green mass which dissolves readily in water forming a red solution.
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  • On evaporating this solution the hydrated salt CoI 2.6H 2 0 is obtained in hexagonal prisms. It behaves in an analogous manner to CoBr 2.6H 2 0 on heating.
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  • Cobalt ammonium phosphate, CoNH4PO 4.12H 2 0, is formed when a soluble cobalt salt is digested for some time with excess of a warm solution of ammonium phosphate.
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  • They form yellow or bronze-coloured crystals, which decompose on boiling their aqueous solution.
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  • The free acid is obtained (in dilute aqueous solution) by the addition of dilute sulphuric acid to an aqueous solution of the barium salt.
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  • There are, therefore, a number of agencies, all of which operate in shoal waters on the lee side of islands, or in shallow lagoons in such regions as the Bahamas, and the result of all these is to throw down calcium carbonate from solution in sea-water as minute needle-shaped crystals or little balls of aragonite.
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  • A freedom of interchange is thus indicated between the opposite parts of the molecules of salts in solution, and it follows reasonably that with the solution of a single salt, say sodium chloride, continual interchanges go on between the sodium and chlorine parts of the different molecules.
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  • On the view of the process of conduction described above, the amount of electricity conveyed per second is measured by the product of the number of ions, known from the concentration of the solution, the charge carried by each of them, and the velocity with which, on the average, they move through the liquid.
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  • Solid copper chloride is brown or yellow, so that its concentrated solution, which contains both ions and undissociated molecules, is green, but changes to blue as water is added and the ionization becomes complete.
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  • If an aqueous solution of methyl acetate be allowed to stand, a slow decomposition goes on.
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  • As an example of a fairly constant cell we may take that of Daniell, which consists of the electrical arrangement - zinc zinc sulphate solution copper sulphate solution copper, - the two solutions being usually separated by a pot of porous earthenware.
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  • In spite of this appearance, however, while the supply of copper is maintained, copper, being more easily separated from the solution than zinc, is deposited alone at the cathode, and the cell remains constant.
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  • The electric forces then soon stop further action unless an equivalent quantity of positive ions are removed from the solution.
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  • Plates of platinum and pure or amalgamated zinc are separated by a porous pot, and each surrounded by some of the same solution of a salt of a metal more oxidizable than zinc, such as potassium.
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  • In order that positively electrified ions may enter a solution, an equivalent amount of other positive ions must be removed or negative ions be added, and, for the process to occur spontaneously, the possible action at the two electrodes must involve a decrease in the total available energy of the system.
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  • In the latter case, the tendency of the metal to dissolve in the more dilute solution is greater than its tendency to dissolve in the more concentrated solution, and thus there is a decrease in available energy when metal dissolves in the dilute solution and separates in equivalent quantity from the concentrated solution.
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  • We may evaporate some of the solvent from the solution which has become weaker and thus reconcentrate it, condensing the vapour on the solution which had become stronger.
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  • Solvent may be supposed to be squeezed out from the solution which has become more dilute through a semi-permeable wall, and through another such wall allowed to mix with the solution which in the electrical operation had become more concentrated.
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  • The result of the investigation shows that the electrical work Ee is given by the_equation Ee =1 where v is the volume of the solution used and p its osmotic pressure.
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  • The logarithmic formulae for these concentration cells indicate that theoretically their electromotive force can be increased to any extent by diminishing without limit the concentration of the more dilute solution, log c i /c 2 then becoming very great.
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  • Let us consider the arrangement - silver I silver chloride with potassium chloride solution I potassium nitrate solution I silver nitrate solution I silver.
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  • Silver chloride is a very insoluble substance, and here the amount in solution is still further reduced by the presence of excess of chlorine ions of the potassium salt.
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  • Thus silver, at one end of the cell in contact with many silver ions of the silver nitrate solution, at the other end is in contact with a liquid in which the concentration of those ions is very small indeed.
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  • If, instead of using a single Daniell's cell, we employ some source of electromotive force which can be varied as we please, and gradually raise its intensity, we shall find that, when it exceeds a certain value, about 1.7 volt, a permanent current of considerable strength flows through the solution, and, after the initial period, shows no signs of decrease.
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  • If secondary effects are eliminated, the deposition of metals also is a reversible process; the decomposition voltage is equal to the electromotive force which the metal itself gives when going into solution.
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  • Since zinc goes into solution and copper comes out, the electromotive force of the cell will be the difference between the two effects.
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  • When the dissolved molecules are uniformly distributed, the osmotic pressure will be the same everywhere throughout the solution, but, if the concentration vary from point to point, the pressure will vary also.
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  • But the ions of an electrolytic solution can move independently through the liquid, even when no current flows, as the consequences of Ohm's law indicate.
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  • The ions will therefore diffuse independently, and the faster ion will travel quicker into pure water in contact with a solution.
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  • The ions carry their charges with them, and, as a matter of fact, it is found that water in contact with a solution takes with respect to it a positive or negative potential, according as the positive or negative ion travels the faster.
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  • As we have seen above, when a solution is placed in contact with water the water will take a positive or negative potential with regard to the solution, according as the cation or anion has the greater specific velocity, and therefore the greater initial rate of diffusion.
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  • In contact with a solvent a metal is supposed to possess a definite solution pressure, analogous to the vapour pressure of a liquid.
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  • Metal goes into solution in the form of electrified ions.
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  • On the analogy between this case and that of the interface between two solutions, Nernst has arrived at similar logarithmic expressions for the difference of potential, which becomes proportional to log (P 1 /P 2) where P2 is taken to mean the osmotic pressure of the cations in the solution, and P i the osmotic pressure of the cations in the substance of the metal itself.
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  • Some of the more important papers on the subject have been reprinted for Harper's Series of Scientific Memoirs in Electrolytic Conduction (1899) and the Modern Theory of Solution (1899).
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  • If a glucose solution be added to copper sulphate and much alkali added, a yellowish-red precipitate of cuprous hydrate separates, slowly in the cold, but immediately when the liquid is heated; this precipitate rapidly turns red owing to the formation of cuprous oxide.
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  • Barreswil found that a strongly alkaline solution of copper sulphate and potassium sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt) remained unchanged on boiling, but yielded an immediate precipitate of red cuprous oxide when a solution of glucose was added.
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  • In Norwood and Rogers's process a thin coating of tin is applied to the iron before it is dipped in the zinc, by putting the plates between layers of granulated tin in a wooden tank containing a dilute solution of stannous chloride, when tin is deposited on them by galvanic action.
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  • In "cold galvanizing" the zinc is deposited electrolytically from a bath, preferably kept neutral or slightly acid, containing a io% solution of crystallized zinc sulphate, ZnSO 4.7H20.
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  • Briicke also brought forward an experiment of great importance, in which he showed that gum mastic, precipitated from an alcoholic solution poured into a large quantity of water, scatters light of a blue tint.
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  • Before applying the solution to a mathematical investigation of the present question, it may be well to consider the matter for a few moments from a more general point of view.
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  • It is also beneficial, especially in the case of partially exhausted beds, to water with a dilute solution of nitre.
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  • A crisis was now approaching in foreign affairs which demanded all the experience and all the genius of Hastings for its solution.
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  • The decisive success of Hastings's administration alone postponed the inevitable solution.
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  • When that was found, the solution of one problem would immediately entail the solution of all others which belonged to the same series as itself.
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  • And the algebraists or arithmeticians of the 16th century, such as Luca Pacioli (Lucas de Borgo), Geronimo or Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), and Niccola Tartaglia (1506-1559), had used geometrical constructions to throw light on the solution of particular equations.
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  • In pure algebra Descartes expounded and illustrated the general methods of solving equations up to those of the fourth degree (and believed that his method could go beyond), stated the law which connects the positive and negative roots of an equation with the changes of sign in the consecutive terms, and introduced the method of indeterminate coefficients for the solution of equations.'
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  • To attach a clear and definite meaning to the Cartesian doctrine of God, to show how much of it comes from the Christian theology and how much from the logic of idealism, how far the conception of a personal being as creator and preserver mingles with the pantheistic conception of an infinite and perfect something which is all in all, would be to go beyond Descartes and to ask for a solution of difficulties of which he was 1 Ouvres, vi.
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  • Deep into the night he would continue his studies, stimulating his senses by occasional cups of wine, and even in his dreams problems would pursue him and work out their solution.
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  • In districts where the water is of a " hard nature," that is, contains bicarbonate of lime in solution, the interior of the boiler cylinders, tanks and pipes of a hot water system will become incrusted with a deposit of lime which is gradually precipitated as the water is heated to boiling point.
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  • The aqueous solution is turned bluish black by ferrous sulphate containing a ferric salt.
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  • Potash solution converts it into a mixture of potassium cyanide and cyanate.
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  • In aqueous solution it gives a red colour with ferric chloride.
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  • They form compounds with hydrochloric acid when this gas is passed into their ethereal solution; these compounds, however, are very unstable, being readily decomposed by water.
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  • After the vigorous reaction has ceased and all the sodium has been used up, the mass is thrown into dilute hydrochloric acid, when the soluble sodium salts go into solution, and the insoluble boron remains as a brown powder, which may by filtered off and dried.
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  • A saturated solution of the gas, in water, is a colourless, oily, strongly fuming liquid which after a time decomposes, with separation of metaboric acid, leaving hydrofluoboric acid HF BF3 in solution.
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  • A pentasulphide B2S5 is prepared, in an impure condition, by heating a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide with boron iodide, and forms a white crystalline powder which decomposes under the influence of water into sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen and boric acid.
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  • Sulphuric acid dissolves it, forming a deepred solution.
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  • They are yellowish-red solids, which behave as weak bases, their salts undergoing hydrolytic dissociation in aqueous solution.
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  • It crystallizes in orange-red needles and its alcoholic solution fluoresces strongly.
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  • A curious property is to be observed when a crystal of pharmacosiderite is placed in a solution of ammonia - in a few minutes the green colour changes throughout the whole crystal to red; on placing the red crystal in dilute hydrochloric acid the green colour is restored.
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  • The fungus is cut into slices and then steeped in a solution of nitre.
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  • The solution of the question hinges upon the interpretation of the canons, that is, upon whether they are to be taken as reflecting a recent, or as pointing to an imminent, persecution.
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  • Brugnatelli, who found in 1798 that if silver be dissolved in nitric acid and the solution added to spirits of wine, a white, highly explosive powder was obtained.
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  • With bromine in acetic acid solution at ordinary temperature, nicotine yields a perbromide, C10H10Br2N20 HBr 3, which with sulphur dioxide, followed by potash, gives dibromcotinine, C10H10Br2N20, from which cotinine, C10H12N20, is obtained by distillation over zinc dust.
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  • Davy on the decomposition of the solutions of salts by the voltaic current were turned to account in the water voltameter telegraph of Sdmmering and the modification of it proposed by Schweigger, and in a similar method proposed by Coxe, in which a solution of salts was substituted for water.
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  • Each cell contains a zinc plate, immersed in a solution of zinc sulphate, and also a porous chamber containing crystals of copper sulphate and a copper plate.
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  • The electromotive force of each cell is i 07 volts and the resistance 3 ohms. The Fuller bichromate battery consists of an outer jar containing a solution of bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid, in which a plate of hard carbon is immersed; in the jar there is also a porous pot containing dilute sulphuric acid and a small quantity (2 oz.) of mercury, in which stands a stout zinc rod.
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  • Four years later Varley patented his artificial cable, which was the first near approach to a successful solution of the duplex problem on the principle now adopted.
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  • Suppose, for instance, the paper ribbon to be soaked in a solution of iodide of potassium and a light contact spring made to press continuously on its surface as it is pulled forward by the mechanism.
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  • The only other suggested solution of the problem of isolation in connexion with wireless telegraph stations was given by Anders Bull (Electrician, 1901, 46, p. 573).
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  • Other inventors had professed to find a solution of the problem by the use of looped receiving antennae or antennae inclined in various directions.
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  • Marconi, however, gave in 1906 the first really practical solution of the problem by the use of bent transmitting and receiving antennae.
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  • Braun also gave an interesting solution of the problem of directive telegraphy.'
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  • It can be purified by solution in hydrochloric acid and subsequent precipitation by metallic zinc.
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  • Cadmium hydroxide, Cd(OH) 2, is obtained as a white precipitate by adding potassium hydroxide to a solution of any soluble cadmium salt.
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  • Cadmium sulphate, CdSO 4, is known in several hydrated forms; being deposited, on spontaneous evaporation of a concentrated aqueous solution, in the form of large monosymmetric crystals of composition 3CdSO 4.8H 2 O, whilst a boiling saturated solution, to which concentrated sulphuric acid has been added, deposits crystals of composition CdSO 4 4H 2 0.
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  • The serious condition of recruiting was quickly noticed, and the tabulation of each years results was followed by a new draft law, but no solution was achieved until a special commission assembled.
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  • The crisis dragged for three months, and before its definitive solution by the formation of a Depretis-Crispi ministry, Robilant succeeded (I 7th March 1887) in renewing the triple alliance on terms more favorable to First re- Italy than those obtained in 1882.
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  • Scepticism, with which P. Bayle had played as a historian - he amused himself, too, with praising the Manichaean solution of the riddle of the universe - became a serious power in the history of philosophy with the advent of David Hume.
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  • The more important of those in use to-day are carbolic acid, the perchloride and biniodide of mercury, iodoform, formalin, salicylic acid, &c. Carbolic acid is germicidal in strong solution, inhibitory in weaker ones.
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  • A solution of I in 20 is used to sterilize instruments before an operation, and towels or lint to be used for the patient.
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  • In the Origin of Species, and in his other numerous and important contributions to the solution of the problem of biological evolution, Darwin confined himself to the discussion of the causes which have brought about the present condition of living matter, assuming such matter to have once come into existence.
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  • Naturally he felt that the prevalence of Christianity was incompatible with his ideal of Roman prosperity, and therefore that the policy of the Flavian emperors was the only logical solution of an important problem.
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  • Molybdenum monoxide, MoO.n(H 2 O), is a black powder obtained when the dichloride is boiled with concentrated potash solution.
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  • It sublimes in small rhombic tables or needles, and is slightly soluble in cold water, the solution possessing an acid reaction.
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  • Several hydrated forms of the oxide are known, and a colloidal variety may be obtained by the dialysis of a strong hydrochloric acid solution of sodium molybdate.
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  • It is a yellow amorphous powder which is soluble in dilute alkalis, the solution on acidification giving an hydroxide, C1 4 Mo 3 (OH) 2, which is soluble in nitric acid, and does not give a reaction with silver nitrate.
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  • Molybdenum trisulphide, MoS3, is obtained by saturating a solution of an alkaline molybdate with sulphuretted hydrogen and adding a mineral acid.
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  • The protoplasm derives its food from substances in solution in the water; the various waste products which are incident to its life are excreted into it, and so removed from the sphere of its activity.
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  • The raw materials from which the food is constructed are absorbed from the exterior in solution in water, and the latter is the medium through which the gaseous constituents necessary for life reach the protoplasm.
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  • The food must enter in solution in order to pass the walls.
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  • Each is a small protoplasmic body, in the meshes of whose vubstance the green coloring matter chlorophyll is contained in some form of solution.
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  • If a solution of the pigment is placed in the path of a beam of light which is then allowed to fall on a prism, the resulting spectrum will be found to be modified.
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  • The rays which in the absence of the solution of chlorophyll would have occupied those spaces have no power to pass through it, or in other words chlorophyll absorbs those particular rays of light which are missing.
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  • The presence of too much sugar in solution in the sap of the cell inhibits the activity of the chloroplasts; hence the necessity for its removal.
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  • Stomata are often absent, absorption and excretion of gases in solution being carried on through the epidermal layer.
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  • Upon our knowledge of its minute structure or cytology, combined with a study of its physiological activities, depends the ultimate solution of all the important problems of nutrition.
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  • The crystalline form appears to be due entirely to the carotin, which can be artificially crystallized from an alcohol or ether solution.
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  • They are stained deep red in dilute solution of alkanin.
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  • It gives a characteristic red-brown reaction with iodine solution.
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  • The cell sap contains various substances in solution such as sugars, inulin, alkaloids, glucosides, organic acids and various inorganic salts.
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  • The suberized and cuticularized cell-walls appear to contain a fatty body called suberin, and such cell-walls can be stained red by a solution of alcanin, the lignified and cellulose membranes remaining unstained.
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  • The oxides of type RO are soluble in water, the solution possessing a strongly alkaline reaction and rapidly absorbing carbon dioxide on exposure; they are basic in character and dissolve readily in acids with the formation of the corresponding salts.
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  • The solution is diluted with water, and the hydrocarbons are thereby precipitated and separated.
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  • The solution is then acidified, and the phenols are'liberated and form an oily layer on the surface of the acid.
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  • It is also readily soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, slightly soluble in aqueous ammonia solution, and almost insoluble in sodium carbonate solution.
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  • The metallic derivatives (phenolates, phenates or carbolates) of the alkali metals are obtained by dissolving phenol in a solution of a caustic alkali, in the absence of air.
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  • The ortho-acid, in the form of its aqueous solution, is sometimes used as an antiseptic, under the name of aseptol.
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  • The mixture is then cooled, acidified by means of sulphuric acid, and titrated with decinormal sodium thiosulphate solution.
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  • When a solution of the strength of about i in zo is applied to the skin it produces a local anaesthesia which lasts for many hours.
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  • The treatment is therefore to administer an ounce of sodium sulphate in water by the mouth, or to inject a similar quantity of the salt in solution directly into a vein or into the subcutaneous tissues.
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  • If excess of a mineral acid be added to a solution of an alkaline thiogermanate a white precipitate of germanium disulphide, GeS2, is obtained.
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  • It can also be obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through a solution of the dioxide in hydrochloric acid.
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  • The mixed solution of poiysulphides and thiosulphate of calcium thus produced is clarified, diluted largely, and then mixed with enough of pure dilute hydrochloric acid to produce a feebly alkaline mixture when sulphur is precipitated.
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  • Rhombic sulphur may be obtained artificially by slowly crystallizing a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide, or, better, by exposing pyridine saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen to atmospheric oxidation (Ahrens, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 2708).
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  • It is moderately soluble in water, the solution possessing a faintly acid reaction.
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  • This solution is not very stable, since on exposure to air it slowly oxidizes and becomes turbid owing to the gradual precipitation of sulphur.
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  • The dioxide has been known since the earliest times and is found as a naturally occurring product in the gaseous exhalations of volcanoes and in solution in some volcanic springs.
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  • It is readily soluble in alcohol and in water, the solution.
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  • The solution of the gas in water is used under the name of sulphurous acid.
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  • The free acid has not been isolated, since on evaporation the solution gradually loses sulphur dioxide.
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  • This solution possesses reducing properties,and gradually oxidizes to sulphuric acid on exposure.
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  • Schonbein subsequently showed the solution possessed reducing properties.
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  • A solution of the free acid may be prepared by adding oxalic acid to the solution of the sodium salt.
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  • This solution is yellow in colour, and is very unstable decomposing at ordinary temperature into sulphur and sulphur dioxide.
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  • Its aqueous solution gradually decomposes with evolution of oxygen, behaves as a strong oxidant, and liberates iodine from potassium iodide.
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  • This salt may be prepared by digesting flowers of sulphur with sodium sulphite solution or by boiling sulphur with milk of lime.
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  • In this latter reaction the deep yellow solution obtained is exposed to air when the calcium polysulphide formed is gradually converted into thiosulphate by oxidation, and the calcium salt thus formed is converted into the sodium salt by sodium carbonate or sulphate.
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  • They form many double salts and give a dark violet coloration with ferric chloride solution, this colour, however, gradually disappearing on standing, sulphur being precipitated.
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  • A solution of the free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with dilute sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution in vacuo until it attains a density of about 1.35 (approximately), further concentration leading to its decomposition into sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid.
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  • It is only stable in dilute aqueous solution, for on concentration the acid decomposes with formation of sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide and sulphur.
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  • The solution obtained may be evaporated in vacuo until it attains a density of 1.46 when, if partially saturated with potassium hydroxide and filtered, it yields crystals of potassium pentathionate, K 2 S 5 0 6.3H 2 0.
    0
    0
  • The aqueous solution of the acid is fairly stable at ordinary temperatures.
    0
    0
  • The solution on the addition of ammoniacal silver nitrate behaves similarly to that of potassium pentathionate, but differs from it in giving an immediate precipitate of sulphur with ammonia, whereas the solution of the pentathionate only gradually becomes turbid on standing.
    0
    0
  • It behaves as a strong oxidant and in aqueous solution is slowly hydrolysed.
    0
    0
  • This may be called the rationalistic solution; with sympathy in Christ's ethical teaching, there is relief at minimizing his great claim.
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    0
  • In 1747 he applied his new calculus to the problem of vibrating chords, the solution of which, as well as the theory of the oscillation of the air and the propagation of sound, had been given but incompletely by the geometricians who preceded him.
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  • So far he is in general agreement with Anaximander, but he differs from him in the solution of the problem, disliking, as a poet and a mystic, the primary matter which satisfied the patient researcher, and demanding a more vivid and picturesque element.
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  • Akerman, by which the autonomy of Moldavia,Walachia and Servia was confirmed, free passage of the straits was secured for merchant ships and disputed territory on the Asiatic frontier was annexed, and in July 1827 he signed with England and France the treaty of London for the solution of the Greek question by the mediation of the Powers.
    0
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  • The American engineer is more fortunately situated than his English brother with regard to the possibility of a solution, as will be seen from the comparative diagrams of construction gauges, figs.
    0
    0
  • The crude solid product from the tar distillate is digested with carbon bisulphide to dissolve the pyrene, the solution filtered and the solvent evaporated.
    0
    0
  • The residue is dissolved in alcohol and to the cold saturated solution a cold alcoholic solution of picric acid is added.
    0
    0
  • A condition of tenure attached to this chair was that the holder should propose mathematical questions for solution, and should resign in favour of any person who solved them better than himself; but, notwithstanding this, Roberval was able to keep the chair till his death, which occurred at Paris on the 27th of October 1675.
    0
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  • Roberval was one of those mathematicians who, just before the invention of the infinitesimal calculus, occupied their attention with problems which are only soluble, or can be most easily solved, by some method involving limits or infinitesimals, and in the solution of which accordingly the calculus is always now employed.
    0
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  • The subject has a special interest for Italy, which is devastated by malaria, and Italian science has contributed materially to the solution of the problem.
    0
    0
  • A solution may be sought.
    0
    0
  • Quinine still remains the one specific. In serious cases it should not be given in solid form, but in solution by the stomach, rectum, or - better - hypodermically (Manson).
    0
    0
  • Hess (18 4 o) were the first who systematically investigated thermochemical effects in solution, and arrived at conclusions from their experimental data which still possess validity.
    0
    0
  • Hess now observed that in the process of mixing such neutral solutions no thermal effect was produced - that is, neutral salts in aqueous solution could apparently interchange their radicals without evolution or absorption of heat.
    0
    0
  • For example, when metallic zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid with production of zinc sulphate (in solution) and hydrogen gas, a definite quantity of heat is produced for a given amount of zinc dissolved, provided that the excess of energy in the initial system appears entirely as heat.
    0
    0
  • Berthelot, on the other hand, assumed that the heat-capacity of an aqueous solution is equal to that of an equal volume of water, and calculated his results on this assumption, which involves much the same uncertainty as that of Thomsen.
    0
    0
  • The same type of calorimeter is used in determining the heat of solution of a solid or liquid in water.
    0
    0
  • When substances in solution are dealt with, Thomsen indicates their state by affixing Aq to their symbols.
    0
    0
  • Thus the equation Cl 2 -1-2KI, Aq=2KC1, Aq+12+52400 cal., or (C12) +2KI, Aq =2KC1, Aq+[12]-I-52400 cal., would express that when gaseous chlorine acts on a solution of potassium iodide, with separation of solid iodine, 52400 calories are evolved.
    0
    0
  • It has already been stated that the heats of neutralization of acids and bases in aqueous solution are additively composed of two terms, one being constant for a given base, the other constant for a given acid.
    0
    0
  • When substances readily combine with water to form hydrates, the heat of solution in water is usually positive; when, on the other hand, they do not readily form hydrates, or when they are already hydrated, the heat of solution is usually negative.
    0
    0
  • In foreign affairs he succeeded in achieving as satisfactory a solution of the Adriatic problem as was possible under the circumstances.
    0
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  • The scantiness of historical tradition makes a final solution impossible, but the study of these years has an important bearing on the history of the later Judaean state, which has been characteristically treated from the standpoint of exiles who returned from Babylonia and regard them selves as the kernel of " Israel."
    0
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  • There is no revulsion, as later, from dogma as such, nor is more stress laid upon one dogma than upon another; all are treated upon the same footing, and the whole dogmatic system is held, as it were, in solution by the philosophic medium in which it is presented.
    0
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  • That there was fraud, and complicated fraud, in the guardians of the dauphin may be taken as proved by a succession of writers from 1850 onwards, and more recently by Frederic Barbey, who wisely attempts no ultimate solution.
    0
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  • What appears the most probable solution is that which regards Lancelot as the hero of an independent and widely diffused folk-tale, which, owing to certain special circumstances, was brought into contact with, and incorporated in, the Arthurian tradition.
    0
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  • Among the great variety of problems solved are problems leading to determinate equations of the first degree in one, two, three or four variables, to determinate quadratic equations, and to indeterminate equations of the first degree in one or more variables, which are, however, transformed into determinate equations by arbitrarily assuming a value for one of the required numbers, Diophantus being always satisfied with a rational, even if fractional, result and not requiring a solution in integers.
    0
    0
  • It was about this time that the value of a mixture of lime and sulphate of copper (bouillie bordelaise), sprayed in solution upon the growing plants, came to be recognized as a check upon the ravages of potato disease.
    0
    0
  • Successful trials of sulphate of copper solution as a means of destroying charlock in corn crops took place in the years 1898-1900.
    0
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  • It is at the solution of these two questions that philosophy in the immediate future may be expected to work.
    0
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  • In the Gnostic basis itself it is not difficult to recognize the general features of the religion of ancient Babylonia, and thus we are brought nearer a solution of the problem as to the origin of Gnosticism in general.
    0
    0
  • Artificially prepared crystals of barytes may be obtained by allowing a solution of a soluble barium salt to diffuse slowly into a solution of a soluble sulphate.
    0
    0
  • Many esters of malonic acid have been prepared, the most important being the diethyl ester (malonic ester), CH 2 (000C 2 H 5) 2, which is obtained by dissolving monochloracetic acid in water, neutralizing the solution with potassium carbonate, and then adding potassium cyanide and warming the mixture until the reaction begins.
    0
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  • The half nitrile of malonic acid is cyanacetic acid, CN CH 2 COOH, which, in the form of its ester, may be obtained by the action of a solution of potassium cyanide on monochloracetic acid.
    0
    0
  • The solution obtained is neutralized, concentrated on the water-bath, acidified by sulphuric acid and extracted with ether.
    0
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  • The early history of the republic is chiefly concerned with the solution of these two problems.
    0
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  • Crystals of a different form are deposited from a strong boiling solution of the acid.
    0
    0
  • Tartaric acid, which is sometimes present in large quantities as an adulterant in commercial citric acid, may be detected in the presence of the latter, by the production of a precipitate of acid potassium tartrate when potassium acetate is added to a cold solution.
    0
    0
  • Another mode of separating the two acids is to convert them into calcium salts, which are then treated with a perfectly neutral solution of cupric chloride, soluble cupric citrate and calcium chloride being formed, while cupric tartrate remains undissolved.
    0
    0
  • Citric acid is also distinguished from tartaric acid by the fact that an ammonia solution of silver tartrate produces a brilliant silver mirror when boiled, whereas silver citrate is reduced only after prolonged ebullition.
    0
    0
  • The distillates obtained are usually purified by treatment, successively, with sulphuric acid and solution of caustic soda, followed by washing with water.
    0
    0
  • At the inception of the industry kerosene came into the market as a dark yellow or reddish-coloured liquid, and in the first instance, the removal of colour was attempted by treatment with soda lye and lime solution.
    0
    0
  • A continuous electric current of one ampere is defined to be one which deposits electrolytically 0.001118 of a gramme of silver per second from a neutral solution of silver nitrate.'
    0
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  • They are due largely to sinkholes or depressions caused by solution of the limestone of the region.
    0
    0
  • Geoffroy in 1741 pointed out that the fat or oil recovered from a soap solution by neutralization with a mineral acid differs from the original fatty substance by dissolving readily in alcohol, which is not the case with ordinary fats and oils.
    0
    0
  • Soap when dissolved in a large amount of water suffers hydrolysis, with formation of a precipitate of acid salt and a solution containing free alkali.
    0
    0
  • The extent to which a soap is hydrolysed depends upon the acid and on the concentration of the solution; it is also affected by the presence of metallic salts, e.g.
    0
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  • As to the detergent action of a soap, Berzelius held that it was due to the free alkali liberated with water; but it is difficult to see why a solution which has just thrown off most of its fatty acids should be disposed to take up even a glyceride, and, moreover, on this theory, weak cold solutions, in which the hydrolysis is considerable, should be the best cleansers, whilst experience points to the use of hot concentrated solutions.
    0
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  • It is more likely that the cleansing power of soap is due to the inherent property of its solution to emulsionize fats.
    0
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  • The soap solution which results from the combination forms soap-size and is a mixture of soap with water, the excess alkali, and the glycerin liberated from the oil.
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  • Steam is turned on, and, the mass being brought to a clear condition with weak lye or water, strong lye is added and the boiling continued with close steam till the lye attains such a state of concentration that the soap is no longer soluble in it, and it will separate from the caustic lye as from a common salt solution.
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  • Marine Soap. - These soaps are so named because they are not insoluble in a strong solution of salt; hence they form a lather and can be used for washing with sea-water.
    0
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  • Being thus soluble in salt water it cannot, of course, be salted out like common soaps; but if a very concentrated salt solution is used precipitation is effected, and a curd soap is separated so hard and refractory as to be practically useless.
    0
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  • The silicate in the form of a concentrated solution is crutched or stirred into the soap in a mechanical mixing machine after the completion of the saponification, and it appears to enter into a distinct chemical combination with the soap. While silicate soaps bear heavy watering, the soluble silicate itself is a powerful detergent, and it possesses certain advantages when used with hard waters.
    0
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  • Soap containing small proportions of glycerin, on the other hand, forms a very tenacious lather, and when soap bubbles of an enduring character are desired glycerin is added to the solution.
    0
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  • The solution may be worked out directly or through the determination of the equation of the centre which, being added to the mean anomaly, gives the true anomaly.
    0
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  • The actual process of solution is vastly more complex than is indicated by this description of it.
    0
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  • For Tartaglia's discovery of the solution of cubic equations, and his contests with Antonio Marie Floridas, see Algebra (History).
    0
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  • Problems in artillery occupy two out of nine books; the sixth treats of fortification; the ninth gives several examples of the solution of cubic equations.
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  • These are washed with ammonium chloride until the filtrate is colourless, ignited, fused with caustic potash and nitre, the melt dissolved in water and nitric acid added to the solution until the colour of potassium ruthenate disappears.
    0
    0
  • The peroxide, Ru04, is formed when a solution of potassium ruthenate is decomposed by chlorine, or by oxidizing ruthenium compounds with potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, or with potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid.
    0
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  • Ruthenium dichloride, RuC1 2, is obtained (in solution) by reducing the sesquichloride by sulphuretted hydrogen or zinc. It is stable in the cold.
    0
    0
  • Ruthenium sulphate, Ru(S04)2, as obtained by oxidizing the sulphide, is an orange-yellow mass which is deliquescent and dissolves in water, the solution possessing a strongly acid reaction.
    0
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  • It forms small brown lamellae which dissolve slowly in water to give a fuchsine-red solution possessing a violet reflex.
    0
    0
  • The solution possesses a considerable tinctorial power, dyeing silk in the cold.
    0
    0
  • Potassium ruthenium cyanide, K4Ru(CN) 6.3H 2 O, formed when potassium ruthenate is boiled with a solution of potassium cyanide, crystallizes in colourless plates which are soluble in water.
    0
    0
  • It forms a characteristic explosive silver salt on the addition of ammoniacal silver nitrate to its aqueous solution, and an amorphous precipitate which explodes on warming with ammoniacal cuprous chloride.
    0
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  • Its solution in concentrated sulphuric acid is of a yellow colour and shows a marked blue fluorescence.
    0
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  • Other branches of this subject are treated in the articles Chemical Action; Energetics; Solution; Alloys; Thermochemistry.
    0
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  • The laws of chemical combination were solved, in a measure, by John Dalton, and the solution expressed as Dalton's " atomic theory."
    0
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  • Gerhardt attempted a solution by investigating chemical reactions.
    0
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  • The solution came abOut by arranging the elements in the order of their atomic weights, tempering the arrangement with the results deduced from the theory of valencies and experimental observations.
    0
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  • This is also the case if two substances are brought together in solution, by the action of which upon each other a third body is formed which is insoluble in the solvent employed, and which also does not tend to react upon any of the substances present; for instance, when a solution of a chloride is added to a solution of a silver salt, insoluble silver chloride is precipitated, and almost the whole of the silver is removed from solution, even if the amount of the chloride employed be not in excess of that theoretically required.
    0
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  • For example, when a solution of a ferric salt is added to a solution of potassium thiocyanate, a deep red coloration is produced, owing to the formation of ferric thiocyanate.
    0
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  • A masterly device, initiated by him, was to collect gases over mercury instead of water; this enabled him to obtain gases previously only known in solution, such as ammonia, hydrochloric acid, silicon fluoride and sulphur dioxide.
    0
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  • From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.
    0
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  • The metallic film is tested with 20% nitric acid and with bleaching-powder solution.
    0
    0
  • It is first necessary to get the substance into solution.
    0
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  • The procedure for the detection of metals in solution consists of first separating them into groups and then examining each group separately.
    0
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  • For this purpose the cold solution is treated with hydrochloric acid, which precipitates lead, silver and mercurous salts as chlorides.
    0
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  • The solution is filtered and treated with an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; this precipitates mercury (mercuric), any lead left over from the first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin as sulphides.
    0
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  • The solution is filtered off, boiled till free of sulphuretted hydrogen, and ammonium chloride and ammonia added.
    0
    0
  • The phosphates of aluminium, chromium and iron are precipitated, and the solution contains the same metals as if phosphoric acid had been absent.
    0
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  • The solution contains magnesium, sodium and potassium, which are separately distinguished by the methods given under their own headings.
    0
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  • The white precipitate formed by cold hydrochloric acid is boiled with water, and the solution filtered while hot.
    0
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  • Silver chloride goes into solution, and may be precipitated by dilute nitric acid.
    0
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  • The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.
    0
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  • The residue from the ammonium sulphide solution is warmed with dilute nitric acid.
    0
    0
  • The solution is evaporated with a little sulphuric acid and well cooled.
    0
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  • If copper is absent, then sulphuretted hydrogen can be passed directly into the solution.
    0
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  • The solution is boiled till free from sulphuretted hydrogen and treated with excess of sodium hydrate.
    0
    0
  • The solution with ammonium sulphide gives a white precipitate of zinc sulphide.
    0
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  • The carbonates are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and calcium sulphate solution is added to a portion of the solution.
    0
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  • If barium is present, the solution of the carbonates in hydrochloric acid is evaporated and digested with strong alcohol for some time; barium chloride, which is nearly insoluble in alcohol,is thus separated, the remainder being precipitated by a few drops of hydrofluosilicic acid, and may be confirmed by the ordinary tests.
    0
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  • The solution free from barium is treated with ammonia and ammonium sulphate, which precipitates strontium, and the calcium in the solution may be identified by the white precipitate with ammonium oxalate.
    0
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  • Sometimes it is necessary to allow the solution to stand for a considerable time either in the warm or cold or in the light or dark; to work with cold solutions and then boil; or to use boiling solutions of both the substance and reagent.
    0
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  • In general analytical work the standard solution contains the equivalent weight of the substance in grammes dissolved in a litre of water.
    0
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  • Such a solution is known as normal.
    0
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  • Thus a normal solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36.5 grammes, and so on.
    0
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  • Unfortunately, the term normal is sometimes given to solutions which are strictly decinormal; for example, iodine, sodium thiosulphate, &c. In technical analysis, where a solution is used for one process only, it may be prepared so that I cc. is equal to.
    0
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  • Standard solutions are prepared by weighing out the exact amount of the pure substance and dissolving it in water, or by forming a solution of approximate normality, determining its exact strength by gravimetric or other means, and then correcting it for any divergence.
    0
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  • Pure sodium carbonate is prepared by igniting the bicarbonate, and exactly 53 grammes are dissolved in water, forming a strictly normal solution.
    0
    0
  • A standard sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Where a solution is likely to change in composition on keeping, such as potassium permanganate, iodine, sodium hydrate, &c., it is necessary to check or re-standardize it periodically.
    0
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  • In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.
    0
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  • It is therefore necessary that the solution should be free from metals which may vitiate the results, or special precautions taken by which the impurities are rendered harmless.
    0
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  • A known weight of the test substance is dissolved and a portion of the solution is placed in a tube similar to those containing the standard solutions.
    0
    0
  • The halogens may be sometimes detected by fusing with lime, and testing the solution for a bromide, chloride and iodide in the usual way.
    0
    0
  • Horbaczewski's method, which consists in boiling the substance with strong potash, saturating the cold solution` with chlorine, adding hydrochloric acid, and boiling till no more chlorine is liberated, and then testing for sulphuric acid with barium chloride.
    0
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  • The other end is connected with the absorption vessels, which consist of a tube (e) containing calcium chloride, and a set of bulbs (f) containing potash solution.
    0
    0
  • The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.
    0
    0
  • With iodine compounds, iodic acid is likely to be formed, and hence the solution must be reduced with sulphurous acid before precipitation with silver nitrate.
    0
    0
  • Of considerable importance, also, are the properties of solids, liquids and gases in solution.
    0
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  • This subject is treated in the article Solution; for the properties of liquid mixtures reference should also be made to the article Distillation.
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  • The colour produced is generally of a greenish shade; for example, nitrosobenzene is green when fused or in solution (when crystalline, it is colourless), and dinitrosoresorcin has been employed as a dyestuff under the names " solid green " and " chlorine."
    0
    0
  • Solution in dilute alkali was supposed to be accompanied by the rupture of the lactone ring with the formation of the quinonoid salt shown in 2.
    0
    0
  • In the case of separation from solutions, either by crystallization or by precipitation by double decomposition, the temperature, the concentration of the solution, and the presence of other ions may modify the form obtained.
    0
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  • Different modifications may separate and exist side by side at one and the same time from a solution; e.g.
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  • As a complete fusion between dramatic and musical movement, its very crudities point to its immense advance towards the solution of the problem, propounded chaotically at the beginning of the i 7th century by Monteverde, and solved in a simple form by Gluck.
    0
    0
  • Iodine in alkaline solution converts pyrrol into iodol (tetra-iodopyrrol), crystallizing in yellowishbrown needles, which decompose on heating.
    0
    0
  • It may also be prepared by heating tetra-bromor tetra-chlorpyrrol with potas= sium iodide in alcoholic solution (German patent, 38423, 1886).
    0
    0
  • This substance easily splits out alcohol, and the ring compound then formed yields pyrrolidine on reduction by sodium in amyl alcohol solution.
    0
    0
  • Ferric chloride colours its aqueous solution violet.
    0
    0
  • Bromine water in dilute aqueous solution gives a white precipitate of tribromophenol-bromide C 6 H 2 Br 3.
    0
    0
  • Potassium persulphate oxidizes it in alkaline solution, the product on boiling with acids giving hydroquiirone carboxylic acid (German Patent 81,297).
    0
    0
  • The addition of a little of the acid to glue renders it more tenacious; skins to be used for making leather do not undergo decomposition if steeped in a dilute solution; butter containing a small quantity of it may be kept sweet for months even in the hottest weather.
    0
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  • By treating blue ultramarine with silver nitrate solution, "silverultramarine" is obtained as a yellow powder.
    0
    0
  • The problem then resolves itself in the solution of a spherical triangle.
    0
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  • To the latter belong views of the Antichrist, of the heathen worldpower, of the place, extent, and duration of the earthly kingdom of Christ, &c. These remained in a state of solution; they were modified from day to day, partly because of the changing circumstances of the present by which forecasts of the future were regulated, partly because the indications - real or supposed - of the ancient prophets always admitted of new combinations and constructions.
    0
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  • To preserve from insects, the plants, after mounting, are often brushed over with a liquid formed by the solution of lb.
    0
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  • The sulphur is dissolved by superheated water forced down pipes, and the water with sulphur in solution is forced upward by hot air pressure through other pipes; the sulphur comes, 99% pure, to the surface of the ground, where it is cooled in immense bins, and then broken up and loaded directly upon cars for shipment.
    0
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  • On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.
    0
    0
  • A boiling solution of caustic potash hydrolyses it to ammonia and succinic acid.
    0
    0
  • Ketoximes are usually rather more difficult to prepare than aldoximes, and generally require the presence of a fairly concentrated alkaline solution.
    0
    0
  • The a-oxime, on long continued boiling with a concentrated solution of a caustic alkali, is partially decomposed with formation of some acetone and acetoxime (C. Harries, Ber., 1898, 31, pp. 1381, 1808; 18 99, 32, p. 1 33 1).
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  • By the direct action of hydroxylamine on a methyl alcohol solution of mesityl oxide in the presence of sodium methylate a hydr oxylamino - ketone, diacetone hydroxylamine, (CH 3) 2 C(Nhoh) CH20OCH3,is formed.
    0
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  • In this way the fourth estate would be emancipated from the despotism of the capitalist, and a great step taken in the solution of the great " social question."
    0
    0
  • This may be effected by burning phosphorus in a confined volume of air, by the action of an alkaline solution of pyrogallol on air, by passing air over heated copper, or by the action of copper on air in the presence of ammoniacal solutions.
    0
    0
  • If the gas be mixed with the vapour of carbon disulphide, the mixture burns with a vivid lavender-coloured flame Nitric oxide is soluble in solutions of ferrous salts, a dark brown solution being formed, which is readily decomposed by heat, with evolution of nitric oxide.
    0
    0
  • It does not liberate iodine from potassium iodide, neither does it decolorize iodine solution.
    0
    0
  • In acid solution, potassium permanganate oxidizes it to nitric acid, but in alkaline solution only to nitrous acid.
    0
    0
  • It is somewhat volatile at ordinary temperature, and its aqueous solution possesses a strongly acid reaction.
    0
    0
  • They teach further the solution of problems leading to equations of the first and second degree, to determinate and indeterminate equations, not by single and double position only, but by real algebra, proved by means of geometric constructions, and including the use of letters as symbols for known numbers, the unknown quantity being called res and its square census.
    0
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  • Leonardo gave as solution the numbers 11 i 4 4, 16, 9 4 - 7 4 and 6197 T, - the squares of 3,, 41'v and 2, 7; and the method of finding them is given in the Liber quadratorum.
    0
    0
  • The Flos of Leonardo turns on the second question set by John of Palermo, which required the solution of the cubic equation x 3 -{-2x'-}-lox = 20.
    0
    0
  • With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid.
    0
    0
  • All of this is not available, for carbonic acid is present as such in solution, as bicarbonate (of magnesium mainly) and as normal carbonate.
    0
    0
  • Clearly, however, the vast quantity of living substance in the ocean is built up from materials that are present in the sea-water as an exceedingly dilute solution, and the solution is dilute just because organisms are incessantly utilizing it.
    0
    0
  • Lime is transported in solution as sulphate and bicarbonate, both of which salts are soluble to some extent in water.
    0
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  • All these animals have calcareous skeletons or shells of some form and they secrete the calcium from its solution as sulphate, converting it into carbonate.
    0