Solid sentence example
Once again the rear end was on solid ground.
It's heavy, lads--solid books.
The wooden planks were old and weathered, but felt solid enough.
Reason said if she left now, there would never be a solid relationship.
The footsteps of those entering the kitchen were solid against the stone floor.Advertisement
The top three and bottom three seem pretty solid to me.
But I've just had the bad luck to come out of the sky, skip the solid earth, and land lower down than I intended.
Overwhelmed with fatigue, she relaxed with her back against the solid support of his body.
The ends of the wooden legs were shod with plates of solid gold, and the saddle of the Princess Ozma, which was of red leather set with sparkling diamonds, was strapped to the clumsy body.
Deidre found herself leaning into his solid frame without resistance, entranced by the combination of his hot, hard body and cool fire on her swimming senses.Advertisement
She had even been guilty of rubbing the DNA test in his face — solid proof that the baby girl was his.
The next important advance was the substitution of solid for liquid media; due originally to Schroter.
It certainly felt solid.
After a solid hour of the child crying, I wondered if the mother read about the abandoned child, perhaps with a fleeting hint of sympathy.
He willed himself solid, surprised when it worked.Advertisement
All the comforts of home, except behind the rich brocade fabric walls stood twenty-four inches of rebar reinforced concrete and the door consisted of eight-inch diameter solid steel bars.
We are quite solid inside our bodies, and have no need to eat, any more than does a potato.
He cuts and saws the solid pond, unroofs the house of fishes, and carts off their very element and air, held fast by chains and stakes like corded wood, through the favoring winter air, to wintry cellars, to underlie the summer there.
There is a solid bottom everywhere.
After a few solid hours of sleep, his sense of center was back, his mind clear.Advertisement
The walls were bare, the curtains drawn even during daylight, and the heavy wooden furniture solid and worn.
His solid frame and heat were creeping into her senses, tugging at her resolve to resist.
Death was almost seven feet tall, built more solid than a tree trunk with hair and eyes darker than a moonless night.
His arousal rose solid and thick against her belly, and the soft towel agitated her straining nipples.
Her knee hit the solid chunk of wood with a nauseating thump.Advertisement
The white block walls of the dairy remained solid, but the windows were dark.
It was made of solid rock, even the heavy door.
Xander kept up with her easily, the solid, warm body beside her affecting her senses in ways that made her angrier.
If 127 parts of iodine, which is an almost black solid, and loo parts of mercury, which is a white liquid metal, be intimately mixed by rubbing them together in a mortar, the two substances wholly disappear, and we obtain instead a brilliant red powder quite unlike the iodine or the mercury; almost the only property that is unchanged is the weight.
The tongue is so serviceable a member (taking all sorts of shapes, just as is wanted),--the teeth, the lips, the roof of the mouth, all ready to help, and so heap up the sound of the voice into the solid bits which we call consonants, and make room for the curiously shaped breathings which we call vowels!Advertisement
It is thrown across the gorge at a height of two hundred and fifty-eight feet above the water and is supported on each bank by towers of solid rock, which are eight hundred feet apart.
The restaurant has a solid wine list and full bar.
It was solid and slender with no release mechanism or clasp.
Abruptly the scratching sound of the crampons beneath his feet told him he'd reached the first mounds of solid ice.
Finally, there was a nice, solid brick wall ending speculation on this matter.Advertisement
His body was hot and solid against hers.
Jessi sighed as his warm, solid body settled over hers.
This treatise is in two books, dedicated to Dositheus, and deals with the dimensions of spheres, cones, "solid rhombi" and cylinders, all demonstrated in a strictly geometrical method.
A solid customer base brings a steady stream of maintenance work and updates that carry you through the slow times.
There is just no substitute for good training, solid creative thinking and taking on the responsibility of clear and effective communication.Advertisement
Most importantly, they will have a solid record of clients and success stories, and a clear strategy for how they can help you.
Create a solid background and place the animated file in a corner or in the middle of the page.
However, this company, like RickyDeez, has a large client base and a solid portfolio which may be perfect for your business.
All PHP programmers should have a solid understanding of the basic string functions offered with the language.
The use of templates makes it much easier to ensure a solid, uniform look across the entire site.Advertisement
As a solid compromise, programmers can use the code view feature to continue to program by hand, and still take in the benefits of using the third-party editor.
The food here is actually solid, with kid favorites like pizza, hamburgers and grilled-cheese meshing well with more adult fare like steaks and chicken dishes.
Instead of shifting with each step, the ground felt solid.
The appliances were modern but the cabinets were old and solid.
Her first impression was confirmed—the men in the room were UFC material, all well over six feet and solid.Advertisement
But unlike petite Cynthia, Maria was compact—not fat, but solid.
Too panicked to care, Deidre whirled and smacked into something solid.
A few minutes later she was kicking snow around in the chicken yard until the toe of her boot struck something solid.
As he reached inside, his hand touched something solid.
Jenn found a stick and carefully returned to the portal, tapping the ground to find where it was solid.
From the outside, it looked rough, but well maintained and solid.
Only an hour ago their relationship had been so solid.
The gentleman's agreement between them had been tested and proven solid.
If the faces be all equal equilateral triangles the solid is termed the "regular" tetrahedron.
Both have fleshy caps, whitish, moist and clammy to the touch; instead of a pleasant odour, they have a disagreeable one; the stems are ringless, or nearly so; and the gills, which are palish-clay-brown, distinctly touch and grow on to the solid or pithy stem.
The stem is Lsolid and corky, much more solid than the flesh of the cap, and perfectly smooth, never being furnished with the slightest trace of a ring.
The ox-wagons with their solid wheels, and the curious water-wheels of brushwood with earthenware pots tied on to them and turned by a blindfolded donkey, are picturesque.
The difficulties of the harbour were increased by the continued silting up, produced by the enormous amount of solid material brought down by the river.
The armature consists of a bony case, partly composed of solid buckler-like plates, and partly of movable transverse bands, the latter differing in number with the species, and giving to the body a considerable degree of flexibility.
The materials mixed with the iron borings cause them to rust into a solid mass, and in doing so a slight expansion takes place.
It is a brownish amorphous solid, which is insoluble in water.
Boron fluoride also combines with ammonia gas, equal volumes of the two gases giving a white crystalline solid of composition BF 3 NH 3 i with excess of ammonia gas, colourless liquids BF 3.2NH 3 and BF 3.3NH 3 are produced, which on heating lose ammonia and are converted into the solid form.
It unites readily with ammonia gas forming a white crystalline solid of composition 2BC13.3NH3.
The events of these three years taught the Labour leaders that a parliamentary party was of little practical influence unless it was able to cast on all important occasions a solid vote, and to meet the case a new method was devised.
He found Sweden in ruins, and devoted his whole life to laying the solid foundations of a new order of things which, in its essential features, has endured to the present day.
A square tower rises from a central part of the platform to a height of about 40 ft., divided into a solid masonry base and three storeys connected by interior stairways.
He was quite aware that the industrial wealth of the great Flemish communes was financially the mainstay of his power, but their very prosperity made them the chief obstacle to his schemes of unifying into a solid dominion the loose aggregate of states over which he was the ruler.
The shafts are placed so close together that in many instances they are divided by only a couple of feet of solid ground, but at their bases a considerable amount of gallery work has been excavated, though it is possible that this was done by miners who came after the people who originally sank the shafts.
The church also contains a solid silver statue of the archangel Michael, belonging to the confraternity of Neapolitan fishermen.
But experiment shows that in this condition much of the violin part sounds incomplete; and the truth appears to be that Haydn is thinking, like any modern composer, of the opposition of two solid bodies of tone - the pianoforte and the stringed instruments.
It appears, however, to depend upon the fact that an electric arc is not like a solid conductor.
Increase in the voltage acting upon a solid conductor increases the current through it, but in the case of the electric arc an increase in current is accompanied by a fall in the difference of potential of the carbons, within certain limits, and the arc has therefore been said to possess a negative resistance.'
Cadmium sulphide, CdS, occurs naturally as greenockite (q.v.), and can be artificially prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through acid solutions of soluble cadmium salts, when it is precipitated as a pale yellow amorphous solid.
The only solid nucleus he finds in it is the fact that there is a great deal of beauty in this world.
Finally, as regards structure,S the tentacles may retain their primitive hollow nature, or become solid by obliteration of the axial cavity.
By a simple modification, the open pit becomes a solid ectodermal ingrowth, just as in Teleostean fishes the hollow medullary tube, or the auditory pit of other vertebrate embryos, is formed at first as a solid cord of cells, which acquires a cavity secondarily.
B, The lower layer forms a solid G,H, Formation of the medusae.
The tentacles may be scattered singly round the margin of the umbrella (" monerenematous ") or arranged in tufts (" lophonematous "); in form they may be simple or branched (Cladonemid type); in structure they may be hollow (" coelomerinthous "); or solid (" pycnomerinthous ").
Trophosome, polyps with two whorls of tentacles, the lower filiform, the upper capitate; gonosome, free medusae, with tentacles solid and branched.
Trophosome, polyps with a single whorl of capitate tentacles; gonosome, free medusae, with ten tacles branched, solid.
The tentacles are usually hollow, rarely solid (Obelia) .
In addition to tentacles, there may be marginal cirri (Laodice) with a solid endodermal axis, spirally coiled, very contractile, and bearing a terminal battery of nematocysts.
Ceratella stands in much the same relation to the Stylasteridae that Hydractinia does to the Milleporidae, in both cases the chitinous perisarc being replaced by the solid coenosteum to which the hydrocorallines owe the second half of their name.
The tentacles are always solid, containing an axis of endoderm-cells resembling notochordal tissue or plantparenchyma, and are but moderately flexible.
The tentacles are always solid, as in Trachomedusae.
There are raised coral beds high up the mountains, and lava occurs in a variety of forms, even in solid flows; but all active volcanic agency has so long ceased that the craters have.
The branches may be quite free or they may be united laterally to form a solid body of more or less firm and compact consistency.
Many of the lower forms of Brown Seaweeds (Phoeophyceae) have a thallus consisting of simple or branched cell threads, as in the green and red forms. The lateral union of the branches to form a solid thallus is not, however, so common, nor is it carried to so high a pitch of elaboration as in the Rhodophyceae.
These branch, and may be packed or interwoven to form a very solid structure; but each grows in length independently of the others and retains its own individuality, though its growth in those types with a definite external form is of course correlated with that of its neighbors and is subject to the laws governing the general form of the body.
A solid fungal body may usually be seen to consist of separate hyphae, but in some cases these are so bent and closely interwoven that an appearance like that of ordinary parenchymatous tissue is obtained in section, the structure being called pseudo parenchyrna.
The formation of a massive body naturally involves the localization of the absorptive region, and the function of absorption (which in the simpler forms is carried out by the whole of the vegetative part of the mycelium penetrating a solid or immersed in a liquid substratum) is subserved by the outgrowth of the hyphae of the surface-layer of that region into rhizoids, which, like those of the Algae living on soil, resemble the root-hairs of the higher plants.
The internal tissue of the body of the solid higher Fungi, particularly the elongated stalks (stipes) of the fructifications of the Agarics, consists of hyphae running in a longitudinal direction, which no doubt serve for the conduction of organic food substances, just as do the trumpet-hyphae, similar in appearance, though not in origin, of the higher Brown Seaweeds.
In many Pteridophytes the solid haplostele is maintained throughout the axis.
To this type of steIn having a ground-tissue pith, whether with or without internal phloem, is given the name siphonostele to distinguish it from the solid haplostele characteristic of the root, the first-formed portion of the stem, and in the more primitive Pteridophytes, of the whole of the axis.
He produced a solid body of accurately described facts which has formed the secure groundwork of subsequent advance.
The water of the soil, which in well-drained soil is met with in the form of delicate films surrounding the particles of solid matter, is absorbed into the plant by the delicate hairs borne by the young roots, the entry being effected by a process of modified osmosis.
The cell-walls of plants render the entry of solid material into the organism impossible.
The Pythagorean school of philosophers adopted the theory of a spherical earth, but from metaphysical rather than scientific reasons; their convincing argument was that a sphere being the most perfect solid figure was the only one worthy to circumscribe the dwellingplace of man.
In many birds the spaces between the metasternum and the posterior processes and again the spaces between this and the oblique process are filled up by proceeding ossification and either remain as notches, or as fenestrae, or they are completely abolished so that the breastbone is turned into one solid more or less oblong plate.
The density of solid sulphur is 2 062 to 2'070, and the specific heat 0.1712; it is a bad conductor of electricity and becomes negatively electrified on friction.
The solid derived from SA is crystalline and soluble in carbon bisulphide, that from S, is amorphous and insoluble.
In the epistle ambo at Salerno and the gospel ambones at Cava and San Giovanni del Toro in Ravello, the columns support segmental arches carrying the ambones; the epistle ambo at Ravello and all those in Rome are raised on solid marble bases.
In some cases, however, they are filled with fused acetate of soda; this salt is solid when cold, but when the can containing it is heated by immersion in hot water it liquefies, and in the process absorbs heat which is given out again on the change of state back to solid.
This coupling gear is placed centrally between a pair of buffers; formerly these were often left " dead " - that is, consisted of solid prolongations of the frame of the vehicle, but now they are made to work against springs which take up the shocks that occur when the wagons are thrown violently .against one another in shunting.
In it the draw-bar, connected through a spring to the frame of the car, had at its outboard end a socket into which one end of a solid link was inserted and secured by a pin.
The crude solid product from the tar distillate is digested with carbon bisulphide to dissolve the pyrene, the solution filtered and the solvent evaporated.
Quinine still remains the one specific. In serious cases it should not be given in solid form, but in solution by the stomach, rectum, or - better - hypodermically (Manson).
The same type of calorimeter is used in determining the heat of solution of a solid or liquid in water.
In the above instance the sulphur is supposed to be in the solid rhombic modification, the oxygen and sulphur dioxide being in the gaseous state, and the initial and final systems being at the ordinary temperature.
Thus the equation Cl 2 -1-2KI, Aq=2KC1, Aq+12+52400 cal., or (C12) +2KI, Aq =2KC1, Aq+-I-52400 cal., would express that when gaseous chlorine acts on a solution of potassium iodide, with separation of solid iodine, 52400 calories are evolved.
Even before authentic history begins, the elements of religion and society had already crystallized into a solid coherent structure which was to persist without essential modification.
It is abundantly evident that whatever mythic element may have been interwoven with the old traditions of the spot, they have a solid substratum of reality.
They are frequently provided with "pseudo-bulbs," large solid swellings of the stem, in the tissues of which water and nutritive materials are stored.
Although for the purposes of geographical nomenclature, boundaries formed by a coast-line - that is, by depressions of the earth's solid crust below the ocean level - are most easily recog- Political nized and are of special convenience; and although such divisions.
In illustration of the very slow diffusion of heat in the solid crust of the earth, and as affording a further indication of the climate of northern Asia, reference may here be made to the frozen soil of Siberia, in the vicinity of Yakutsk.
The ox-carts are often made with solid wheels, for greater strength.
The ovaries are solid bodies, of which the outer layer becomes separated from the plug of cells lying within; thus a cavity is formed which is clearly coelom.
The most conspicuous features of the entire region, Mount Ararat (16,930 ft.) and Mount Alagoz (13,440 ft.), are both solid masses of trachyte; and both rise above the limits of perpetual snow.
But he was no merely destructive critic. He was determined to find a solid foundation for both morality and law, and to raise upon it an edifice, no stone of which should be laid except in accordance with the deductions of the severest logic. This foundation is "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," a formula adopted from Priestly or perhaps first from Beccaria.
The Executive Mansion of the Confederate States of America, built in 1819, purchased by the city in 1862, and leased to the Confederate government and occupied by President Jefferson Davis in 1862-65, was acquired in 1890 by the Confederate Memorial Library Society, and is now a Confederate Museum with a room for each state of the Confederacy and a general library in the " Solid South " room; it has valuable historical papers, collected by the Southern Historical Society, and the society has published a Calendar of Confederate Papers (1908).
In 1890, at Plymouth, competitions took place of light portable engines (a) using solid fuel, (b) using liquid or gaseous fuel, grist mills for use on a farm, disintegrators, and cider-making plant for use on a farm.
One of his first efforts was a solid argument for freedom of discussion, in a series of letters to the Chronicle apropos of the prosecution of Richard Carlile.
Shell solid, piriform, with thick folded columella; lateral teeth of radula bicuspidate.
In this school, in which Robespierre was also a bursar and a distinguished student, Camille Desmoulins laid the solid foundation of his learning.
Between 1882 and 1889 a series of papers on certain points in the electromagnetic theory of light and its relation to the various elastic solid theories appeared in the American Journal of Science, and his last work, Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, was issued in 1902.
It may bite and devour solid food, while the imago sucks liquids.
By the time the army reached the little Ukrainian fortress of Hadjacz in January 1709, wine and spirits froze into solid masses of ice; birds on the wing fell dead; saliva congealed on its passage from the mouth to the ground.
The ground about the hut was made solid and protected from corrosion by a palisade of wattled osiers, thus creating the earliest form of the fondamenta, or quay, which runs along the side of so many Venetian canals and is so prominent a feature in the construction of the city.
They were usually solid, but in some cases they were built a sacco- that is to say, two thin outer walls were built and the space between them was filled with grouted rubble.
Special notes of the style are the central grouping of the windows, leaving comparatively solid spaces on each side, which gives the effect of FIG.
Whole forests, vast quarries of granite, and hills of gravel were used in fringing the water margins, constructing wharves, piers and causeways, redeeming flats, and furnishing piling and solid foundations for buildings.
One genus of Thomisidae (Phognarachne), which inhabits the Oriental region, adopts the clever device of spinning on the surface of a leaf a sheet of web resembling the fluid portions of a splash of bird's dung, the more solid central portions being represented by the spider itself, which waits in the middle of the patch to seize the butterflies or other insects that habitually feed on birds' excrement and are attracted to the patch mistaking it for their natural food.
Various attempts have been made to substitute a comb for the knife or beater, and one of the latest productions is the " Universal fibre gin," in which a series of blunt combs working horizontally replace the solid beater and so-called knife of the Macarthy gin.
Descriptions of the solid forms will be found in the articles on asphalt or asphaltum, albertite, elaterite, gilsonite, hatchettite and ozokerite.
The calorific power of Baku oil appears to be highest, while this oil is poorest in solid hydrocarbons, of which the American petroleums contain moderate quantities, and the Upper Burma oils the largest amount.
Almost without exception potash soaps, even if made from the solid fatty acids, are " soft," and soda soaps, although made with fluid olein, are " hard "; but there are considerable variations according to the prevailing fatty acid in the compound.
In the manufacture of stearin for candles, &c., the fatty matter is decomposed, and the liquid olein, separated from the solid fatty acids, is employed as an ingredient in soapmaking.
Its property of absorbing large proportions of water, up to 80%, and yet present the appearance of a hard solid body, makes the material a basis for the hydrated soaps, smooth and marbled, in which water, sulphate of soda, and other alkaline solutions, soluble silicates, fuller's earth, starch, &c. play an important and bulky part.
At that point the outer wall, if one may so call it, of the solid dome could be traced, and had a diameter of 68 ft.
The insoluble residue contains a mixture of two sulphides, one of which is converted into the sulphate by nitric acid, whilst the other (a crystalline solid) is insoluble in acids.
He burned phosphorus in air standing over mercury, and showed that (1) there was a limit to the amount of phosphorus which could be burned in the confined air, (2) that when no more phosphorus could be burned, one-fifth of the air had disappeared, (3) that the weight of the air lost was nearly equal to the difference in the weights of the white solid produced and the phosphorus burned, (4) that the density of the residual air was less than that of ordinary air.
While successfully investigating the solid elements and their compounds gravimetrically, Berzelius was guilty of several inconsistencies in his views on gases.
Lastly, in the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and solid iodine H2 - 1 - 12=HI+HI, so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic acid from its elements to apply heat continuously.
The relation between the atomic volumes and the atomic weights of the solid elements exhibits the periodicity which generally characterizes the elements.
Their observations on the solid elements led to a remarkable generalization, now known as Dulong and Petit's law.
The colour produced is generally of a greenish shade; for example, nitrosobenzene is green when fused or in solution (when crystalline, it is colourless), and dinitrosoresorcin has been employed as a dyestuff under the names " solid green " and " chlorine."
This is of constant occurrence in classical pianoforte music, in which thick chords are subjected to polyphonic laws only in their top and bottom notes, while the inner notes make a solid mass of sound in which numerous consecutive fifths and octaves are not only harmless but essential to the balance of tone.
In Southgate is an ancient hermitage and oratory cut out of the solid rock, which dates from 1396.
What Ficino achieved of really solid, was his translation.
He is the exact opposite of the miraculous personage of later legend - a mere man, standing always on the solid ground of reality, whose only arms are trust in his God and the protection of his powerful allies.
In the east of Iran the novel creed first acquired a solid footing, and subsequently reacted with success upon the West.
These horns, which are of a more or less conical form and usually recurved, and often grow to a great length (three or even four feet), are composed of a solid mass of hardened epidermic cells growing from a cluster of long dermal papillae.
The first four oxides are gases, the fifth is a solid.
The silver salt is a bright yellow solid, soluble in dilute sulphuric and nitric acids, and may be crystallized from concentrated solutions of ammonia.
Cardan in the 16th century, but this is a mere hypothesis without solid foundation.
The drainage of the interior of Greenland is thus partly given off in the solid form of icebergs, partly by the melting of the snow and ice on the surface of the ice-cap, especially near its western margin, and to some slight extent also by the melting produced on its under side by the interior heat of the earth.
By many lines of evidence we are led to believe that obsidians in course of time suffer devitrification, in other words they pass from the vitreous into a crystalline state, but as the changes take place in a solid mass they require a very long time for their achievement, and the crystals produced are only of extremely small size.
It is not unlikely, therefore, that even a compound as stable in the solid form as potassium chloride should be thus dissociated when dissolved.
Solid copper chloride is brown or yellow, so that its concentrated solution, which contains both ions and undissociated molecules, is green, but changes to blue as water is added and the ionization becomes complete.
Under the foundations of the church are tombs hewn out of the solid rock.
The globules which furnish the cream gradually pass on standing into solid caoutchouc, a process which is facilitated by rapid stirring, or by the addition of an acid or other chemical agent.
If the latex is warmed or an acid, an alkali or astringent plant juice is added to it, " coagulation " usually takes place more or less readily, the caoutchouc separating in solid flakes or curds.
The globules in the latex are liquid, and the phenomenon of coagulation would seem to consist in the passage of this liquid into solid caoutchouc through the kind of change known as polymerization or condensation, in which a liquid passes into solid without alteration of composition or by condensation with the elimination of the elements of water.
The latex, which exudes slowly and in many tortuous courses, some of it ultimately falling on the ground, is allowed to remain on the tree for several days, until it becomes dry and solid, when it is pulled off in strings, which are either rolled up into balls or put into bags in loose masses, in which form it enters commerce under the name of Ceara " scrap."
Rubber is chiefly composed of the soft, solid, elastic substance known as caoutchouc. It is usually assumed that this substance is present as such in the latex.
The globules in the latex, however, consist more probably of a distinct liquid substance which readily changes into the solid caoutchouc. The coagulation of the latex often originates with the " curding " of the proteids present, and this alteration in the proteid leads to the solidification of the globules into caoutchouc. The latter, however, is probably a distinct effect.
Under certain conditions, as when latex is allowed to stand or is centrifugalized, a cream is obtained consisting of the liquid globules, which may be washed free from proteid without change, but, either by mechanical agitation or by the addition of acid or other chemical agent, the liquid gradually solidifies to a mass of solid caoutchouc. The phenomenon therefore resembles the change known to the chemist as polymerization, by which through molecular aggregation a liquid may pass into a solid without change in its empirical composition.
So far the chemical nature of the liquid globules of the latex is unknown, and the exact character of the change into solid caoutchouc remains to be determined.
There is no feasible method at present known of preventing the inclusion of the resin of the latex with the rubber during coagulation, and although the separation of the resin from the solid caoutchouc by means of solvents is possible, it is not practicable or profitable commercially.
When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.
Caoutchouc is a soft elastic resilient solid.
Solid impurities speedily become crushed, and are carried away by the water, while the rubber takes the form of an irregular sheet perforated by numerous holes.
It is now ready either for incorporation with sulphur and other materials, or for agglomeration into solid masses by means of the masticating machine - an apparatus which consists of a strong cylindrical cast-iron casing, inside which there revolves a metal cylinder with a fluted or corrugated surface.
Some of the rubber having been placed in the annular space between the inner cylinder and the outer casing, the former is made to revolve; and the continued kneading action to which the rubber is subjected works it into a solid mass, something like a gigantic sausage.
During the winter the smaller tributaries freeze to the bottom, and about 1st January Lake Baikal becomes covered with a solid crust of ice capable of bearing files of loaded sledges.
The nerves running to the dorsal parts are white, with black edges; those running to the ventral parts are solid black.
Lead bromide, PbBr 2, a white solid, and lead iodide, PbI 21 a yellow solid, are prepared by precipitating a lead salt with a soluble bromide or iodide; they resemble the chloride in solubility.
The great object of 17th-century moralists had been to find some general principle from which the whole of ethics could be deduced; common-sense, by turning its back on abstract principles of every kind, forced the philosophers to come down to the solid earth, and start by inquiring how the world does make up its mind in fact.
They were put on a solid foundation by the publication of the Geographic comparee of Charles Tissot (1884).
The potential at any point due to a magnetic shell is the product of its strength into the solid angle w subtended by its edge at the given point, or V = Fu.
These measures would have put the financial affairs of the nation on a solid footing in a very few years had the government been able to keep its expenditure within its income.
It is a deep yellow coloured solid, which is readily soluble in water.
This solid form gradually passes, on standing, into the oily variety.
When an attempt is made to represent in colour the actual distribution of the races (as in Dr Chavanne's Geographischer and statistischer Handatlas) the effect is that of occasional blotches of solid colour on a piece of shot silk.
Owing to the amount spent on railways, the Fiume harbour works and other causes, the Hungarian budgets after 1867 showed big annual deficits, until in 1888 great reforms were introduced and the finances of the country were established on a more solid basis.
The tragic death of the crown prince Rudolph hushed for a time the strife of tongues, and in the meantime Tisza brought into the ministry Ders6 Szilagyi, the most powerful debater in the House, and Sandor Wekerle, whose solid talents had hitherto been hidden beneath the bushel of an under-secretaryship. But in 1890, during the debates on the Kossuth Repatriation Bill, the attacks on the premier were renewed, and on the 13th of March he placed his resignation in the king's hands.
The Serbo-Croat coalition, formed on the basis of the Fiume Resolution, at once acquired the mastery in Croatia, and even when its short-lived alliance with the Hungarian coalition - in power in Hungary since April 1906 - was replaced by acute conflict in the summer of 1907, no amount of repression from Budapest could destroy its solid majority in the Croatian diet.
The original top stratum is the purest, and each succeeding lower stratum has a greater proportion of impurities; the lowest consists largely of a solid or semi-solid alloy of tin and iron.
Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.
Had the Austrians attacked on both flanks forthwith, the Prussian central (I.) army could have reached neither wing in time to avert defeat, and the political consequences of the Austrian victory might have been held to justify the risks involved, for even if unsuccessful the Austrians and Saxons could always retreat into Bavaria and there form a backbone of solid troops for the 95,000 South Germans.
Not even deigning to notice the retreating columns, apparently too without escort, the batteries pressed forward till they reached the summit of the ridge trending eastward from Chlum towards the Elbe, whence the whole interior of the Austrian position was disclosed to them, and then they opened fire upon the Austrian reserves which lay below them in solid masses of army corps.
At Port Logan in Wigtonshire cod-fish are kept in a large reservoir, scooped out of the solid rock by the action of the sea, egress from which is prevented by a barrier of stones, which does not prevent the free access of the water.
It wastes in the disease known as " myxoedema," and the above product gathers in the tissues, in that disease, to such an extent as to give rise to what has been termed a " solid oedema."
These vascular buds grow out in various directions as little solid projections of cells; they then become channelled and form the new but temporary meshwork.
In extraneous pigmentation we have coloured substances either in a solid or fluid state, gaining entrance into the organism and accumulating in certain tissues.
A "transudate" is a liquid having a composition resembling that of blood-serum, while the term "exudate" is applied to an effused liquid whose composition approaches that of the blood-plasma in the relationship of its solid and liquid parts, besides in most cases containing numbers of colourless blood-corpuscles.
The latter had, in neglecting anatomy, neglected the most solid basis for studying the natural history of disease; though perhaps it was less from choice than because his practice, as he was not attached to a hospital, gave him no opportunities.
Now the cellular pathology of the blood, investigated by the aid of modern staining methods, is as important as that of the solid organs; no clinical investigator - indeed, apart from research, no practitioner at this day - can dispense with examination of the blood for purposes of diagnosis; its coagulability and the kinds and the variations of the cells it contains being evidence of many def i nitely morbid states of the body.
He returned from that visit one of the foremost literary men in Europe, with views, if not profound or accurate, yet wide and acute on all les Brands sujets, and with a solid stock of money.
His favour at court had naturally exasperated his enemies; it had not secured him any real friends, and even a gentlemanship of the chamber was no solid benefit, except from the morey point of view.
A much more solid gain to his happiness was the adoption, or practical adoption, in 1776 of Reine Philiberte de Varicourt, a young girl of noble but poor family, whom Voltaire rescued from the convent, installed in his house as an adopted daughter, and married to the marquis de Villette.
When the solid rock is not exposed the soil sometimes furnishes an indication of the character of the underlying rock.
This is the cheapest of the three caving systems, but is applicable only when the deposit lies between walls of very solid rock, as otherwise wall rock is liable to cave with and become mixed with ore, which adds greatly to the expense of handling.
Under favourable conditions mining may be conducted under the protection of a few yards of solid rock only, as in the submarine work for the removal of reefs in the harbours of San Francisco and New York.
When the presence of underground bodies of water is known or suspected, advance bore-holes should radiate from the end of the advancing working place so as to give warning of the position of the body of water, these holes being of such length as to ensure a safe, thickness of solid rock.
In many cases, however, it has been found necessary to reopen the mine through the fallen ground, and even to excavate openings through the solid mineral.
In this case the piston is solid, and the outlet pipe, G which is placed at the bottom of the cylinder, has a valve F opening outwards, the inlet pipe and valve are the same as before.
These books, except the Definitiones, mostly consist of directions for obtaining, from given parts, the areas or volumes, and other parts, of plane or solid figures.
A mass of glass in a viscous state can be rolled with an iron roller like dough; can be rendered hollow by the pressure of the human breath or by compressed air; can be forced by air pressure, or by a mechanically driven plunger, to take the shape and impression of a mould; and can be almost indefinitely extended as solid rod or as hollow tube.
When the glass has cooled so far as to become hard and solid, the furnace is hermetically sealed up and allowed to cool very gradually to the ordinary temperature.
Cane is produced from a solid mass of molten glass, tube from a mass hollowed by blowing.
These cylinders and crowns may be either solid colour or flashed.
As in 1770, carving or cutting is the chief method by which ornament is produced, the vessels being blown very solid.
Uniplanar Motion of a Liquid due to the Passage of a Cylinder through it.-A stream-function 4, must be determined to satisfy the conditions v24 =o, throughout the liquid; (I) I =constant, over any fixed boundary; (2) d,t/ds = normal velocity reversed over a solid boundary, (3) so that, if the solid is moving with velocity U in the direction Ox, d4y1ds=-Udy/ds, or 0 +Uy =constant over the moving cylinder; and 4,+Uy=41' is the stream function of the relative motion of the liquid past the cylinder, and similarly 4,-Vx for the component velocity V along Oy; and generally 1,1'= +Uy -Vx (4) is the relative stream-function, constant over a solid boundary moving with components U and V of velocity.
Irrotational Motion in General.-Liquid originally at rest in a singly-connected space cannot be set in motion by a field of force due to a single-valued potential function; any motion set up in the liquid must be due to a movement of the boundary, and the motion will be irrotational; for any small spherical element of the liquid may be considered a smooth solid sphere for a moment, and the normal pressure of the surrounding liquid cannot impart to it any rotation.
Bryan, in which the analytical equations of motion are deduced of a perforated solid in liquid, from considerations purely hydrodynamical.
The effect of an external circulation of vortex motion on the motion of a cylinder has been investigated in § 29; a similar procedure will show the influence of circulation through a hole in a solid, taking as the simplest illustration a ring-shaped figure, with uniplanar motion, and denoting by the resultant axial linear momentum of the circulation.
Charles was impressed with the wealth and refinement of the citizens, and above all with the solid fortress-like appearance of their palaces.
In well-drained localities the border may be partially below the ground level, but in damp situations it should be made on the surface; in either case the firm solid bottom should slope outwards towards an efficient drain.
They are structures of solid masonry, containing vaulted rooms for the garrison, and providing a platform at the top for two or three guns, which fire over a low masonry parapet.
In 1861 Butlerow obtained a sugar-like substance, methylenitan, by digesting trioxymethylene, the solid polymer of formaldehyde, with lime.
The stems are solid and marked with numerous shining, polished, yellow, purple or striped joints, 3 in.
Moreover the rain penetrates into the small interstices between its particles and dissolves out some of the materials which bind the whole into a solid stone, the surface then becoming a loose powdery mass which falls to the ground below or is carried away by the wind.
Chalk consists, when quite pure, of calcium carbonate (CaC03), a white solid substance useful in small amounts as a plant foodmaterial, though in excess detrimental to growth.
The tobacco, whether in bundles, hands or separate leaves, is piled up or bulked on the floor in a barn into a solid stack to the height of 5 or 6 ft.
Through an orifice in the outlet pipe (which is closed during the distillation by a loose plug) a hot iron rod can be introduced from time to time to clear away any solid zinc that may threaten to obstruct it.
It is an infusible solid, which is intensely yellow at a red heat, but on cooling becomes white.
In his childhood Gaston Paris learned to appreciate the Old French romances as poems and stories, and this early impulse to the study of Romance literature was placed on a solid basis by courses of study at Bonn (1856-1857) under Friedrich Diez, at GÃ¶ttingen (1857-1858) and finally at the Ecole des Chartes (1858-1861).
These articles attracted much attention, and were distinguished by those qualities of solid learning, thorough investigation and candour of judgment which characterized all his writings.
The qanki, or sanctuary, is divided from the nave, by a solid wall, pierced by a single doorway; it contains the altar, or madhb'kha (literary, the sacrificing place), and may be entered only by persons in holy orders who are fasting.
The houses are remarkable as being built on piles sunk in the solid rock and having two rooms, the one surrounding the other.
Prior to 1830, little was known of the process other than that organic compounds generally yielded tarry and solid matters, but the discoveries of Liebig and Dumas (of acetone from acetates), of Mitscherlich (of benzene from benzoates) and of Persoz (of methane from acetates and lime) brought the operation into common laboratory practice.
By electrolysing an aqueous solution of the chloride with a mercury cathode, a liquid and a solid amalgam, SrHgn, are obtained; the latter on heating gives a mixture of Sr 2 Hg 5 and SrHg 5, and on distillation an amalgam passes over, and not the metal.
It is a white solid, which readily decomposes water in the cold and behaves as a strong reducing agent.
It is a white solid, which combines with gaseous ammonia to form SrC1 2.8NH 3, and when heated in superheated steam it decomposes with evolution of hydrochloric acid.
It is a colourless, amorphous solid, which is almost insoluble in water, its solubility diminishing with increasing temperature; it is appreciably soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid.
It is an amorphous solid, insoluble in water, but its solubility is increased in the presence of ammonium nitrate.
Orifice concealed at the bottom of a vestibular shaft, surrounded by a solid or vesicular calcareous deposit.
The Polyzoa are colonial animals, the colony (zoarium) originating in most cases from a free-swimming larva, which attaches itself to some solid object and becomes metamorphosed into the primary individual, or "ancestrula."
The mind will pursue knowledge without the wasteful jar and friction of conflicting methods and mutually hostile conceptions; education will be regenerated; and society will reorganize itself on the only possible solid base - a homogeneous philosophy.
The monotony and lifelessness of this form of architecture are shown in the meaningless way in which details, suited only to the Venetian methods of veneering walls with thin marble slabs, are copied in the solid marbles of Verona.
For his essays are fine examples of permanent literature appearing in an ephemeral medium, and represent work which has solid worth for later thought as well as for the speculation of their own time.
In the case of the military classand prior to the Restoration of 1867 the term military class was synonymous with educated class this spirit of stoicism was built up by precept on a solid basis of heredity.
The pillars, architraves, ceilings, panels, and almost every available part of the structure, are covered with arabesques and sculptured figures of dragons, lions, tigers, birds, flowers, and even pictorial compositions with landscapes and figures, deeply carved in solid or open workthe wood sometimes plain, sometimes overlaid with pigment and gilding, as in the panelled ceiling of the chapel of Iyeyasu in Tokyo.
Of course it is to be noted that the edge of the cutting tool is never allowed to trespass upon a line which the exigencies of the design require to be solid.
Behind these enlarged poison-fangs follows a series of smaller, solid FIG.
But modern work has shown that, although alloys sometimes contain solid solutions, the solid alloy as a whole is often far more like a conglomerate rock than a uniform solution.
Our knowledge of the nature of solid alloys has been much enlarged by a careful study of the process of solidification.
Let us suppose that a molten mixture of two substances A and B, which at a sufficiently high temperature form a uniform liquid, and which do not combine to form definite compounds, is slowly cooled until it becomes wholly solid.
In the case of a pure substance, and of a certain small class of mixtures, there is no further fall in temperature until the substance has become completely solid, but, in the case of most mixtures, after the freezing-point has been reached the temperature soon begins to fall again, and as the amount of solid increases the temperature becomes lower and lower.
In the case of two substances which neither form compounds nor dissolve each other in the solid state, the complete freezing-point curve takes the form shown infig.5.
Consequently the temperature does not change and there is another well-marked halt in the cooling, and this halt lasts until the mixture has become wholly solid.
All mixtures whose temperature lies above the line ACB are wholly liquid, hence this line is often called the "liquidus "; all mixtures at temperatures below that of the horizontal line through C are wholly solid, hence this line is sometimes called the " solidus," but in more complex cases the solidus is often curved.
At temperatures between the solidus and the liquidus a mixture is partly solid and partly liquid.
If we melt an alloy and chill it before it has wholly solidified, we often get evidence of the crystalline character of the solid matter which first forms. Fig.
The dark, regularly oriented crystal skeletons were already solid at the moment of chilling; they are rich in copper.
This alloy, if allowed to solidify completely before chilling, turns into a uniform solid solution, and at still lower temperatures the solid solution breaks up into a pearlite complex.
The analogy between the breaking up of a solid solution on cooling and the formation of a eutectic is obvious.
Iron and phosphorus unite to form a solid solution which breaks up on cooling into a pearlite.
Other cases could be quoted, but enough has been said to show the importance of solid solutions and their influence on the mechanical properties of alloys.
These uniform solid solutions must not be mistaken for chemical compounds; they can, within limits, vary in composition like an ordinary liquid solution.
It is probable that all the alloys of compositions between B and D, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of the compound; the lower eutectic B probably corresponds to a solid complex of mercury and the compound.
The higher eutectic D may correspond to a complex of solid thallium and the compound; but the possible existence of solid solutions makes further investigation necessary here.
This uniform distribution of a solid substance throughout the mass of another, so as to form a homogeneous material, is called " solid solution," and we may say that solid silver can dissolve copper.
Sometimes the whole alloy is a uniform solid solution.
We thus learn that the bronzes referred to above, although chemically uniform when solid, are not so when they begin to solidify, but that the liquid deposits crystals richer in copper than itself, and therefore that the residual liquid becomes richer in tin.
Consequently, as the final solid is uniform, the crystals formed at first must change in composition at a later stage.
We learn also that solid solutions which exist at high temperatures often break up into two materials as they cool; for example, the bronze of fig.
The difference between softness and hardness in ordinary steel is due to the permanence of a solid solution of carbon in iron if the steel has been chilled or very rapidly cooled, while if the steel is slowly cooled this solid solution breaks up into a minute complex of two substances which is called pearlite.
In the case of some bronzes, for example that with about 25% of tin, the solid solution is soft, and the complex into which it FIG.
We must not take it for granted, when the freezing-point curve gives no indication of the compound, that the compound does not exist in the solid alloy.
For example, the compound Cu3Sn is not indicated in the freezing-point curve, and indeed a liquid alloy of this percentage does not begin to solidify by the formation of crystals of Cu 3 Sn; the liquid solidifies completely to a uniform solid solution, and only at a lower temperature does this change into crystals of the compound, the transformation being accompanied by a considerable evolution of heat.
The graphical representation of the properties of alloys can be extended so as to record all the changes, thermal and chemical, which the alloy undergoes after, as well as before, solidification, including the formation and breaking up of solid solutions and compounds.
When a current is passed through a solid alloy, a series of Peltier effects, proportional to the current, are set up between the particles of the different metals, and these create an opposing electromotive force which is indistinguishable experimentally from a resistance.
Consider the case of two concentric spheres, a solid one enclosed in a hollow one.
Let a solid circular sectioned cylinder of radius R 1 be enclosed in a coaxial tube of inner radius R2.
He constructed two equal condensers, each consisting of a metal ball enclosed in a hollow metal sphere, and he provided also certain hemispherical shells of shellac, sulphur, glass, resin, &c., which he could so place in one condenser between the ball and enclosing sphere that it formed a condenser with solid dielectric. He then determined the ratio of the capacities of the two condensers, one with air and the other with the solid dielectric. This gave the dielectric constant K of the material.
The normal section of the cone at that point is equal to dS cosO, and the solid angle dw is equal to dS cos0/x 2.
Accordingly, since the total solid angle round a point is 47r, it follows that the total flux through the closed surface due to the single point charge q is 41rq, and what is true for one point charge is true for any collection forming a total charge Q of any form.
The same equations apply to the case of fusion of a solid, if L is the latest heat of fusion, and v', s', v", s" the specific volumes and specific heats of the solid and liquid respectively.
In the case of a solid or a liquid, the latent heat of isothermal expansion may often be neglected, and if the specific heat, s, be also taken as constant, we have simply 0-00 =s log e0/00.
The simplest case to consider is that of equilibrium between solid and liquid, or liquid and vapour.
The values of the corresponding functions for the liquid or solid cannot be accurately expressed, as the theoretical variation of the specific heat is unknown, but if we take the specific heat at constant pressure s to be approximately constant, and observe the small residual variation dh of the total heat, we may write F'=s'D+dh+B'.
Aurous iodide is also obtained as a green solid by acting upon gold with iodine.
Towards the sea the solid land gives place to a vast network of streams and creeks, whose sluggish waters are constantly depositing silt, and forming morasses or quicksands.
The ordinary houses are of wood; but the more important buildings are of more solid materials.
This was the most solid and lasting of his conquests, and its execution compelled him to greater efforts than the Crecy campaign.
To the north-west, beyond the Tal-i-Bangi, the magnificent outlines of the Mosalla filled a wide space with the glorious curves of dome and gateway and the stately grace of tapering minars, but the impressive beauty of this, by far the finest architectural structure in all Afghanistan, could not be permitted to weigh against the fact that the position occupied by this pile of solid buildings was fatal to the interests of effective defence.
The crop is followed by a proventriculus which, in the higher Hymenoptera, forms the so-called " honey stomach," by the contraction of whose walls the solid and liquid food can be separated, passed on into the digestive stomach, or held in the crop ready for regurgitation into the mouth.
The specific gravity bottle may be used to determine the relative density of a solid which is available in small fragments, and is insoluble in the standard liquid.
It is readily seen that W+W i - W 2 is the weight of the liquid displaced by the solid, and therefore is the weight of an equal volume of liquid; hence the relative density is W/(W+Wi - W2).
The principle is readily adapted to the determination of the relative densities of two liquids, for it is obvious that if W be the weight of a solid body in air, W, and W2 its weights when immersed in the liquids, then W - W, and W - W 2 are the weights of equal volumes of the liquids, and therefore the relative density is the quotient (W - W,)/(W - W2).
If W be the weight of the experimental solid in air, w the weight of the sinker in water, and W, the weight of the solid plus sinker in water, then the relative density is given by W/(W+w - Wi).
In practice the solid or plummet is suspended from the balance arm by a fibre - silk, platinum, &c. - and carefully weighed.
A small stool is then placed over the balance pan, and on this is placed a beaker of distilled water so that the solid is totally immersed.
Any air bubbles are removed from the surface of the body by brushing with a camel-hair brush; if the solid be of a porous nature it is desirable to boil it for some time in water, thus expelling the air from its interstices.
Less accurate formulae are =p W/(W - W 2), the factor involving the density of the air, and the coefficient of the expansion of the solid being disregarded, and 0 =W/(W - W 1), in which the density of water is taken as unity.
Methods depending on the free suspension of the solid in a liquid of the same density have been especially studied by Retgers and Gossner in view of their applicability to density determinations of crystals.
He was aware that the old strongholds of medieval thought must be abandoned, and that the decaying ruins of medieval institutions furnished no basis for the erection of solid political edifices.
The dichloride is an amorphous, readily fusible, almost black solid.
The tetrachloride is a white crystalline solid which is formed by the action of chlorine on the dichloride or by sulphur chloride on the element.
Louis was readily induced to rebel; but the country was saved from a serious civil war by the energy of the king's officers and the solid loyalty of his "good cities."
Its roof is a single flat stratum of limestone; its walls are well marked by lines of stratification; dripstone also partly covers the walls, fills a deep fissure at the end of the cave, and spreads over the floor, where it mingles with an ancient bed of ashes, forming an ash-breccia (mostly firm and solid) that encloses fragments of sandstone, flint spalls, flint implements, charcoal and bones.
This personage was said to be of the ancient race of the Magi mentioned in the Gospel, to rule the same nations that they ruled, and to have such wealth that he used a sceptre of solid emerald.
In this system the soft ground or fissured water-bearing rock is rendered temporarily solid by freezing the contained water within a surface a few feet larger in diameter than the size of the finished shaft, so that the ground may be broken either by hand tools or blasting in the same manner as hard rock.
In the same figure is also shown the method of working whole coal and pillars at the same time, a barrier of two or three ranges of pillars or a rib of solid coal being left between the working in the solid and those in the pillars.
By this method the whole of the coal is got backwards, the main roads being kept in solid coal; the intermediate levels not being driven till they are wanted, a greater amount of support is given, and the pillars are less crushed than is usual in pillar working.
For flat ropes the drum or bobbin consists of a solid disk, of the width of the rope fixed upon the shaft, with numerous parallel pairs of arms or horns, arranged radially on both sides, the space between being just sufficient to allow the rope to enter and coil regularly upon the preceding lap. This method has the advantage of equalizing the work of the engine throughout the journey, for when the load is greatest, with the full cage at the bottom and the whole length of rope out, the duty required in the first revolution of the engine is measured by the length of the smallest circumference; while the assistance derived from gravitating action of the descending cage in the same period is equal to the weight of the falling mass through a height corresponding to the length of the largest lap, and so on, the speed being increased as the weight diminishes, and vice versa.
This is an upright frame, usually made in wrought iron or steel strutted by diagonal thrust beams against the engine-house wall or other solid abutments, the height to the bearings of the guide pulleys being from 80 to 1 00 ft.
A few houses, including the palace of the governor and the foreign consulates, are of more elaborate and solid construction than the majority of the buildings.
Inside and out, the whole of the temple is covered with scenes and inscriptions in crowded characters, of ceremonial and religious import; the decoration is even carried into a remarkable series of hidden passages and chambers or crypts made in the solid walls for the reception of its most valuable treasures.
Caesium hydroxide, Cs(OH) 2, obtained by the decomposition of the sulphate with baryta water,is a greyish-white deliquescent solid,which melts at a red heat and absorbs carbon dioxide rapidly.
Cailletet and later by P. Villard that when allowed to stand in the presence of water at a low temperature a solid hydrate is formed.
Calcium carbide, as formed in the electric furnace, is a beautiful crystalline semi-metallic solid, having a density of 2.22, and showing a fracture which is often shot with iridescent "non-automatic."
In spite therefore of much modern criticism there seems to be no solid reason for rejecting the statements of Irenaeus and regarding Polycarp as the link between the Apostolic age and the first of the Catholic fathers.
What is given by the formulae is accordingly the mean radius of an irregularly shaped solid (or, more probably, of the region in which the field of force surrounding such a solid is above a certain intensity), and the mean has to be taken in different ways in the different phenomena.
Roughly speaking, it is found that there are three main types of molecular motion corresponding to the three states of matter - solid, liquid and gaseous.
Thus the molecules of a solid must make only small excursions about their mean positions.
As a preliminary to examining further into the nature of molecular motion and the differences of character of this motion, let us try to picture the state of things which would exist in a mass of solid matter in which all the molecules are imagined to be at rest relatively to one another.
The fact that a solid body in its natural state is capable both of compression and of dilatation indicates that the molecules of the body must not be supposed to be fixed rigidly in position relative to one another; the further fact that a motion of either compression or of dilatation is opposed by forces which are brought into play in the interior of the solid suggests that the position of rest is one in which the molecules are in stable equilibrium under their mutual forces.
At normal temperature and pressure the density of a substance in the gaseous state is of the order of one-thousandth of the density of the same substance in the solid or liquid state.
It follows that the average distance apart of the molecules in the gaseous state is roughly ten times as great as in the solid or liquid state, and hence that in the gaseous state the molecules are at distances apart which are large compared with their linear dimensions.
The value n = 2 is appropriate to bodies of which the shape is that of a solid of revolution, so that there is no rotation about the axis of symmetry.
If a solid body is regarded as an aggregation of similar atoms each of mass m, its specific heat C is given, as in formula (19) by C = i (n+3) R/Jm.
But such attacks were rare and isolated and were not intended to effect a breach in the solid ramparts of the medieval Church, but rather to exhibit the ingenuity of the critic. In the libraries collected under humanistic influences the patristic writers, both Latin and Greek, and the scholastic doctors are conspicuous.
If what is real in things is ultimately nothing but their relations, and if relations are inconceivable apart from the relating mind, what is this but the dissolution of the solid ground of external reality which my consciousness seems to assure me underlies and eludes all the conceptual network by which I try to bring one part of my experience into connexion with another ?
These fourteen are the only monasteries of which we have any knowledge as being founded before St Benedict's death; for the mission of St Placidus to Sicily must certainly be regarded as mere romance, nor does there seem to be any solid reason for viewing more favourably the mission of St Maurus to Gaul.