Once again the rear end was on solid ground.
The wooden planks were old and weathered, but felt solid enough.
It's heavy, lads--solid books.
Reason said if she left now, there would never be a solid relationship.
The footsteps of those entering the kitchen were solid against the stone floor.
The top three and bottom three seem pretty solid to me.
She had even been guilty of rubbing the DNA test in his face — solid proof that the baby girl was his.
If 127 parts of iodine, which is an almost black solid, and loo parts of mercury, which is a white liquid metal, be intimately mixed by rubbing them together in a mortar, the two substances wholly disappear, and we obtain instead a brilliant red powder quite unlike the iodine or the mercury; almost the only property that is unchanged is the weight.
Her knee hit the solid chunk of wood with a nauseating thump.
Jessi sighed as his warm, solid body settled over hers.
The next important advance was the substitution of solid for liquid media; due originally to Schroter.
Overwhelmed with fatigue, she relaxed with her back against the solid support of his body.
We are quite solid inside our bodies, and have no need to eat, any more than does a potato.
All the comforts of home, except behind the rich brocade fabric walls stood twenty-four inches of rebar reinforced concrete and the door consisted of eight-inch diameter solid steel bars.
Xander kept up with her easily, the solid, warm body beside her affecting her senses in ways that made her angrier.
It was made of solid rock, even the heavy door.
Deidre found herself leaning into his solid frame without resistance, entranced by the combination of his hot, hard body and cool fire on her swimming senses.
After a solid hour of the child crying, I wondered if the mother read about the abandoned child, perhaps with a fleeting hint of sympathy.
His arousal rose solid and thick against her belly, and the soft towel agitated her straining nipples.
The bottom was solid rock covered with fine sand.
But I've just had the bad luck to come out of the sky, skip the solid earth, and land lower down than I intended.
The walls were bare, the curtains drawn even during daylight, and the heavy wooden furniture solid and worn.
His solid frame and heat were creeping into her senses, tugging at her resolve to resist.
The tongue is so serviceable a member (taking all sorts of shapes, just as is wanted),--the teeth, the lips, the roof of the mouth, all ready to help, and so heap up the sound of the voice into the solid bits which we call consonants, and make room for the curiously shaped breathings which we call vowels!
There was one other with whom I had "solid seasons," long to be remembered, at his house in the village, and who looked in upon me from time to time; but I had no more for society there.
He willed himself solid, surprised when it worked.
His body was solid and strong, the sensations of his skin against hers and his scents intoxicating her.
Abruptly the scratching sound of the crampons beneath his feet told him he'd reached the first mounds of solid ice.
After a few solid hours of sleep, his sense of center was back, his mind clear.
Finally, there was a nice, solid brick wall ending speculation on this matter.
His rain coat flipped in the breeze, exposing rippling muscles in his thighs as the square toed boots sought and found solid footholds in the wet rock.
His rain coat flipped in the breeze, exposing rippling muscles in his thighs as the square toed boots sought and found solid footholds in the wet rock.
A solid fence prevented her from seeing the vehicle.
It all happened so fast that she didn't have time to think, only to cling to the one solid thing she could find - Cade.
The ends of the wooden legs were shod with plates of solid gold, and the saddle of the Princess Ozma, which was of red leather set with sparkling diamonds, was strapped to the clumsy body.
He cuts and saws the solid pond, unroofs the house of fishes, and carts off their very element and air, held fast by chains and stakes like corded wood, through the favoring winter air, to wintry cellars, to underlie the summer there.
Death was almost seven feet tall, built more solid than a tree trunk with hair and eyes darker than a moonless night.
Death was almost seven feet tall, built more solid than a tree trunk with hair and eyes darker than a moonless night.
His body was hot and solid against hers.
The light beyond the solid French doors made her flinch, but she forced herself to cross the doorway.
It is thrown across the gorge at a height of two hundred and fifty-eight feet above the water and is supported on each bank by towers of solid rock, which are eight hundred feet apart.
The white block walls of the dairy remained solid, but the windows were dark.
The patches of grass were splinters of wood, and where neither grass nor sawdust showed was a solid wooden flooring.
His solid, warm body atop hers immobilized her and he pinned her wrists to the bed, silver eyes blazing and elongated fangs resting on his full lower lip.
Ocean surrounded the small island, upon which a fortress sat, several hundred meters away, up a sloping hill on top of solid rock.
It was solid and slender with no release mechanism or clasp.
Dean leaped on Shipton, clawing away at the soft snow, pummeling him like an eighth grade schoolyard brawler while Shipton, still clutching his ice ax in one hand, swung at Dean, catching him on the cheek and face with the side of the solid handle.
He lifted her back through the portal and wrapped an arm around her, pulling her to solid ground again.
His solid body was warm at her back, the arm wrapped tightly around her a sign she wasn't going anywhere.
He was warm and solid at her back, the only thing capable of grounding her in the nightmare of a world she lived in.
He was warm and solid at her back, the only thing capable of grounding her in the nightmare of a world she lived in.
This treatise is in two books, dedicated to Dositheus, and deals with the dimensions of spheres, cones, "solid rhombi" and cylinders, all demonstrated in a strictly geometrical method.
There is a solid bottom everywhere.
I always thought they had a pretty solid marriage, especially with Claire, but she's acting as crazy as a teenager and just watching her marriage crumble.
His solid body was on top of hers yet unattainable.
Three walls were solid dirt and one was cool iron.
They loved each other, and that love would be a solid foundation for their marriage.
She liked the way he smelled, how strong and solid his body was.
The fences and gates were new and solid; two fire pumps and a water cart, painted green, stood in a shed; the paths were straight, the bridges were strong and had handrails.
The walls were solid concrete and windowless.
She'd run her hands over his perfect body, marveling at the smooth skin stretched over solid muscle.
Then I realized; the bitch had nailed the solid wooden door shut from her side!
She suggests herself that she can know them better than we do, because she can get the true dimensions and appreciate more immediately the solid nature of a sculptured figure.
His was solid, his dark masculine scent and strength wrapping around her.
He was strong and solid; she almost believed he was able to protect her from the mess she was in.
The air was heavy and fragrant, the wet, solid sand near the ocean welcome after her initial attempt to keep up in the sugary sand higher up the beach.
Concrete walls surrounded us and the door, the only opening was a massive solid wood hulk.
She was lost in a haze of heat and dark spices, of his hot kisses and solid strength, until his touch left her.
The restaurant has a solid wine list and full bar.
The food here is actually solid, with kid favorites like pizza, hamburgers and grilled-cheese meshing well with more adult fare like steaks and chicken dishes.
Clean House has been a popular show for the Style Network, consistently delivering solid ratings.
She is portrayed as a bit flighty, but she has a solid relationship with her children, who she adores.
In the early episodes Kim and Kyle seem to have a good relationship, or at least as solid a relationship as two sisters with big personalities can have.
As per my wardrobe choices, packing for the house I strictly adhered to the rules (solid colors, no prints) and thus couldn't bring in 90% of my fun wardrobe.
Building upon a solid foundation, Rowling establishes a ground floor for the workings of her story with the addition of four characters.
Jonathan and Martha would be Clark's solid foundation.
His people were saved, and he taught them the wonders of living amongst humanoids, hoping to inspire in them a new respect and love for solid species.
We think of holograms as visual transmissions without substance, but in the future world of Star Trek, holographic technology has advanced to the point where holograms can have temporary substance and interact with real solid objects.
Your altered vibrational pattern enables you to see what you previously believed were solid objects now shimmer under their vibrational pattern.
One of the most consistent members of the X-Men since the 80s, Rogue was highly recognizable for her thick brown hair with a solid white streak.
Many people still believe that certain foods or bad hygiene causes acne, but there is no solid proof of this in the least, and all signs point to genetics and an over production of oils in the skin.
Bath bombs, or "fizzies," are small, solid, ball-shaped formations that effervesce in the water.
Friction Block is a solid lubricant that comes in a stick dispenser, similar to the one used for stick deodorants.
There is literally a huge selection of nail art pens to choose from, in nearly every color imaginable, from solid classics like red and pink to funky colors that contain glitter.
Acquarella: Find the nail polish style and color you prefer, whether solid opaque, shimmery, metallic or transluscent.
Begin by painting the entire nail a solid base color.
Unlike simple designs such as French manicures or solid colors, leopard print nail art is sure to stand out.
French manicure: Jazz up a simple French manicure by painting the tips of your nails in a leopard print design and leaving the rest of the nail a solid color.
Sold as a nail lacquer or a roll-on solid, this drug can often treat the problem within a week.
The important elements in this code are the size (10px) and the color and style (BLACK and "solid").
Whether you want to create solid color backgrounds for your MySpace profile, or you want to embed a picture as the backdrop, the technique that you use will always include some form of HTML formatting code.
Instead of using a solid color for the background border around the center profile, a lot of MySpace users decide to embed a background image instead.
However, at the bottom of this code, the background color for the forums and rows is defined as a specific solid color.
They are based on solid, provable results rather than simple impressions of character, and that means that the person writing one for you is staking their reputation as well as yours.
These are sometimes solid colors or may have seams that are highlighted in a "piping" style.
Made from cotton twill material, the Centennial Boy Scout baseball style hat is solid forest green with the universal symbol embroidered on the front.
A solid color scrub top, such as the options available from Allheart, is both attractive and durable.
Operational Dress is the one currently being changed by the untucked version: The current uniform is a dark blue solid material, worn with steel-toed boots.
They are pretty much always solid black and made of 100 percent polyester.
There are versions with white stripes or a solid white section at the top, but plain is best.
This type of work uniform ranges from solid colors, to playful print and abstract designs.
Naturally,there are certain medical professions and places of business that require their employees to wear solid basic colored scrubs.
Holiday scrub tops look wonderful with solid colored bottoms that complement their beautiful designs and colors.
These tops are popular in both solid colors and a blocked top with a contrasting color, which resembles the design of a baseball shirt.
The sleeves may be marked with stripes or may be solid colored and may wrap the shoulder or run down the top of the arm from the neck.
You can find solid color jerseys as well as jerseys with multiple complementary colors or bold prints.
They sell solid color scrubs and animal print scrubs, including fabrics adorned with cartoon-style dogs or tops covered in cat paw prints.
These separates pieces include white polo shirts or other solid white shirts, khaki shorts, skorts or pants.
While structural integrity is important, the most solid helmet isn't much use if it's so tight that it gives the player a headache, or so loose that it swivels on the head and blocks vision.
This style is done in a solid team color and made from a soft cotton blend.
Pants can either be done in a solid color with the team's logo on the leg or done with a pattern of logos all over the pants.
Solid colors available include black, various shades of blue, pink, plum, purple, green, khaki, white, and more.
Some feature grid patterns and others are solid color.
While some of the company's scrubs are still solid colors, the tops have different necklines and shapes compared to traditional, squared-off scrubs.
This company also carries a line of the men's solid and print tops, as well as Koi cargo pants.
While many prefer solid colors, some people love the options of printed scrubs.
Consider the solid and print scrubs, outerwear and lab coats available here.
If you're looking for solid scrubs only, for example, you'll find a tab for that once you click on Apparel.
Understanding the best techniques for choosing meta tags requires a solid grasp of how search engines index and rank websites.
Pick a company that runs solid software, such as Linux, and that has a reputation for reliability and good support.
A clear contract with milestones, established lines of communication, and a solid schedule of production and launch.
Dreamweaver is a good and solid tool to design almost any website, and having a web host that will work smoothly with it is worth the time and effort.
A solid customer base brings a steady stream of maintenance work and updates that carry you through the slow times.
DH: Similar to the above answer in a way...by studying their competition you get some pretty solid answers as to what works and what doesn't.
There is just no substitute for good training, solid creative thinking and taking on the responsibility of clear and effective communication.
Most importantly, they will have a solid record of clients and success stories, and a clear strategy for how they can help you.
SK Design, a Sacramento web design firm with over ten years of experience, creates solid and dependable websites using the latest technology.
Create a solid background and place the animated file in a corner or in the middle of the page.
However, this company, like RickyDeez, has a large client base and a solid portfolio which may be perfect for your business.
HTML is the first step to building a solid understanding of the web.
All PHP programmers should have a solid understanding of the basic string functions offered with the language.
The use of templates makes it much easier to ensure a solid, uniform look across the entire site.
As a solid compromise, programmers can use the code view feature to continue to program by hand, and still take in the benefits of using the third-party editor.
Instead of shifting with each step, the ground felt solid.
The appliances were modern but the cabinets were old and solid.
Her first impression was confirmed—the men in the room were UFC material, all well over six feet and solid.
But unlike petite Cynthia, Maria was compact—not fat, but solid.
It certainly felt solid.
Too panicked to care, Deidre whirled and smacked into something solid.
A few minutes later she was kicking snow around in the chicken yard until the toe of her boot struck something solid.
As he reached inside, his hand touched something solid.
Jenn found a stick and carefully returned to the portal, tapping the ground to find where it was solid.
From the outside, it looked rough, but well maintained and solid.
Only an hour ago their relationship had been so solid.
The gentleman's agreement between them had been tested and proven solid.
If the faces be all equal equilateral triangles the solid is termed the "regular" tetrahedron.
Both have fleshy caps, whitish, moist and clammy to the touch; instead of a pleasant odour, they have a disagreeable one; the stems are ringless, or nearly so; and the gills, which are palish-clay-brown, distinctly touch and grow on to the solid or pithy stem.
cervinus; it has a tall, solid, white, ringless stem and somewhat thin brown cap, furnished underneath with beautiful rose-coloured gills, which are free from the stem as in the mushroom, and which FIG.
The stem is Lsolid and corky, much more solid than the flesh of the cap, and perfectly smooth, never being furnished with the slightest trace of a ring.
The ox-wagons with their solid wheels, and the curious water-wheels of brushwood with earthenware pots tied on to them and turned by a blindfolded donkey, are picturesque.
The difficulties of the harbour were increased by the continued silting up, produced by the enormous amount of solid material brought down by the river.
The armature consists of a bony case, partly composed of solid buckler-like plates, and partly of movable transverse bands, the latter differing in number with the species, and giving to the body a considerable degree of flexibility.
Owing to the poverty of the people, cheap Austrian goods find a readier sale than the more expensive and solid British manufactures.
The materials mixed with the iron borings cause them to rust into a solid mass, and in doing so a slight expansion takes place.
It is a brownish amorphous solid, which is insoluble in water.
It burns with a purple flame, forming carbon dioxide and nitrogen; and may be condensed (by cooling to - 25° C.) to a colourless liquid, and further to a solid, which melts at - 34.4° C. (M.
They are solid crystalline compounds.
Acetamide,, CH 3 ï¿½Conh 2j is a white deliquescent crystalline solid, which melts at 82-83° C. and boils at 222° C. It is usually prepared.
Boron fluoride also combines with ammonia gas, equal volumes of the two gases giving a white crystalline solid of composition BF 3 NH 3 i with excess of ammonia gas, colourless liquids BF 3.2NH 3 and BF 3.3NH 3 are produced, which on heating lose ammonia and are converted into the solid form.
It unites readily with ammonia gas forming a white crystalline solid of composition 2BC13.3NH3.
It is a white crystalline solid of melting point 43° C.; it boils at 210° C., and it can be distilled without decomposition.
Borimide B 2 (NH) 3 is obtained on long heating of the compound B 2 S 3.6NH 3 in a stream of hydrogen, or ammonia gas at 115-120° C. It is a white solid which decomposes on heating into boron nitride and ammonia.
The events of these three years taught the Labour leaders that a parliamentary party was of little practical influence unless it was able to cast on all important occasions a solid vote, and to meet the case a new method was devised.
He found Sweden in ruins, and devoted his whole life to laying the solid foundations of a new order of things which, in its essential features, has endured to the present day.
A square tower rises from a central part of the platform to a height of about 40 ft., divided into a solid masonry base and three storeys connected by interior stairways.
He was quite aware that the industrial wealth of the great Flemish communes was financially the mainstay of his power, but their very prosperity made them the chief obstacle to his schemes of unifying into a solid dominion the loose aggregate of states over which he was the ruler.
The shafts are placed so close together that in many instances they are divided by only a couple of feet of solid ground, but at their bases a considerable amount of gallery work has been excavated, though it is possible that this was done by miners who came after the people who originally sank the shafts.
The church also contains a solid silver statue of the archangel Michael, belonging to the confraternity of Neapolitan fishermen.
On fusion with solid potash at 250° C. it completely decomposes, giving potassium oxalate and hydrogen, C2H602-1-2KHO =K2C204+4H2.
But experiment shows that in this condition much of the violin part sounds incomplete; and the truth appears to be that Haydn is thinking, like any modern composer, of the opposition of two solid bodies of tone - the pianoforte and the stringed instruments.
It appears, however, to depend upon the fact that an electric arc is not like a solid conductor.
Increase in the voltage acting upon a solid conductor increases the current through it, but in the case of the electric arc an increase in current is accompanied by a fall in the difference of potential of the carbons, within certain limits, and the arc has therefore been said to possess a negative resistance.'
Cadmium sulphide, CdS, occurs naturally as greenockite (q.v.), and can be artificially prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through acid solutions of soluble cadmium salts, when it is precipitated as a pale yellow amorphous solid.
- Solid Back Transmitter.
re-established the papacy upon a solid basis at Rome, the Italians approximated D~cr1mimore nearly to self-government than at any other nation of epoch of their history.
The only solid nucleus he finds in it is the fact that there is a great deal of beauty in this world.
Finally, as regards structure,S the tentacles may retain their primitive hollow nature, or become solid by obliteration of the axial cavity.
60), where the interspaces between the coenosarcal tubes are filled up with calcareous matter, or coenosteum, replacing the chitinous perisarc. The result is a stony, solid mass, which contributes to the building up of coral reefs.
23 and 25); and, fourthly, in structure, being hollow or solid, as in the polyp. In some medusae, for instance, the remarkable deep-sea family Pectyllidae, the tentacles may bear suckers, by which the animal may attach itself temporarily.
solid larval tentacles, re Radial nerve.
preceded by six per cartilaginous margin of the radial and six interradial disk centripetally in the solid larval tentacles).
44, with solid Entoby concrescence to codon (Ge.) and formation of an ectotheca (ect.).
45, C, ed.) may be formed over all, as in Garveia, &c.; or the entocodon may remain solid and without cavity until after the formation of the manubrium, or may never acquire a cavity at all, as described above for the gonophores.
By a simple modification, the open pit becomes a solid ectodermal ingrowth, just as in Teleostean fishes the hollow medullary tube, or the auditory pit of other vertebrate embryos, is formed at first as a solid cord of cells, which acquires a cavity secondarily.
B, The lower layer forms a solid G,H, Formation of the medusae.
The tentacles may be scattered singly round the margin of the umbrella (" monerenematous ") or arranged in tufts (" lophonematous "); in form they may be simple or branched (Cladonemid type); in structure they may be hollow (" coelomerinthous "); or solid (" pycnomerinthous ").
Trophosome arborescent, with hydranths of Bougainvillea-type; gonosome free medusae or gonophores, the medusae with solid tentacles in tufts (lophonematous).
Trophosome, polyps with two whorls of tentacles, the lower filiform, the upper capitate; gonosome, free medusae, with tentacles solid and branched.
Trophosome, polyps with a single whorl of capitate tentacles; gonosome, free medusae, with ten tacles branched, solid.
The tentacles are usually hollow, rarely solid (Obelia) .
In addition to tentacles, there may be marginal cirri (Laodice) with a solid endodermal axis, spirally coiled, very contractile, and bearing a terminal battery of nematocysts.
Ceratella stands in much the same relation to the Stylasteridae that Hydractinia does to the Milleporidae, in both cases the chitinous perisarc being replaced by the solid coenosteum to which the hydrocorallines owe the second half of their name.
The tentacles are always solid, containing an axis of endoderm-cells resembling notochordal tissue or plantparenchyma, and are but moderately flexible.
The tentacles are always solid, as in Trachomedusae.
There are raised coral beds high up the mountains, and lava occurs in a variety of forms, even in solid flows; but all active volcanic agency has so long ceased that the craters have.
It is a dark-coloured crystalline solid which melts at 194° C. and boils at 268° C. It fumes in moist air and deliquesces gradually.
The branches may be quite free or they may be united laterally to form a solid body of more or less firm and compact consistency.
Many of the lower forms of Brown Seaweeds (Phoeophyceae) have a thallus consisting of simple or branched cell threads, as in the green and red forms. The lateral union of the branches to form a solid thallus is not, however, so common, nor is it carried to so high a pitch of elaboration as in the Rhodophyceae.
a solid mass of cells, formed by cell division in all directions of space.
These branch, and may be packed or interwoven to form a very solid structure; but each grows in length independently of the others and retains its own individuality, though its growth in those types with a definite external form is of course correlated with that of its neighbors and is subject to the laws governing the general form of the body.
A solid fungal body may usually be seen to consist of separate hyphae, but in some cases these are so bent and closely interwoven that an appearance like that of ordinary parenchymatous tissue is obtained in section, the structure being called pseudo parenchyrna.
The formation of a massive body naturally involves the localization of the absorptive region, and the function of absorption (which in the simpler forms is carried out by the whole of the vegetative part of the mycelium penetrating a solid or immersed in a liquid substratum) is subserved by the outgrowth of the hyphae of the surface-layer of that region into rhizoids, which, like those of the Algae living on soil, resemble the root-hairs of the higher plants.
The internal tissue of the body of the solid higher Fungi, particularly the elongated stalks (stipes) of the fructifications of the Agarics, consists of hyphae running in a longitudinal direction, which no doubt serve for the conduction of organic food substances, just as do the trumpet-hyphae, similar in appearance, though not in origin, of the higher Brown Seaweeds.
of supporting axes from assimilating appendages, and as the body increases in size and becomes a solid mass of cells or interwoven threads, a corresponding differentiation of a superficial assimilative system from the deep-lying parts.
In many Pteridophytes the solid haplostele is maintained throughout the axis.
To this type of steIn having a ground-tissue pith, whether with or without internal phloem, is given the name siphonostele to distinguish it from the solid haplostele characteristic of the root, the first-formed portion of the stem, and in the more primitive Pteridophytes, of the whole of the axis.
He produced a solid body of accurately described facts which has formed the secure groundwork of subsequent advance.
The water of the soil, which in well-drained soil is met with in the form of delicate films surrounding the particles of solid matter, is absorbed into the plant by the delicate hairs borne by the young roots, the entry being effected by a process of modified osmosis.
The cell-walls of plants render the entry of solid material into the organism impossible.
The Pythagorean school of philosophers adopted the theory of a spherical earth, but from metaphysical rather than scientific reasons; their convincing argument was that a sphere being the most perfect solid figure was the only one worthy to circumscribe the dwellingplace of man.
In many birds the spaces between the metasternum and the posterior processes and again the spaces between this and the oblique process are filled up by proceeding ossification and either remain as notches, or as fenestrae, or they are completely abolished so that the breastbone is turned into one solid more or less oblong plate.
Amaryllidaceae) of bulbous plants with rather broad leaves and a solid leafless stem, bearing a cluster of handsome white or red funnel-shaped regular flowers.
The density of solid sulphur is 2 062 to 2'070, and the specific heat 0.1712; it is a bad conductor of electricity and becomes negatively electrified on friction.
The solid melts to a pale yellow liquid which on continued heating gradually darkens and becomes more viscous, the maximum viscosity occurring at 180°, the product being dark red in colour.
The solid derived from SA is crystalline and soluble in carbon bisulphide, that from S, is amorphous and insoluble.
It may be condensed and yields a solid which melts at - 55° C. Sulphuretted hydrogen decomposes it with formation of hydrofluoric acid and liberation of sulphur.
It boils at 139° C. and is solid at - 80° C. It is soluble in carbon bisulphide and in benzene.
Walden (ibid.) has shown that certain salts dissolve in liquid sulphur dioxide forming additive compounds, two of which have been prepared in the case of potassium iodide: a yellow crystalline solid of composition, KI 14 S0 2, and a red solid of composition, KI 4S0 2.
1 3 2, p. 374), is an exceedingly stable colourless gas at ordinary temperatures, becoming solid at about -120° C. Sulphuryl chloride, SO 2 C1 2, first obtained in 1838 by Regnault (Ann.
In the epistle ambo at Salerno and the gospel ambones at Cava and San Giovanni del Toro in Ravello, the columns support segmental arches carrying the ambones; the epistle ambo at Ravello and all those in Rome are raised on solid marble bases.
The slopes of the sides vary according to the nature of the ground, the amount of moisture present, &c. In solid rock they may be vertical; in gravel, sand or common earth they must, to prevent slipping, rise r ft.
In some cases, however, they are filled with fused acetate of soda; this salt is solid when cold, but when the can containing it is heated by immersion in hot water it liquefies, and in the process absorbs heat which is given out again on the change of state back to solid.
This coupling gear is placed centrally between a pair of buffers; formerly these were often left " dead " - that is, consisted of solid prolongations of the frame of the vehicle, but now they are made to work against springs which take up the shocks that occur when the wagons are thrown violently .against one another in shunting.
In it the draw-bar, connected through a spring to the frame of the car, had at its outboard end a socket into which one end of a solid link was inserted and secured by a pin.
The crude solid product from the tar distillate is digested with carbon bisulphide to dissolve the pyrene, the solution filtered and the solvent evaporated.
This was the " corner-stone of precious solid foundation ": " I will make judgment the measuring-line and righteousness the plummet " (Isa.
Quinine still remains the one specific. In serious cases it should not be given in solid form, but in solution by the stomach, rectum, or - better - hypodermically (Manson).
The same type of calorimeter is used in determining the heat of solution of a solid or liquid in water.
In the above instance the sulphur is supposed to be in the solid rhombic modification, the oxygen and sulphur dioxide being in the gaseous state, and the initial and final systems being at the ordinary temperature.
Thus the equation Cl 2 -1-2KI, Aq=2KC1, Aq+12+52400 cal., or (C12) +2KI, Aq =2KC1, Aq+-I-52400 cal., would express that when gaseous chlorine acts on a solution of potassium iodide, with separation of solid iodine, 52400 calories are evolved.
Even before authentic history begins, the elements of religion and society had already crystallized into a solid coherent structure which was to persist without essential modification.
" Porpoise " found that a solid core of black rock had been extruded 6 ft.
It is abundantly evident that whatever mythic element may have been interwoven with the old traditions of the spot, they have a solid substratum of reality.
Why the Solid South?
They are frequently provided with "pseudo-bulbs," large solid swellings of the stem, in the tissues of which water and nutritive materials are stored.
Although for the purposes of geographical nomenclature, boundaries formed by a coast-line - that is, by depressions of the earth's solid crust below the ocean level - are most easily recog- Political nized and are of special convenience; and although such divisions.
In illustration of the very slow diffusion of heat in the solid crust of the earth, and as affording a further indication of the climate of northern Asia, reference may here be made to the frozen soil of Siberia, in the vicinity of Yakutsk.
The ox-carts are often made with solid wheels, for greater strength.
The ovaries are solid bodies, of which the outer layer becomes separated from the plug of cells lying within; thus a cavity is formed which is clearly coelom.
The most conspicuous features of the entire region, Mount Ararat (16,930 ft.) and Mount Alagoz (13,440 ft.), are both solid masses of trachyte; and both rise above the limits of perpetual snow.
But he was no merely destructive critic. He was determined to find a solid foundation for both morality and law, and to raise upon it an edifice, no stone of which should be laid except in accordance with the deductions of the severest logic. This foundation is "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," a formula adopted from Priestly or perhaps first from Beccaria.
The Executive Mansion of the Confederate States of America, built in 1819, purchased by the city in 1862, and leased to the Confederate government and occupied by President Jefferson Davis in 1862-65, was acquired in 1890 by the Confederate Memorial Library Society, and is now a Confederate Museum with a room for each state of the Confederacy and a general library in the " Solid South " room; it has valuable historical papers, collected by the Southern Historical Society, and the society has published a Calendar of Confederate Papers (1908).
In 1890, at Plymouth, competitions took place of light portable engines (a) using solid fuel, (b) using liquid or gaseous fuel, grist mills for use on a farm, disintegrators, and cider-making plant for use on a farm.
One of his first efforts was a solid argument for freedom of discussion, in a series of letters to the Chronicle apropos of the prosecution of Richard Carlile.
Shell solid, piriform, with thick folded columella; lateral teeth of radula bicuspidate.
In this school, in which Robespierre was also a bursar and a distinguished student, Camille Desmoulins laid the solid foundation of his learning.
Between 1882 and 1889 a series of papers on certain points in the electromagnetic theory of light and its relation to the various elastic solid theories appeared in the American Journal of Science, and his last work, Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, was issued in 1902.
" We shall face the future as our ancestors would have faced it, without disquiet, without arrogance, but in solid and inflexible determination."
1, A, B, mn), articulating at their bases with the head-capsule by sub-globular condyles, and provided with abductor and adductor muscles by means of which they can be separated or drawn together so as to bite solid food, or seize objects which have to be carried about.
It may bite and devour solid food, while the imago sucks liquids.
By the time the army reached the little Ukrainian fortress of Hadjacz in January 1709, wine and spirits froze into solid masses of ice; birds on the wing fell dead; saliva congealed on its passage from the mouth to the ground.
It is a crystalline solid, which melts at 29 0 -30 0 C. and boils at 218°-219° C., and is readily soluble in alcohol and ether.
The ground about the hut was made solid and protected from corrosion by a palisade of wattled osiers, thus creating the earliest form of the fondamenta, or quay, which runs along the side of so many Venetian canals and is so prominent a feature in the construction of the city.
The walls are built of solid brickwork and then covered with thin slabs of rich and costly marbles.
They were usually solid, but in some cases they were built a sacco- that is to say, two thin outer walls were built and the space between them was filled with grouted rubble.
Special notes of the style are the central grouping of the windows, leaving comparatively solid spaces on each side, which gives the effect of FIG.
Whole forests, vast quarries of granite, and hills of gravel were used in fringing the water margins, constructing wharves, piers and causeways, redeeming flats, and furnishing piling and solid foundations for buildings.
One genus of Thomisidae (Phognarachne), which inhabits the Oriental region, adopts the clever device of spinning on the surface of a leaf a sheet of web resembling the fluid portions of a splash of bird's dung, the more solid central portions being represented by the spider itself, which waits in the middle of the patch to seize the butterflies or other insects that habitually feed on birds' excrement and are attracted to the patch mistaking it for their natural food.
Various attempts have been made to substitute a comb for the knife or beater, and one of the latest productions is the " Universal fibre gin," in which a series of blunt combs working horizontally replace the solid beater and so-called knife of the Macarthy gin.
Oh) 3, a tetrahydroxytribasic acid, first obtained in the solid state by Karl Wilhelm Scheele, in 1784, from the juice of lemons.
Descriptions of the solid forms will be found in the articles on asphalt or asphaltum, albertite, elaterite, gilsonite, hatchettite and ozokerite.
The calorific power of Baku oil appears to be highest, while this oil is poorest in solid hydrocarbons, of which the American petroleums contain moderate quantities, and the Upper Burma oils the largest amount.
Thus the Shiite caliphate became extinct: in the mosques of Cairo the name of the caliph of Bagdad was now used; and the long-disunited Mahommedans at last faced the Christians as a solid body.
Almost without exception potash soaps, even if made from the solid fatty acids, are " soft," and soda soaps, although made with fluid olein, are " hard "; but there are considerable variations according to the prevailing fatty acid in the compound.
In the manufacture of stearin for candles, &c., the fatty matter is decomposed, and the liquid olein, separated from the solid fatty acids, is employed as an ingredient in soapmaking.
Its property of absorbing large proportions of water, up to 80%, and yet present the appearance of a hard solid body, makes the material a basis for the hydrated soaps, smooth and marbled, in which water, sulphate of soda, and other alkaline solutions, soluble silicates, fuller's earth, starch, &c. play an important and bulky part.
of solid brickwork set in clay a massive stone coffer was found lying due magnetic north and south.
2 The coffer is of fine hard sandstone of superior quality, and has been hollowed out, at the cost of vast labour and expense, from a solid block of rock.
At that point the outer wall, if one may so call it, of the solid dome could be traced, and had a diameter of 68 ft.
The insoluble residue contains a mixture of two sulphides, one of which is converted into the sulphate by nitric acid, whilst the other (a crystalline solid) is insoluble in acids.
The per-ruthenate, KRuO 4, formed by the action of chlorine on the ruthenate, or of alkalis on the peroxide at 50° C., is a black crystalline solid which is stable in dry air but decomposes when heated strongly.
(For views of interior and exterior, see Architecture.) for in the entrance gateway of the Lal Darwaza or Red Gate mosque at Jaunpur, where an arch (of two rings of ogee shape) is carried by a solid wall, built under it, which is pierced with three doorways with bracket-capitals and architraves, returning therefore to trabeated construction.
He burned phosphorus in air standing over mercury, and showed that (1) there was a limit to the amount of phosphorus which could be burned in the confined air, (2) that when no more phosphorus could be burned, one-fifth of the air had disappeared, (3) that the weight of the air lost was nearly equal to the difference in the weights of the white solid produced and the phosphorus burned, (4) that the density of the residual air was less than that of ordinary air.
While successfully investigating the solid elements and their compounds gravimetrically, Berzelius was guilty of several inconsistencies in his views on gases.
Lastly, in the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and solid iodine H2 - 1 - 12=HI+HI, so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic acid from its elements to apply heat continuously.
A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur - reddish-brown drops, cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; iodine - violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or mixtures; mercury and its compounds - metallic mercury forms minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; arsenic and its compounds - metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating.
The relation between the atomic volumes and the atomic weights of the solid elements exhibits the periodicity which generally characterizes the elements.
Their observations on the solid elements led to a remarkable generalization, now known as Dulong and Petit's law.
The colour produced is generally of a greenish shade; for example, nitrosobenzene is green when fused or in solution (when crystalline, it is colourless), and dinitrosoresorcin has been employed as a dyestuff under the names " solid green " and " chlorine."
This is of constant occurrence in classical pianoforte music, in which thick chords are subjected to polyphonic laws only in their top and bottom notes, while the inner notes make a solid mass of sound in which numerous consecutive fifths and octaves are not only harmless but essential to the balance of tone.
Three solid kingdoms had thus emerged from all the fighting since Alexander's death: the kingdom of the Antigonids in the original land of the race, the kingdom of the Ptolemies in Egypt, and that of the Seleucids, extending from the Aegean to India.
Thus the French survey commission of 1828 fixed the proportion of black to white at one and a half times the angle of slope; while in Austria, where steep mountains constitute an important feature, solid black has been reserved for a slope of 80°, the proportion of black to white varying from 80:o (for 50) to 8: 72 (for 5°).
On the map of Germany (1:Ioo,000) a slope of 50° is shown in solid black while stippled hachures are used for gentle slopes up to 100.
In Southgate is an ancient hermitage and oratory cut out of the solid rock, which dates from 1396.
What Ficino achieved of really solid, was his translation.
He is the exact opposite of the miraculous personage of later legend - a mere man, standing always on the solid ground of reality, whose only arms are trust in his God and the protection of his powerful allies.
In the east of Iran the novel creed first acquired a solid footing, and subsequently reacted with success upon the West.
These horns, which are of a more or less conical form and usually recurved, and often grow to a great length (three or even four feet), are composed of a solid mass of hardened epidermic cells growing from a cluster of long dermal papillae.
It is readily transformed into a solid polymer, probably (CH 2: NOH)3.
The first four oxides are gases, the fifth is a solid.
When liquefied it boils at -89.8° C., and by further cooling may be solidified, the solid melting at -102.3° C. (W.
At low temperatures it is a colourless crystalline solid which melts at -10.14° C. (W.
The silver salt is a bright yellow solid, soluble in dilute sulphuric and nitric acids, and may be crystallized from concentrated solutions of ammonia.
The liquid boils at -5° C. and the solid melts at -65° C. It forms double compounds with many metallic chlorides, and finds considerable application as a means of separating various members of the terpene group of compounds.
It is a reddish-yellow crystalline solid, insoluble in water and melting at 178° C. It explodes readily when melted or subjected to shock.
These headings are: "Geometry and Kinematics of Particles and Solid Bodies"; "Principles of Rational Mechanics"; "Statics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "Kinetics of Particles, Rigid Bodies, &c."; "General Analytical Mechanics"; "Statics and Dynamics of Fluids"; "Hydraulics and Fluid Resistances"; "Elasticity."
Cardan in the 16th century, but this is a mere hypothesis without solid foundation.
The drainage of the interior of Greenland is thus partly given off in the solid form of icebergs, partly by the melting of the snow and ice on the surface of the ice-cap, especially near its western margin, and to some slight extent also by the melting produced on its under side by the interior heat of the earth.
(Similar effects can be seen on a small scale, even in our own times, as the result of exceptionally big tides.) Severe winters were experienced and the Baltic was frequently frozen over so that there was solid ice communication between Sweden and Denmark across the Belts and Sound: this happened in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries but not in the 16th.
glossus, but is solid in Am- vn, ventral nerve.
By many lines of evidence we are led to believe that obsidians in course of time suffer devitrification, in other words they pass from the vitreous into a crystalline state, but as the changes take place in a solid mass they require a very long time for their achievement, and the crystals produced are only of extremely small size.
It is not unlikely, therefore, that even a compound as stable in the solid form as potassium chloride should be thus dissociated when dissolved.
Solid copper chloride is brown or yellow, so that its concentrated solution, which contains both ions and undissociated molecules, is green, but changes to blue as water is added and the ionization becomes complete.
"Syrup glucose" is the commercial name of the product; by continuing the concentration further solid glucose or grape sugar is obtained.
Under the foundations of the church are tombs hewn out of the solid rock.
The globules which furnish the cream gradually pass on standing into solid caoutchouc, a process which is facilitated by rapid stirring, or by the addition of an acid or other chemical agent.
If the latex is warmed or an acid, an alkali or astringent plant juice is added to it, " coagulation " usually takes place more or less readily, the caoutchouc separating in solid flakes or curds.
The globules in the latex are liquid, and the phenomenon of coagulation would seem to consist in the passage of this liquid into solid caoutchouc through the kind of change known as polymerization or condensation, in which a liquid passes into solid without alteration of composition or by condensation with the elimination of the elements of water.
The latex, which exudes slowly and in many tortuous courses, some of it ultimately falling on the ground, is allowed to remain on the tree for several days, until it becomes dry and solid, when it is pulled off in strings, which are either rolled up into balls or put into bags in loose masses, in which form it enters commerce under the name of Ceara " scrap."
Rubber is chiefly composed of the soft, solid, elastic substance known as caoutchouc. It is usually assumed that this substance is present as such in the latex.
The globules in the latex, however, consist more probably of a distinct liquid substance which readily changes into the solid caoutchouc. The coagulation of the latex often originates with the " curding " of the proteids present, and this alteration in the proteid leads to the solidification of the globules into caoutchouc. The latter, however, is probably a distinct effect.
Under certain conditions, as when latex is allowed to stand or is centrifugalized, a cream is obtained consisting of the liquid globules, which may be washed free from proteid without change, but, either by mechanical agitation or by the addition of acid or other chemical agent, the liquid gradually solidifies to a mass of solid caoutchouc. The phenomenon therefore resembles the change known to the chemist as polymerization, by which through molecular aggregation a liquid may pass into a solid without change in its empirical composition.
So far the chemical nature of the liquid globules of the latex is unknown, and the exact character of the change into solid caoutchouc remains to be determined.
There is no feasible method at present known of preventing the inclusion of the resin of the latex with the rubber during coagulation, and although the separation of the resin from the solid caoutchouc by means of solvents is possible, it is not practicable or profitable commercially.
When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.
Caoutchouc is a soft elastic resilient solid.
Solid impurities speedily become crushed, and are carried away by the water, while the rubber takes the form of an irregular sheet perforated by numerous holes.
It is now ready either for incorporation with sulphur and other materials, or for agglomeration into solid masses by means of the masticating machine - an apparatus which consists of a strong cylindrical cast-iron casing, inside which there revolves a metal cylinder with a fluted or corrugated surface.
Some of the rubber having been placed in the annular space between the inner cylinder and the outer casing, the former is made to revolve; and the continued kneading action to which the rubber is subjected works it into a solid mass, something like a gigantic sausage.
During the winter the smaller tributaries freeze to the bottom, and about 1st January Lake Baikal becomes covered with a solid crust of ice capable of bearing files of loaded sledges.
The nerves running to the dorsal parts are white, with black edges; those running to the ventral parts are solid black.
Lead bromide, PbBr 2, a white solid, and lead iodide, PbI 21 a yellow solid, are prepared by precipitating a lead salt with a soluble bromide or iodide; they resemble the chloride in solubility.
The great object of 17th-century moralists had been to find some general principle from which the whole of ethics could be deduced; common-sense, by turning its back on abstract principles of every kind, forced the philosophers to come down to the solid earth, and start by inquiring how the world does make up its mind in fact.
They were put on a solid foundation by the publication of the Geographic comparee of Charles Tissot (1884).
JOHANN DAVID MICHAELIS (1717-1791), German biblical scholar and teacher, a member of a family which had the chief part in maintaining that solid discipline in Hebrew and the cognate languages which distinguished the university of Halle in the period of Pietism.
The potential at any point due to a magnetic shell is the product of its strength into the solid angle w subtended by its edge at the given point, or V = Fu.
abd, the solid opistho- - - operc somatic carapace.
It is a crystalline solid, which sublimes at 112°-115° C. It is insoluble in water, and is only slightly soluble in alcohol and ether.
These measures would have put the financial affairs of the nation on a solid footing in a very few years had the government been able to keep its expenditure within its income.
It is a colourless crystalline solid which melts at 15° C. and has the properties of a strong acid.
It is a deep yellow coloured solid, which is readily soluble in water.
The silver salt, obtained by shaking an ether solution of nitroform with freshly prepared, slightly moist silver oxide, reacts with methyl iodide to form trinitroethane, a crystalline solid which melts at 56° C. Concentrated caustic potash decomposes the latter compound, forming the potassium salt of dinitroethane, CH3 C(N02)2K.
Tetranitromethane, C(N02)4, obtained by adding nitroform to a hot mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, is a crystalline solid which melts at 13° C. Chlorpicrin, CC1 3 NO 2, is a liquid of suffocating odour obtained by the action of nitric acid and chloride of lime on many organic compounds.
It readily forms a sodium salt, from the aqueous solution of which on the addition of a mineral acid an isomeric solid form of the nitro compound (melting at 84° C.) is precipitated.
This solid form gradually passes, on standing, into the oily variety.
Thus the solid form is probably to be represented as C 6 H 5 CH: NO.
It is a colourless solid which melts at 54° C. to a deep blue liquid.
When an attempt is made to represent in colour the actual distribution of the races (as in Dr Chavanne's Geographischer and statistischer Handatlas) the effect is that of occasional blotches of solid colour on a piece of shot silk.
Owing to the amount spent on railways, the Fiume harbour works and other causes, the Hungarian budgets after 1867 showed big annual deficits, until in 1888 great reforms were introduced and the finances of the country were established on a more solid basis.
The tragic death of the crown prince Rudolph hushed for a time the strife of tongues, and in the meantime Tisza brought into the ministry Ders6 Szilagyi, the most powerful debater in the House, and Sandor Wekerle, whose solid talents had hitherto been hidden beneath the bushel of an under-secretaryship. But in 1890, during the debates on the Kossuth Repatriation Bill, the attacks on the premier were renewed, and on the 13th of March he placed his resignation in the king's hands.
4 1905 40 Croat deputies from Croatia, Dalmatia and Istria formulated in the so-called " Resolution of Fiume " a complete programme of political reform, and defined the basis upon which solid friendship between Croats and Magyars seemed attainable.
The Serbo-Croat coalition, formed on the basis of the Fiume Resolution, at once acquired the mastery in Croatia, and even when its short-lived alliance with the Hungarian coalition - in power in Hungary since April 1906 - was replaced by acute conflict in the summer of 1907, no amount of repression from Budapest could destroy its solid majority in the Croatian diet.
independent of special views as to the nature of the aether, at Ieast in its main features; for in the absence of a more complete foundation it is impossible to treat rigorously the mode of action of a solid obstacle such as a screen.
Trans., 1849) on the basis of the elastic solid theory.
O, is obtained by heating uranyl nitrate to 250° as a yellow solid, insoluble in water, but soluble in acids with the formation of uranyl salts.
The original top stratum is the purest, and each succeeding lower stratum has a greater proportion of impurities; the lowest consists largely of a solid or semi-solid alloy of tin and iron.
It is a white solid, fusing at 250° C. to an oily liquid which boils at 606°, and volatilizing at a red heat in nitrogen, a vacuum or hydrochloric acid, without decomposition.
Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.
sodium hydroxide) will in a solid state fire it on contact.
Had the Austrians attacked on both flanks forthwith, the Prussian central (I.) army could have reached neither wing in time to avert defeat, and the political consequences of the Austrian victory might have been held to justify the risks involved, for even if unsuccessful the Austrians and Saxons could always retreat into Bavaria and there form a backbone of solid troops for the 95,000 South Germans.
Not even deigning to notice the retreating columns, apparently too without escort, the batteries pressed forward till they reached the summit of the ridge trending eastward from Chlum towards the Elbe, whence the whole interior of the Austrian position was disclosed to them, and then they opened fire upon the Austrian reserves which lay below them in solid masses of army corps.
At Port Logan in Wigtonshire cod-fish are kept in a large reservoir, scooped out of the solid rock by the action of the sea, egress from which is prevented by a barrier of stones, which does not prevent the free access of the water.
It wastes in the disease known as " myxoedema," and the above product gathers in the tissues, in that disease, to such an extent as to give rise to what has been termed a " solid oedema."
These vascular buds grow out in various directions as little solid projections of cells; they then become channelled and form the new but temporary meshwork.
In extraneous pigmentation we have coloured substances either in a solid or fluid state, gaining entrance into the organism and accumulating in certain tissues.
A "transudate" is a liquid having a composition resembling that of blood-serum, while the term "exudate" is applied to an effused liquid whose composition approaches that of the blood-plasma in the relationship of its solid and liquid parts, besides in most cases containing numbers of colourless blood-corpuscles.
The latter had, in neglecting anatomy, neglected the most solid basis for studying the natural history of disease; though perhaps it was less from choice than because his practice, as he was not attached to a hospital, gave him no opportunities.
Now the cellular pathology of the blood, investigated by the aid of modern staining methods, is as important as that of the solid organs; no clinical investigator - indeed, apart from research, no practitioner at this day - can dispense with examination of the blood for purposes of diagnosis; its coagulability and the kinds and the variations of the cells it contains being evidence of many def i nitely morbid states of the body.
He returned from that visit one of the foremost literary men in Europe, with views, if not profound or accurate, yet wide and acute on all les Brands sujets, and with a solid stock of money.
His favour at court had naturally exasperated his enemies; it had not secured him any real friends, and even a gentlemanship of the chamber was no solid benefit, except from the morey point of view.
A much more solid gain to his happiness was the adoption, or practical adoption, in 1776 of Reine Philiberte de Varicourt, a young girl of noble but poor family, whom Voltaire rescued from the convent, installed in his house as an adopted daughter, and married to the marquis de Villette.
When the solid rock is not exposed the soil sometimes furnishes an indication of the character of the underlying rock.
This is the cheapest of the three caving systems, but is applicable only when the deposit lies between walls of very solid rock, as otherwise wall rock is liable to cave with and become mixed with ore, which adds greatly to the expense of handling.
Under favourable conditions mining may be conducted under the protection of a few yards of solid rock only, as in the submarine work for the removal of reefs in the harbours of San Francisco and New York.
of solid strata.
When the presence of underground bodies of water is known or suspected, advance bore-holes should radiate from the end of the advancing working place so as to give warning of the position of the body of water, these holes being of such length as to ensure a safe, thickness of solid rock.
In many cases, however, it has been found necessary to reopen the mine through the fallen ground, and even to excavate openings through the solid mineral.
In this case the piston is solid, and the outlet pipe, G which is placed at the bottom of the cylinder, has a valve F opening outwards, the inlet pipe and valve are the same as before.
These books, except the Definitiones, mostly consist of directions for obtaining, from given parts, the areas or volumes, and other parts, of plane or solid figures.
" glare," " glow "), a hard substance, usually transparent or translucent, which from a fluid condition at a high temperature has passed to a solid condition with sufficient rapidity to prevent the formation of visible crystals.
A mass of glass in a viscous state can be rolled with an iron roller like dough; can be rendered hollow by the pressure of the human breath or by compressed air; can be forced by air pressure, or by a mechanically driven plunger, to take the shape and impression of a mould; and can be almost indefinitely extended as solid rod or as hollow tube.
When the glass has cooled so far as to become hard and solid, the furnace is hermetically sealed up and allowed to cool very gradually to the ordinary temperature.
The tools used are extremely primitive - hollow iron blowing-rods, solid rods for holding vessels during manipulation, spring tools, resembling sugar-tongs in shape, with steel or wooden blades for fashioning the viscous glass, callipers, measure-sticks, and a variety of moulds of wood, carbon, cast iron, gun-metal and plaster of Paris (figs.
Cane is produced from a solid mass of molten glass, tube from a mass hollowed by blowing.
These cylinders and crowns may be either solid colour or flashed.
As in 1770, carving or cutting is the chief method by which ornament is produced, the vessels being blown very solid.
The product is a crystalline solid of specific gravity 2.34, and melts at about 1430° C. See also German Patent 108817 for the production of crystallized silicon from silica and carborundum.
It is soluble in carbon bisulphide, and is decomposed by water and also by heat, in the latter case yielding the tetraiodide and the di-iodide, Si 2 I 4, an orange-coloured solid which is not soluble in carbon bisulphide.
Silicon tetraphenyl, Si(C6H5)4, a solid melting at 231° C., is obtained by the action of chlorobenzene on silicon tetrachloride in the presence of sodium.
OH) 2, obtained by decomposing silicon hexachloride with icecold water, is an unstable solid which is readily decomposed by the inorganic bases, with evolution of hydrogen and production of a silicate.
It is a colourless solid which melts at 92° C. For silicon derivatives of the amines see Michaelis, Ber., 1896, 29, p. 710; on asymmetric silicon and the resolution of dl-benzyl-ethyl-propyl-silicol see F.
Sodium percarbonates of the formulae Na 2 CO 4, Na2C206, Na 2 C05, NaHCO 4 (two isomers) are obtained by the action of gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on the peroxides Na 2 0 2, Na 2 0 3, NaHO 2 (two isomers)in the presence of water at a low temperature (R.Wolffenstein and E.Peltner, Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 275, 280).
This, in the case of even the solid metals, is perhaps only a very low degree of transparency.
As liquidity might be looked upon as the ne plus ultra of softness, this is the right place for stating that, while most metals, when heated up to their melting points, pass pretty abruptly from the solid to the liquid state, platinum and iron first assume, and throughout a long range of temperatures retain, a condition of viscous semi-solidity which enables two pieces of them to be "welded" together by pressure into one continuous mass.
The compounds formed in the first case, which may be either definite chemical compounds or solid solutions, are discussed under Alloys; in this place only combinations with non-metals are discussed, it being premised that the free metal takes part in the reaction.
Manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize it to benzoic and o-phthalic acid; potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid breaks the ring; and ozone oxidizes it to the highly explosive white solid named ozo-benzene, C 6 H 6 O 6.
Archimedes maintained that each particle of a fluid mass, when in equilibrium, is equally pressed in every direction; and he inquired into the conditions according to which a solid body floating in a fluid should assume and preserve a position of equilibrium.
All substance in nature falls into one of the two classes, solid and fluid; a solid substance, the land, for instance, as contrasted with a fluid, like water, being a substance which does not flow of itself.
The distinguishing characteristics of the three kinds of substance or states of matter, the solid, liquid and gas, are summarized thus in O.
Lodge's Mechanics: A solid has both size and shape.
By a change of temperature and pressure combined, a substance can in general be made to pass from one state into another; thus by gradually increasing the temperature a solid piece of ice can be melted into the liquid state of water, and the water again can be boiled off into the gaseous state as steam.
Again, by raising the temperature, a metal in the solid state can be melted and liquefied, and poured into a mould to assume any form desired, which is retained when the metal cools and solidifies again; the gaseous state of a metal is revealed by the spectroscope.
Conversely, a combination of increased pressure and lowering of temperature will, if carried far enough, reduce a gas to a liquid, and afterwards to the solid state; and nearly every gaseous substance has now undergone this operation.
Every solid substance is found to be plastic more or less, as exemplified by punching, shearing and cutting; but the plastic solid is distinguished from the viscous fluid in that a plastic solid requires a certain magnitude of stress to be exceeded to make it flow, whereas the viscous liquid will yield to the slightest stress, but requires a certain length of time for the effect to be appreciable.
According to Maxwell (Theory of Heat) " When a continuous alteration of form is produced only by a stress exceeding a certain value, the substance is called a solid, however soft and plastic it may be.
Maxwell illustrates the difference between a soft solid and a hard liquid by a jelly and a block of pitch; also by the experiment of supporting a candle and a stick of sealingwax; after a considerable time the sealing-wax will be found bent and so is a fluid, but the candle remains straight as a solid.
This is the characteristic distinguishing between a solid and a liquid; as, for instance, between land and water.
Uniplanar Motion of a Liquid due to the Passage of a Cylinder through it.-A stream-function 4, must be determined to satisfy the conditions v24 =o, throughout the liquid; (I) I =constant, over any fixed boundary; (2) d,t/ds = normal velocity reversed over a solid boundary, (3) so that, if the solid is moving with velocity U in the direction Ox, d4y1ds=-Udy/ds, or 0 +Uy =constant over the moving cylinder; and 4,+Uy=41' is the stream function of the relative motion of the liquid past the cylinder, and similarly 4,-Vx for the component velocity V along Oy; and generally 1,1'= +Uy -Vx (4) is the relative stream-function, constant over a solid boundary moving with components U and V of velocity.
Consequently the inertia to overcome in moving the cylinder r=b, solid or liquid, is its own inertia, increased by the inertia of liquid (a2+b2)/(a2,..b2) times the volume of the cylinder r=b; this total inertia is called the effective inertia of the cylinder r =b, at the instant the two cylinders are concentric.
(22) But if the outside cylinder is moved with velocity U1, and the inside cylinder is solid or filled with liquid of density v, 2 U i 2pb2 and the inside cylinder starts forward or backward with respect to the outside cylinder, according as p> or < v.
The velocity of a liquid particle is thus (a 2 - b 2)/(a 2 +b 2) of what it would be if the liquid was frozen and rotating bodily with the ellipse; and so the effective angular inertia of the liquid is (a 2 -b 2) 2 /(a 2 +b 2) 2 of the solid; and the effective radius of gyration, solid and liquid, is given by k 2 = 4 (a 2 2), and 4 (a 2 For the liquid in the interspace between a and n, m ch 2(0-a) sin 2E 4) 1 4Rc 2 sh 2n sin 2E (a2_ b2)I(a2+ b2) = I/th 2 (na)th 2n; (8) and the effective k 2 of the liquid is reduced to 4c 2 /th 2 (n-a)sh 2n, (9) which becomes 4c 2 /sh 2n = s (a 2 - b 2)/ab, when a =00, and the liquid surrounds the ellipse n to infinity.
Irrotational Motion in General.-Liquid originally at rest in a singly-connected space cannot be set in motion by a field of force due to a single-valued potential function; any motion set up in the liquid must be due to a movement of the boundary, and the motion will be irrotational; for any small spherical element of the liquid may be considered a smooth solid sphere for a moment, and the normal pressure of the surrounding liquid cannot impart to it any rotation.
(to) Integrating over the base, to obtain one-third of the kinetic energy T, 3T = 2 pf '3 4R2(3x4-h4)dx/h 3 = pR2h4 / 1 35 V 3 (II) so that the effective k 2 of the liquid filling the trianglc is given by k 2 = T/Z p R 2 A = 2h2/45 = (radius of the inscribed circle) 2, (12) or two-fifths of the k 2 for the solid triangle.
The Motion of a Solid through a Liquid.
- An important problem in the motion of a liquid is the determination of the state of velocity set up by the passage of a solid through it; and thence of the pressure and reaction of the liquid on the surface of the solid, by which its motion is influenced when it is free.
The terms of 0 may be determined one at a time, and this problem is purely kinematical; thus to determine 4)1, the component U alone is taken to exist, and then 1, m, n, denoting the direction cosines of the normal of the surface drawn into the exterior liquid, the function 01 must be determined to satisfy the conditions v 2 0 1 = o, throughout the liquid; (ii.) ' = -1, the gradient of 0 down the normal at the surface of the moving solid; 1 =0, over a fixed boundary, or at infinity; similarly for 02 and 03.
l ' so that over the surface of an ellipsoid where X and ¢ are constant, the normal velocity is the same as that of the ellipsoid itself, moving as a solid with velocity parallel to Ox U = -q, - 2 (a2+X) dtP, and so the boundary condition is satisfied; moreover, any ellipsoidal surface X may be supposed moving as if rigid with the velocity in (I I), without disturbing the liquid motion for the moment.
The Motion of a Perforated Solid Liquid.
Bryan, in which the analytical equations of motion are deduced of a perforated solid in liquid, from considerations purely hydrodynamical.
The effect of an external circulation of vortex motion on the motion of a cylinder has been investigated in § 29; a similar procedure will show the influence of circulation through a hole in a solid, taking as the simplest illustration a ring-shaped figure, with uniplanar motion, and denoting by the resultant axial linear momentum of the circulation.
Charles was impressed with the wealth and refinement of the citizens, and above all with the solid fortress-like appearance of their palaces.
In well-drained localities the border may be partially below the ground level, but in damp situations it should be made on the surface; in either case the firm solid bottom should slope outwards towards an efficient drain.
They are structures of solid masonry, containing vaulted rooms for the garrison, and providing a platform at the top for two or three guns, which fire over a low masonry parapet.
In 1861 Butlerow obtained a sugar-like substance, methylenitan, by digesting trioxymethylene, the solid polymer of formaldehyde, with lime.
or more in height from a thick solid jointed root-stock.
The stems are solid and marked with numerous shining, polished, yellow, purple or striped joints, 3 in.
solid matter in suspension varies so slightly with the temperature that practically it remains constant, the hot liquor rises to the top of the vessel, and the scums 'and particles of solid matter in suspension separate themselves from it and fall to the bottom.
Moreover the rain penetrates into the small interstices between its particles and dissolves out some of the materials which bind the whole into a solid stone, the surface then becoming a loose powdery mass which falls to the ground below or is carried away by the wind.
Chalk consists, when quite pure, of calcium carbonate (CaC03), a white solid substance useful in small amounts as a plant foodmaterial, though in excess detrimental to growth.
The tobacco, whether in bundles, hands or separate leaves, is piled up or bulked on the floor in a barn into a solid stack to the height of 5 or 6 ft.
in an hydraulic press, by which they are moulded into Tobacco solid cakes.
Through an orifice in the outlet pipe (which is closed during the distillation by a loose plug) a hot iron rod can be introduced from time to time to clear away any solid zinc that may threaten to obstruct it.
It fuses at 415° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.
It is an infusible solid, which is intensely yellow at a red heat, but on cooling becomes white.
It is a crystalline solid, which melts at 30° C. and boils at 190 8° C. Fusion with alkalis converts it into salicylic acid.
In his childhood Gaston Paris learned to appreciate the Old French romances as poems and stories, and this early impulse to the study of Romance literature was placed on a solid basis by courses of study at Bonn (1856-1857) under Friedrich Diez, at GÃ¶ttingen (1857-1858) and finally at the Ecole des Chartes (1858-1861).
These articles attracted much attention, and were distinguished by those qualities of solid learning, thorough investigation and candour of judgment which characterized all his writings.
The qanki, or sanctuary, is divided from the nave, by a solid wall, pierced by a single doorway; it contains the altar, or madhb'kha (literary, the sacrificing place), and may be entered only by persons in holy orders who are fasting.
aquifolium, Hydrastis canadensis, &c. It is a yellow, crystalline solid, insoluble in ether and chloroform, soluble in 41 parts of water at 21°, and moderately soluble in alcohol.
The houses are remarkable as being built on piles sunk in the solid rock and having two rooms, the one surrounding the other.
- In this process the substance operated upon is invariably a solid, the vapours being condensed and collected as in the other methods.
Prior to 1830, little was known of the process other than that organic compounds generally yielded tarry and solid matters, but the discoveries of Liebig and Dumas (of acetone from acetates), of Mitscherlich (of benzene from benzoates) and of Persoz (of methane from acetates and lime) brought the operation into common laboratory practice.
When the vapours readily condense to a solid form the condensing plant may take the form of large chambers; such conditions prevail in the manufacture of arsenic, sulphur and lampblack: in the latter case (which, however, is not properly one of distillation) the chamber is hung with sheets on which the pigment collects.
By electrolysing an aqueous solution of the chloride with a mercury cathode, a liquid and a solid amalgam, SrHgn, are obtained; the latter on heating gives a mixture of Sr 2 Hg 5 and SrHg 5, and on distillation an amalgam passes over, and not the metal.
It is a white solid, which readily decomposes water in the cold and behaves as a strong reducing agent.
It is a white solid, which combines with gaseous ammonia to form SrC1 2.8NH 3, and when heated in superheated steam it decomposes with evolution of hydrochloric acid.
It is a colourless, amorphous solid, which is almost insoluble in water, its solubility diminishing with increasing temperature; it is appreciably soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid.
It is an amorphous solid, insoluble in water, but its solubility is increased in the presence of ammonium nitrate.
c. the Athenian envoys were shown the treasure of the temple at Eryx as available for the expenses of the war, which treasure turned out to be only silver-gilt and not of solid gold (Thucydides vi.
Orifice concealed at the bottom of a vestibular shaft, surrounded by a solid or vesicular calcareous deposit.
The Polyzoa are colonial animals, the colony (zoarium) originating in most cases from a free-swimming larva, which attaches itself to some solid object and becomes metamorphosed into the primary individual, or "ancestrula."
The mind will pursue knowledge without the wasteful jar and friction of conflicting methods and mutually hostile conceptions; education will be regenerated; and society will reorganize itself on the only possible solid base - a homogeneous philosophy.
The monotony and lifelessness of this form of architecture are shown in the meaningless way in which details, suited only to the Venetian methods of veneering walls with thin marble slabs, are copied in the solid marbles of Verona.
For his essays are fine examples of permanent literature appearing in an ephemeral medium, and represent work which has solid worth for later thought as well as for the speculation of their own time.
In the case of the military classand prior to the Restoration of 1867 the term military class was synonymous with educated class this spirit of stoicism was built up by precept on a solid basis of heredity.
The pillars, architraves, ceilings, panels, and almost every available part of the structure, are covered with arabesques and sculptured figures of dragons, lions, tigers, birds, flowers, and even pictorial compositions with landscapes and figures, deeply carved in solid or open workthe wood sometimes plain, sometimes overlaid with pigment and gilding, as in the panelled ceiling of the chapel of Iyeyasu in Tokyo.
Of course it is to be noted that the edge of the cutting tool is never allowed to trespass upon a line which the exigencies of the design require to be solid.
00H3)2, which is prepared in a similar manner, is a solid melting at 54° C. It is used in the preparation of pure methyl alcohol.
- All the teeth are solid, and not grooved.
Behind these enlarged poison-fangs follows a series of smaller, solid FIG.
But modern work has shown that, although alloys sometimes contain solid solutions, the solid alloy as a whole is often far more like a conglomerate rock than a uniform solution.
Our knowledge of the nature of solid alloys has been much enlarged by a careful study of the process of solidification.
Let us suppose that a molten mixture of two substances A and B, which at a sufficiently high temperature form a uniform liquid, and which do not combine to form definite compounds, is slowly cooled until it becomes wholly solid.
In the case of a pure substance, and of a certain small class of mixtures, there is no further fall in temperature until the substance has become completely solid, but, in the case of most mixtures, after the freezing-point has been reached the temperature soon begins to fall again, and as the amount of solid increases the temperature becomes lower and lower.
In the case of two substances which neither form compounds nor dissolve each other in the solid state, the complete freezing-point curve takes the form shown infig.5.
Consequently the temperature does not change and there is another well-marked halt in the cooling, and this halt lasts until the mixture has become wholly solid.
All mixtures whose temperature lies above the line ACB are wholly liquid, hence this line is often called the "liquidus "; all mixtures at temperatures below that of the horizontal line through C are wholly solid, hence this line is sometimes called the " solidus," but in more complex cases the solidus is often curved.
At temperatures between the solidus and the liquidus a mixture is partly solid and partly liquid.
If we melt an alloy and chill it before it has wholly solidified, we often get evidence of the crystalline character of the solid matter which first forms. Fig.
The dark, regularly oriented crystal skeletons were already solid at the moment of chilling; they are rich in copper.
This alloy, if allowed to solidify completely before chilling, turns into a uniform solid solution, and at still lower temperatures the solid solution breaks up into a pearlite complex.
The analogy between the breaking up of a solid solution on cooling and the formation of a eutectic is obvious.
Iron and phosphorus unite to form a solid solution which breaks up on cooling into a pearlite.
Other cases could be quoted, but enough has been said to show the importance of solid solutions and their influence on the mechanical properties of alloys.
These uniform solid solutions must not be mistaken for chemical compounds; they can, within limits, vary in composition like an ordinary liquid solution.
It is probable that all the alloys of compositions between B and D, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of the compound; the lower eutectic B probably corresponds to a solid complex of mercury and the compound.
The higher eutectic D may correspond to a complex of solid thallium and the compound; but the possible existence of solid solutions makes further investigation necessary here.
This uniform distribution of a solid substance throughout the mass of another, so as to form a homogeneous material, is called " solid solution," and we may say that solid silver can dissolve copper.
Sometimes the whole alloy is a uniform solid solution.
We thus learn that the bronzes referred to above, although chemically uniform when solid, are not so when they begin to solidify, but that the liquid deposits crystals richer in copper than itself, and therefore that the residual liquid becomes richer in tin.
Consequently, as the final solid is uniform, the crystals formed at first must change in composition at a later stage.
We learn also that solid solutions which exist at high temperatures often break up into two materials as they cool; for example, the bronze of fig.
1, which in that figure shows two materials so plainly, if chilled at a somewhat higher temperature but when it was already solid, is found to consist of only one material; it is then a uniform solid solution.
The difference between softness and hardness in ordinary steel is due to the permanence of a solid solution of carbon in iron if the steel has been chilled or very rapidly cooled, while if the steel is slowly cooled this solid solution breaks up into a minute complex of two substances which is called pearlite.
In the case of some bronzes, for example that with about 25% of tin, the solid solution is soft, and the complex into which it FIG.
We must not take it for granted, when the freezing-point curve gives no indication of the compound, that the compound does not exist in the solid alloy.
For example, the compound Cu3Sn is not indicated in the freezing-point curve, and indeed a liquid alloy of this percentage does not begin to solidify by the formation of crystals of Cu 3 Sn; the liquid solidifies completely to a uniform solid solution, and only at a lower temperature does this change into crystals of the compound, the transformation being accompanied by a considerable evolution of heat.
The graphical representation of the properties of alloys can be extended so as to record all the changes, thermal and chemical, which the alloy undergoes after, as well as before, solidification, including the formation and breaking up of solid solutions and compounds.
When a current is passed through a solid alloy, a series of Peltier effects, proportional to the current, are set up between the particles of the different metals, and these create an opposing electromotive force which is indistinguishable experimentally from a resistance.
that gold and silver would both pass below their actual freezing-points without becoming solid.
The thinnest possible spherical shell of metal, such as a sphere of insulator coated with gold-leaf, behaves as a conductor for static charge just as if it were a sphere of solid metal.
Hence the total solid angle round any point is 47r.
The solid angles subtended by all normal sections of a cone at the vertex are therefore equal, and since the attractions of these sections on a particle at the vertex are proportional to their distances from the vertex, they are numerically equal to one another and to the solid angle of the cone.
The electric density on the sphere being uniform, the quantities of electricity on these areas are proportional to the areas, and if the electric force varies inversely as the square of the distance, the forces exerted by these two surface charges at the point in question are proportional to the solid angle of the little cone.
this envelope should be of solid metal; a cage made of fine metal wire gauze which permits objects in its interior to be seen will yet be a perfect electrical screen for them.
Consider the case of two concentric spheres, a solid one enclosed in a hollow one.
Then it can be shown that I /p2 = x2/a4+y2/b4+z2/c4 (see Frost's Solid Geometry, p. 172).
Let a solid circular sectioned cylinder of radius R 1 be enclosed in a coaxial tube of inner radius R2.
He constructed two equal condensers, each consisting of a metal ball enclosed in a hollow metal sphere, and he provided also certain hemispherical shells of shellac, sulphur, glass, resin, &c., which he could so place in one condenser between the ball and enclosing sphere that it formed a condenser with solid dielectric. He then determined the ratio of the capacities of the two condensers, one with air and the other with the solid dielectric. This gave the dielectric constant K of the material.
3), and describe through it as centre a cone of small solid angle dw cutting out of the enclosing surface in two small areas dS and dS' at distances x and x'.
The normal section of the cone at that point is equal to dS cosO, and the solid angle dw is equal to dS cos0/x 2.
Accordingly, since the total solid angle round a point is 47r, it follows that the total flux through the closed surface due to the single point charge q is 41rq, and what is true for one point charge is true for any collection forming a total charge Q of any form.
The same equations apply to the case of fusion of a solid, if L is the latest heat of fusion, and v', s', v", s" the specific volumes and specific heats of the solid and liquid respectively.
In the case of a solid or a liquid, the latent heat of isothermal expansion may often be neglected, and if the specific heat, s, be also taken as constant, we have simply 0-00 =s log e0/00.
The simplest case to consider is that of equilibrium between solid and liquid, or liquid and vapour.
The values of the corresponding functions for the liquid or solid cannot be accurately expressed, as the theoretical variation of the specific heat is unknown, but if we take the specific heat at constant pressure s to be approximately constant, and observe the small residual variation dh of the total heat, we may write F'=s'D+dh+B'.
Aurous iodide is also obtained as a green solid by acting upon gold with iodine.
Lumps of the solid amalgam, about 2 in.
Towards the sea the solid land gives place to a vast network of streams and creeks, whose sluggish waters are constantly depositing silt, and forming morasses or quicksands.
The ordinary houses are of wood; but the more important buildings are of more solid materials.