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solar

solar

solar Sentence Examples

  • Everything this side of the Mississippi is working on solar energy, but not all the facilities are equipped with energy storage, and because it's fall, our energy collection is limited.

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  • His clothing fitted his form snugly and was gorgeously colored in brilliant shades of green, which varied as the sunbeams touched them but was not wholly influenced by the solar rays.

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  • Bruno looked on our solar system as but one out of an infinite number of worlds.

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  • And the solar battery farther back.

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  • And the solar battery farther back.

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  • It is obvious that the aerial particles are illuminated not only by the direct solar rays, but also by light dispersed from other parts of the atmosphere and from the earth's surface.

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  • They were a soft, sable brown with specs of black that seemed to swirl in motion around her pupils like two tiny solar systems.

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  • We do not know whether the comets are really indigenous to the solar system or whether they may not be merely imported into the system from the depths of space.

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  • And solar cells presently being developed in laboratories are doing several times better than the plants.

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  • to determine the solar parallax by observations of Mars in 1877.

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  • The ruler of Tri'trij has vacated his planet and lives on colonies outside the solar system.

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  • 25 shows the stellar and solar lines of the two spectrographs in coincidence, whilst the metallic lines of comparison are non-coincident.

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  • Operating at basically 5 percent efficiency, they are less than half as efficient as solar panels now on the market.

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  • In the past two centuries with very little technology, we've come from whale oil and wood to solar and nuclear.

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  • C. Janssen, a spectroscopic method for observing the solar prominences in daylight, and the names of both astronomers appear on a medal which was struck by the French government in 1872 to commemorate the discovery.

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  • If these two advances could be combined, we would have a supply of solar energy that was cheap, abundant, and environmentally benign.

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  • It is the same thought which collected in the cosmic space the divided masses into spheres, and combined these to solar systems; the same which caused the weather-beaten dust on the surface of our metallic planet to spring forth into living forms."

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  • Electricity (hmm, I guess the trailer was solar powered), a refrigerator, air conditioning.

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  • Calculating the actual, societal costs of fatty foods, alcohol, cars, pet ownership, mercury thermometers, air conditioning, solar panels, razor blades, jogging shoes, and ten thousand other things, and incorporating those costs in the prices as taxes would lead to a vastly more efficient allocation of resources.

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  • To deal in generalities, plants capture, on average, about 5 percent of the solar energy that falls on their leaves.

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  • The narrow tongues of the silvered surface will now reflect corresponding parts of the star-spectrograph, and will obliterate corresponding parts of the solar spectrograph - as shown in figs.

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  • NEBULAR THEORY, a theory advanced to account for the origin of the solar system.

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  • The angle which the earth's axis makes with the plane in which the planet revolves round the sun determines the varying seasonal distribution of solar radiation over the surface and the mathematical zones of climate.

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  • Eight British government expeditions for observing total solar eclipses were conducted by him between 1870 and 1905.

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  • then the lines of the stellar spectrogram would be seen in focus of the eyepiece and the image of the solar spectrograph would be obliterated.

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  • It is content to explain the origin and course of development of the world, the solar or, at most, the sidereal system which falls under our own observation.

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  • the solar name Beth-Shemesh).

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  • the solar name Beth-Shemesh).

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  • (1) Mathematical geography, which deals with the form, size and movements of the earth and its place in the solar system; (2) Moral geography, or an account of the different customs and characters of mankind according to the region they inhabit; (3) Political geography, the divisions according to their organized governments; (4) Mercantile geography, dealing with the trade in the surplus products of countries; (5) Theological geography, or the distribution of religions.

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  • 26 shows the metallic lines of comparison in coincidence whilst the solar and stellar lines are non-coincident.

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  • This process is an upward one, through the formation of the solar system and of our earth with its inorganic bodies, up to the production of man.

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  • Such a reduced and impoverished star is a planet; and the several planets of our solar system are the several vortices which from time to time have been swept up by the central sun-vortex.

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  • Such a reduced and impoverished star is a planet; and the several planets of our solar system are the several vortices which from time to time have been swept up by the central sun-vortex.

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  • Plant life, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life.

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  • In correcting the elements of Delambre's solar tables he had been led to suspect an inequality overlooked by their constructor.

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  • Plant life, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life.

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  • In 1875 he was transferred to the Science and Art Department at South Kensington, and on the foundation of the Royal College of Science he became director of the solar physics observatory and professor of astronomical physics.

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  • From a fresh discussion of the transits of Venus in 1761 and 1769 he deduced (1822-1824) a solar parallax of 8" 57, long accepted as authoritative.

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  • The average speed is obtained very accurately from solar and stellar observations for the position of the ship. The difference between the speed of the ship and the rate of paying out gives the amount of.

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  • This was afterwards identified with the D3 line of the solar chromosphere, observed in 1868 by Sir J.

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  • So far as the evolution of the solar system is concerned, Kant held these mechanical causes as adequate.

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  • By means of this process the bodies of the solar system separate themselves, and the order of cosmic evolution is repeated in that of terrestrial evolution.

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  • By means of this process the bodies of the solar system separate themselves, and the order of cosmic evolution is repeated in that of terrestrial evolution.

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  • Heinrich Steffens, in his Anthropologie, seeks to trace out the origin and history of man in connexion with a general theory of the development of the earth, and this again as related to the formation of the solar system.

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  • The Chemistry of the Sun (1887) is an elaborate treatise on solar spectroscopy based on the hypothesis of elemental dissociation through the intensity of solar heat.

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  • Then if the prism P4 is cemented to P3, a sharp image of such lines of the solar spectrograph as are visible in the field of view will be seen in the eyepiece.

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  • The investigation that brought about this result was probably the most laborious that had been made up to Airy's time in planetary theory, and represented the first specific improvement in the solar tables effected in England since the establishment of the theory of gravitation.

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  • There are very remarkable features in the solar system which point unmistakably to some common origin of many of the different bodies which it contains.

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  • He further expressed the belief that the dark lines D of the solar spectrum coincide with the bright lines of the sodium flame.

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  • Brown and Escombe have shown that the amount of solar energy taken up by a green leaf may often be fifty times as much as it can utilize in the constructive processes of which it is the seat.

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  • Fraunhofer is especially known for the researches, published in the Denkschriften der Miinchener Akademie for 1814-1815, by which he laid the foundation of solar and stellar chemistry.

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  • In the summer a great accumulation of solar heat takes place on the dry surface soil, from which it cannot be released upwards by evaporation, as might be the case were the soil moist or covered with vegetation, nor can it be readily conveyed away downwards as happens on the ocean.

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  • 1868), devoted himself to solar research, and became chief assistant in the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington.

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  • 1868), devoted himself to solar research, and became chief assistant in the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington.

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  • complex spectra of stars of the solar type this is by no means the case; for, as Dr Hartmann remarks, " in the first place the lines in these spectra are so numerous that their complete measurement and reduction would require many days, and in the second place a rigorous reduction of such material has hitherto not been at all possible because the wave-lengths of the lines are not known with sufficient accuracy.

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  • If, for example, it is found that the image of the solar.

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  • As the small filings produced by friction seek to pass through the interstices between the rapidly revolving spherical particles in the vortex, they are detained and become twisted and channelled in their passage, and when they reach the edge of the inner ocean of solar dust they settle upon it as the froth and foam produced by the agitation of water gathers upon its surface.

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  • There are three stadia, or moments, in this process of nature - (i) the mechanical moment, or matter devoid of individuality; (2) the physical moment, or matter which has particularized itself in bodies - the solar system; and (3) the organic moment, or organic beings, beginning with the geological organism - or the mineral kingdom, plants and animals.

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  • Attracted to astronomy by the solar eclipse of the 12th of May 1706, he obtained permission in 1710 to lodge in the dome of the Luxembourg, procured some instruments, and there observed the total eclipse of the 22nd of May 1724.

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  • The year is solar, and has twelve months of thirty days each, with five intercalary days between the eighth and the ninth month.

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  • It is not necessary to regard Cuchulinn as a form of the solar hero, as some writers have done.

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  • The calendar was the Syro-Macedonian, a solar, as distinct from the primitive lunar, calendar, which Roman influence disseminated throughout Syria; it was practically a reproduction of the Julian calendar.

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  • The chief god of the Palmyrenes was a solar deity, called Samas or Shamash (" sun "), or Bel, or Malak-bel,' whose great temple is still the most imposing feature among the ruins of Palmyra.

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  • The solar character of this deity appears especially in the annual feast of his awakening shortly after the winter solstice (Joseph.

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  • The supporters of the solar theory look upon Memnon as the son of the dawn, who, though he might vanish from sight for a time, could not be destroyed; hence the immortality bestowed upon him by Zeus.

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  • The denotation of elements by symbols had been practised by the alchemists, and it is interesting to note that the symbols allotted to the well-known elements are identical with the astrological symbols of the sun and the other members of the solar system.

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  • But he seems to have been well cared for, and he was at the age of fourteen sufficiently advanced "in algebra, geometry, astronomy, and even the higher mathematics," to calculate a solar eclipse within four seconds of accuracy.

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  • Both festivals, of course, belong to a lunar calendar, and move through the solar year every thirty-two years.

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  • Edmond Becquerel was associated with his father in much of his work, but he himself paid special attention to the study of light, investigating the photochemical effects and spectroscopic characters of solar radiation and the electric light, and the phenomena of phosphorescence, particularly as displayed by the sulphides and by compounds of uranium.

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  • His most interesting paper is "On the Proper Motion of the Solar System," and was published in the Phil.

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  • Others treat it as a solar myth; the ram is the light of the sun, the flight of Phrixus and the death of Helle signify its setting, the recovery of the fleece its rising again.

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  • The connexion that seemed to be first established was between variations in the quantity of water transported from the tropical to the sub-polar Atlantic and variations in the intensit y of solar radiation.

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  • Helland-Hansen and Nansen showed later that it was improbable that variations in the northerly drift of Atlantic water could be traced directly to variations in the quantity of heat received by the sea from solar radiation.

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  • Thus in 1857 he went to Peru in order to determine the magnetic equator; in1861-1862and 1864, he studied telluric absorption in the solar spectrum in Italy and Switzerland; in 1867 he carried out optical and magnetic experiments at the Azores; he successfully observed both transits of Venus, that of 1874 in Japan, that of 1882 at Oran in Algeria; and he took part in a long series of solar eclipse-expeditions, e.g.

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  • In 1875 he was appointed director of the new astrophysical observatory established by the French government at Meudon, and set on foot there in 1876 the remarkable series of solar photographs collected in his great Atlas de photographies solaires (1904).

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  • For stellar parallaxes see Star; the solar parallax is discussed below.

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  • Solar PARALLAx.

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  • Doubt was first thrown on the accuracy of this number by an announcement from Hansen in 1862 that the observed parallactic inequality of the moon was irreconcilable with the accepted value of the solar parallax, and indicated the much larger value 8.97".

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  • be immediately derived, because the ratios of distances in the solar system are known with the last degree of of precision.

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  • For the relation of this inequality to the solar parallax see Moon.

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  • One was to use a heliometer to measure the distance between the limbs of Venus and the sun during the whole time that the planet was seen projected on the solar disk, and the other was to take photographs of the sun during the period of the transit and subsequently measure the negatives.

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  • The results were for the solar parallax 7r: The general mean result was 8.802".

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  • can hope to reach in the solar parallax.

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  • The corresponding value of the solar parallax is 8.782".

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  • So exact is the latter determination that, were there no weak point in the subsequent parts of the process, this method would give far the most certain result for the solar parallax.

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  • The determination of the solar parallax through the parallactic inequality of the moon's motion also involves two elements - one of observation, the other of purely mathematical theory.

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  • The theoretical element is the ratio of the parallactic inequality to the solar parallax.

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  • Brown the value of the solar parallax derived by this method is about 8.773".

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  • The following may be taken as the most probable values of the solar parallax, as derived independently by the five methods we have described: From measures of parallax.

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  • Probably no general agreement could now be reached on a statement more definite than this; the last result may be left out of consideration, and the value of the solar parallax is probably contained between the limits 8.77" and 8.80."

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  • Finally, of the grand series of researches by which the stability of the solar system was ascertained, the glory must be almost equally divided between Lagrange and Laplace.

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  • NERGAL, the name of a solar deity in Babylonia, the main seat of whose cult was at Kutha or Cuthah, represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim.

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  • As in the case of Ninib, Nergal appears to have absorbed a number of minor solar deities, which accounts for the various names or designations under which he appears, such as Lugalgira, Sharrapu ("the burner," perhaps a mere epithet), Ira, Gibil (though this name more properly belongs to Nusku, q.v.) and Sibitti.

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  • A certain confusion exists in cuneiform literature between Ninib and Nergal, perhaps due to the traces of two different conceptions regarding these two solar deities.

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  • In optics he was the first, in 1802, to observe the dark lines in the solar spectrum.

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  • This was the first and most important step in the establishment of the stability of the solar system.

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  • The last apparent anomaly, and the last threat of instability, thus disappeared from the solar system.

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  • The declared aim of the author 1 was to offer a complete solution of the great mechanical problem presented by the solar system, and to bring theory to coincide so closely with observation that empirical equations should no longer find a place in astronomical tables.

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  • It may be added that he first examined the conditions of stability of the system formed by Saturn's rings, pointed out the necessity for their rotation, and fixed for it a period (Io h 33 m) virtually identical with that established by the observations of Herschel; that he detected the existence in the solar system of an invariable plane such that the sum of the products of the planetary masses by the projections upon it of the areas described by their radii vectores in a given time is a maximum; and made notable advances in the theory of astronomical refraction (Mec. cel.

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  • Meanwhile the astronomical theories of development of the solar system from a gaseous condition to its present form, put forward by Kant and by Laplace, had impressed men's minds with the conception of a general movement of spontaneous progress or development in all nature.

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  • They were dedicated to solar deities, and were especially numerous at Heliopolis, where there was probably a single one sacred to the sun of immemorial antiquity.

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  • The he Board of Education directly administers the following educational institutions - the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, with its branch at Bethnal Green, from both of which objects are lent to various institutions for educational purposes; the Royal College of Science, South Kensington, with which is incorporated the Royal School of Mines; the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom and the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street; the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington; and the Royal College of Art, South Kensington.

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  • In this table n is the refractive index of the glass for sodium light (the D line of the solar spectrum), while the letters C, F and G' refer to lines in the hydrogen spectrum by which dispersion is now generally specified.

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  • II.), by means of which Assyrian chronology is fixed from 911 B.C. to 666 B.C., the solar eclipse of June 15th, 763 B.C., which is recorded in the eponymy of Pur-Sagale, placing the dead reckoning for these later periods upon an absolutely certain basis.

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  • Thus the name of the chief god of the Babylonian pantheon, Marduk, is written by two signs to be pronounced Amar-Ud, which describe the god as the "young bullock of the day " - an allusion to the solar character of the god in question.

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  • We might conceive the rapid motions of the heavenly bodies to result in some change either in the direction or amount of their gravitation towards each other at each moment; but such is not the case, even in the most rapidly moving bodies of the solar system.

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  • The country had been thrown into absolute confusion from a political and administrative point of view, but gradually order was restored, and peaceful conditions were reconstituted throughout the republic. The four years of office for which General Caceres was elected passed in uneventful fashion, and in 1890 Senor Morales Bermudez was nominated to the presidency, with Senor Solar and Senor Borgono as first and second vice-presidents.

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  • This action was unconstitutional, and was bitterly resented by the vice-president Solar, who by right should have succeeded to the office.

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  • He was the first correctly to solve Aristotle's problem, stated above, and to apply it practically to solar observations in a darkened room (Cosmographia, 1 535).

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  • His pupil, Rainer Gemma-Frisius, used it for the observation of the solar eclipse of January 1544 at Louvain, and fully described the methods he adopted for making measurements and drawings of the eclipsed sun, in his De Radio Astronomico et Geometrico (1545).

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  • Nothing is said about the use of a lens or of solar observations.

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  • He notes the convenience of the method for solar observations and its previous use by some of the observers already mentioned, as well as its advantages for easily and accurately copying on an enlarged or reduced scale, especially for chorographical or topographical documents.

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  • The first to take up the camera obscura after Porta was Kepler, who used it in the old way for solar observations in 1600, and in his Ad Vitellionem Paralipomena (1604) discusses the early problems of the passages of light through small apertures, and the rationale of the simple dark chamber.

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  • This was done in 1612 by Christoph Scheiner, who fully described his method of solar observation in the Rosa Ursina (1630), demonstrating very clearly and practically the advantages and disadvantages of using the camera, without a lens, with a single convex lens, and with a telescopic combination of convex object-glass and concave enlarging lens, the last arrangement being mounted with an adjustable screen or tablet on an equatorial stand.

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  • He also made great use of the simple dark chamber for his optical experiments with prisms, &c. Joseph Priestley (1772) mentions the application of the solar microscope, both to the small and portable and the large camera obscura.

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  • The Celtic heroic saga in the British islands may be divided into the two principal groups of Gaelic (Irish) and Brython (Welsh), the first, excluding the purely mythological, into the Ultonian (connected with Ulster) and the Ossianic. The Ultonianis grouped round the names of King Conchobar and the heroCuchulainn, " the Irish Achilles," the defender of Ulster against all Ireland, regarded by some as a solar hero.

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  • The name was first given by Sir John Herschel to an apparatus for measuring the heating effect of solar rays (Edin.

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  • Several cycles were formerly known in Europe; but most of them were invented for the purpose of adjusting the solar and lunar divisions of time, and were rather employed in the regulation of the calendar than as chronological eras.

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  • of the XVIIIth Egyptian dynasty, who in the latter years of his reign chose to be known as Akhenaton, "the glory of the solar disk."

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  • This is the Dionysian or Great Paschal Period, and is formed by the multiplication of the numbers 28 and 19, that is, of the solar and lunar cycles, into each other.

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  • From the time of the emperor Yao, upwards of 2000 years B.C., the Chinese had two different years, - a civil year, which was regulated by the moon, and an astronomical year, which was solar.

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  • The civil year consisted in general of twelve months or lunations, but occasionally a thirteenth was added in order to preserve its correspondence with the solar year.

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  • Even at that early period the solar or astronomical year consisted of 3654 days, like our Julian year; and it was arranged in the same manner, a day being intercalated every fourth year.

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  • From the same period also they have employed, in the adjustment of their solar and lunar years, a period of nineteen years, twelve of which are common, containing twelve lunations each, and the remaining seven intercalary, containing thirteen lunations.

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  • Though the /see' are thus strictly portions of solar time, yet what is remarkable, though not peculiar to China, they give their name to the lunar months, each month or lunation having the name of the chung-ki or sign at which the sun arrives during that month.

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  • SOLAR SYSTEM, in astronomy, the group of heavenly bodies, comprising the sun and the bodies which move around the sun as a centre of attraction, of which the Earth is one.

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  • A remarkable feature of the solar system, which distinguishes it from all other known systems in the universe, is the symmetry of arrangement and motion of its greater bodies.

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  • Other standards of reference may be used in special connexions; for example, the Earth is the usual unit for expressing the relative density of the other members of the solar system.

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  • Savary expresses preference for this second plan, and makes the pertinent remark that in both these models " the rays of red light in the two solar images will be next to each other, which will render the sun's disk more easy to be observed than the violet ones."

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  • In determinations of stellar or solar parallax, comparison stars, symmetrically situated with respect to the object whose parallax is sought, should be employed, in which case the instantaneous scale-value may be regarded as an unknown quantity which can be derived in the process of the computation of the results.

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  • Solar radiation warms the tropical more than the polar waters, but, assuming equal salinity, this cause would not account for a difference of level of more than 20 ft.

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  • The warming of the ocean is due practically to solar radiation alone; such heat as may be received from the interior of the earth can only produce a small effect and is fairly uniformly distributed.

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  • Aime showed that on a calm bright day in the Mediterranean the temperature rose o 1° C. between the early morning and noon at a depth of about 12 fathoms. Luksch deduced a much greater penetration of solar warmth from the comparison of observations at different hours at neighbouring stations in the eastern Mediterranean, but his methods were not exact enough to give confidence in the result.

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  • The Harrari are Mahommedans of the Shafa'i or Persian sect, and they employ the solar year and the Persian calendar.

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  • The Mayas had a calendar of 360 days, with intercalary days; this solar year was intersected by their sacred year of twenty weeks of thirteen days each, and these assembled in bewildering cycles.

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  • His method of estimating the relative lunar and solar distances is geometrically correct, though the instrumental means at his command rendered his data erroneous.

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  • In solar physics Huggins suggested a spectroscopic method for viewing the red prominences in daylight; and his experiments went far towards settling a much-disputed question regarding the solar distribution of calcium.

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  • In the general solar spectrum this element is represented by a large number of lines, but in the spectrum of the prominences and chromosphere one pair only can be detected.

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  • The third and twelfth labours may be solar, the horned hind representing the moon, and the carrying of Cerberus to the upper world an eclipse, while the last episode of the hero's tragedy is possibly a complete solar myth developed at Trachis.

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  • s solar mass.

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  • about a solar.

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  • Dr Chase's measures with the Yale heliometer indicated for it, in 1894, a parallax of about o" � 035; 2 and it must, accordingly, be of nearly four times the total brightness of Sirius, while its aerial lustre exceeds seventyfold that of the solar photosphere.

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  • Computation from modern data shows that 235 lunations are 6939 days, 16.5 hours; and 19 solar years, 6939 days, 14.5 hours.

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  • Each sar, month and hour was represented at once visibly and symbolically by a twelfth part of the " furrow " drawn by the solar Bull across the heavens.

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  • From one point of view they shadow out the great epic of the destinies of the human race; again, the universal solar myth claims a share in them; hoary traditions were brought into ex post facto connexion with them; or they served to commemorate simple meteorological and astronomical facts.

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  • The Taurus solar interpretation of the sign goes back to the far off time when the year began with Taurus, and the sun was conceived of as a bull entering upon the great furrow of heaven as he ploughed his way among the stars.

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  • The Lion, as the symbol of fire, L represented the culmination of the solar heat.

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  • with the caprine nurse of the young solar god in Oriental legends, of which that of Zeus and Amalthia is a Capri- variant.'

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  • The knowledge of the solar zodiac thus turned to account for dualistic purposes was undoubtedly derived from the Greeks.

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  • The synodical revolution of the moon laid down the lines of the solar, its sidereal revolution those of the lunar zodiac. The first was a circlet of " full moons "; the second marked the diurnal stages of the lunar progress round the sky, from and back again to any selected star.

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  • The modern nakshatras are twenty-seven equal ecliptical divisions, the origin of which shifts, like that of the solar signs, with the vernal equinox.

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  • 32); but the heavenly halting-places which it seems to designate may be solar rather than lunar.

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  • The refined system of astrological prediction based upon the solar zodiac was invented in Chaldaea, obtained a second home and added elaborations in Egypt, and spread irresistibly westward about the beginning of the Christian era.

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  • For genethliacal purposes the signs were divided into six solar and six lunar, the former counted onward from Leo, the " house " of the sun, the latter backward from the moon's domicile in Cancer.

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  • Each planet had two houses - a solar and a lunar - distributed according to the order of their revolutions.

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  • Thus Mercury, as the planet nearest the sun, obtained Virgo, the sign adjacent to Leo, with the corresponding lunar house in Gemini; Venus had Libra (solar) and Taurus (lunar); and so for the rest.

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  • According to modern measurements the solar radiation imparts almost 3 grammecalories of energy per minute per square centimetre at the distance of the earth, which is about I�3 X io s ergs per sec. per cm.

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  • It thus appears that if the amplitude of vibration could be as much as 1 o_2 of the wave-length, the aether would be an excessively rare medium with very slight elasticity; and yet it would be capable of transmitting the supply of solar energy on which all terrestrial activity depends.

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  • He is a god of storms; a god of light or a solar god; a chthonian god, one of the deities of the subterranean world, who could bring prosperity as well as ruin upon men, although in time his destructive qualities obscured the others.

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  • In 1854 he turned his attention to solar physics, and for the purpose of obtaining a daily photographic representation of the state of the solar surface he devised the photo-heliograph, described in his report to the British Association, "On Celestial Photography in England" (1859), and in his Bakerian Lecture (Phil.

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  • The results obtained in the years1862-1866were discussed in two memoirs, entitled "Researches on Solar Physics," published by De la Rue, in conjunction with Professor Balfour Stewart and Mr B.

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  • In 1860 De la Rue took the photoheliograph to Spain for the purpose of photographing the total solar eclipse which occurred on the 18th of July of that year.

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  • The photographs obtained on that occasion proved beyond doubt the solar character of the prominences or red flames, seen around the limb of the moon during a solar eclipse.

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  • The solar eclipse of 1748 made a deep impression upon him; and having graduated as seventh wrangler from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1754, he determined to devote himself wholly to astronomy.

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  • In the same way the beginning of the Jewish year according to the state of the harvest was supplanted by some more fixed relation to the solar year.

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  • According to the solar theory, Sisyphus is the disk of the sun that rises every day and then sinks below the horizon.

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  • From 1861 onwards he paid special attention to the solar spectrum.

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  • He announced the existence of hydrogen, among other elements, in the sun's atmosphere in 1862, and in 1868 published his great map of the normal solar spectrum which long remained authoritative in questions of wave-length, although his measurements were inexact to the extent of one part in 7000 or 8000 owing to the metre which he used as his standard having been slightly too short.

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  • In Syria Hadad is hardly to be distinguished from a solar deity.

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  • The solar explanation of Minos as the sun-god has been thrown into the background by the recent discoveries.

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  • As the light is twice refracted, the dispersion is increased, and the rays, after transmission through the prism, form a divergent system, which may be allowed to fall on a sheet of white paper, forming the wellknown solar spectrum.

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  • Julius to explain the "flash spectrum" seen during a solar eclipse at the moment at which totality occurs..

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  • He early attained to the settled conviction that for the actual disposition of the solar system some abstract intelligible reason must exist, and this, after much meditation, he believed himself to have found in an imaginary relation between the "five regular solids" and the number and distances of the planets.

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  • Outside the boundaries of the solar system, the metaphysical side of his genius, no longer held in check by experience, fully asserted itself.

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  • Among his happy conjectures may be mentioned that of the sun's axial rotation, postulated by him as the physical cause of the revolutions of the planets, and soon after confirmed by the discovery of sun-spots; the suggestion of a periodical variation in the obliquity of the ecliptic; and the explanation as a solar atmospheric effect of the radiance observed to surround the totally eclipsed sun.

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  • He clearly perceived the significant analogy between terrestrial gravity and the force exerted in the solar system, and by the ingenious device of a circular pendulum illustrated the composite character of the planetary movements.

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  • He also reduced the solar parallax to 14" (less than a quarter of Kepler's estimate), corrected the sun's semi-diameter to 15' 45", recommended decimal notation, and was the first to make tidal observations.

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  • Until 1840 only boiled salt was manufactured; in that year the solar process was introduced.

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  • The annual production, which amounted to 100,000 bushels in 1804, reached its highest point in 1862 (9,053,874 bushels, of which 1,983,022 bushels were solar, and 7,070,852 boiled).

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  • The polar clock, devised for use in place of a sun-dial, applies the fact that the plane of polarization of sky light is always 90° from the position of the sun; hence by measuring the azimuthal angle of the plane, even when the sun is below the horizon, correct apparent solar time may be obtained.

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  • Of all the periods marked out by the motions of the celestial bodies, the most conspicuous, and the most intimately connected with the affairs of mankind, are the solar day, which is distinguished by the diurnal revolution of the earth and the alternation of light and darkness, and the solar year, which completes the circle of the seasons.

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  • But in the early ages of the world, when mankind were chiefly engaged in rural occupations, the phases of the moon must have been objects of great attention and interest, - hence the month, and the practice adopted by many nations of reckoning time by the motions of the moon, as well as the still more general practice of combining lunar with solar periods.

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  • The solar day, the solar year, and the lunar month, or lunation, may therefore be called the natural divisions of time.

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  • Twelve lunations, therefore, form a period of 354 days, which differs only by about 11 1/4 days from the solar year.

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  • But in the course of a few years the accumulated difference between the solar year and twelve lunar months would become considerable, and have the effect of transporting the commencement of the year to a different season.

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  • The month, however, being a convenient period of time, has retained its place in the calendars of all nations; but, instead of denoting a synodic revolution of the moon, it is usually employed to denote an arbitrary number of days approaching to the twelfth part of a solar year.

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  • The Solar Astronomical Year Is The Period Of Time In Which The Earth Performs A Revolution In Its Orbit About The Sun, Or Passes From Any Point Of The Ecliptic To The Same Point Again; And Consists Of 365 Days 5 Hours 48 Min.

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  • And 46 Sec. Of Mean Solar Time.

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  • When Regard Is Had To The Sun'S Motion Alone, The Regulation Of The Year, And The Distribution Of The Days Into Months, May Be Effected Without Much Trouble; But The Difficulty Is Greatly Increased When It Is Sought To Reconcile Solar And Lunar Periods, Or To Make The Subdivisions Of The Year Depend On The Moon, And At The Same Time To Preserve The Correspondence Between The Whole Year And The Seasons.

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  • This Differed From The Solar Year By Ten Whole Days And A Fraction; But, To Restore The Coincidence, Numa Ordered An Additional Or Intercalary Month To Be Inserted Every Second Year Between The 23Rd And 24Th Of February, Consisting Of Twenty Two And Twenty Three Days Alternately, So That Four Years Contained 1465 Days, And The Mean Length Of The Year Was Consequently 3664 Days.

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  • Sosigenes Could Scarcely Fail To Know That This Year Was Too Long; For It Had Been Shown Long Before, By The Observations Of Hipparchus, That The Excess Of 3654 Days Above A True Solar Year Would Amount To A Day In 300 Years.

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  • As The Gregorian Method Of Intercalation Has Been Adopted In All Christian Countries, Russia Excepted, It Becomes Interesting To Examine With What Degrees Of Accuracy It Reconciles The Civil With The Solar Year.

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  • Thus The Mean Length Of The Solar Year Is Found To Be 60° 7" 685 X365.25 =365.2422 3 Days, Or 365 Days 5 Hours 48 Min.

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  • 12 Sec. This Exceeds The True Solar Year By 26 Seconds, Which Amount To A Day In 33 2 3 Years.

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  • In Order To Discover Whether The Coincidence Of The Civil And Solar Year Could Not Be Restored In Shorter Periods By A Different Method Of Intercalation, We May Proceed As Follows: The Fraction 0.2422, Which Expresses The Excess Of The Solar Year Above A Whole Number Of Days, Being Converted Into A Continued Fraction, Becomes 4 I 7 1 I I 3 1 4 I 1, &C.

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  • It Implies A Year Differing In Excess From The True Year Only By 19.45 Sec., While The Gregorian Year Is Too Long By 26 Sec. It Produces A Much Nearer Coincidence Between The Civil And Solar Years Than The Gregorian Method; And, By Reason Of Its Shortness Of Period, Confines The Evagations Of The Mean Equinox From The True Within Much Narrower Limits.

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  • But Supposing The Instant Of The Sun'S Entering Into The Sign Libra To Be Very Near Midnight, The Small Errors Of The Solar Tables Might Render It Doubtful To Which Day The Equinox Really Belonged; And It Would Be In Vain To Have Recourse To Observation To Obviate The Difficulty.

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  • The Lunar Year, Consisting Of Twelve Lunar Months, Contains Only 354 Days; Its Commencement Consequently Anticipates That Of The Solar Year By Eleven Days, And Passes Through The Whole Circle Of The Seasons In About Thirty Four Lunar Years.

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  • The First Expedient Adopted To Reconcile The Lunar And Solar Years Seems To Have Been The Addition Of A Month Of Thirty Days To Every Second Year.

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  • Two Lunar Years Would Thus Contain 25 Months, Or 738 Days, While Two Solar Years, Of 3654 Days Each, Contain 7302 Days.V The `, Difference Of 72 Days Was Still Too Great To Escape Observation; It Was Accordingly Proposed By Cleostratus Of Tenedos, Who Flourished Shortly After The Time Of Thales, To Omit The Biennary Intercalation Every Eighth Year.

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  • In Fact, The 72 Days By Which Two Lunar Years Exceeded Two Solar Years, Amounted To Thirty Days, Or A Full Month, In Eight Years.

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  • By Inserting, Therefore, Three Additional Months Instead Of Four In Every Period Of Eight Years, The Coincidence Between The Solar And Lunar Year Would Have Been Exactly Restored If The Latter Had Contained Only 354 Days, Inasmuch As The Period Contains 354X8 3 X 30 = 2922 Days, Corresponding With Eight Solar Years Of 3654 Days Each.

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  • The Metonic Cycle, Which May Be Regarded As The Chef D'Oeuvre Of Ancient Astronomy, Is A Period Of Nineteen Solar Years, After Which The New Moons Again Happen On The Same Days Of The Year.

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  • In Nineteen Solar Years There Are 235 Lunations, A Number Which, On Being Divided By Nineteen, Gives Twelve Lunations For Each Year, With Seven Of A Remainder, To Be Distributed Among The Years Of The Period.

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  • The Number Of Days In The Period Being Known, It Is Easy To Ascertain Its Accuracy Both In Respect Of The Solar And Lunar Motions.

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  • The Exact Length Of Nineteen Solar Years Is 19X365'2422=6939'6018 Days, Or 6 939 Days 14 Hours 26.592 Minutes; Hence The Period, Which Is Exactly 6940 Days, Exceeds Nineteen Revolutions Of The Sun By Nine And A Half Hours Nearly.

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  • This Period Exceeds Seventy Six True Solar Years By Fourteen Hours And A Quarter Nearly, But Coincides Exactly With Seventy Six Julian Years; And In The Time Of Calippus The Length Of The Solar Year Was Almost Universally Supposed To Be Exactly 3 6 54 Days.

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  • The Ecclesiastical Calendar, Which Is Adopted In All The Catholic, And Most Of The Protestant Countries Of Europe, Is Luni Solar, Being Regulated Partly By The Solar, And Partly By The Lunar Year, A Circumstance Which Gives Rise To The Distinction Between The Movable And Immovable Feasts.

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  • The Observance Of This Rule Renders It Necessary To Reconcile Three Periods Which Have No Common Measure, Namely, The Week, The Lunar Month, And The Solar Year; And As This Can Only Be Done Approximately, And Within Certain Limits, The Determination Of Easter Is An Affair Of Considerable Nicety And Complication.

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  • The Ecclesiastical Calendar Would In That Case Have Possessed All The Simplicity And Uniformity Of The Civil Calendar, Which Only Requires The Adjustment Of The Civil To The Solar Year; But They Were Probably Not Sufficiently Versed In Astronomy To Be Aware Of The Practical Difficulties Which Their Regulation Had To Encounter.

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  • This Period Is Called The Solar Cycle, Or The Cycle Of The Sun, And Restores The First Day Of The Year To The Same Day Of The Week.

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  • The Cycle, Though Probably Not Invented Before The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea, Is Regarded As Having Commenced Nine Years Before The Era, So That The Year One Was The Tenth Of The Solar Cycle.

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  • Thus, For 1840, We Have 1840-9966 2 1 G; Therefore (1849) R= 1, And The Year 1840 Is The First Of The Solar Cycle.

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  • In Order To Make Use Of The Solar Cycle In Finding The Dominical Letter, It Is Necessary To Know That The First Year Of The Christian Era Began With Saturday.

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  • In connecting the lunar month with the solar year, the framers of the ecclesiastical calendar adopted the period of Meton, or lunar cycle, which they supposed to be exact.

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  • The lunations are supposed to consist of twenty-nine and thirty days alternately, or the lunar year of 354 days; and in order to make up nineteen solar years, six embolismic or intercalary months, of thirty days each, are introduced in the course of the cycle, and one of twenty-nine days is added at the end.

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  • The reason is that the sum of the solar and lunar inequalities, which are compensated in the whole period, may amount in certain cases to io, and thereby cause the new moon to arrive on the second day before or after its mean time.

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  • Besides the solar and lunar cycles, there is a third of 15 years, called the cycle of indiction, frequently employed in the computations of chronologists.

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  • We have already seen that the year 1 of the era had Io for its number in the solar cycle, 2 in the lunar cycle, and 4 in the cycle of indiction; the question is therefore to find a number such, that Iv.

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  • The Ancient Church Calendar Was Founded On Two Suppositions, Both Erroneous, Namely, That The Year Contains 3654 Days, And That 235 Lunations Are Exactly Equal To Nineteen Solar Years.

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  • 4711,...4714 X; The Common Solar Year Containing 365 Days, And The Lunar Year Only 354 Days, The Difference Is Eleven; Whence, If A New Moon Fall On The 1St Of January In Any Year, The Moon Will Be Eleven Days Old On The First Day Of The Following Year, And Twentytwo Days On The First Of The Third Year.

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  • This Method Of Forming The Epacts Might Have Been Continued Indefinitely If The Julian Intercalation Had Been Followed Without Correction, And The Cycle Been Perfectly Exact; But As Neither Of These Suppositions Is True, Two Equations Or Corrections Must Be Applied, One Depending On The Error Of The Julian Year, Which Is Called The Solar Equation; The Other On The Error Of The Lunar Cycle, Which Is Called The Lunar Equation.

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  • The Solar Equation Occurs Three Times In 400 Years, Namely, In Every Secular Year Which Is Not A Leap Year; For In This Case The Omission Of The Intercalary Day Causes The New Moons To Arrive One Day Later In All The Following Months, So That The Moon'S Age At The End Of The Month Is One Day Less Than It Would Have Been If The Intercalation Had Been Made, And The Epacts Must Accordingly Be All Diminished By Unity.

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  • The Years In Which The Solar Equation Occurs, Counting From The Reformation, Are 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300, 2500, &C. Those In Which The Lunar Equation Occurs Are 1800, 2100, 2400, 2700, 3000, 3300, 3600, 3900, After Which, 4300, 4600 And So On.

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  • In Consequence Of The Solar And Lunar Equations, It Is Evident That The Epact Or Moon'S Age At The Beginning Of The Year, Must, In The Course Of Centuries, Have All Different Values From One To Thirty Inclusive, Corresponding To The Days In A Full Lunar Month.

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  • In That Year The Omission Of The Intercalary Day Rendered It Necessary To Diminish The Epacts By Unity, Or To Pass To The Line C. In 1800 The Solar Equation Again Occurred, In Consequence Of Which It Was Necessary To Descend One Line To Have The Epacts Diminished By Unity; But In This Year The Lunar Equation Also Occurred, The Anticipation Of The New Moons Having Amounted To A Day; The New Moons Accordingly Happened A Day Earlier, Which Rendered It Necessary To Take The Epacts In The Next Higher Line.

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  • The Line Of Epacts Belonging To The Present Century Is Therefore C. In 1900 The Solar Equation Occurs, After Which The Line Is B.

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  • When The Solar Equation Occurs Alone, The Line Of Epacts Is Changed To The Next Lower In The Table; When The Lunar Equation Occurs Alone, The Line Is Changed To The Next Higher; When Both Equations Occur Together, No Change Takes Place.

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  • In Order To Investigate A Formula For The Epact, Let Us Make E=The True Epact Of The Given Year; J =The Julian Epact, That Is To Say, The Number The Epact Would Have Been If The Julian Year Had Been Still In Use And The Lunar Cycle Had Been Exact;, S =The Correction Depending On The Solar Year; M =The Correction Depending On The Lunar Cycle; Then The Equation Of The Epact Will Be E=J S M; So That E Will Be Known When The Numbers J, S, And M Are Determined.

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  • For The Following Years, Then, The Golden Numbers And Epacts Are As Follows: 1583, N= 7, J=26 Ii 30= 7; 1584, N= 8, J= 7 11 =18; 1585, N= 9, J = 18 Ii =29; 1586, N = To, J = 29 I I 30 10; And, Therefore, In General J = J (N Io(N I)) 30 R On Account Of The Solar Equation S, The Epact J Must Be Diminished By Unity Every Centesimal Year, Excepting Always The Fourth.

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  • In Those Years In Which The Line Of Epacts Is Changed In The Gregorian Calendar, The Golden Numbers Are Removed To Different Days, And Of Course A New Table Is Required Whenever The Solar Or Lunar Equation Occurs.

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  • The Year Is Luni Solar, And, According As It Is Ordinary Or Embolismic, Consists Of Twelve Or Thirteen Lunar Months, Each Of Which Has 29 Or 30 Days.

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  • The Mean Solar Year Is Also Assumed To Be 365 Days 5 Hours 55 Min.

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  • Such difference may also in part be accounted for by the fact that the assumed duration of the solar year is 6 min.

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  • Mean Solar Year 365.2422 The Year 1 Began 16 July 622, Old Style, Or 19 July 622, According To The New Or Gregorian Style.

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  • Now The Day Of The Year Answering To The 19Th Of July Is 200, Which, In Parts Of The Solar Year, Is O 5476, And The Number Of Years Elapsed = I.

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  • For the computation of the Christian date, the ratio of a mean year of the Hegira to a solar year is Year of Hegira 354s =0.970224.

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  • Appended to the London edition of the solar and lunar tables are two short tracts - the one on determining longitude by lunar distances, together with a description of the repeating circle (invented by Mayer in 1752), the other on a formula for atmospheric refraction, which applies a remarkably accurate correction for temperature.

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  • NINIB, the ideographic designation of a solar deity of Babylonia.

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  • 23 that he has absorbed in his person various minor solar deities, representing different phases of the sun, just as subsequently Shamash absorbed the attributes of practically all the minor sun-deities.

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  • At the same time, the possibility of a confusion between Ninib and Nergal must be admitted, and perhaps we are to see the solution of the problem in the recognition of two diverse schools of theological speculation, the one assigning to Ninib the role of the spring-tide solar deity, the other identifying him with the sun of the summer solstice.

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  • The Copernican theory of the solar system - that the earth revolved annually about the sun - had received confirmation by the observations of Galileo and Tycho Brahe, and the mathematical investigations of Kepler and Newton.

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  • The Five-foot Spectroheliograph of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory (camera lens, camera slit and plate carrier in section).

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  • The lens may then be also dispensed with, and the whole collimator becomes unnecessary if the luminous source is narrow and at a great distance, as for instance in the case of the crescent of the sun near the second and third contact of a total solar eclipse.

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  • The most convenient unit is that adopted by the International Union of Solar Research and is called an Angstrom (A); and is equal to i 08 cms. A.

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  • The most complete hydrogen spectrum is that measured by Evershed 8 in the flash spectrum observed during a total solar eclipse, and contains thirty-one lines, all of which agree with considerable accuracy with the formula, if the frequency number n is calculated correctly by reducing the wave-length to vacuo.9 It is a characteristic of Balmer's formula that the frequency approaches a definite limit as s is increased, and it was soon discovered that in several other spectra besides hydrogen, series of lines could be found, which gradually come nearer and nearer to each other as they become fainter, and approach a definite limit.

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  • These bands appear in the solar spectrum as we observe it, but are due to absorption by the oxygen contained in the atmosphere.

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  • The time recorded by the mean sun is termed mean-solar or clock time; it is regular as distinct from the non-uniform solar or sun-dial time.

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  • He not only agrees with Laplace and Lyell about the evolution of the solar system, but also supposes that the affinities, pointed out by Lothar Meyer and Mendeleeff, between groups of chemical elements prove an evolution of these elements from a primitive matter (prothyl) consisting of homogeneous atoms. These, however, are not ultimate enough for him; he thinks that everything, ponderable and imponderable or ether, is evolved from a primitive substance, which condenses first into centres of condensation (pyknatoms), and then into masses, which when they exceed the mean consistency become ponderables, and when they fall below it become imponderables.

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  • He supposes that evolution is primarily integration, from the incoherent to the coherent, exemplified in the solar nebula evolving into the solar system; secondly differentiation, from the more homogeneous to the more heterogeneous, exemplified by the solar system evolving into different bodies; thirdly determination, from the indefinite to the definite, exemplified by the solar system with different bodies evolving into an order.

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  • Copernicus (1473-1543) employed the same system, and greatly simplified the application of it, especially by regarding the earth as rotating and the sun as the centre of the solar system.

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  • Finally, he made substantial progress with more exact calculations of the motions of the solar system, especially for the case of the moon.

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  • The verification is sufficiently exact to establish the law of gravitation, as providing a statement of the motions of the bodies composing the solar system which is correct to a high degree of accuracy.

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  • For the study of the relative motions of the solar system, a provisional base established for that system by itself, bodies outside it being disregarded,' is a very good one.

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  • The phenomenon of a solar (or lunar) halo as seen from the earth is represented in fig.

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  • The anthelion (a) may be explained as caused by two internal reflections of the solar rays by a hexagonal lamellar crystal, having its axis horizontal and one of the diagonals of its base vertical.

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  • He made the lunar month consist of 291 days, the lunar year of 354, and the solar year of 365; days.

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  • The second part of the statement of Herodotus - the reality of the prediction by Thales - has been frequently called in question, chiefly on the ground that, in order to predict a solar eclipse with any chance of success, one should have the command of certain astronomical facts which were not known until the 3rd century, B.C., and then merely approximately, and only employed with that object in the following century by Hipparchus.

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  • foretold that there would be a solar eclipse in that year, as stated by Herodotus.

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  • As to the astronomical knowledge of Thales we have the following notices: - (1) besides the prediction of the solar eclipse, Eudemus attributes to him the discovery that the circuit of the sun between the solstices is not always uniform; 6 (2) he called the last day of the month the thirtieth (Diog.

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  • Mannhardt and others regard Odysseus as a solar or summer divinity, who withdraws to the underworld during the winter, and returns in spring to free his wife from the suitors (the powers of winter).

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  • Increased direct effect of solar radiation compensates for the cold of the nights, and in the few spots where plants have been found in flower up to a height of 12,000 ft., nothing has indicated that the processes of vegetation were arrested by the severe cold which they must sometimes endure.

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  • Here, intense solar radiation by day, which raises the surface when dry to a temperature approaching 80° F., alternates with severe frost by night.

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  • Suppose a fixed image of the sun to be formed on the collimator slit of this spectroscope, and a photographic plate, with its plane parallel to the plane of the solar image, to be mounted almost in contact with the camera slit.

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  • The calcium clouds or ilocculi thus recorded are invisible to the eye, and are not shown on direct solar photographs taken in the ordinary way.

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  • This instrument, used since 1903 in conjunction with the Snow (horizontal) telescope of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, was constructed in the observatory instrument shop in Pasadena.

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  • This slit is long enough (82 in.) to extend entirely across the solar image and across such prominences of ordinary height as may happen to lie at the extremities of a vertical diameter.

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  • collimator objective (e), which is constructed in the manner of a portrait lens in order to give a sharp field of sufficient diameter to include the entire solar image.

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  • Since the diameter of the solar image is 6.7 in.

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  • This forms an image of the solar spectrum in its focal plane on the camera slit (1).

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  • The screw moves the spectroheliograph at a perfectly uniform rate across the fixed solar image.

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  • The spectroheliograph, originally designed for photographing the solar prominences, disclosed in its first application at the Kenwood Observatory (Chicago, 1892) a new and unexplored region of the sun's atmosphere.

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  • Photographs of the solar disk, taken with the H or K line, show extensive luminous clouds (flocculi) of calcium vapour, vastly greater in area than the sun-spots.

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  • Cuttings of deciduous trees and shrubs succeed best if planted early in autumn while the soil still retains the solar heat absorbed during summer.

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  • Plants in glass houses require for their fullest development more solar light probably than even our best hot-houses transmit - certainly much more than is transmitted through the roofs of houses as generally constructed.

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  • the closing of ventilators (accompanied by syringing and damping of surfaces to produce a humid atmosphere) has for its object the conservation of as much solar heat as practicable.

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  • Plant deciduous; trees and shrubs so long as the weather continues favourable, ands before the soil has parted with the solar heat absorbed during summer..

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  • Pursuing the investigations of Laplace, he demonstrated with greater rigour the stability of the solar system, and calculated the limits within which the eccentricities and inclinations of the planetary orbits vary.

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  • His planetary and solar tables were adopted by the Nautical Almanac, as well as by the Connaissance des temps.

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  • Strabo states that he discovered that the solar year is longer than 365 days by 6 hours; Vitruvius that he invented a sun-dial.

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  • So little was the scientific conception of the solar system familiar to Epicurus that he could reproach the astronomers, because their account of an eclipse represented things otherwise than as they appear to the senses, and could declare that the sun and stars were just as large as they seemed to us.

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  • There are but few of the greater deities who were not at some time or another identified with the solar god Re.

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  • He was often given the solar attributes, and was credited as a great warrior.

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  • The most conspicuous feature was a huge obelisk on a broad superstructure 11: the obelisk always remained closely connected with the solar worship, and probably took the place of the innermost shrine and statue of other temples.

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  • Outside its walls there was a huge brick model of the solar bark in which the god daily traversed the heavens.

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  • In Egypt the agricultural seasons depend more immediately on the Nile than on the solar movements; the first clay of the first month of inundation, i.e.

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  • Whether any earlier attempt was made to adjust the civil to the solar or Sothic year in order to restore the festivals to their proper places in the seasons temporarily or otherwise, is a question of great importance for chronology, but at present it remains unanswered.

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  • The longitude of the solar perigee is now 101°, that of the earth's perihelion 281°.

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  • Most of the mechanical contrivances which made Tycho Brahe's instruments so superior to those of his contemporaries were adopted at Cassel about 1584, and from that time the observations made there seem to have been about as accurate as Tycho's; but the resulting longitudes were 6' too great in consequence of the adopted solar parallax of 3'.

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  • The temperature of solar radiation was in 1906: highest in the sun 153.8°, recorded in March; the lowest 143.4°, recorded in June.

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  • The decisive battle, in the sixth year, was interrupted by the famous solar eclipse on the 28th of May 585 predicted by Thales.

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  • HARISCHANDRA, in Hindu mythology, the 28th king of the Solar race.

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  • Originally like Marduk a solar deity with the winged disk - the disk always typifying the sun 8 - as his symbol, he becomes as Assyria develops into a military power a god of war, indicated by the attachment of the figure of a man with a bow to the winged disk.

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  • It is said to have covered an area of 96 m., and was the capital of the kingdom of Kosala, the court of the great king Dasaratha, the fifty-sixth monarch of the Solar line in descent from Raja Manu.

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  • Dasaratha was the father of Rama Chandra, the hero of the epic. A period of Buddhist supremacy followed the death of the last king of the Solar dynasty.

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  • The first treats of space, time, matter, movement; and in the solar system we have the representation of the idea in its general and abstract material form.

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  • By adjusting the right ascension of the plane ABC and rotating the axis with the angular velocity of the sun, it follows that BC will be the direction of the solar rays throughout the day.

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  • An application of these results to solar physics in conjunction with Sir Norman Lockyer led to the view that at least the external layers of the sun cannot consist of matter in the liquid or solid forms, but must be composed of gases or vapours.

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  • In 1868 they noticed in the solar spectrum a bright yellow line which did not correspond to any substance then known, and which they therefore attributed to the then hypothetical element, helium.

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  • Days are distinguished as solar, sidereal or lunar, according as the revolution is taken relatively to the sun, the stars or the moon.

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  • The solar day is the fundamental unit of time, not only in daily life but in astronomical practice.

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  • Having reached so far as to perceive that the central force of the solar system must decrease inversely as the square of the distance, and applied vainly to Wren and Hooke for further elucidation, he made in August 1684 that journey to Cambridge for the purpose of consulting Newton, which resulted in the publication of the Principia.

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  • 348) of a method extensively used in the 18th and 19th centuries for determining the solar parallax by means of the transits of Venus.

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  • The two monsoon periods are divided by the change of temperature, due to solar action' upon the earth's surface, into two separate seasons; and thus the Indian year may be divided into four seasons: the cold season, including the months of January and February; the hot season, comprising the months of March, April and May; the south-west monsoon period, including the months of June, July, August, September and October; and the retreating monsoon period, including the months of November and December.

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  • Broadly speaking the salt consumed in India is derived from four sources: (1) importation by sea, chiefly from England and the Red Sea and Aden; (2) solar evaporation in shallow tanks along the seaboard; (3) the salt lakes in Rajputana; (4) quarrying in the salt hills of the northern Punjab.

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  • It has long been known that the spectra of white or solar light yielded by ordinary crown and flint glasses are different: that while two prisms of such glasses may be arranged to give.

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  • Hale, for the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory.

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  • In a much larger /!w/ - Shutter '60' inch Reflecting Telescope Dome and Building, Solar Observatory Mount Wilson,Calif.

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  • But if it be possible to mount a fixed telescope by which a solar or stellar image can be formed within a laboratory we give the following advantages: - (1) There is no mechanical limit to the length of the telescope; (2) the clockwork and other appliances to move the mirror, which reflects the starlight along the axis, are much lighter and smaller than those required to move a large telescope; (3) the observer remains in a fixed position, and spectroscopes of any weight can be used on piers within the laboratory; and (4) the angular value of any linear distance on a photographic plate can be determined by direct measurement of the distance of the photographic plate from the optical centre of the object-glass.

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  • It remained at the Paris Observatory, where it was subsequently employed by Deslandres for solar photography.

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  • Besides the chief deities and their consorts, various minor ones, representing likewise patron gods of less important localities and in most cases of a solar character were added at one time or the other to the court of Marduk, though there is also to be noted a tendency on the part of the chief solar deity, Shamash of Sippara, and for the chief moon-god to absorb the solar and lunar deities of ]ess important sites, leading in the case of the solar gods to the differentiation of the functions of Shamash during the various seasons of the year and the various times of the day among these minor deities.

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  • Moreover, the solar period (II years) is far outside the limits of the periods of 1 Variable stars (except those sufficiently bright to have received special names) are denoted by the capital letters R to Z followed by the name of the constellation.

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  • When this distance is compared with those prevailing in the solar system, it seems an extraordinarily small separation between two such large bodies; we shall, however, presently come across systems in which the two components revolve almost or actually in contact.

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  • includes the " Solar " stars, as Capella, Arcturus, Procyon, Aldebaran, their spectra are similar to that of the sun, being crossed by very numerous fine lines, mostly due to vapours of metals.

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  • is now subdivided into " Procyon," " Solar " and " Arcturian " stars.

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  • (carbon) stars are placed last in the series by all authorities; they seem, however, to follow more directly the solar stars than the Antarian.

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  • If the latter are considered to be in an early state this presents no difficulty; but if both Antarian and carbon stars are held to be evolved from solar stars, we may consider them to be, not successive, but parallel stages of development, the chemical constitution of the star deciding whether it shall pass into the third or fourth type.

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  • One of the problems, which has engaged a large share of the attention of astronomers in the last century, has been the determination of the direction of this " solar motion."

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  • The first attempt to determine the solar apex (as the point towards which the solar motion is directed is termed) was made in 1783 by Sir William Herschel.

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  • The systematic tendency of the proper motions is so marked that the motions of a very few stars are quite sufficient to fix roughly the position of the solar apex; but attempts to fix its position to within a few degrees have failed, notwithstanding the many thousands of determined proper motions now available.

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  • There is a close interdependence between the constant of procession and Lhe solar motion; the two determinations must generally be made simultaneously, and both depend very considerably on the systematic corrections required by the catalogues compared.

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  • But further, if these practical difficulties could be considered overcome in the best determinations, there is a vagueness in the very definition of the solar motion.

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  • There is no a priori reason to expect the same result from the different classes of stars, such as the brighter or fainter, northern or southern, nearer or more distant, Solar type or Sirian stars.

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  • There is for example some evidence that the declination of the solar apex is really increased when the motion is referred to fainter stars.

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  • Most of the above investigators, besides giving a general result, have determined the apex separately for bright and faint stars, for stars of greater or less proper motion, and in some cases for stars of Sirian and Solar spectra.

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  • The part of the star's apparent Speed displacement, which is due to the solar motion, is gener the Solar ally called the parallactic motion; the rest of its motion.

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  • Regarded as a linear velocity, the parallactic motion is the same for all stars, being exactly equal and opposite to the solar motion; but its amount, as measured by the corresponding angular displacement of the star, is inversely proportional to the distance of the star from the earth, and foreshortening causes it to vary as the sine of the angular distance from the apex.

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  • To arrive at some estimate of the speed of the solar motion, we may consider the motions of those stars whose parallaxes have been measured, and whose actual linear speed is accordingly known (disregarding motion in the line of sight).

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  • If a sufficient number of stars are considered, their peculiar motions will mutually cancel and the parallactic or solar motion can then be derived.

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  • The speed is very nearly four radii of the earth's orbit per year; thus the annual parallactic motion is equal to four times the parallax, for a star lying in a direction 90° from the solar apex; for stars nearer the apex or antapex it is foreshortened.

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  • In researches on the solar motion the assumption is almost always made that the motions of the stars relatively to one another - the peculiar motions - are at random.

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  • The stars have on this theory random peculiar motions in addition to the motion of the drift to which they belong, just as on the older theory the stars have peculiar motions in addition to the solar or parallactic motion shared by all of them.

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  • The older one - which may be called the " one-drift " hypothesis, since according to it the stars appear to form a single drift moving away from the solar apex - requires that the apparent directions of motion should be so distributed that fewest stars are moving directly towards the solar apex, and most stars along the great circle away from the solar apex, the number decreasing symmetrically, for directions inclined on either side of this great circle, according to a law which can be calculated.

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  • The deviation is unmistakable; in general the direction from the solar apex is not the one in which most stars are moving; and, what is even more striking, the directions, in which most and fewest stars respectively move, are not by any means opposite to one another.

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  • These two points may be called the apices of the two drifts, for they are analogues of the solar apex on the one-drift theory; they are about 110° apart.

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  • This is of course that relative motion of the sun and stars which we have previously called the solar motion.

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  • The position of the solar apex calculated in this way agrees satisfactorily with that found by the usual methods.

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  • In this connexion it may be noticed that, when the smaller and larger proper motions are discussed separately, the latter category will include an unduly great proportion of stars belonging to the fast-moving drift, and the resulting determination will lead to a solar apex too near the apex of that drift, i.e.

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  • This appears to be the explanation of Stumpe's and Porter's results; they both divided their proper motions into groups according to their numerical amount, and found that the declination of the solar apex progressively increased as the size of the motions used diminished.

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  • Now the position of this line, as found by Kobold, actually is a (properly weighted) mean between the corresponding lines of symmetry of the two drifts, but naturally it lies in the acute angle between them, whereas the line of the solar motion is also a weighted mean between the two lines of drift, but lies in the obtuse angle between them.

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  • (solar) stars show no tendency to congregate in the galactic plane.

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  • The comparative nearness of the stars of the solar type, which we have had occasion to allude to, is confirmed by the fact that their proper motions are on the average much larger than those of the Sirian stars.

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  • Kapteyn finds that magnitude for magnitude, the absolute brightness of the solar stars is only one-fifth of that of the Sirian stars, so that in the mean they must be at less than half the distance.

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  • As the numbers of known stars of the two types are nearly equal, it is clear that, at all events in our immediate neighbourhood, the solar stars must greatly outnumber the Sirian.

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  • Schuster, " The Evolution of Solar Stars," Astrophysical Journ.

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  • For example, the inference from the similarity between solar spectra and the spectra of various gases on the earth to the existence of similar gases in the sun, is called by him an induction; but it really is an analytical deduction from effect to cause, thus: Such and such spectra are effects of various gases.

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  • Solar spectra are such spectra.

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  • Solar spectra are effects of those gases.

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  • Devoted to astronomy from his earliest years, he eagerly observed the heavens at a garret window with a telescope made by himself, and at nineteen began his career with the publication of a short work on the solar eclipse of the 5th of August 1766.

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  • In one of his numerous incidental essays he propounded, in 1776, a theory of the solar constitution similar to that developed in 1795 by Sir William Herschel.

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  • (See Solar System.) See J.

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  • But his name is chiefly perpetuated through his investigation of the motions of sun-spots, by which he determined the elements of the sun's rotation and made the important discovery of a systematic drift of the photosphere, causing the rotation-periods of spots to lengthen with increase of solar latitude.

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  • relation to the stars; in the planetary theory the origin is trans - ferred to the sun, and afterwards to the mass-centre of thf solar system; and so on.

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  • system a subdivision of the latter, viz, the gramme, is adopted, and is associated with the centimetre as the unit of length, and the mean solar second as the unit of time.

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  • Both these divine figures have grown out of Vedic conceptions - the genial Vishnu mainly out of a not very prominent solar deity of the same name; whilst the stern Siva, i.e.

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  • Whether the incarnation theory started from the original solar nature of the god suggestive of regular visits to the world of men, or in what other way it may have originated, must remain doubtful.

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  • Among these are papers on The Recurrence of Solar Eclipses, A Transformation of Hansen's Lunar Theory, Development of the Perturbative Function and its Derivatives.

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  • Fraunhofer, who defined the colours by means of the dark lines in the solar spectrum; and showed that the ratio of the dispersion of two glasses varied about 20% from the red to the violet (the variation for glass and water is about 50%).

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  • huso); sheat-fish or silure, simm, summ (Silurus glanis); salmon, azad mahi (Salmo solar); trout, maseh (Salmo trutta); carp, kupur (Cyprinus ballerus and C. car pio); bream, subulu (Abramis brama); pike-perch, mahi safid(Perca lucsoperca or Lucioperca sandra).

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  • The energy liberated during the oxidation of the nitrogen is regarded as splitting the carbon dioxide molecule, - in green plants it is the energy of the solar rays which does this.

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  • Considerable advances in our knowledge of the various chromogenic bacteria have been made by the studies of Beyerinck, Lankester, Engelmann, Ewart and others, and have assumed exceptional importance owing to the discovery that Bacteriopurpurin - the red colouring matter contained in certain sulphur bacteria - absorbs certain rays of solar energy, and enables the organism to utilize the energy for its own life-purposes.

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  • cyanogenus gives a band in the yellow and strong lines at E and F in the solar spectrum - an absorption spectrum almost identical with that of triphenyl-rosaniline.

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  • The observations Bacteria g 5' of Downes and Blunt in 1877 left it uncertain whether the bactericidal effects in broth cultures exposed to solar rays were due to thermal action or not.

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  • The practical effect of the bactericidal action of solar light is the destruction of enormous quantities of germs in rivers, the atmosphere and other exposed situations, and experiments have shown that it is especially the pathogenic bacteria - anthrax, typhoid, &c. - which thus succumb to lightaction; the discovery that the electric arc is very rich in bactericidal rays led to the hope that it could be used for disinfecting purposes in hospitals, but mechanical difficulties intervene.

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  • In 1845 he showed, by means of a thermo-galvanometer, that the solar spots radiate less heat than the general solar surface (Proc. Am.

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  • A rain-band is "a dark band in the solar spectrum, caused by the presence of water-vapour in the atmosphere" (New Engl.

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  • baptist, who was the forerunner of our Lord Jesus in accordance with the law of parity; 2 and as the Lord had twelve Apostles, bearing the number of the twelve solar months, so had he thirty leading men, making up the monthly tale of the moon.

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  • proceeding according to the ascending powers of the time as follows we put T, the time from 1900, reckoned in solar centuries as a unit.

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  • According to Hittorf he was the first who saw the three lines of the hydrogen spectrum, which a few months after his death were recognized in the spectrum of the solar protuberances, and thus solved one of the mysteries of modern astronomy.

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  • Salt is obtained by solar evaporation chiefly of the waters of Great Salt Lake and other brine found in that vicinity; at Nephi City, Juab county; near Gunnison, Sanpete county; in Sevier and Millard counties, and at Withee Junction in Weber county.

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  • A common type of mirage is the appearance of an isolated lake frequently seen in hot sandy deserts, as in the Sahara, Turkestan, &c. The explanation is as follows: The sand, being abnormally heated by the solar rays, causes the neighbouring air to expand, consequently its density, and therefore its refractive index, is diminished, and attains a minimum value in the lowest layers.

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  • It was at Ascension that Mr, afterwards Sir, David Gill determined, in 1877, the solar parallax.

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  • The results of his labours may be found in the elaborate Photographic Map of the Normal Solar Spectrum (1888) and the Table of Solar Wave-Lengths (1898).

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  • In 1904 he became director of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory (Cal.) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

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  • He invented the spectroheliograph first used in 1892 for photographing solar prominences and won an international reputation for his solar and stellar spectroscopic work.

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  • Enlarged Photographs Of The Solar Surface.

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  • The name has no reference to the appearance of the body to the eye; when emitting energy, its radiations will he of all wave-lengths, and if intense enough will appeal to the eye as luminous between about wave-lengths 7600 and 4000 tenth-metres; this intensity is a question of temperature, and as it is exquisitely inappropriate to speak of the bulk of the solar radiations as black, the writer will speak instead of amorphous radiations from an ideal radiator.

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  • The first adequate determination of the character as well as amount of solar radiation was made by S.

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  • The integrated emission of energy is given by the area of the outer smoothed curve (4), and the conclusion from this one holograph is that the " solar constant " is 2.54 calories.

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  • The results vary between 1.89 and 2.22, and the variation appears to be solar, not terrestrial.

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  • If we assume that the bolograph of solar energy is simply a graph of amorphous radiation from an ideal radiator, so that the con- Temperature stants cl, c 2, of Planck's formula determined terrestrially apply to it, the hyperbola of maximum intensity is XO = 2, 921 X 10 7; and as the sun's maximum intensity occurs for about X =4900, we find the absolute temperature to be 5960° abs.

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  • It is clear that at least a considerable part of the solar radiations comes from a more or less diffuse atmosphere.

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  • xvi.) that, if for the sake of argument the solar atmosphere be taken as homogeneous in temperature and quality, forming a sheet which itself radiates as well as absorbs, the radiation which an unshielded ideal radiator at 6000° would give is represented well, both in sum and in the distribution of intensity with respect to wave-length, by another ideal radiator - now the actual body of ///4, *...

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  • An equivalent statement of the same conclusion may be put thus: supposing a gaseous nebula is destined to condense into a sun, the elementary matter of which it is composed will develop in the process into our known terrestrial and solar elements, parting with energy as it does so.

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  • Newall has verified the presence of cyanogen in the photosphere, and it had previously served to disprove the solar origin of certain oxygen lines.

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  • The absence of lines of the spectrum of any element from the solar spectrum is no proof that the element is absent from the sun; apart from the possibility that the high temperature and other circumstances may show it transformed into some unknown mode, which is perhaps the explanation of the absence of nitrogen, chlorine and other non-metals; if the element is of high atomic weight we should expect it to be found only in the lowest strata of the sun's atmosphere, where its temperature was nearly equal to that of the central globe, and so any absorption line which it showed would be weak.

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  • Two other causes of displacement call for mention in their bearing on the solar spectrum - pressure and anomalous dispersion.

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  • ffi Dueld show several suggestive peculiarities, though their bearing on solar phenomena is not yet determined.

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  • In calcium, for instance, the g line shows in the laboratory much stronger anomalous dispersion than H and K; but in the solar spectrum H and K are broad out of all comparison to g.

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  • The first really adequate determinations of solar parallax were those of Sir David Gill, measured by inference from the apparent diurnal shift of Mars among the stars as the earth turned diurnally upon its axis; the observations were made at the island of Ascension in 1878.

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  • Rotation period; latitude o° :24.46d 300:26.43d 60°:29.634 80°:30.56d Solar constant, or units of energy received per minute per square centimetre at earth's mean distance: 2 I calories.

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  • The most important series is the Astrophysical Journal, which is indispensable, and in itself almost sufficient; among other matter it contains all the publications of Mount Wilson Solar Observatory (Professor G.

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  • P. Langley's Researches on Solar Heat are published by the War Department (Signal Service, xv.) (Washington, 1884), and Gill's parallax researches in Cape Annals, vols.

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  • Series), and an excellent summary of solar spectroscopy, as far as rapid progress permits, is in Frost's translation of Scheiner, Astronomical Spectroscopy (1894).

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  • In the solar explanation, the serpent is the darkness driven away by the rays of the sun.

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  • But the fact of the gradual development of Apollo as a god of light and heaven, and his identification with foreign sun-gods, is no proof of an original Greek solar conception of him.

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  • For the manner in which the solar theory is developed, reference must, be made to Roscher's article, but one legend may here be mentioned, since it helps to trace the spread of the cult of the god.

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  • He observed the total solar eclipse of the 18th of July 1860, at Torreblanca in Spain, and in the same year began experiments in stellar spectroscopy.

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  • Its mathematical prediction was not only an unsurpassed intellectual feat; it showed also that Newton's law of gravitation, which Airy had almost called in question, prevailed even to the utmost bounds of the solar system.

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  • Using a powerful and elaborate analysis, Adams ascertained that this cluster of meteors, which belongs to the solar system, traverses an elongated ellipse in 334 years, and is subject to definite perturbations from the larger planets, Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus.

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  • His original character was that of a solar deity, and he personifies more specifically the sun of the spring-time who conquers the storms of the winter season.

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  • So far as one can speak of a monotheistic tendency in Babylonia it connects itself with this conception that was gradually crystallized in regard to the old solar deity of Babylon.

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  • There is every reason to assume, therefore, that the cult of Marduk existed already at this early period, though it must always be borne in mind that, until the days of Khammurabi, his jurisdiction was limited to the city of which he was the patron and that he was viewed solely as a solar deity.

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  • Ideographically he is represented by two signs signifying "child of the day" (or "of the sun") which is a distinct allusion to his original solar character.

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  • the shining or brilliant one - again an allusion to Marduk's solar traits - and this name was playfully twisted by the Babylonian priests to mean "the seed-producing" (as though compounded of zer, seed, and banit, producing, which was regarded as an appropriate appellation for the female counterpart of the creator of mankind and of life in general.

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  • Sacrobosco's De sphaera, he read all the books on the subject that he could buy or borrow; observed a partial solar eclipse on the 12th of September 1662; and attempted the construction of measuring instruments.

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  • In the relation of the universe to us there is yet another separation of its bodies into two classes, one comprising the solar system, the other the remainder of the universe.

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  • Considered as a part of the universe, our solar system is insignificant in extent, though, for obvious reasons, great in practical importance to us, and in the facility with which we may gain knowledge relating to it.

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  • Referring to special articles, Solar System, Star, Sun, MooN, &c. for a description of the various parts of the universe, we confine ourselves, at present, to setting forth a few of the most general modern conceptions of the universe.

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  • A general idea of the relation of the solar system to the universe may be gained by reflecting that the average distance between any two neighbouring stars is several thousand times the extent of the solar system.

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  • The year, which comprises 365.25 solar days, contains 366.25 sidereal days.

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  • The latter are divided into sidereal hours, minutes and seconds as the solar day is.

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  • The sun apparently moves at the rate of 15° in a solar hour; the stars at the rate of 15° in a sidereal hour.

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  • Speaking in a general way, we may say that computations pertaining to the orbital revolutions of double stars, as well as the bodies of our solar system, are to a greater or less extent of the classes we have described.

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  • The special conditions which obtain in the solar system are such as to make the necessary approximation theoretically possible however complex the process may be.

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  • They were, on the other hand, probably acquainted, a couple of millenniums before Meton gave it his name, with the nineteen-year cycle, by which solar and lunar years were harmonized; 1 they immemorially made observations in the meridian; regulated time by water-clocks, and used measuring instruments of the nature of armillary spheres and quadrants.

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  • In the Ephemerides published year by year, the times of new moon were given, together with the calculated intervals to the first visibility of the crescent, from which the beginning of each month was reckoned; the dates and circumstances of solar and lunar eclipses were predicted; and due information was supplied as to the forthcoming heliacal risings and settings, conjunctions and oppositions of the planets.

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  • He compiled the Hakimite Tables of the planets, and observed at Cairo, in 977 and 978, two solar eclipses which, as being the first recorded with scientific accuracy, 4 were made available in fixing the amount of lunar acceleration.

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  • The outcome of his discoveries was, not only to perfect the geometrical plan of the solar system, but to enhance very materially the predicting power of astronomy.

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  • He supposed their tails to result from the action of solar rays, which, in traversing their mass, bore off with them some of their subtler particles to form trains directed away.

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  • Misled, however, into identifying it with magnetism, he imagined circulation in the solar system to be maintained through the material compulsion of fibrous emanations from the sun, carried round by his axial rotation.

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  • It consisted, first, in the identification, by strict numerical comparisons, of terrestrial gravity with the mutual attraction of the heavenly bodies; secondly, in the following out of its mechanical consequences throughout the solar system.

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  • It was especially adapted to the tracing out of " secular inequalities," or those depending upon changes in the orbital elements of the bodies affected by them, and hence progressing indefinitely with time; and by its means, accordingly, the mechanical stability of the solar system was splendidly demonstrated through the successive efforts of Lagrange and Laplace.

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  • Not less comprehensive has been the work carried out by Professor Newcomb of raising to a higher grade of perfection, and reducing to a uniform standard, all the theories and constants of the solar system.

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  • Those relating to the moon and planets, corrected by Sir George Airy, 1840-1846, form part of the standard materials for discussing theories of movement in the solar system.

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  • They were published by the Board of Longitude, together with his solar tables, in 1770.

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  • Leverrier, in 1858, calculated a value of 8.95" for the solar parallax (equivalent to a distance of 91,000,000 m.) from the " parallactic inequality " of the moon; Professor Newcomb, using other forms of the gravitational method, derived in 1895 a parallax of 8.76".

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  • The rate of light-transmission was accordingly made the subject of an elaborate set of experiments by Professor Newcomb in 1880-1882; and the result, taken in connexion with the aberration-constant as determined at Pulkowa, yielded a solar parallax of 8.79", or a distance (in round numbers) of 93,000,000 m.

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  • This raises to 26 the number of discovered satellites in the solar system.

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  • An argument for the aboriginal connexion of comets with the solar system, founded by R.

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  • Thousands of the dark lines in the solar spectrum agree absolutely in wave-length with the bright rays artificially obtained from known substances, and appertaining to them individually.

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  • Solar physics has profited enormously by the abolition of glare during total eclipses.

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  • And it is by the consideration of this partial accordance in motion that the advance through space of the solar system has been ascertained.

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  • He mapped 324, chose out nine, which he designated by the letters of the alphabet, to be standards of measurement for the rest, and ascertained the coincidence in position between the double yellow ray derived from the flame of burning sodium and the pair of dark lines named by him " D " in the solar spectrum.

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  • The corona was photographed at Konigsberg during the totality of the 28th of July 1851; similar records of the red prominences, successively obtained by Father Angelo Secchi and Warren de la Rue, as the shadowtrack crossed Spain on the 18th of July 1860, finally demonstrated their solar status.

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  • This significant but evanescent phenomenon, which represents the direct emissions of a low-lying solar envelope, was photographed by William Shackleton on the occasion of an eclipse in Novaya Zemlya on the 9th of August 1896; and it has since been abundantly registered by exposures made during the obscurations of 1898, 1900, 1901 and 1905.

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  • A singular and unlooked-for result of eclipse-work has been to include the corona within the scope of solar periodicity.

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  • Yet the general agreement of solar and stellar chemistry does not exclude important diversities of detail.

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  • And in 1895, he set apart, as in the earliest stage of growth, a new class of " helium stars," supposed to develop successively into Sirian, solar, Antarian, or alternatively into carbon stars.

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  • A photograph of the spectrum of Tebbutt's comet, taken by him on the 24th of June 1881, showed radiations of shorter wave-lengths but identical source, and in addition, a percentage of reflected solar light marked as such by the presence of some well-known Fraunhofer lines.

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  • So far as could be determined, 86% of the heat radiated was by the moon itself, and 14% reflected solar heat.

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  • It was therefore surprising when, in 1877, Simon Newcomb found, by a study of the lunar eclipses handed down by Ptolemy and those observed by the Arabians - data much more reliable than the vague accounts of ancient solar eclipses - that the actual apparent acceleration was only about 8.3".

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  • Bradley, was the first to represent the effects of nutation in the solar tables, and introduced, in 1741, the use of the transitinstrument at the Paris observatory.

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  • VISHNU (Sanskrit, "the worker," from root vish, "to work"), a solar deity, in later Hindu mythology a god of the first importance, one of the supreme trinity with Brahma and Siva, but in the Rig Veda only a minor deity.

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  • These steps are symbolic of the rising, culminating and setting of the sun, or alternatively the course of the solar deity through the three divisions of the universe.

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  • He published Solar Investigations (New York, 1875) and Contributions to the Centennial Exhibition (New York, 1877).

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  • Among its results were determinations of the lunar and of the solar parallax (Mars serving as an intermediary), the first measurement of a South African arc of the meridian, and the observation of io,000 southern stars.

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  • The anomalistic month is the mean time taken by the moon in passing from one perigee to the next; the sidereal month is the mean time in which the moon makes a circuit among the stars; the tropical month is the mean time in which the moon traverses 360° of longitude; the nodical or draconic month is the mean time taken by the moon in passing from one rising node to the next; the solar month is one-twelfth of a tropical year.

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  • The mean temperature at Bathurst is 77° F., the shade minimum being 56° and the solar maximum 165°.

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  • These human beings are often sacrificed, for various reasons, actual or hypothetical, and gods and heroes are almost as likely to be explained as spirits of vegetation now, as they were likely to become solar mythological figures in the system of Max Muller.

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  • It is certainly true that divine beings in most mythologies are apt to acquire solar with other elemental attributes, including vegetable attributes.

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  • But that the origins of such mythical beings were, ab initio, either solar or vegetable, or, for that matter, animal, it would often be hard to prove.

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  • These tales belong properly to the department of solar myths.

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  • The heretical worship of the solar disk interrupted the course of Egyptian religion under some reforming kings, but the great and glorious Ramesside Dynasty (XIX.) restored " Orus and Isis and the dog Anubis " with the rest of the semitheriomorphic deities.

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  • This may be taken either in a refined sense, as if Aditi were the " infinite " region from which the solar deities rise,' or we may hold with the Taittirya-Brahmana' that Aditi was a female who, being desirous of offspring, cooked a brahmandana offering for the Sadhyas.

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  • Solar and Lunar Myths.

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  • Solar and lunar myths usually account for the observed phenomena of eclipse, waning and waxing, sunset, spots on the moon, and so forth by various mythical adventures of the animated heavenly beings.

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  • See Cornhill Magazine, " How the Stars got their Names " (1882, p. 35), and " Some Solar and Lunar Myths " (1882, P. 440); Max Muller, Selected Essays, i.

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  • Galileo seems, at an early period of his life, to have adopted the Copernican theory of the solar system, and was deterred from avowing his opinions - as is proved by his letter to Kepler of August 4, 1 597 - b y the fear of ridicule rather than of persecution.

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  • Encouraged by the flattering reception accorded to him, he ventured, in his Letters on the Solar Spots, printed at Rome in 1613, to take up a more decided position towards that doctrine on the establishment of which, as he avowed in a letter to Belisario Vinta, secretary to the grand-duke, "all his life and being henceforward depended."

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  • Even in the time of Copernicus some well-meaning persons, especially those of the reformed persuasion, had suspected a discrepancy between the new view of the solar system and certain passages of Scripture - a suspicion strengthened by the antiChristian inferences drawn from it by Giordano Bruno; but the question was never formally debated until Galileo's brilliant disclosures, enhanced by his formidable dialectic and enthusiastic zeal, irresistibly challenged for it the attention of the authorities.

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  • At the same time it was given to be understood that the new theory of the solar system might be held ex hypothesi, and the trivial verbal alterations introduced into the Polish astonomer's book in 1620, when the work of revision was completed by Cardinal Gaetani, confirmed this interpretation.

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  • By these momentous inductions the geometrical theory of the solar system was perfected, and a hitherto unimagined symmetry was perceived to regulate the mutual relations of its members.

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  • A series of careful observations made him acquainted with the principalappearances revealed by modern instruments in the solar spots.

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  • Twice in the year, he observed, they seem to travel across the solar disk in straight lines; at other times, in curves.

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  • But the explanation of this phenomenon is equally consistent with the geocentric as with the heliocentric theory of the solar system.

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  • Suppose that from the centre of gravity of the solar system (instead of which we may, if we choose, take the centre of the sun), lines or radii vectores be drawn to every body of the solar system.

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  • In the case of the solar system the moment of Jupiter is so preponderant that the position of the invariable plane does not deviate much from that of the orbit of Jupiter.

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  • He was awarded the Copley medal by the Royal Society in 1850, and his Solar Tables, compiled with the assistance of Christian Olufsen, appeared in 1854.

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  • Hall also reaches the interesting conclusion that the plane in question seems to lie near the invariable plane of the solar system, a result which might be expected if the light proceeded from a swarm of independent meteoric particles moving around the sun.

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  • 5567), and concluded that in the zodiacal light there was the same material as is found in the aurora and in the solar corona, and probably through all space.

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  • He was unable to see any marked deviation of the spectrum from that of the sun; but it does not appear that either he or any other of the observers distinctly saw the dark lines of the solar spectrum.

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  • It seems not unlikely that the final conclusion will be that instead of the reflecting matter being composed of solid particles it is an exceedingly tenuous gaseous envelope surrounding the sun and revolving on an axis the mean position of which is between that of the sun's equator and that of the invariable plane of the solar system.

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  • An insurrection was planned, and a solar eclipse in February 1831 and peculiar atmospheric conditions on the 13th of August were accepted as the signal for beginning the work.

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  • In this remarkable work Kant, proceeding from the Newtonian conception of the solar system, extends his consideration to the entire sidereal system, points out how the whole may be mechanically regarded, and throws out the important speculation which has since received the title of the nebular hypothesis.

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  • as the regarding of the motion of the entire solar system as portion of the general cosmical mechanism, he had predecessors, among others Thomas Wright of Durham, but the work as a whole contains a wonderfully acute anticipation of much that was afterwards carried out by Herschel and Laplace.

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  • You have the dominant armies in this galaxy, and the other civilizations in your solar system are sick of the war.

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  • The ruler of Tri'trij has vacated his planet and lives on colonies outside the solar system.

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  • Peace will benefit the solar system, and your neighbors will be happy.

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  • They were a soft, sable brown with specs of black that seemed to swirl in motion around her pupils like two tiny solar systems.

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  • Everything this side of the Mississippi is working on solar energy, but not all the facilities are equipped with energy storage, and because it's fall, our energy collection is limited.

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  • Solar generator, a year's supply of food, weapons.

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  • agglomerations of ice and dust that are rubble left over from the making of the Solar System.

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  • aghast at the thought of Solar Arc Directions.

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  • amorphous silicon solar panel.

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  • This rental villa annex has its own sun terrace and private solar heated pool, Costa Blanca.

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  • annular solar eclipse on 25th July, 1748, which could be seen from his home town.

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  • Me currently, I am trying to get my freshwater aquarium switched over to solar power.

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  • The supralateral arc, like the related circumzenithal arc, only forms at solar altitudes below 32° .

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  • And so solar people have to conform to some rules, such as rules for good argumentation.

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  • I think you should check your chart for Mahala's nephew; my Solar Fire program gives an ascendant of about 3 deg.

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  • Objects in our own solar system - including planets and comets - are also revealed in much greater detail by infrared astronomy.

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  • neutrino astronomy; supernova 1987a, solar neutrino problem, neutrino detectors.

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  • We can detect these small motions by looking at the Doppler shift in spectral lines emitted by atoms in the solar surface.

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  • aura of mystery grown up around total solar eclipses?

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  • The reference plane for the solar azimuth is the vertical plane running north-south through the poles.

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  • barquehe middle of the ceiling is the solar bark traversing the sky.

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  • Why has it not produced affordable domestic appliances that use biogas or solar energy?

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  • biogenic compound increasing during the day with increasing temperature and solar flux.

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