Many plants of peaty soils e sclerophylious.
Again, the well-known action of earthworms may be said to be a biological work; but the resulting aeration of the soil causes edaphic differences; and earthworms are absent from certain soils, such as peat.
The best soils are in the west section, where limestone clays or shell marls are common.
Halo phytes, or plants which live in saline soils, have xerophytic adaptations.
Tobacco is most generally cultivated on loose red soils, which are rich in clays and silicates; and sugar-cane preferably on the black and mulatto soils; but in general, contrary to prevalent suppositions, colour is no test of quality and not a very valuable guide in the setting of crops.
Hydro-xerophytes (bog xerophytes) .Plants which live in ~t, peaty soils, and which possess aeration channels and xeroiilous leaves; e.g., Cladium Mariscus, Eriophorum angustifohium, if bus Chamaemorus, and Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea.
From the outer cortical myceliuni, again, branches pass through the epidermis and grow out in the soil, In stich cases the roots of the plants are usuall) found spreading in soils which contain a large amount of humus, or decaying vegetable matter.
The soils of Florida have sand as a common ingredient.'
Common throughout the northern and middle states and Canada, the red oak attains a large size only on good soils; the wood is of little value, being coarse and porous, but it is largely used for cask-staves; the bark is a valuable tanning material.
But it is worthy of special attention that the mere chemical composition of agricultural and garden soils is, as a rule, the least important feature about them, popular opinion to the contrary notwithstanding.
as Chotts; and on the saline soils surrounding the Chotts, a salt marsh formation occurs, with species of Salicornia, some of which are undershrubs.
They do well in light, well-drained soils, and have a close family resemblance, the inflorescence being a panicle of white, drooping, tulip-shaped flowers, and the foliage rosulate, sword-shaped and spear-pointed.
The following list, which is not exhaustive, furnishes material from which a selection may be made to suit various soils and situations.
Transplant herbaceous plants in light soils, if not done in autumn; also deciduous trees, shrubs and hedges.
Sow also Early Horn carrot; Early Purple-top Munich turnip; onions for a full crop in light soils, with a few leeks and some parsley.
- Sow asparagus, sea-kale, Turnip-rooted beet, salsafy, scorzonera, skirret, carrots and onions on heavy soils; also marrow peas, Longpod and Windsor beans, turnips, spinach, celery, RIII.
Transplant all sorts of hardy evergreens and shrubs, especially in dry soils, giving abundance of water.
Flower-beds on light soils may be dug up so as to forward the work of the coming busy spring season.
The well-known failures with rhododendrons, heaths, &c., in ordinary garden soils are also explained by the need of the fungus-infected.
In this more general respect, an arboretum or woodland affords shelter, improves local climate, renovates bad soils, conceals objects unpleasing to the eye, heightens the effect of what is agreeable and graceful, and adds value, artistic and other, to the landscape.
- Diffusivity of Sandy Soils.
Hygrophytes.Plants which are sub-evergreen or evergreen but it scierophyllous, and which live in moist soils; e.g., Lastraea lix-mas, Poa pratensis, Carex ovalis, Plantago lanceolala, and ihillaea Millefolium.
Xerophytes.Plants which grow in very dry soils; e.g., most hens, Ammophila (Psamma) arenaria, Elymus arenarius, Anasis aretioides, Zilla macro ptera, Sedum acre, Bupleurum spinosum, rtemisia herba-alba, Zollikofferia arborescens.
Obviously no more than this is possible until physiologists are able to state much more precisely than at present what is the influence of common salt on the plants of salt-marshes, of the action of calcium carbonate on plants of calcareous soils, and of the action of humous compounds on plants of fens and peat moors.
All soils which are physically dry are also physiologically dry; and hence only the physiological dryness or wetness of soils need be considered in ecology.
Calcicole and Calcifuge Species.Plants which invariably inhabit calcareous soils are sometimes termed calcicoles; calcifuge species are those which are found rarely or never on such soils.
It was introduced into England by Philip Miller about 1 735, and is now common in parks and plantations, where it seems to flourish in nearly all soils.
Again, the temperature of the air is affected by radiation from the soil; and radiation differs in various soils.
Halo phytes.These are plants which grow on saline soils.
It is possible, however, that the absence of sunken stomata, and the occurrence of some other halophytic features, are related merely to the succulent habit and not to halophytism, for succulent species often occur on non-saline soils.
Other plants occur indifferently both on calcareous and on non-calcareous soils.
Sandy soils are made thereby too dry and leachy, and it is a questionable proceeding to turn the heavy clays upon the top. Planters are, as a result, divided in opinion as to the wisdom of subsoiling.
This knowledge is still lacking with regard to most of the cotton soils.
In spite of the clean culture, good crops of cotton have been grown on some soils in the south for more than forty successive years.
The question of deep and shallow culture has been much discussed among planters without any conclusion applicable to all soils being reached.
In this region the sandstone rocks are generally overlaid with heavy black soil formed from the decaying trap, which is principally devoted to the cultivation of the spring crops, wheat and grain, while rice and hill millets are sown in the lighter and more sandy soils.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1
Most of the rocks or soils composing its surface were formed as submarine deposits; the easternmost and southernmost parts are true river deposits.
On drier and higher soils are the persimmon, sassafras, red maple, elm, black haw, hawthorn, various oaks (in all 10 species occur), hickories and splendid forests of longleaf and loblolly yellow pine.
Agriculture and Soils.
Soils are of four classes: calcareous-ferruginous, alluvial, argillous and silicious.
Deep residual clay soils derived from underlying limestones, and coloured red or black according to the predominance of oxides of iron or vegetable detritus, characterize the plains.
It is invariably present in soils, where compounds are formed by nitrifying bacteria.
63 of the Bureau of Soils, U.S. Department of Agriculture (Washington, 1910).
Sometimes the vegetation, shrubs, trees, &c., as characteristic of certain soils, may furnish evidence as to rock or minerals below.
It appears that with soils which are not rich in humus or not deficient in lime, calcium cyanamide is almost as good, nitrogen for nitrogen, as ammonium sulphate or sodium nitrate; but it is of doubtful value with peaty soils or soils containing little lime, nor is it usefully available as a top-dressing or for storing.
It is found in the form of oxide (silica), either anhydrous or hydrated as quartz, flint, sand, chalcedony, tridymite, opal, &c., but occurs chiefly in the form of silicates of aluminium, magnesium, iron, and the alkali and alkaline earth metals, forming the chief constituent of various clays, soils and rocks.
The soils overlying red sandstone rocks would be reddish and of a sandy nature, while those overlying chalk would be whitish and contain considerable amounts of lime.
In many parts of the country soils exhibiting such relationships, and known as sedentary soils, are prevalent, the transition from the soil to the rock beneath being plainly visible in sections exposed to view in railway cuttings, quarries and other excavations.
There are transported or drift soils, the particles of which have been brought from other areas and deposited over the rocks below.
Perhaps the majority of drift soils, however, have been moved to their present position by the action of the water of rivers or the sea.
On the other hand it should not be too open in texture or the roots do not get a proper hold of the ground and are easily disturbed by wind: moreover such soils are liable to blow away, leaving the underground parts exposed to the air and drought.
A good soil should be deep to allow of extensive root development and, in the case of arable soils, easy to work with implements.
This substance is present in practically all soils but in comparatively small amounts.
Even in the soils which farmers speak of as stiff clays it is rarely present to the extent of more than I or 2%.
From the above account it will be understood that not one of the four chief soil constituents is in itself of value for the growth of crops, yet when they are mixed, as they usually are in the soils met with in nature, one corrects the deficiencies of the other.
Generally speaking, soils containing from 30 to 50% of clay and 50 to 60% of sand with an adequate amount of vegetable residues prove the most useful for ordinary farm and garden crops; such blends are known as " loams," those in which clay predominates being termed clay loalns, and those in which the sand predominates sandy roams. " Stiff clays " contain over 50% of clay; " light sands " have less than to %.
This is the case in " puddled " clays, but in ordinary clay soils the excessively minute particles of which they largely consist tend to form groups of comparatively large composite grains and it is in such natural soils that the pore-space is largest.
The sulphur exists in the soil chiefly in the form of sulphates of magnesium, calcium and other metals; the phosphorus mainly as phosphates of calcium, magnesium and iron; the potash, soda and other bases as silicates and nitrates; calcium and magnesium carbonates are also common constituents of many soils.
Soils containing less than 25% of potash are likely to need special application of potash fertilizers to give good results, while those containing as much as.
1% present these fertilizers are not usually called for except perhaps in soils containing a high percentage of iron compounds.
Similarly soils with less than i% of nitrogen are likely to be benefited by applications of nitrogenous manures.
In the case of arable soils, where the amount of phosphoric acid determined by this method falls below 01%, phosphatic manuring is essential for good crops.
The writer has found that many pasture soils containing less than.
In soils where the potash available to citric acid is less than.
Plants have been found to wither and die in sandy soils containing i a% of water, and in clay soils in which there was still present 8% of water.
In the operation of ploughing the furrow slice is separated from the soil below, and although in humid soils this layer may be left to settle by degrees, in semi-arid regions this loosened layer becomes.
The organisms do not carry on their work in soils deficient in air; hence the process is checked in water-logged soils.
The presence of a base such as lime or magnesia (or their carbonates) is also essential, as well as an adequate degree of moisture: in dry soils nitrification ceases.
It is the business of the farmer and gardener to promote the activity of these organisms by good tillage, careful drainage and occasional application of lime to soils which are deficient in this substance.
They can, however, only carry on their work extensively under anaerobic conditions, as in waterlogged soils or in those which are badly tilled, so that there is but little loss of nitrates through their agency.
The bacterium, Clostridium pasteurianum, common in most soils, is able to utilize free nitrogen under anaerobic conditions, and an organism known as Azotobacter chroococcum and some others closely allied to it, have similar powers which they can exercise under aerobic conditions.
The bacteria, which are present in almost all soils, enter the root-hairs of their host plants and ultimately stimulate the production of an excrescent nodule, in which they live.
The chief processes for the improvement of soils which may be discussed here are: liming, claying and marling, warping, paring and burning, and green manuring.
Carbonate of lime is also a constituent to a greater or lesser extent in almost all soils.
In certain sandy soils and in a few stiff clays it may amount to less than 4%, while in others in limestone and chalk districts there may be 50 to 80% present.
If applied in too great an amount to light soils and peat land it may do much damage by rendering them too loose and open.
Generally speaking light poor lands deficient in organic matter will need the less caustic form or chalk, while quicklime will be most satisfactory on the stiff clays and richer soils.
On the stiff soils overl y ing the chalk it was formerly the custom to dig pits through the soil to the rock below.
Many soils of a light sandy or gravelly or peaty nature and liable to drought and looseness of texture can be improved by the addition of large amounts of clay of an ordinary character.
S i milarly soils can be improved by applying to them marl, a substance consisting of a mixture of clay with variable proportions of lime.
Even stiff soils deficient in lime are greatly improved in fertility by the addition of marls.
It is best adapted for application to clays and fen lands and should not be practised on shallow light sands or gravelly soils, since the humus so necessary for the fertility of such areas is reduced too much and the soil rendered too porous and liable to suffer from drought.
The carbon compounds of the latter are of no direct nutritive value to the succeeding crop, but the decaying vegetable tissues very greatly assist in retaining moisture in light sandy soils, and in clay soils also have a beneficial effect in rendering them more open and allowing of better drainage of superfluous water and good circulation of fresh air within them.
In regard to water, all soils have two actions - namely, permeability and absorbability.
The amount of moisture retained depends mainly upon the absorbability of the soil, and as it depends largely on capillary action it varies with the coarseness or fineness of the pores of the soil, being greater for soils which consist of fine particles.
The results of many analyses show that the capacity of soils for moisture increases with the amount of organic substances present; decomposition appears to be most active when the moisture is about 4%, but can continue when it is as low as 2%, while it appears to be retarded by any excess over 4%.
Above the level of the ground-water all soils contain air, varying in amount with the degree of looseness of the soil.
Greenhow in 1858 stated that diphtheria was especially prevalent on cold, wet soils, and Airy in 1881 described the localities affected as " for the most part cold, wet, clay lands."
Robertson has shown that the typhoid bacillus can grow very easily in certain soils, can persist in soils through the winter months, and when the soil is artificially fed, as may be done by a leaky drain or by access of filthy water from the surface, the microorganism will take on a fresh growth in the warm season.
" This is as we should expect, since the movements of ground air are much greater in loose porous soils than in stiff clay soils."
Speaking generally, clay soils retentive of moisture produce heavy-cropping tobaccos which cure to a dark brown or red colour.
Sandy soils produce tobaccos with a thin leaf, curing to a yellow or bright red colour.
Carolina on a loose porous sand, which must be at least a foot deep, and contains usually about 8% of clay; this sand is underlaid by a clay subsoil, and, as Mr Milton Whitney points out in Tobacco Soils (U.S.A. Dept.
Tobacco soils should be well drained and contain a Iarge percentage of humus.
Italy produces two principal types, a dark, heavy Virginian tobacco on the heavy soils of northern Italy, and a Turkish type tobacco on the sandy soils of the southern part of the country.
Except on extremely heavy soils or on shallow soils with a subsoil which it is unwise to bring upon the surface, the modern tendency is in favour of the digging plough.
Disk ploughs are unsuitable for heavy sticky soils and for stony land, but may be used with effect on stubbles and on land in a dry hard state.
The cedar flourishes best on sandy, loamy soils.
In 1846 he began experiments on the temperature of the earth at different depths and in different soils near Edinburgh, which yielded determinations of the thermal conductivity of trap-tufa, sandstone and pure loose sand.
STRONTIUM [[[Symbol]] Sr, atomic weight 87.62 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element belonging to the alkaline earth group. It is found in small quantities very widely distributed in various rocks and soils, and in mineral waters; its chief sources are the minerals strontianite, celestine and barytocelestine.
fragilis is used for cricket-bats; there is a great difference in the value for this purpose of timber from different soils; and wood of the female tree is said to be preferable to that of the male.
The soils of the N.
The Coastal Plain has for the most part a light sandy soil, but there is a fertile alluvium in the river bottoms and good clay soils on some of the uplands.
The eastern part of the Prairie Plains is a belt known as the Black Prairie, and it has a rich black soil derived from Upper Cretaceous limestone; immediately west of this is another belt with a thinner soil derived from Lower Cretaceous rocks; a southern part of the same plains has a soil derived from granite; in a large area in the north-west the plains have a reddish clay soil derived from Permian rocks and a variety of soils - good black soils and inferior sandy and clay soils - derived from Carboniferous rocks.
The alluvial soil, composed of what has been washed from other soils, together with decayed vegetable matter, covers about 6% of the surface of the state and is found in the river bottoms, of greatest extent in that of the Missouri; it varies much in fertility.
The best soils when abundantly irrigated yield from 50to 60-fold, and the water for this purpose is supplied by the innumerable streams which intersect the province.
dissitiflora, 6 to 8 in., with large handsome abundant sky-blue flowers, is the best and earliest, flowering from February onwards; it does well in light cool soils, preferring peaty ones, and should be renewed annually from seeds or cuttings.
On rich soils the crop is liable to grow too rapidly and yield a"coarse, uneven sample, consequently the best barley is grown on light, open and preferably calcareous soils, while if the condition of the soil is too high it is often reduced by growing wheat before the barley.
It will find sustenance equally on the driest of soils as on the fattest pastures; upland and fen, arable and moorland, are alike to it, provided only the ground be open enough.
The soils of western Washington are chiefly glacial, those of eastern Washington chiefly volcanic. In the low tidewater district of the Puget Sound Basin an exceptionally productive soil has been made by the mixture of river silt and sea sand.
Nor was the concentration of wealth the only danger of this policy; it led to the destruction of forests, the exhaustion of farming soils and the wasteful mining of coal and minerals, since the desire for quick profits, even when they entail risk to permanency of capital, is always a powerful human motive.
In some soils foundations may be obtained by the device of building a masonry casing like that of a well and excavating the soil inside; the casing gradually sinks and the masonry is continued at the surface.
West of the Missouri river the drift gives place to a fine soil of sand aid clay, with deposits of alluvium in the vicinity of streams. Though lacking in vegetable mould, these soils are generally capable of producing good crops where the water-supply is sufficient.
The larger valleys of the Black Hills district contain fertile alluvial deposits washed from the neighbouring highlands, but in the plains adjoining these mountains the soils consist of a stiff gumbo suitable only for pasture land.
The principal orchard districts are the valleys of the Darent and Medway, and the tertiary soils overlying the chalk, between Rochester and Canterbury.
The soils W.
In this region the soils of sand and clay are much finer than the drift, and are very productive where the water-supply is sufficient.
It is indigenous to the south of Spain and the north of Africa (where it is known as Halfa or Alfa), and is especially abundant in the sterile and rugged parts of Murcia and Valencia, and in Algeria, flourishing best in sandy, ferruginous soils, in dry, sunny situations on the sea coast.
From this source all soils contain small proportions of sodium in soluble forms, hence the ashes of plants, although they preferably imbibe potassium salts, contain traces and sometimes notable quantities of sodium salts.
There is a perfect cleavage parallel to the surface of the scales, and the cleavage flakes are flexible but not elastic. The material is greasy to the touch, and soils everything with which it comes into contact.
The great variety of soils is one of the more marked features of Maryland.
On the East Shore to the north is a marly loam overlying a yellowish-red clay sub-soil, to the south is a soil quite stiff with light coloured clay, while here and there, especially in the middle and south, are considerable areas both of light sandy soils and tidal marsh loams. On the West Shore the soils range from a light sandy loam in the lower levels south from Baltimore to rather heavy loarns overlying a yellowish clay on the rolling uplands and on the terraces along the Potomac and Patuxent.
The soils of the Piedmont Plateau east of Parr's Ridge are, like the underlying rocks, exceptionally variable in composition, texture and colour.
West of Parr's Ridge in the Piedmont, the principal soils are those the character of which is determined either by decomposed red sandstone or by decomposed limestone.
In Hagerstown Valley are rich red or yellow limestone-clay soils.
The Allegheny ridges have only a thin stony soil; but good limestone, sandstone, shale and alluvial soils, occur in the valleys and in some of the plateaus of the extreme west.
Such potassiferous silicates are found in almost all rocks, both as normal and as accessory components; and their disintegration furnishes the soluble potassium salts which are found in all fertile soils.
The best soils are the alluvium in the bottom-lands along some of the larger rivers and that of the Blue Grass Region, which is derived from a limestone rich in organic matter (containing phosphorus) and rapidly decomposing.
The soils of the Highland Rim Plateau as well as of the lowland west of the Tennessee river vary greatly, but the most common are a clay, containing more or less carbonate of lime, and a sandy loam.
On the escarpment around the Blue Grass Region the soils are for the most part either cherty or stiff with clay and of inferior quality.
It is produced on light shallow soils overlying calcareous rock.
It is an abundant cropper, sometimes attaining on low-lying soils 13 ft.
Some harder varieties, known as stone osiers and raised on drier upland soils, are peeled and used for fine work.
It is peculiarly adapted for peaty soils, and is accordingly a favourite crop in the fen lands of England, and on recently reclaimed mosses and moors elsewhere.
The oil is similar to that in the true colza seeds but the plants do not yield so much per acre as the latter: they are, however, hardier and more adapted for cultivation on poor sandy soils.
Farther seaward, where the relief is less and the soils are richer, the surface is cleared and cotton is an important crop.
A section of the coastal plain, from North Carolina to southern New Jersey, resembles the plain farther south in general form and quality of soils, but besides being narrower, it is further characterized by several embayments or arms of the sea, caused by a slight depression of the land after mature valleys had been eroded in the plain.
The till is presumably made in part of preglacial soils, but it is more largely composed of rock waste mechanically comminuted by the crccpiiig ice sheets; although the crystalline rocks from Canada and some of the more resistant stratified rocks south of the Great Lakes occur as boulders and stones, a great part of the till has been crushed and ground to a clayey texture.
During the mechanical comminution of the till no vegetation was present to remove the minerals essential to plant growth, as is the case in the soils of normally weathered and dissected peneplains, such as the Appalachian piedmont, where the soils, though not exhausted by the primeval forest cover, are by no means ~so rich as the till sheets of the prairies.
The special features of the Gulf Plain are the peninsular extension of the plain in Florida, the belted arrangement of relief and soils in Alabama and in Texas, and the Mississippi embayment or inland extension of the plain half-way up the course of the Mississippi river, with the Mississippi flood plain there included.
The land in this vast area varies in virginal fertility, but the best soils are very rich in the constituents of plant food.
Shutt have proved that soils from the NorthWest Provinces contain an average of 18,000 lb of nitrogen, 15,580 lb of potash and 6,700 lb of phosphoric acid per acre, these important elements of plant food being therefore present in much greater abundance than they are in ordinary cultivated European soils of good quality.
It flourishes in light soils and is one of the few trees that will grow amongst heather; owing to the large number of "winged seeds" which are readily scattered by the wind, it spreads rapidly, springing up where the soil is dry and covering clearings or waste places.
North of the mineral region is the "Cereal Belt," embracing the Tennessee Valley and the counties beyond, whose richest soils are the red clays and dark loams of the river valley; north of which are less fertile soils, produced by siliceous and sandstone formations.
Alluvial soils are almost invariably of great fertility; it is due to the alluvial mud annually deposited by the Nile that the dwellers in Egypt have been able to grow their crops for over 4000 years without artificial fertilization.
(See United States.) Climate and Soils.
Georgia is also notable for the variety of its soils.
By far the greatest variety of soils is found in the Coastal Plain Region.
and passing through Baker, Worth, Dooly, Dodge, Laurens, Johnson, Jefferson and Burke counties, has three distinct kinds of soil; a sand, forming what is known as the sand-hill region; red clay derived from silicious rock in the red hills; and grey, sandy soils with a subsoil of yellow loam.
The soft limestone underlying this region is covered, in the uplands, with grey, sandy soils, which have a subsoil of loam; in the lowlands the surface soils are loams, the subsoils clays.
Here the prevailing soils are grey and sandy with a subsoil of loam, but they are less fertile than those of the Lime Sink or Cotton Belts.
The wood of large trees is compact in texture, in the best varieties of a deep reddish colour varying to brownish-yellow, but apt to be lighter in tint, and less hard in grain, when grown in rich soils or in low sheltered situations.
The soil of the Territory is almost wholly a decomposition of lava, and in general differs much from the soils of the United States, particularly in the large amount of nitrogen (often more than 1.25% in cane and coffee soil, and occasionally 2.2%) and iron, and in the high degree of acidity.
Cotton and silk culture have been experimented with on the islands; and the work of the Hawaiian Agricultural Experiment Station is of great value, in introducing new crops, in improving old, in studying soils and fertilizers and in entomological research.
Hitchcock, Hawaii and its Volcanoes (Honolulu, 1909); Augustin Kramer, Hawaii, Ostmikronesien and Samoa (Stuttgart, 1906); Sharp, Fauna (London, 1899); Walter Maxwell, Lavas and Soils of the Hawaiian Islands (Honolulu, 1898); W.
Laureola, spurge laurel, a small evergreen shrub with green flowers in the leaf axils towards the ends of the branches and ovoid black very poisonous berries, is found in England in copses and on hedge-banks in stiff soils.
In the Lawes Testimonial Laboratory there is a vast collection of samples of experimentally grown produce, annual products, ashes and soils.
The greater richness of certain districts in the matter of species is partly due to the variety of soils encountered therein; but in part may be explained by the fact that these districts were the first to be freed from the ice-sheet at the end of the glacial period.
Part I.-Principles Or Science Of Horticulture Horticulture, apart from the mechanical details connected with the maintenance of a garden and its appurtenances, may be considered as the application of the principles of plant physiology to the cultivation of plants from all parts of the globe, and from various altitudes, soils and situations.
For the plum on loamy soils the plum, and on chalky and light soils the almond, are the most desirable stocks, and for the cherry on loamy or light rich soils the wild cherry, and on chalk the " mahaleb " stock.
It is advantageous to possess a variety of soils; and if the garden be on a slope it will often be practicable to render the upper part light and dry, while the lower remains of a heavier and damper nature.
Natural soils consist of substances derived from the decomposition of various kinds of rocks, the bulk consisting of clay, silica and lime, in various proportions.
When the whole ground has been thus treated, a moderate liming will, in general, be useful, especially on heavy clay soils.
Argillaceous or clay soils are those which contain a large percentage (45-50) of clay, and a small percentage (5 or less) of lime.
These are unfitted for garden purposes until improved by draining, liming, trenching and the addition of porous materials, such as ashes, burnt ballast or sand, but when thoroughly improved they are very fertile and less liable to become exhausted than most other soils.
Loamy soils contain a considerable quantity (30-45%) of clay, and smaller quantities of lime, humus and sand.
Such soils properly drained and prepared are very suitable for orchards, and when the proportion of clay is smaller (20-30%) they form excellent garden soils, in which the better sort of fruit trees luxuriate.
Manly soils are those which contain a considerable percentage (10-20) of lime, and are called clay marls, loamy marls and sandy marls, according as these several ingredients preponderate.
The clay marls are, like clay soils, too stiff for garden purposes until well worked and heavily manured; but loamy marls are fertile and well suited to fruit trees, and sandy marls are adapted for producing early crops.
Calcareous soils, which may also be heavy, intermediate or light, are those which contain more than 20% of lime, their fertility depending on the proportions of clay and sand which enter into their composition; they are generally cold and wet.
Vegetable soils or moulds, or humus soils, contain a considerable percentage (more than 5) of humus, and embrace both the rich productive garden moulds and those known as peaty soils.
The frame ground, including melon and pine pits, should occupy some well-sheltered spot in the slips, or on one side of the garden, and adjoining to this may be found a suitable site for the compost ground, in which the various kinds of soils are kept in store, and in which also composts may be prepared.
They form, moreover, neat enclosures for the vegetable quarters, and, provided excess of growth from the centre is successfully grappled with, they are productive in soils and situations which are suitable.
Soils and Composts.
- The principal soils used in gardens, either alone, or mixed to form what are called composts, are - loam, sand, peat, leaf-mould and various mixtures and combinations of these made up to suit the different subjects under cultivation.
Peat soil is largely employed for the culture of such plants as rhododendrons, azaleas, heaths, &c. In districts where heather and gritty soil predominate, the peat soil is poor and unprofitable, but selections from both the heathy and the richer peat soils, collected with judgment, and stored in a dry part of the compost yard, are essential ingredients in the cultivation of many choice pot plants, such as the Cape heaths and many of the Australian plants.
It is no doubt the finest stimulant for the growth of plants, and that most adapted to restore the fertile elements which the plants have abstracted from exhausted soils.
It is most beneficial on cold stiff soils.
Cow dung is less fertilizing than horse dung, but being slower in its action it is more durable; it is also cooler, and therefore better for hot dry sandy soils.
The effects of bones are no doubt mainly due to the phosphates they contain, and they are most effectual on dry soils.
Lime in the caustic state is beneficially applied to soils which contain an excess of inert vegetable matter, and hence may be used for the improvement of old garden soils saturated with humus, or of peaty soils not thoroughly reclaimed.
It also improves the texture of clay soils.
per acre, has been found to yield good results, especially on light soils.
Gas lime, after it has been exposed to the air for a few months is an excellent manure on heavy soils.
Sometimes in very favourable soils and with vigorous trees two pairs of branches may be obtained in one season by summerstopping the erect shoots and selecting others from the young growths thus induced, but more commonly the trees have to be built up by forming one pair of branches annually.
Pretty rock plants, for light stony soils.
dissitiflora, 6 to 8 in., with large, handsome and abundant sky-blue flowers, is the best and earliest, flowering from February onwards; it does well in light cool soils, preferring peaty ones, and should be renewed annually from seeds or cuttings.
The genus of the Evening Primrose, consisting of showy species, all of which grow and blossom freely in rich deep soils.
taraxacifolia, 6 to 12 in., has a stout crown from which the trailing branches spring out, and these bear very large white flowers, changing to delicate rose; this perishes in cold soils, and should therefore be raised from seed annually.
Tall, autumn-blooming labiates, of easy growth in ordinary garden soils.
It is probable that the coarser soils, permitting more rapid percolation, would generally give higher results.
In any case, it is evident that the transmission of heat by percolation would be much greater in porous soils and in the upper layers of the earth's crust than in the lower strata or in solid rocks.
What may be termed the chemistry of production, viz., that relating to soils, manures, manufacturing processes, &c., has of recent years received great attention from the scientific FIG.
Tea thrives best in light friable soils of good depth, through which water percolates freely, the plant being specially impatient of marshy situations and stagnant water.
Tenacious soils and subsoils, with a small supply of water, require beds as narrow as 30 ft.
Porous soils and a large supply of water may have beds of 40 ft.
It is suitable for stiffish soils where the subsoil is fairly open, but is less successful in sand.
But while the wisdom of one age thus succeeded in restricting within bounds the tidal water of the river, it was left to the greater wisdom of a succeeding age to improve upon' this arrangement by admitting these muddy waters to lay a fresh coat of rich silt on the exhausted soils.
On permeable soils, especially those of the terrace lands along the valleys, the soluble salts commonly known as alkali were gradually leached out and carried by the percolating waters towards the lower lands, where, reaching the surface, the alkali was left as a glistening crust or as pools of inky blackness.
They resemble the erratic blocks which lost amid alien soils recall, where we find them, the geological conditions of earlier ages.
The surface soils are composed of drift deposits, varying from 10 to 200 ft.
Important influences in the agricultural development of the state have been the formation of Farmers' Institutes, organized in 1895, a Corn Breeders' Association in 1898, and the introduction of fertilizers, the use of which in 1899 was nearly seven times the amount in 1889, and the study of soils, carried on by the State Department of Agriculture and the United States Department of Agriculture.
It thrives best in dry soils, and in height varies from 4 or 5 to 12, 15 or, in exceptional cases, as much as between 20 and 30 ft.
The soils of Arkansas are of peculiar variety.
Their poor soils are distinctively sandy, those of the lowlands clayey; but these elements are usually found combined in rich loams characterized by the predominance of one or the other constituent.
This variety of soils, a considerable range of moderate altitudes and favourable factors of heat and moisture promote a rich diversity in agriculture.
Sand and loams in great variety, grading from mere sand to adobe, make up the soils of the state.
According to Evelyn (Sylva, p. 35, 1664), hazels "above all affect cold, barren, dry, and sandy soils; also mountains, and even rockie ground produce them; but more plentifully if somewhat moist, dankish, and mossie."
It thrives most in a light loam with a dry subsoil; rich and, in particular, wet soils are unsuitable, conducing to the formation of too much wood.
While some of the more arid districts have soils so strongly alkaline as to be practically unreclaimable, there are extensive areas of fertile lands which only require irrigation to make them highly productive.
On the one hand there are churchmen who attempt to repeat the historical process which has naturalized Theories of the Church in alien soils by appropriating the forces meat.
Marshy soils are found along the lowest portions of the Coastal Plain, and are exceedingly productive wherever reclaimed by draining, as in portions of the Dismal Swamp. Other portions of the Coastal Plain afford more valuable soils, sandy loams overlying sandy clays.
The crystalline rocks of the Piedmont area are covered with residual soils of variable composition and moderate fertility.
expansion, we reach the Newer Appalachians, where fertile limestone soils cover the valley floors.
The same vine, exposed to practically identical conditions of climate, will produce markedly different wines if planted in different soils.
The soils of the lowlands are prevailing sandy loams, with a covering of rich mould.
In the plains where drainage is poor, especially in the S., the soils contain too much alkali; but in the highlands most of this has been dissolved and carried away by the rains, and the soils are well adapted for grazing grounds.
Copper is widely distributed in nature, occurring in most soils, ferruginous mineral waters, and ores.
The first step would be, to obtain seed from healthy trees growing in the coldest climate and at the greatest altitude in its native country, sowing these very largely, and in a variety of soils and situations, in a part of France where the climate is somewhat but not much more extreme.
In the arctic zone they form to% of the flora; they will flourish in soils rich in humus which are too acid to support grasses.
In England it grows well in sheltered situations and well-drained soils.
Southern Austria and the adjacent countries are the natural habitats of this pine; it seems to flourish best on rocky mountain sides, but in England grows well on sandy soils.
The pinaster grows naturally on sandy soils around the Mediterranean from Spain to the Levant.
P. palustris (or P. australis) is the " Georgia pitch pine," or yellow pine of the southern states; it abounds on the sandy soils that cover so much of Georgia, the Carolinas, and Florida, and on those dry lands attains its highest perfection, though occasionally abundant on moist ground, whence its name.
The wood of the white pine is durable for indoor use, especially when protected by paint, but when exposed to moist air it rapidly decays, and it is very liable to dry rot; it is said to be best when grown on sandy soils.
In England where it is generally known as the " Weymouth pine," it succeeds well on deep light soils when well-drained; trees have attained occasionally a height of zoo ft.
The tree abounds in some sandy districts, but more generally occurs singly or in small groups dispersed through the woods, attaining its greatest dimensions in light soils.
The composition of the tubers evidently varies according to season, soils, manuring, the variety grown, &c., but the figures cited will give a sufficiently accurate idea of it.
The potato thrives best in a rather light friable loam; and in thin sandy soils the produce, if not heavy, is generally of very good quality.
Soils which are naturally wet and heavy, as well as those which are heavily manured, are not suitable.
It thrives in most kinds of soils.
The soils in the southern part of Arizona are mainly sandy loams, varying from light loam to heavy, close adobe; on the plateaus is what is known as " mesa " soil; and along the rivers are limited overflow plains of fine sediment - especially along the Colorado and the river Verde.
These soils are in general rich, but deficient in nitrogen and somewhat in humus; and in limited areas white alkaline salts are injuriously in excess.
Virgin soils are densely compact.
There are in all cultivated soils forms of bacteria which are capable of forcing the inert free nitrogen to combine with other elements into compounds assimilable by plants.
Except for the broad valleys of the Panhandle, where the soils are black in colour and rich in vegetable mould, the surface of the state is arid; the Snake river valley is a vast lava bed, covered with deposits of salt and sand, or soils of volcanic origin.
The soils of the state exhibit great variety.
The most fertile soils of the state lie in the clay and marl region, a belt from 10 to 20 m.
South of this belt the soils are generally sandy and are not very fertile except at altitudes of less than 50 ft., where they are loamy and of alluvial origin.
The volcanic rocks occur on the tableland of New South Wales, and contribute much to the fertility of their soils.
The glaciation is also responsible for the poor soil of most of the state, for, although the rocks are the same crystallines which give good soils further south in unglaciated regions, all the decayed portions of the Maine rocks have been removed by glacial erosion, revealing fresh, barren rock over great areas, or depositing the rather sterile hard-pan as a thin coating in other places.
Beginning with the middle of the 19th century, the increasing competition of the more productive soils of the West, the growth of urban population in the state, and the number of summer visitors effected the reforesting of much poor land and the more intensive cultivation of the better arable land.
Here three layers of vegetable soil appear, proved by the objects imbedded in them to have been the successive surface soils in two prehistoric periods and in the Roman period, but now lying 4, io and 1q ft.
The only British representative is Cynodon Dactylon (dog's tooth, Bermuda grass) found on sandy shores in the south-west of England; it is a cosmopolitan, covering the ground in sandy soils, and forming an important forage grass in many dry climates (Bermuda grass of the southern United States, and known as durba, dub and other names in India).
Alkali soils are also common in the basins, but when water is available they can often be washed out and made productive.
Very rich floodplain soils occur along the larger streams. Vast areas of unreclaimable desert exist in the west and south-east.
In the protected valleys between the high plateaus alluvial soils are cultivated; but the plateau summits are relatively inaccessible, and, being subject to summer frosts, are not cultivated.
Few states have so great a variety of soils.
In lighter soils the depth, and proportionately the distance apart, is increased, but the drains are rarely more than 4 ft.
This is easily effected in the case of soils tolerably free from stones by the use of draining spades and the tile-hook which are represented in the accompanying cut.
per acre on loose soils to £io an acre on the most tenacious soils, the rate of wages and the cost of the pipes, the depth of the trenches and the ease with which they can be dug, all influencing the cost of the process.
The state has almost as great a variety of soils as of climate.
In the Willamette Valley the soils are mostly clay loams, of a basaltic nature on the foothills and greatly enriched in the river bottom lands by washings from the hills and by deposits of rich black humus.
In eastern Oregon the soils are of an entirely different type, being usually of a greyish appearance, lacking in humus, and composed of volcanic dust and alluvium from the uplands.
At times, however, these salts are present in such excess as to render the soils too alkaline for plant growing.
The Southdown, from the short close pastures upon the chalky soils of the South Downs in Sussex, was formerly known as the Sussex Down.
These soils are all easily cultivated, free from stones, and exceedingly productive.
This tree thrives best in moist soils, has a shrubby appearance, and grows under favourable circumstances to a height of 40 or 50 ft.
Arthur Young, with whom he had corresponded years before on the mysteries of deep ploughing and fattening hogs, added a cogent polemical chapter to that ever admirable work, in which he showed that he knew as much more than Burke about the old system of France as he knew more than Burke about soils and roots.
The finding of any traces of carbon dioxide in the gas between the first two boxes is generally the signal for a new clean purifier being put into action, and the first one shut off, emptied and recharged with fresh lime, the impregnated material being sometimes sold for dressing certain soils.
Strong heavy clay soils, sandy and gravelly soils, are almost entirely absent; and the mixture of soil arising from the various stratifications and from the detritus carried down to the plains has created many districts of remarkable richness.
In general the soils of the Piedmont Plateau region are such as have been formed by the disintegration of the underlying rocks.
On the more level areas of the Piedmont Plateau the granitic soil is a grey mixture of sand and clay, but on the hillsides of the river basins it is a heavy clay of reddish colour, the sand having been washed down to form the soils of the Coastal Plain.
The soils vary considerably, according to the geological formations; ten or twelve different kinds may be found in going across the country from east to west.
Nine-tenths of the rainfall is absorbed by the loess and sandy soils, with only one-tenth being "run-off."
The basis of the soils is sands (coarse, fine or silt); clay beds, though economically important, are in quantity relatively scant.
In the Recent Tertiary period the soils of these plains and valleys have been greatly enriched by extensive outbursts of basalt with accompanying tuffs.
We know little or nothing at present of the upland plants, or of those of dry or chalky soils.
The soils, which are composed largely of sands, except in the upland valleys where alluvial loams with the sub-soils of clay are found, were not suitable for tillage.
The soils on the mountains, on the ridges of the Valley of East Tennessee, and on the E.
It is most frequent on mildly acidic soils of pH 5.0 to 7.0.
Usually found on lowland woodland margins on slightly acidic soils.
Testing the soil acidity Some soils are slightly acid, some are slightly alkaline.
Summer is also the best time to see adders basking on the sandy soils of the heath.
Wet woodlands comprise mainly alder, willow and downy birch growing on waterlogged or seasonally wet soils.
However, it prefers slightly alkaline to neutral soils and does not thrive in acid or highly alkaline soils.
Well-drained soils occur on the sandy and gravely material but more waterlogged soils are found on river alluvium and glacial clays.
Scientists have modified a plant in the mustard family to remove arsenic from contaminated soils and store it in its leaves for easy disposal.
biennial international symposia, three major publications and 12 research projects into glaciers, soils, ecosystems and rare animals have been sponsored.
bushed grassland in arid areas usually on red soils.
Urea is used as a top dressing in Portugal, mainly calcareous soils.
Prolific ash regeneration is found on very calcareous soils that are often very steep.
carbide cutters get you through those nasty soils.
However in very chalky soils, there may be problems associated with the excess lime locking up the nutrients.
Planting in shallow chalk soils will cause chlorosis in time.
certain clay minerals associated with heavy soils are rich sources of K, containing as much as 17% potash.
Animations are used to illustrate the procedures in measuring cation exchange properties of soil colloids, in the Nutrient Cycling chapter of Oz Soils.
Planting in machine cultivated ground Where heavy clay soils have been plowed to reduce compaction, ridges will be formed.
constitutive model for natural soils has been developed.
counterintuitive fact that the poorest of soils are usually the ones with the highest plant diversity.
The problem is worst where farmers grow crops on weak, unstable soils on slopes in areas of high rainfall.
deficient soils are more readily affected by OPs.
degraded soils with Rockdust and compost.
The soils in the mountains and highlands are rapidly degrading, while population pressure on the land is increasing just as rapidly.
Soils with densely packed grains are strain softening because disturbance during sharing causes the grains to move apart causing dilation.
The other UK EfW plants have recorded similar low dioxin emission levels - equivalent to existing, background dioxin levels in urban soils.
disfigurepan>disfiguring disease, which does not appear harm the crop, is worst in alkaline soils.
It is often abundant on well-drained or even thin soils due to the ability to survive summer drought.
Moles survive and thrive in virtually every part of the country, save only where acid soils contain no earthworms.
Erica cinerea is generally confined to dry, acid mineral soils with low humus litter accumulation (Banister 1965 ).
eucalyptus plantations intrude the deeper, more fertile soils.
The acidic soils support sweet chestnut Castanea sativa, sessile oak Quercus petraea, and ash Fraxinus excelsior.
For soils with higher soil fertility levels no potash required.
It mainly grows on heavy clay soils, and favors disturbed ground, as well as the margins of arable fields.
fine-grained soils to be compacted.
flinty soils, can also have a direct visual impact.
Deep, well-drained fine loamy and sandy soils, locally flinty, over glaciofluvial drift.
Natural soils have developed from a parent material consisting of glacial till derived from granite and granite gneiss.
granular soils, a motor on the back of the roller is used to rotate an eccentric mass causing the roller to vibrate.
The Riesling grape is well adapted to well-drained poor soils, especially slate.
Most of the Parks lies on light soils overlying gravel, limiting the range of plant material which can be grown.
Secondly the soils are normally well graded giving a even spread of coarse gravel through to fine sands.
grow in most soils, except for poor draining, waterlogged soils.
adding gypsum to clay soils will help improve soil structure.
hart's tongue fern is an indicator of alkaline soils which are not the norm in Cornwall.
henbit dead-nettle seed was found in 2% of arable soils in a seedbank survey in Scotland in 1972-1978.
high tablerton Common was probable left un-enclosed because its relatively poor soils and high water table made agricultural development difficult.
Bracken loves acid soils hence its failure to overwhelm the limestone hills in the Yorkshire Dales in the same way it has in Cumbria.
In Honduras, the mucuna bean has improved crop yields on steep, easily eroded hillsides with depleted soils  .
hollow tine fork to increase drainage of heavy soils.
hydric Soils of the United States USDA-NRCS Soils Survey Division.
The HOST classification makes use of the fact that the physical properties of soils have a major influence on catchment hydrology.
Coupling of hydraulic hysteresis and stress-strain behavior in unsaturated soils.
Disparity of particle sizes following crushing has also been shown to relate to the strong hysteresis observed in unloading and reloading tests on soils.
impervious layer may develop in some soils.
Removing the contaminated soils was technically impractical, and removing contaminated ground water did not address the source of the contaminants.
Mineral concentrations were higher in organic soils whilst soil quality on conventional farms was significantly improved by the addition of organic fertilizer.
iodine uptake from soils into crops and then into human food.
A few bacteria isolated from these soils were able to grow on ferulic acid.
leached soils are known as rankers.
Most garden soils contain plenty of nutrients, apart from nitrogen which is easily leached out of the soil.
Hippocrepis comosa is a nitrogen-fixing legume and prefers soils that are deficient in nitrogen.
It especially likes the deeper blacker soils that were created under long since vanished mixed oak woodland.
This is a bright green liverwort that grows on bare peaty soils in lowland bogs and damp woodland and also on moist sandstone rocks.
Dromius sigma is found on muddy or peaty soils near standing water in fens, lowland marshes, flooded quarries and gravel pits.
Close to Kara Dag the soils are derived from the volcanic massif.
A good clear pink on alkaline soils but a rather dirty mauve in acid conditions.
Natural soils have a different microstructure or structure to soils that are reconstituted in the laboratory.
During wet weather the clay soils can soon become churned by horses into a very glutinous mud.
nitrate reductase and emissions of nitrous oxide from soils.
The fine agricultural soils are too valuable to include much ornamentation.
Do you remember the parable of our Lord Jesus, the parable about the soils?
cow parsley is most frequent in soils of pH 7.0.
pearl millet grown in Africa where nutrient-poor soils are a primary constraint.
Slowly permeable seasonally waterlogged clay soils over Tertiary clay (Windsor series ).
In soils containing little phosphorus, plants with mycorrhizae have been shown to grow up to 20 times faster than those without.
Peat, brown forest soil and peaty podzols derived from greywackes and shales are the major soils types in the Bladnoch catchment.
Soils are mostly acidic podzols in different stages of developement.
Action for low P & K fields NOW is the time to apply potash to improve low K soils.
On soils of good phosphate and potash fertility: Use NK top dressing to replace some of the potash removed.
remediation of contaminated soils where it is the best environmental option.
Soils and clays will tend to hold ground water, so will have a lower resistivity than rock or stone.
New York was heavily glaciated in the ice age leaving much of the state with deep, fertile, tho somewhat rocky soils.
root rots, especially in overly wet or poorly drained soils.
root rot is often a problem in wet soils.
The freely-draining limestone soils give rise to a canopy generally dominated by ash with hazel, and occasional rowan and holly in the understorey.
sandy soils with low clay content will be most rapidly affected.
The soils on the Triassic rocks are usually sandy and often pebbly.
saturated soils in order to reduce the volume of the voids.
R. Evans Soils disturbance by mechanical scarification and tree windthrow.
scrubby grassland on light calcareous soils.
The new HE-VA MEGA DAN can be used for mixing soils before the plow or to create minimum tillage seedbeds.
In clay soils this can cause shrinkage or swelling of the ground.
The sandstone plateau around the hills gives rise to red, silty, loam soils over silty, loam soils over silty clays.
In cohesive soils, loosen the soil in the sides and bottom of the pit with a spade or fork.
Willow and poplar grow best in wet or moist soils.
The flowers grow up to 20cm in diameter with pink blooms in alkaline soils and blue blooms in acidic soils.
In the infilled hollows between drumlins, gley and peaty gley soils form.
Oospores germinate in wet soils to produce a sporangium which then rapidly differentiates to release zoospores.
Members of this genus are common on arid soils of the western United States and of the Russian steppes.
The parallel multiple striations are the gradiometer's response to plow furrows in the soils which have a locally high level of magnetic susceptibility.
Eleven PhD studentships had been allocated to soils by the Agri-Food and Engineering and Biological Sciences Committees.
Deep fine loam and clay soils with slowly permeable subsoils over chalky till.
For instance, light sandy topsoil on top of clay subsoil may result in boggy conditions where the two soils meet.
surficial rocks and soils, thus aiding geologic mapping of the basin fill.
soil texture - OM is less easily degraded on clay soils.
tolerant of dry soils than downy birch.
Found in the forest understory, usually on limestone based soils.
unimproved grasslands on neutral or acidic soils are likely to contain at least 12 species of vascular plant per meter square.
We want to improve iodine uptake from soils into crops and then into human food.
In contrast to the surrounding clay vales, the acidic soils of the ridge support areas of heathland and mixed woodland.
waterlogged since deposition and are classified as raw gley soils.
Away from the river, the clay is exposed with a large area of deep, heavy soils which are often waterlogged in winter.
Castlemorton Common was probable left un-enclosed because its relatively poor soils and high water table made agricultural development difficult.
Wet woodlands comprise mainly alder, willow and downy birch growing on waterlogged or seasonally wet woodlands comprise mainly alder, willow and downy birch growing on waterlogged or seasonally wet soils.
wetter soils became dominant.
The wooly willow is further restricted by its requirement for calcareous soils.
Acidic soils however, will result in reduced yield.
The education for this examination has kept pace with the rapid advances of science, all the following subjects now receiving attention: the microscopical structure of plants and drugs, so as to detect adulterations and impurities in powdered drugs; organic and quantitative analysis, including those of food and drugs, water, soils, gas and urine; optics, so as to enable them to carry out the prescriptions of oculists; spectrum analysis; the use of the polariscope and refractometer; the method of applying RÃ¶ntgen rays; the preparation of glandular secretions and antitoxins; and the chemistry of remedies for the fungoid diseases and insect pests of plants.
Ordinary soils will almost always provide the necessary chemical ingredients if of proper physical texture, depth, &c. (see FUNGI and BACTERIOLOGY).
Trees, of which the young buds are nipped by frost, would frequently not suffer material injury, were it not that the small frost-cracks serve as points of entry for Fungi; and numerous cases are known where even high temperatures can be endured on rich, deep, retentive soils by plants which at once succumb to drought on shallow or non-retentive soils.
Roots are often flattened, twisted and otherwise distorted by mechanical obstacles; stems by excess of food in rich soils, the attacks of minute parasites, overgrowth by climbing plants, &c. Leaves are especially apt to vary, and although the formation of crests, pitchers, puckers, &c., must be put down to the results of abnormal development, it is often difficult to draw the line between teratological and merely varietal phenomena.
Halo phytes.Plants which grow in very saline soils; e.g., Tr-iglochin iritimum, Salicornia spp., Zygophyllum cornutum, Aster Tnhum, Artemisia maritima.
Some such species are Blechnum boreale, Aira flexuosa, Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium, Myrlillus, Rubus, Chamaemorus, Empetrum nigrum, Drosera spp. Some, at least, of these species possess mycorhiza in their roots, and are perhaps unable to live in soils where such organisms are absent.
The latter is the first writer on botany, and his works also contain interesting remarks on manures, the mixing of soils and other agricultural topics (see also Geoponici).
Incidentally there have been extensive sampling and analysing of soils, investigations into rainfall and the composition of drainage waters, inquiries into the amount of water transpired by plants, and experiments on the assimilation of free nitrogen.
A typical course at one of the higher colleges lasts for two years and includes instruction under the heads of soils and manure, crops and pasture, live stock, foods and feeding, dairy work, farm and estate management and farm bookkeeping, surveying, agricultural buildings and machinery, agricultural chemistry, agricultural botany, veterinary science and agricultural entomology.
In places suited to its growth it seems to flourish nearly as well as in the woods of Norway or Switzerland; but as it needs for its successful cultivation as a timber tree soils that might be turned to agricultural account, it is not so well adapted for economic planting in Britain as the Scotch fir or larch, which come to perfection in more bleak and elevated regions, and on comparatively barren ground, though it may perhaps be grown to advantage on some moist hill-sides and mountain hollows.
- Physical and economic conditions are discussed in a pamphlet (591 pp.) published by the State Department of Agriculture, Florida, a Pamphlet Descriptive of its History, Topography, Climate, Soil, eec. (Tallahassee, 1904); in Climate, Soil and Resources of Florida (United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, 1882); A Preliminary Report on the Soils of Florida (United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Soils, Bulletin 13, 1898); C. L.
The change takes place in two stages and is effected by two special groups of nitrifying bacteria, which are present in all soils.
Glaciation has strongly scoured away the deeply-weathered soils that presumably existed here in preglacial time, revealing firm and rugged ledges in the low hills and swells of the ground, and spreading an irregular drift cover over the lower parts, whereby the drainage is often much disordered; here being detained in lakes and swamps (muskegs) and there rushing down rocky rapids.
A belted arrangement of relief s and soils, resulting from differential erosion on strata of unlike composition and resistance, characterizes almost the entire area of the coastal plain.
In the Carolinian zone the tulip tree, sycamore, sweet gum, rose magnolia, short-leaf pine and sassafras find their northernmost limit Sage brush is common to both the western arid Transstion zone and the Upper Sonoran zone, but in suitable soils of the latter several greasewoods (Artiplex confertifolia, A.
Between the "Cotton Belt" and the Tennessee Valley is the mineral region, the "Old Land" area - "a region of resistant rocks" - whose soils, also derived from weathering in situ, are of varied fertility, the best coming from the granites, sandstones and limestones, the poorest from the gneisses, schists and slates.
Where there is complete freedom from stagnant water in the ground, and abundant room for the spread of its branches to light and air, the larch will flourish in a great variety of soils, stiff clays, wet or mossy peat, and moist alluvium being the chief exceptions; in its native localities it seems partial to the debris of primitive and metamorphic rocks, but is occasionally found growing luxuriantly on calcareous subsoils; in Switzerland it attains the largest size, and forms the best timber, on the northern declivities of the mountains; but in Scotland a southern aspect appears most favourable.
Except for the willow-plots found along the rivers on the clay lands, nearly all the wood is confined to the sand and gravel soils, where copses of birch and alder are common.
in tenacious and to less in porous soils.
BOOTES (Gr.) 30wrns, a ploughman, from soils, an ox), a constellation of the northern hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.), and perhaps alluded to in the book of Job (see Arcturus), and by Homer and Hesiod.
Moreover, nine-tenths of the rainfall is absorbed by the loess and sandy soils, only one-tenth being " run-off."
The Agency have stated that they wish to encourage remediation of contaminated soils where it is the best environmental option.
Also note that peas do suffer from root rots, especially in overly wet or poorly drained soils.
Root rot is often a problem in wet soils.
Soils are calcareous and several ruderal species are restricted or at their greatest abundance here.
Sandy soils with low clay content will be most rapidly affected.
Water must be displaced from saturated soils in order to reduce the volume of the voids.
Current status The main habitat of the pale shining brown is scrubby grassland on light calcareous soils.
The sandstone plateau around the hills gives rise to red, silty, loam soils over silty clays.
The parallel multiple striations are the gradiometer 's response to plow furrows in the soils which have a locally high level of magnetic susceptibility.
Radiometric data were also collected to map surficial rocks and soils, thus aiding geologic mapping of the basin fill.
They will grow in heavier soils than many ferns, but do not thrive where moisture is denied them.
It is more tolerant of dry soils than downy birch.
Habitat: Moist soils in mountains in understory of coniferous forests.
Unimproved grasslands on neutral or acidic soils are likely to contain at least 12 species of vascular plant per meter square.
Immediately fringing the tidal zone there may be sediments that have remained waterlogged since deposition and are classified as raw gley soils.
The Scots pine forests gradually died out and broadleaved trees able to cope with the wetter soils became dominant.
When your baby has a bowel movement and soils his diaper, this acid will eat away at baby's skin while bacteria can further irritate the area.
No matter the supplier, their will be regional taste differences since the fruit will have been raised in different soils under a wide variety of conditions, with blossoms fertilized by a variety of bees.
Try to add just one more room, and if she soils out of the box, confine her back to one room again and repeat the training.
Alpina, angustifolia, Clusii, and Kochiana, which thrive best in calcareous soils, except the last, which requires a soil free of it.
In England they thrive in a way on moist soils, but flower best in the limestone soils of Ireland.
Most of these seem of easy culture, but the American kinds gradually perish on heavy, compact soils.
Gritty, sandy, or peaty soils therefore suit them best-even marsh land, though saturated, is free in texture.