There is an abundance of fertile soil and magnificent grazing land.
The trees are planted on irrigated soil and the fruit gathered between November and August.
the soil to the depth of many feet, and from it springs the most marvellous tangle of huge trees, shrubs, bushes, underwood, creepers, climbing plants and trailing vines, the whole hung with ferns, mosses, and parasitic growths, and bound together by rattans and huge rope-like trailers.
The same thing that took place in Moscow had happened in all the towns and villages on Russian soil beginning with Smolensk, without the participation of Count Rostopchin and his broadsheets.
My auxiliaries are the dews and rains which water this dry soil, and what fertility is in the soil itself, which for the most part is lean and effete.
Where did He get the soil, and the water, and the seeds, and the first animals?
The soil, chiefly alluvial, though in some places arenaceous, is generally fertile and well cultivated, but a great portion is covered with forests, interspersed with lakes.
We cannot determine the chemical composition of soil simply by touching it.
They love the soil which makes their graves, but have no sympathy with the spirit which may still animate their clay.
The character of the soil changes from the alluvial lowlands.
While their neighbours, the Malays, Papuans and Polynesians, all cultivate the soil, and build substantial huts and houses, the Australian natives do neither.
Climate and a fertile soil have been important elements in this growth.
He squatted and took some of the freshly dug soil in his hand, crushing the lumps and letting the dust run through his fingers.
cerevisiae, is never found wild, but the wine yeasts occur abundantly in the soil of vineyards, and so are always present on the fruit, ready to ferment the expressed juice.
The lessee, or farmer, tills the soil at his own risk; usually he provides live stock, implements and capital, and has no right to compensation for ordinary improvements, nor for extraordinary improvements effected without the landlords consent.
When the leaves and the trees fell, the water and the soil covered them; and then more trees grew and fell also, and were buried under water and soil.
On the great estates in Assyria and its subject provinces were many serfs, mostly of subject race, settled captives, or quondam slaves, tied to the soil they cultivated and sold with the estate but capable of possessing land and property of their own.
After another moult the insect passes into the passive nymphal or " pupal " stage, during which it takes no food and rests in some safe hiding-place, such as the soil at the base of its food-plant or the hollow of a leaf-stalk.
It is this: When you oil your beard, don't oil it too much, lest it soil your clothing.
Enough of the rocky surface is covered with a thin coating of soil to enable the natives to grow yams, taro, bananas, &c., for their support; cotton thrives well, and has even been exported in small quantities, but there is no space available for its cultivation on any considerable scale.
Among the chief industrial plants is tobacco, which grows wherever suitable soil exists.
Sensors can constantly monitor moisture levels in the soil, the size and color of the plants, air quality, nutrient levels in the soil, amount of sunlight, and hundreds of other variables.
On these farms the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of stock go hand in hand, to the great advantage of both.
The loose soil on the banks of the river is every year carried away in great masses, and the channel has so widened as to render the recurrence of an overflow unlikely.
From the richness and mellowness of the soil potatoes and all taproots reach a great size.
The soil is blanched and accursed there, and before that becomes necessary the earth itself will be destroyed.
They never, in any situation, cultivated the soil for any kind of food-crop. They never reared any kind of cattle, or kept any domesticated animal except the dog, which probably came over with them in their canoes.
Their arid country was the best safeguard of their cherished liberty; for the bottle-shaped cisterns for rain-water which they excavated in the rocky or argillaceous soil were carefully concealed from invaders.
They are propagated by cuttings, or from the leaves, which are cut off and pricked in welldrained pots of sandy soil, or by the scales from the underground tubes, which are rubbed off and sown like seeds, or by the seeds, which are very small.
They are propagated by cuttings, or from the leaves, which are cut off and pricked in welldrained pots of sandy soil, or by the scales from the underground tubes, which are rubbed off and sown like seeds, or by the seeds, which are very small.
Time was when this area's families spent their lives here, from birth to death with the soil providing their sustenance and the earth the riches, at least for a few.
In the north and north-east are great plains of black soil, favourable to cotton-growing; in the south and west are successive ranges of low hills, with flat fertile valleys between them.
The porous soil absorbs the moisture, and fresh water is scarce.
In the north and north-east are great plains of black soil, favourable to cotton-growing; in the south and west are successive ranges of low hills, with flat fertile valleys between them.
In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when they have got root-hold.
At harvest-time the produce is placed in the barns of the lessor, who first deducts 25% as premium, then 16% for battiteria (the difference between corn before and after winnowing), then deducts a proportion for rent and subsidies, so that the portion retained by the actual tiller of the soil is extremely meagre.
Previous to the existence of the strait, and across its site, there poured into Australia a wealth of Papuan forms. Along the Pacific slope of the Queensland Cordillera these found in soil and climate a congenial home.
The soil is in general very fertile, the principal products being rice, maize and pulse (kachang) in the lower grounds, and cinchona, coffee and tea, as well as cocoa, tobacco and fibrous plants in the hills.
As I drew a still fresher soil about the rows with my hoe, I disturbed the ashes of unchronicled nations who in primeval years lived under these heavens, and their small implements of war and hunting were brought to the light of this modern day.
Stock-raisIngFrom this point of view the soil of France may be divided into four categories:
The soil is for the most part glacial drift, composed of clay, sand and gravel, and varying greatly in depth.
9) by a rich and well-watered plain, from which it rises in successive terraces of fertile soil to a height of 400 or 500 ft.
Angleworms are rarely to be met with in these parts, where the soil was never fattened with manure; the race is nearly extinct.
Jarrah timber is nearly impervious to the attacks of the teredo, and there is good evidence to show that, exposed to wear and weather, or placed under the soil, or used as submarine piles, the wood remained intact after nearly fifty years' trial.
The pitchers accumulate vast quantities of insects in the course of a season, and must thus abundantly manure the surrounding soil when they die.
Balashev remembered these words, "So long as a single armed foe remains on Russian soil," but some complex feeling restrained him.
Our Emperor joined the army to encourage it to defend every inch of Russian soil and not to retreat.
The chief thing in his eyes was not the nitrogen in the soil, nor the oxygen in the air, nor manures, nor special plows, but that most important agent by which nitrogen, oxygen, manure, and plow were made effective-- the peasant laborer.
The soil is not very productive, although agriculture flourishes in the valleys and on the level ground; grain has to be imported to meet the demand.
The oak grows most luxuriantly on deep strong clays, calcareous marl or stiff loam, but will flourish in nearly any deep well-drained soil, excepting peat or loose sand; in marshy or moist places the tree may grow well for a time, but the timber is rarely sound; on hard rocky ground and exposed hillsides.
While the rugged and mountainous district of Calabria, extending nearly due south for a distance of more than 150 m., thus derives its character and configuration almost wholly from the range of the Apennines, the long spur-like promontory which projects towards the east to Brindisi and Otranto is merely a continuation of the low tract of Apulia, with a dry calcareous soil of Tertiary origin.
The P0 valley and the valleys of Emilia and the Romagna are best adapted for rice, but the area is diminishing on account of the competition of foreign rice and of the impoverishment of the soil by too intense cultivation.
You, peaceful inhabitants of Moscow, artisans and workmen whom misfortune has driven from the city, and you scattered tillers of the soil, still kept out in the fields by groundless fear, listen!
Woods and forests play an important part, especially in regard to the consistency of the soil and to the character of the water~ courses.
A large part of this has been reclaimed and the sandy soil laid bare, but on the Drente and Prussian borders areas of fen still remain.
Woods and forests play an important part, especially in regard to the consistency of the soil and to the character of the water~ courses.
A large part of this has been reclaimed and the sandy soil laid bare, but on the Drente and Prussian borders areas of fen still remain.
The soil, it appears, is suited to the seed, for it has sent its radicle downward, and it may now send its shoot upward also with confidence.
The partridge and the rabbit are still sure to thrive, like true natives of the soil, whatever revolutions occur.
In the silicious matter which the water deposits is perhaps the bony system, and in the still finer soil and organic matter the fleshy fibre or cellular tissue.
Leo Africanus rightly describes its lower course as "severing by its winding channel the barren and naked soil from the green and fruitful."
Up to 1895 or 1896 the suggestions for wireless telegraphy which had been publicly announced or tried can thus be classified under three or four divisions, based respectively upon electrical conduction through the soil or sea, magnetic induction through space, combinations of the two foregoing, and lastly, electrostatic induction.
The lakes of Bolsena (Vulsiniensis), of Bracciano (Sabatinus), of Vico (Ciminus), of Albano (Albanus), of Nemi (Nemorensis), and other smaller lakes belong to this district; while between its south-west extremity and Monte Circello the Pontine Marshes form a broad strip of alluvial soil infested by malaria.
The results areaa lack of water-supply and of water-power, the streams becoming mere torrents for a short period and perfectly dry for the rest of the year; lack of a sufficient supply of timber; the denudation of the soil on the hills, and, where the valleys below have insufficient drainage, the formation of swamps.
The relations between owners and tillers of the soil are still regulated by the ancient forms of agrarian contract, which have remained almost untouched by social and political changes.
To the latter category it is now possible to refer with certainty only the Etruscans (for the chronology and limits of their occupation of Italian soil see ETRURIA: section Language).
Milan undertook the irrigation works which enriched the soil of Lombardy for ever.
I can't grow a marigold in a pot of fertilizer and these poor things don't even have soil!
A gust of wind delivered the smell of raindrops on parched soil.
the formation of nitrites and nitrates from ammonia and its compounds in the soil, was formerly held to be a purely chemical process, until Schloesing and Mintz suggested in 1877 that it was biological.
A good deal may also depend on the soil.
Less manure is used in these cellars than we generally see in the mushroom-houses of England, and the surface of each bed is covered with about an inch of fine white stony soil.
His daughter Alhfled he married to Peada, soil.
The vegetation of each region has its distinctive character, modified here and there by elevation, irrigation from mountain streams, and by the saline character of the soil.
It remains, therefore, to ask whether any information can be had about the language of this primitive -COfolk, and whether they can be identified as the authors of any of the various archaeological strata now recognized on Italian soil.
During the sojourn in Botany Bay the crew had to perform the painful duty of burying a comrade - a seaman named Forby Sutherland, who was in all probability the first British subject whose body was committed to Australian soil.
Rent varies according to the quality of the soil.
In Venetia it is more common than elsewhere in Italy for owners to till their own soil.
in sixteen years; it succeeds best in deep loamy soil, but will flourish in nearly any moist but well-drained situation.
Some of the volcanic soil is barren, but much of the district is clothed in luxuriant vegetation.
The independent plant which is generally attached to the soil by hair-like structures is the sexual generation, the sporophyte is a stalked or sessile capsule which remains always attached to the gametophyte from which it derives the whole or part of its nourishment.
ax., Green axis creeping on the surface of damp soil; rh., colorless rhizoids penetrating the soil; asc. ax., ascending axes of green cells.
The formation of a massive body naturally involves the localization of the absorptive region, and the function of absorption (which in the simpler forms is carried out by the whole of the vegetative part of the mycelium penetrating a solid or immersed in a liquid substratum) is subserved by the outgrowth of the hyphae of the surface-layer of that region into rhizoids, which, like those of the Algae living on soil, resemble the root-hairs of the higher plants.
In a general way this greater complexity may be said to consist (I) in the restriction of regular absorption of water to those parts of the plant-body embedded in the soil, (2) in the evaporation of water from the parts exposed to the air (transpiration).
In the Bryophytes water is still absorbed, not only from the soil but also largely from rain, dew, &c., through the general surface of the subaerial body (thallus), or in the more differentiated forms through the leaves.
life on soil (cf.
They serve to conduct water through the thallus, the assimilating parts of which are in these forms often raised above the soil and are comparatively remote from the rhizoid-bearing (water-absorbing) region.
To the base of the stem are attached a number of branched cell-threads (rhizoids) which ramify in the soil, fixing the plant and absorbing water from soil.
where the plant lives on soil from which it absorbs its main supply of water by means of its basal rhizoids) that a water-conducting (hydrom) strand is developed.
At the apex of a root, covering and protecting th~ delicate tissue of the growing point, is a special root-cap consistinf of a number of layers of tissue whose cells break down into mucilagi towards the outer surface, thus facilitating the passage of the ape~ as it is pushed between the particles of soil.
The ne~ root thus laid down burrows through the cortex of the mother-root and finally emerges into the soil.
In other cases, a similar formation of spongy but dead periderm tissue may occur for the same purpose in special patches, called pneumatodes, on the roots of certain trees living in marshy places, which rise above the soil in order to obtain air.
Certain cells of the exterior are set apart for absorption of water from the soil, this being the source from which supplies are derived.
This serves a double purpose, bringing up from the soil continually a supply of the soluble mineral matters necessary for their metabolic processes, \vhich only enter the plant in solutions of extreme dilution, and at the same time keeping the plant cool by the process of evaporation.
The natural source of the water is in all cases the soil, and few plants normally obtain any from elsewhere.
The water of the soil, which in well-drained soil is met with in the form of delicate films surrounding the particles of solid matter, is absorbed into the plant by the delicate hairs borne by the young roots, the entry being effected by a process of modified osmosis.
Now, as the materials which plants absorb are carbon dioxide from the air, and various inorganic compounds from the soil, together with water, it is clear that if this view is correct, vegetable protoplasm must be fed in a very different way from animal, and on very different materials.
The nitrogen is absorbed by the plant in some form of combination from the soil.
The power of green plants, not even specialized in any of these directions, to absorb certain carbohydrates, particularly sugars, from the soil was demonstrated by Acton in 1889.
From the outer cortical myceliuni, again, branches pass through the epidermis and grow out in the soil, In stich cases the roots of the plants are usuall) found spreading in soils which contain a large amount of humus, or decaying vegetable matter.
While they are quite capable of taking up nitrates from the soil where and so long as these are present, they can grow and thrive in soil which contains no combined nitrogen at all, deriving their supplies of this element in these cases from the air.
The power exercised by the Leguminosae is associated with the presence of curious tubercular swellings upon their roots, which are developed at a very early age, as they are cultivated in ordinary soil.
If experimental plants are grown in ster1lized soil, these swellings do not appear, and the plant can then use no atmospheric nitrogen.
They appear to be present in large numbers in the soil, and to infect the Leguminous plant by attacking its root-hairs.
When the root dies later such of these as remain are discharged into the soil, and are then ready to infect new plants.
That the fixation of the gas is carried out by the fungal organism either in the soil or in the plant, and the nitrogenous substance so produced is absorbed by the organism, which is in turn consumed by the green plant.
The root is made to press its way into the darker cracks and crannies of the soil, so bringing its root-hairs into better contact with the particles round which the hygroscopic water hangs.
But some stems grow parallel to the surface of the soil, while the branches both of stems and roots tend to grow at a definite angle to the main axis from which they come.
For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
IPassing to the recognized external agencies, the physical condition of the soil is a fruitful source of disease.
If too closely packed, the soil particles present mechanical obstacles to growth; if too retentive of moisture, the root-hairs suffer, as already hinted; if too open or over-drained, the plant succumbs to drought.
All those properties of soil known as texture, porosity, depth, inclination to the horizon, &c., are concerned here.
deficiency of nutritive salts, especially nitrates and phosphates; the presence of poisonous salts of iron, copper, &c., or (in the soil about the roots of trees in towns) of coal-gas and so forth.
the damping off of seedlingsand in saturated soils not only are the roots and root-hairs killed by asphyxiation, but the whole course of soil fermentation is altered, and it takes time to sweeten such by draining, because not only must the noxious bodies be gradually washed out and the lost salts restored, but the balance of suitable bacterial and fungal life must be restored.
Plants as agents of damage and disease may be divided into those larger forms which as weeds, epiphytes and so forth, do injury by dominating and shading more delicate species, or by gradually exhausting the soil, &c., and true parasites which actually live on and in the tissues of the plants.
Worms bring spores to the surface of soil, ducks and other birds convey them on their muddy feet.
It may be that in particular cases particular modes of cultivation disfavour the host; or that the soil, climate or seasons do so; but overwhelming evidence exists to show that the principal causes of epidemics reside in circumstances which favor the spread, nutrition and reproduction of the pest, and the lesson to be learnt is, that precautions against the establishment of such favoring conditions must be sought.
Physical FactorsThese are frequently classified as edaphic or soil factors and climatic factors; but there is no sharp line of demarcation between them.
Edaphic factors include all those relating to the soil.
The water content of the soil, its mineral content, its humus content, its temperature, and its physical characteristics, such as its depth and the size of its component particles are all edaphic factors.
Soil temperature is partly dependent on the direct rays of the sun, partly on the color and constitution of the soil, and partly on the water content of the soil.
Again, the temperature of the air is affected by radiation from the soil; and radiation differs in various soils.
Again, the well-known action of earthworms may be said to be a biological work; but the resulting aeration of the soil causes edaphic differences; and earthworms are absent from certain soils, such as peat.
Schimperl made a distinct advance when he distinguished between physical and physiological dryness or wetness of the soil.
A soil may be physically wet; but if the plants absorb the water only with difficulty, as in a salt marsh, then the soil is, as regards plants, physiologically dry.
The soil (in the widest sense) is very wet, and the abundant SI
Helophytes.These are marsh plants which normally have ii, leir roots in soaking soil but whose branches and foliage are more less aerial.
The soil is physiologically dry.
C. The soil is physicallydry.
Lithophytes.These are plants which grow on true rock, it not on the loose soil covering rock, even though this may W
frbs which occur on particular dry kinds of soil, such as lime- rf one rocks, stiff clay, and so forth (Warming, 1909: 289).
The climate is very dry, and the properties of the soil are 0
The soil is physically or physiologically dry.
Thus, associ- 1~e] ions of Agropyrum (Triticum) junceum, of Carex arenaria, of ~ ~nmophila (Psamma) arenaria, and of other plants occur on sa rid dunes: the associations are related by the general identity ph the habitat conditions, namely, the physiological dryness f d the loose soil; but they are separated by differences in f~1
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
Physically and physiologically dry habitats, with the accompanying plant communities of sand dunes and sandy heaths with little humus in the soil.
mineral salts, especially calcium carbonate, often rich in acidic humous compounds, and characterized by oak and birch woods, siliceous pasture, and heaths with much acidic humus in the sandy soil.
Some halophytes tend - to lose their succulence when cultivated in a nonsaline soil; and some non-halophytes tend to become succulent when cultivated in a salty soil; there is, it need scarcely be stated, little or no evidence that such characters are transmitted.
Lesagef has shown that the height of certain plants is decreased by cultivation in a saline soil, and that the leaves of iLesage, Recherches exphrimentales sur les modifications de, feuilles chez les plantes maritimes, in Rev. gen.
He showed further, that the increase of common salt in the soil is correlated with a reduction in the number and size of the chlo,-oplastids, and therefore in the amount of chlorophyll.
Bog Xerophytes live in the peaty soil of fens and moors which are physically wet, but which are said to be physiologically dry.
Hygrophytes.Living, as these plants do, under medium conditions as regards soil, moisture and climate, they exhibit no characters which are markedly xerophytic or hydrophytic. Hence, such plants are frequently termed mesophytes.
In relation to the latter theory, it is pointed out that some markedly calcicole species occur on sand dunes; but this may be due to the lime which is frequently present in dune sand as well as to the physical dryness of the soil.
However, until more is known of the exact chemical composition of naturalas contrasted with agriculturalsoils, and until more is known of the physiological effects of lime, it is impossible to decide the vexed question of the relation of limeloving and lime-shunning plants to the presence or absence of calcium carbonate in the soil.
Speaking generally, all plants tend to exhaust particular constituents of the soil on which they grow.
Seeds are carried in soil adhering to their feet and plumage, and aquatic plants have in consequence for the most part an exceptionally wide range.
Here the climate is temperate, the country watered by many rivers and lakes, the soil fertile, the vegetation rich, the cattle numerous.
The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
Differences in land forms do not exert great influence on the distribution of living creatures directly, but indirectly such land forms as mountain ranges and internal drainage basins are very potent through their action on soil and climate.
Vegetation of all sorts acts in a similar way, either in forming soil and assisting in breaking up rocks, in filling up shallow lakes, and even, like the mangrove, in reclaiming wide stretches of land from the sea.
Plant life, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life.
The agriculturist as a rule is rooted to the soil.
the Tyrannidae, has evidently been led by the geographical continuity of its soil with that of the Neotropical region, such forms do not occur elsewhere.
Except such as are of coral formation, the Antilles are hilly, not to say mountainous, their summits rising in places to an elevation of 8000 ft., and nearly all, prior to their occupation by Europeans, were covered with luxuriant forest, which, assisting in the collection and condensation of the clouds brought by the trade winds, ensured its own vitality by precipitating frequent and long-continued rains; upon the fertile soil.
The soil in the valleys and plains of the department, especially in the Bresse, is fertile, producing large quantities of wheat, as well as oats, buckwheat and maize.
The most suitable soil is a light, sandy loam enriched with well decomposed manure, in a rather moist situation.
The mines suffered greatly from inundations in 1868 and 1879, and the soil on which the town is built shows signs of subsidence.
The valley bed is more or less covered with alluvial soil, and cultivated in places by artificial irrigation.
But it took firm root on Norman soil; it made its way to England at an early stage of its growth, and from that time it went on developing and improving on both sides of the Channel till the artistic revolution came by which, throughout northern Europe, the Romanesque styles gave way to the Gothic. Thus the history of architecture in England during the 11th and 12th centuries is a very different story from the history of the art in Sicily during the same time.
The cultivation of the soil is limited to local needs, except in the production of tobacco, which is exported to neighbouring states.
When the latter is reached and the pit completed, the larva settles down at the bottom, buried in the soil with only the jaws projecting above the surface.
The soil, mainly alluvial, is naturally very fertile, and wherever cultivated yields abundant crops, durra being the principal grain grown.
Bali belongs physically to Java; the climate and soil are the same and it has mountains of proportionate height.
They are admirably adapted for moving through the soil, where some of them live on decaying organic matter, while others are predaceous.
The soil of Russia depends chiefly on the distribution of the boulder-clay and loess.
In the extensive region covered with boulder-clay the black earth appears only in isolated places, and the soil consists for the most part of a sandy clay, containing a much smaller admixture of humus.
Drainage finding no outlet through the thick clay, the soil of the forest region is often hidden beneath extensive marshes, and the forests themselves are often mere thickets choking marshy ground; large tracts of sand appear in the W., and the admixture of boulders with the clay in the N.W.
The shortness of the summer, the deficiency of drainage and the depth to which the soil freezes in winter, are the circumstances which determine the characteristic features of the vegetation of the tundras.
The forests are composed of the birch, oak and other deciduous trees, the soil is dry, and the woodlands are divided by green prairies.
The chief occupation of approximately seven-eighths of the population of European Russia is agriculture, but its character varies considerably according to the soil, the climate and Agri- the geographical position of the different regions.
Broadly speaking, the forests here yield to steppes, and the soil is very fertile; but the whole region suffers periodically from drought.
But a long course of continuous cropping with these grain crops, without affording compensation to the soil in the form of manure or deep cultivation, has so ex.
Here again both capital and labour are short, and the cultivation of the soil suffers from the fact that, owing to the absence of timber, dry dung is used for fuel instead of being employed as manure.
As late as 1571 Moscow was pillaged by a Tatar horde; but there was no longer any question of permanent political subjection to the Asiatics, and the Russian frontier was being gradually pushed forward at the expense of the nomads of the steppe by the constant advance of the agricultural population in quest of virgin soil.
Except in hard rock, the top width of a cutting, and therefore the amount of material to be excavated, increases rapidly with the depth; hence if a cutting exceeds a certain depth, which varies with the particular circumstances, it may be more economical, instead of forming the sides at the slope at which the material of which they are composed will stand, to make them nearly vertical and support the soil with a retaining wall, or to bore a tunnel.
The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
Their support being removed they break away in the direction of natural joints, and the fragments fall down the slope upon the vegetable soil.
This soil is spongy, and, undergoing alternate contraction and expansion from being alternately comparatively dry and saturated with moisture, allows the heavy blocks to slip down by their own weight into the valley, where they become piled up, the valley stream afterwards removing the soil from among and over them.
The whole group is abundantly watered, and the igneous soil is marvellously fertile.
But when the nomadic clans of Israel came to occupy the settled abodes of the agricultural Canaanites who had a stake in the soil which they cultivated, these conditions evidently reacted on their religion.
To this Baal the productiveness of the soil was due.
His power was asserted in and from Canaanite soil.
In Britain the tree grows to a height of 40 ft., in its native soil to .70 or 90 ft.
The wood is light, soft, straight-grained and easily worked; it is very durable in contact with the soil, and is used for.
It thrives only near water or where the soil is permanently moist.
The soil when reclaimed is well adapted for forage crops, cereals, vegetables and deciduous fruits.
In spite of the predominating interest in stock-raising, intensive cultivation of the soil is practicable where the water supply is sufficient.
Perhaps Erysichthon may be explained as the personification of the labourer, who by the systematic cultivation and tilling of the soil endeavours to force the crops, instead of allowing them to mature unmolested as in the good old times.
Tearing up the soil with the plough is regarded as an invasion of the domain of the earth-mother, punished by the all-devouring hunger for wealth, that increases with increasing produce.
The soil is very fertile, and many of the inhabitants have acquired much wealth from the cultivation of rice.
Yahwism is a religion which appears upon a soil saturated with ideas and usages which find their parallel in extrabiblical sources and in neighbouring lands.
The book of Deuteronomy crystallizes a doctrine; it is the codification of teaching which presupposes a carefully prepared soil.
Here, far more than on Palestinian soil, was built the enduring edifice of rabbinism.
The soil is thus very productive, although water is scarce and bad.
Owing to the volcanic nature of its soil, Crete is probably rich in minerals.
Here, as in Crete, Daedalus executed great works like the temple of Eryx, and it was on Sicilian soil that Minos, engaged in a western campaign, was said to have met with a violent death at the hands of the native king Kokalos (Cocalus) and his daughters.
The remarkable remains recently brought to light on Cretan soil tend to show that already some 2000 years before the Dorian conquest the island was exercising a dominant influence in the Aegean world.
The soil of the valleys is highly fertile, and produces cereals in the higher 1 So Isa.
It is covered with a layer of thin, dry soil, through the slow weathering of the coral rocks.
The rains are quickly absorbed by the light porous soil and leave only temporary effects on the surface, where arboreal growth is stunted and grasses are commonly thin and harsh.
It v e mires very little moisture, grows luxuriantly on the thin calcareous soil of Yucatan and is cultivated almost exclusively by the large landowners.
The most fertile soil is the alluvium of the' Delta, deposited during the overflows of the Mississippi.
From the extreme south most of the merchantable timber had been cut, but immediately north of this there were still vast quantities of valuable long-leaf pine; in the marshes of the Delta was much cypress, the cotton-wood was nearly exhausted, and the gum was being used as a substitute for it; and on the rich upland soil were oak and red gum, also cotton-wood, hickory and maple.
On the Coastal Plain the soil is generally sandy, but in nearly all parts of this region more or less marl abounds; south of the Neuse river the soil is mostly a loose sand, north of it there is more loam on the uplands, and in the lowlands the soil is usually compact with clay, silt or peat; toward the western border of the region the sand becomes coarser and some gravel is mixed with it.
Throughout much of the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions the decomposition of felspar and of other aluminous minerals has resulted in a deep soil of clay with which more or less sand is mixed.
The state was twice invaded, in 1776 and in 1780-1781, and two important battles were fought upon her soil, Moore's Creek on the 27th of February 1776 and Guilford Court House on the 15th of March 1781.
a peculiarly fruitful soil for mysticism, and, in connexion either with the Beguines or the Church organization, a number of women appear about this time, combining a spirit of mystical piety and asceticism with sturdy reformatory zeal directed against the abuses of the time.
The nests of different kinds of ants are constructed in very different situations; many species (Lasius, for example) make underground nests; galleries and chambers being hollowed out in the soil, and opening by small holes on the surface, or protected above by a large stone.
This zone has an abundant rainfall, dense forests and a fertile soil.
The order is well represented in Britain by 18 genera, which include several species of Orchis: Gymnadenia (fragrant orchis), Habenaria (butterfly and frog orchis), Aceras (man orchis), Hermin- ium (musk orchis), Ophrys (bee, spider and fly orchis), Epipactis (Helleborine), Cephalanthera, Neottia (bird's-nest orchis), one of the few saprophytic genera, which have no green leaves, but derive their nourishment from decaying organic matter in the soil, Listens (Tway blade), Spiranthes (lady's tresses), Malaxis (bog-orchis), Liparis (fen-orchis), Corallorhiza (coral root), also a saprophyte, and Cypripedium (lady's slipper), represented by a single species now very rare in limestone districts in the north of England.
The climate is generally such as to secure the population the necessaries of life without severe labour; the extremes of heat and drought are such as to render the land unsuitable for pasture, and the people everywhere subsist by cultivation of the soil or commerce, and live in settled villages or towns.
In the summer a great accumulation of solar heat takes place on the dry surface soil, from which it cannot be released upwards by evaporation, as might be the case were the soil moist or covered with vegetation, nor can it be readily conveyed away downwards as happens on the ocean.
In illustration of the very slow diffusion of heat in the solid crust of the earth, and as affording a further indication of the climate of northern Asia, reference may here be made to the frozen soil of Siberia, in the vicinity of Yakutsk.
Under such conditions of the soil, the land, nevertheless, produces crops of wheat and other grain from fifteen to forty fold.
On the other hand Christianity, though Asiatic in its origin and essential ideas, has to a large extent taken its present form on European soil, and some of its most important manifestations - notably the Roman Church - are European reconstructions in which little of the Asiatic element remains.
It is irrigated by an elaborate system of dams, cuts and canals in connexion with the rivers Cauvery and Coleroon, and the soil is exceedingly productive.
The soil of Pomerania is for the most part thin and sandy, but patches of good land are found here and there.
He was a Free Soil candidate for Congress (1850), but was defeated; was indicted with Wendell Phillips and Theodore Parker for participation in the attempt to release the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston (18J3); was engaged in the effort to make Kansas a free state after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854; and during the Civil War was captain in the 51st Massachusetts Volunteers, and from November 1862 to October 1864, when he was retired because of a wound received in the preceding August, was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment recruited from former slaves for the Federal service.
In 1368 an inquisition was taken to ascertain these privileges, and the jurors found that the burgesses held "all the soil of their borough yielding 7s.
The only cultivable soil occurs in the valleys of the large rivers, but the deer-forest and the shootings on moor and mountain are among the most extensive in Scotland.
The soil of these plains is generally very fertile and they support a population of nearly 2,800,000 Russians, composed of Cossacks and peasant immigrants, settled chiefly along the rivers and grouped in large, wealthy villages.
The Lenkoran district, sometimes called Talysh, on the western side of the Kizil-Agach bay, is blessed with a rich vegetation, a fertile soil, and a moist climate.
The principal products of the soil are mentioned lower down, while the general character of the vegetation is indicated under Caucasus: Western Caucasus.
The cultivation of the soil is, however, attended in many parts with great difficulties owing to the scanty rainfall and the very primitive implements still in use, and in the valley of the Kura heavy losses are frequently incurred from depredations by locusts.
Towards the centre the almost treeless plain presents a monotonous aspect, broken only by a few rocky elevations that rise abruptly from the black soil.
Among the higher altitudes of north Derbyshire, where the soil is poor and the climate harsh, grain is unable to flourish, while even in the more sheltered parts of this region the harvest is usually belated.
The soil, even with little culture, is exceedingly productive, owing to the abundance of water which irrigates and fertilizes it.
The pear-stock, having an inclination to send its roots down deeper into the soil, is the best for light dry soils, as the plants are not then so likely to suffer in dry seasons.
For the pear orchard a warm situation is very desirable, with a soil deep, substantial, and thoroughly drained.
This is effected by raising up a small mound of rich compost around it, a contrivance which induces the graft to emit roots into the surface soil.
ager, field, and colere, to cultivate), the science, art and industry of utilizing the soil so as to produce the means of human subsistence, embracing in its widest sense the rearing of live-stock as well as the raising of crops.
Next came the sowing, the seed being pressed into the soil by the feet of sheep which were driven over the fields.
The Mosaic Institute contained an agrarian law, based upon an equal division of the soil amongst the adult males, a census of whom was taken just before their entrance into Canaan.
They were favoured with a soil extremely fertile, and one which their skill and diligence kept in good condition.
The seventh year's fallow prevented the exhaustion of the soil, which was further enriched by the burning of the weeds and spontaneous growth of the Sabbatical year.
culture of classical ages was slightly more developed in Greece so far as the husbandman of Greece and Rome was less able to leave to nature the fertilization of the soil.
The following epitome of Virgil's advice to the husbandman in the first book of the Georgics suggests the outline of Roman husbandry: "First learn the peculiarities of your soil and climate."
Repetition of one crop in the field exhausts the ground; but rotation of the crops is good for the soil.
Irrigation benefits a sandy soil, draining a marshy soil.
They were bound to the soil and occupied holdings of scattered strips (amounting usually to a virgate or 30 acres) in return for a payment partly in labour and partly in kind.
The very laws which were made during successive reigns for protecting the tillers of the soil from spoil are the best proofs of the deplorable state of the husbandman."' In the r7th century those laws were made which paved the way for an improved system of agriculture in Scotland.
It Progress of agricul- is probable that very little improvement had taken ture from place, either in the cultivation of the soil or in the 1688 to management of live stock, from the Restoration down 1760.
Having arrived at the conclusion that the food of plants consists of minute particles of earth taken up by their rootlets, it followed that the more thoroughly the soil in which they grew was disintegrated, the more abundant would be the " pasture " (as he called it) to which their fibres would have access.
Such reliance did he place in the pulverization of the soil that he grew as many as thirteen crops of wheat on the same field without manure.
It is therefore necessary not only to pulverize the soil by repeated ploughings before it be seeded, but, as it becomes gradually more and more compressed afterwards, recourse must be had to tillage while the plants are growing; and this is hoeing, which also destroys the weeds that would deprive the plants of their nourishment.
The author bespeaks the favour of those to whom he addresses himself in the following significant terms: - " Neither shall I affright you with hedging, ditching, marling, chalking, paring and burning, draining, watering and such like, which are all very good improvements indeed, and very agreeable with the soil and situation of East Lothian, but I know ye cannot bear as yet a crowd of improvements, this being only intended to initiate you in the true method and principles of husbandry."
The great future that seemed to await the application of steam power to the tillage of the soil proved illusory.
A year or two later field trials were begun in England, with the final result that basic slag has become recognized as a valuable source of phosphorus for growing crops, and is now in constant demand for application to the soil as a fertilizer.
The drought of 1898 was interrupted by copious rains in June, and these falling on a warm soil led to a rapid growth of grass and, as measured by yield per acre, an exceedingly heavy crop of hay.
Experiments upon the growth of barley for fifty years in succession on rather heavy ordinary arable soil resulted in showing that the produce by mineral manures alone is larger than that without manure; that nitrogenous manures alone give more produce than mineral manures alone; and that mixtures of mineral and nitrogenous manure give much more than either used alone - generally twice, or more than twice, as much as mineral manures alone.
The requirements of barley within the soil, and its susceptibility to the external influences of season, are very similar to those of its near ally, wheat.
In the British Isles wheat is, as a rule, sown in the autumn on a heavier soil, and has four or five months in which to distribute its roots, and so it gets possession of a wide range of soil and subsoil before barley is sown in the spring.
Barley, on the other hand, is sown in a lighter surface soil, and, with its short period for root-development, relies in a much greater degree on the stores of plant-food within the surface soil.
Accordingly it is more susceptible to exhaustion of surface soil as to its nitrogenous, and especially as to its mineral supplies; and in the common practice of agriculture it is found to be more benefited by direct mineral manures, especially phosphatic manures, than is wheat when sown under equal soil conditions.
The exhaustion of the soil induced by both barley and wheat is, however, characteristically that of available nitrogen; and when, under the ordinary conditions of manuring and cropping, artificial manure is still required, nitrogenous manures are, as a rule, necessary for both crops, and, for the spring-sown barley, superphosphate also.
Additional significance to the value of the above experiments on wheat and barley is afforded by the fact that the same series, with but slight modifications, has also been carried out since 1876 at the Woburn (Bedfordshire) experimental farm of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, the soil here being of light sandy character, and thus very different from the heavy soil of Rothamsted.
Independently of the necessary consideration of the general economy of the farm, the choice must be influenced partly by the character of the soil, but very much more by that of the climate.
The fact that the growth of a leguminous crop, such as red clover, leaves the soil in a higher condition for the subsequent growth of a grain crop - that, indeed, the growth of such a leguminous crop is to a great extent equivalent to the application of a nitrogenous manure for the cereal crop - was in effect known ages ago.
This has taken the form of inoculating the soil with the particular organism required by the particular kind of leguminous crop. To this end the endeavour has been made to produce preparations which shall contain in portable form the organisms required by the several plants, and though, as yet, it can hardly be claimed that they have been generally successful, the work done justifies hopes that the problem will eventually be solved in a practical direction.
The growth, year after year, on the same soil of one kind of plant unfits it for bearing further crops of the kind which has exhausted it, and renders them:_less vigorous and more liable to disease.
Under this system the clover is ploughed up in the autumn, the nitrogen stored up in its roots being left in the soil for the nourishment of the cereal crop. The following summer the wheat crop is harvested, and an opportunity is afforded for extirpating weeds which in the three previous years have received little check.
Or, where the climate is warm and the soil light, a " catch-crop," i.e.
The rotations extending to five, six, seven or more years are, in most cases, only adaptations of the principle to variations of soil, altitude, aspect, climate, markets and other local conditions.
As to the source of the nitrogen of the root-crops-the so-called " restorative crops "-these are as dependent as any crop that is grown on available nitrogen within the soil, which is generally supplied by the direct appli cation of nitrogenous manures, natural or artificial.
Under such conditions of supply, however, the root-crops, gross feeders as they are, and distributing a very large extent of fibrous feeding root within the soil, avail themselves of a much larger quantity of the nitrogen supplied than the cereal crops would do in similar circumstances.
This result is partly due to their period of accumulation and growth extending even months after the period of collection by the ripening cereals has terminated, and at the season when nitrification within the soil is most active, and the accumulation of nitrates in it is the greatest.
It is the leguminous fodder crops-especially clover, which has a much more extended period of growth, and much wider range of collection within the soil and subsoil, than any of the other crops of the rotation-that yield in their produce the largest amount of nitrogen per acre.
For root-feeders, bisulphide of carbon injected into the soil is of particular value.
The dipterous garden pests, such as the onion fly, carrot fly and celery fly, can best be kept in check by the use of paraffin emulsions and the treatment of the soil with gas-lime after the crop is lifted.
It may mean what is ordinarily understood by the word - climate, rainfall, railway rates or anything else except " indestructible powers of the soil."
It everywhere shows a preference for a moist but well-drained soil, and never attains its full stature or luxuriance of growth upon arid ground, whether on plain or mountain - a peculiarity that should be remembered by the planter.
In a favourable soil and open situation it becomes the tallest and one of the stateliest of European trees, rising sometimes to a height of from 150 to 170 ft., the trunk attaining a diameter of from 5 to 6 ft.
In its native habitats it is said to endure for several centuries; but in those countries from which the commercial supply of its timber is chiefly drawn, it attains perfection in from 70 to 90 years, according to soil and situation.
In a good soil and position the tree sometimes attains an enormous size: one in Studley Park, Yorkshire, attained nearly 140 ft.
This species prefers a peaty soil, and often grows luxuriantly in very moist situations.
It was introduced into Britain soon after its rediscovery by David Douglas in 1827, and has been widely planted, but does not flourish well where exposed to high winds or in too shallow soil.
The silver fir flourishes in a deep loamy soil, and will grow even upon stiff clay, when well drained - a situation in which few conifers will succeed.
Disappointed of this last hope, and moved by the despairing appeals of his sister Ulrica and the senate to return to Sweden while there was still a Sweden to return to, he quitted Demotika on the 20th of September 1714, and attended by a single squire arrived unexpectedly at midnight, on the 11th of November, at Stralsund, which, excepting Wismar, was now all that remained to him on German soil.
In command of the Greek contingent from Phylace in Thessaly, he was the first to spring ashore on Trojan soil, although he knew it meant instant death.
Camden, about the end of the 17th century, wrote that "the people are very industrious, so that though the soil about it be barren and improfitable, not fit to live on, they have so flourished..
The substratum of the plain is a bed of boulders, covered during the lapse of ages by a deposit of rich alluvial soil.
The soil is an oozy mud which can only be made capable of carrying buildings by the artificial means of pile-driving; there is no land fit for agriculture or the rearing of cattle; the sole food supply is fish from the lagoon, and there is no drinking-water save such as could be stored from the rainfall.
part of the state, the soil is largely a decomposition of the underlying rocks, and its fertility varies according to their composition; there is considerable limestone in the E.
central portion, and this renders the soil very productive.
In the other parts of the state the soil is composed mainly of glacial drift, and is generally deep and fertile.
The soil is almost throughout "black earth," and Podolia is one of the most fertile governments of Russia.
69-79) the distinctive 2 " The soil of this marsh [east of Palmyra] is so impregnated with salt that a trench or pit sunk in it becomes filled in a short time with concentrated brine, the water of which evaporates in the intense sunshine and leaves an incrustation of excellent salt."
The soil is composed of red ferruginous kankar, with a stratum of clay in the more elevated parts, covered by a thin layer of vegetable mould, or by recent alluvial deposits.
high, composed of red soil containing a considerable quantity of iron ore; and the whole tract is for the most part unproductive.
Towards the city the red soil is intersected by creeks and morasses, whose margins yield crops of rice, mustard and til seed; while to the east of the town, a broad, alluvial, well-cultivated plain reaches as far as the junction of the Dhaleswari and Lakshmia rivers.
It consists entirely of rich alluvial soil, annually inundated to a depth varying from 2 to 14 ft.
In both there are species which form no nest or burrow, others which construct a simple silk-lined tunnel in the soil, and others which close the aperture of the burrow with a hinged door; while both share the habit of lining the burrow with silk to prevent the infall of loose sand or mould; and the species which make an open burrow close the aperture with a sheet of silk in the winter during hibernation and open it again in the spring.
Quite commonly the burrow has a second passage running obliquely upwards from the main passage to the surface of the soil, and this subsidiary track may itself be shut off from the main branch by an inner door, so that when an enemy has forced an entrance through the main door, the spider retreats behind the second, leaving the intruder to explore the seemingly empty burrow.
Species of other families (Lycosidae, Clubionidae) may live for a few seasons, hibernating in the soil or amongst dead leaves; and examples of the larger spiders (Aviculariidae) have been kept alive in captivity for several years.
When concealment is no longer possible terrestrial species, like the Lycosidae, dart swiftly to the nearest shelter afforded by crevices in the soil, stones, fallen leaves or logs of wood, while those that live in bushes, like the Argyopidae, drop straight to the ground and lie hidden in the earth or in the fallen vegetation beneath.
(I) In respect of fixtures (which may be shortly defined as movables so affixed to the soil as to become part thereof), the tenant may sometimes remove them, e.g.
In regions where climatic conditions are favourable, cotton grows more or less successfully on almost all kinds of soil; it can be grown on light sandy soils, loams, heavy clays and sandy " bottom " lands with varying success.
The soil should be able to maintain very uniform conditions of moisture.
Sudden variations in the amount of water supplied are injurious: a sandy soil cannot retain water; on the other hand a clay soil often maintains too great a supply, and rank growth with excess of foliage ensues.
The best soil for cotton is thus a deep, welldrained loam, able to afford a uniform supply of moisture during the growing period.
The result is a great destruction of the humus of the soil, and great leaching and washing, especially in the light loams of the hill country of the United States.
In the moist bottom-lands along the rivers it is the custom to throw the soil up in high beds with the plough, and then to cultivate them deep. This is the more common method of drainage, but it is expensive, as it has to be renewed every few years.
There can be no question that a deep soil is better for the cottonplant; but the expense of obtaining it, the risk of injuring the soil through leaching, and the danger of bringing poor soil to the surface, have led many planters to oppose this plan.
It is believed that the rotation must differ with every variety of soil, with the result that each planter has his own method, and little can be said in general.
A more careful study of the physical as well as the chemical properties of a soil must precede intelligent experimentation in rotation.
The exhaustion of the soil under cotton culture is chiefly due to the loss of humus, and nature soon puts this back in the excellent climate of the cotton-growing belt.
The fibre takes almost nothing from the land, and where the seeds are restored to the soil in some form, even without other fertilizers, the exhaustion of the soil is very slow.
If the burningup of humus and the leaching of the soil could be prevented, there is no reason whyia cotton soil should not produce good crops continuously for an indefinite time.
A narrow deep furrow is usually run immediately in advance of the planter, to break up the soil under the seed.
It has frequently been noted that even well-fertilized plants upon good soil will mature only 15 or 20% of the bolls produced.
The delta soil is typically a heavy, black, alluvial clay, very fertile, but difficult to work; admixture of sand is beneficial, and the localities where this occurs yield the best cotton.
A more rational proceeding would be to feed the meal to animals and apply the resulting manure to the soil.
The roots are prevented from fulfilling their function of taking up water and salts from the soil; the leaves accordingly droop, and the whole plant wilts and in bad attacks dies.
Cyprus has a soil and climate suited to cotton, which was formerly grown here on a large scale.
The cultivation of cotton on a commercial scale is quite new in Nyasaland, and although general conditions of soil and climate appear favourable the question of transport is serious and labour is not abundant.
Possessing soil, climate and apparently all the requisite elements from nature for the production of cotton to an almost boundless extent, and of a 1 Approximately.
The great plain in Sheng-king is in many parts swampy, and in the neighbourhood of the sea, where the soil emits a saline exudation such as is also common in the north of China, it is perfectly sterile.
The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem was the meeting-place of two civilizations: on its soil the East learned from the West, and - perhaps still more - the West learned from the East.
It is noticeable that it was on French soil that the seed had been sown.3 Preached on French soil by a pope of French descent, the Crusades began - and they continued - as essentially a French (or perhaps better Norman-French) enterprise; and the kingdom which they established in the East was essentially a French kingdom, in its speech and its customs, its virtues and its vices.
- chain mail, long shield and heavy casque - as if they were on their native French soil.
on a kingdom founded by religious zeal on holy soil - whether the kingdom possessed that moral basis which alone can give a right of survival to any institution or organization.
of the fall of Edessa, and at the end of the year he had sent an encyclical to France - the natural soil, as we have seen, of crusading zeal.
The villages were mostly inhabited by Syrians: it was rarely that Franks settled down as tillers of the soil.
The tables were turned; and fighting on their own soil for the recovery of what was to them too a holy place, the Mahommedans easily carried the day.
The Crusade had failed - failed because a leaderless army, torn by political dissensions and fighting on a foreign soil, could not succeed against forces united by religious zeal under the banner of a leader like Saladin.
Palestine, being less shut in and enjoying a comparatively large general rainfall, would be still a land " flowing with milk and honey " had its forests not been destroyed, and the terracing, which used to hold up soil on the highlands, been maintained.
As regards the cultivation of the soil Syria remains stable; but the soil is becoming relatively poorer, the value of the imports constantly gaining upon that of the exports.
In the richer soil they cut deep channels; the denudation thus caused threatens to diminish seriously the area of arable and pasture land.
His true place in history is that of the greatest of the guerrilleros - the perfect type of that sort of warrior in which, from the days of Viriathus to those of Juan Diaz, El Empecinado, the soil of Spain has been most productive.
They may be divided into three classes: the pine lands, which often have a surface of dark vegetable mould, under which is a sandy loam resting on a substratum of clay, marl or limestone - areas of such soil are found throughout the state; the " hammocks," which have soil of similar ingredients and are interspersed with the pine lands - large areas of this soil occur in Levy, Alachua, Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Gadsden, Leon, Madison, Jefferson and Jackson counties; and the alluvial swamp lands, chiefly in E.
The fragments indicate the great 'variety of subjects discussed: the origin of the appeal to the people (provocatio); the use of elephants in the circus games; the wearing of gold rings; the introduction of the olive tree; the material for making the toga; the cultivation of the soil; certain details as to the lives of Cicero and Terence.
19); as the god of fertility all the produce of the soil is his, and his adherents bring to him their tribute of first-fruits.
Owing to the configuration of the soil, the climate of Moravia varies more than might be expected in so small an area, so that, while the vine and maize are cultivated successfully in the southern plains, the weather in the mountainous districts is somewhat rigorous.
The Cephisus, rising in Pentelicus, enters the sea at New Phalerum; in summer it dwindles to an insignificant stream, while the Ilissus, descending from Hymettus, is totally dry, probably owing to the destruction of the ancient forests on both mountains, and the consequent denudation of the soil.
The Attic plain, notwithstanding the lightness of the soil, furnished an adequate supply of cereals; olive and fig groves and vineyards were cultivated from the earliest times in the valley of the Cephisus, and pasturage for sheep and goats was abundant.
This accords with the cherished tradition which made the Athenians children of the soil, and free from admixture with conquering tribes.
In politics Field was originally an anti-slavery Democrat, and he supported Van Buren in the Free Soil campaign of 1848.
In the plains the soil is generally of sand or alluvial clay, covered in the valleys with a rich vegetable mould.
Close to the coast the soil is for the most part a coral sand.
On the foothills and in the less rugged mountain districts there is a thin but rich clay soil derived from coral limestone.
Mole-rats are easily recognized by the peculiarly flattened head, in which the minute eyes are covered with skin, the wart-like ears, and rudimentary tail; they make burrows in sandy soil, and feed on bulbs and roots.
East of the town rises Mayon, an active volcano, and the rich volcanic soil in this region produces hemp, rice and coco-nuts.
The soil is a clayey or a sandy loam, and very fertile except in the Usar tracts, where there is a saline efflorescence.
It contains all the best land in Berar; it is full of deep, rich, black alluvial soil, of almost inexhaustible fertility, and it undulates sufficiently to maintain a natural system of drainage, but there is nothing picturesque about this broad strip of champaign country.
In this region the sandstone rocks are generally overlaid with heavy black soil formed from the decaying trap, which is principally devoted to the cultivation of the spring crops, wheat and grain, while rice and hill millets are sown in the lighter and more sandy soils.
The surface soil of Berar is to a great extent a rich black vegetable mould; and where this surface soil does not exist, there are muram and trap with a shallow upper crust of inferior light soil.
The Nagpur country, drained by the Wardha and Wainganga rivers, contains towards the west the shallow black soil in which autumn crops like cotton and the large millet, juar, which do not require excessive moisture, can be successfully cultivated.
The eastern part of the Nagpur country and the Chhattisgarh plain, comprising the Mahanadi basin, form the great rice tract of the province, its heavy rainfall and hard yellowish soil rendering it excellently adapted for the growth of this crop.
In the Satpura districts the inferior soil was and is principally devoted to hill millets.
Wordsworth's theories of poetry - the objects best suited for poetic treatment, the characteristics of such treatment and the choice of diction suitable for the purpose - may be said to have grown out of the soil and substance of the lakes and mountains, and out of the homely lives of the people, of Cumberland and Westmoreland.
The black soil of the district yields crops of which the principal are millet, other food-grains, pulse, rice, cotton and oil-seeds.
in the immediate neighbourhood, and much of the volcanic soil supports a rich growth of forest or "bush."
Alexanderzuges, 1903); whilst on the other hand attempts were made to acclimatize the plants of the motherland in the foreign soil (Theophr., Hist.
Transplanted into this foreign soil, the monarchy became an absolute despotism, unchecked by a proud territorial nobility and a hardy peasantry on familiar terms with their king.
were too peculiar for us to generalize upon these data as to the Seleucid and Antigonid realms. That the Seleucid kings drew in a principal part of their revenues from tribute levied upon the various native races, distributed in their village communities as tillers of the soil goes without saying.
In New Zealand and Australia rabbits, introduced either for profit or sport, have increased to such an extent as to form one of the most serious pests that the farmers have to contend against, as the climate and soil suit them perfectly and their natural enemies are too few and too lowly organized to keep them within reasonable bounds.
The soil is fertile and produces rubber, cotton, sugar, coffee, cocoa, tobacco and nutmegs, all of which are exported; pimento (allspice) grows wild in the greatest profusion.
The soil consists, for the most part, either of clay intermixed with sand or of calcareous earth, and is on the whole fruitful.
Eure-et-Loir exports the products of its soil and live-stock; its imports include coal, wine and wearing apparel.
(4) Black peaty soil varying in thickness, the maximum being about a foot.
The highlands, which in an almost continuous line traverse East Africa, have to a great extent isolated the flora of Somaliland in spite of the general resemblance of its climate and soil to the country on the western side of the band of high ground.
- Though much of the land is barren, the soil is fairly fertile in the valleys of the Webi Shebeli and Wadi Nogal.
From the southern boundary line for two and a half degrees north the prairie is dry, but of good soil, which grows excellent crops when irrigated.
North of this region the surface of the province is of most fertile soil, the ordinary rainfall sufficing for agriculture.
Under the emperors of the 4th century the name designated a cultivator who, though personally free, was attached to the soil, and transmitted his condition to his descendants; and this became the regular status of the mass of Roman cultivators.
It was decided by Lord Mansfield, in the name of the whole bench, on the 22nd of June 1772, that as soon as a slave set his foot on the soil of the British islands he became free.
The issue of the violent and treacherous conduct of Bonaparte towards the island was that the blacks drove from their soil the forces sent to subdue them, and founded a constitution of their own, which was more than once modified.
There has been no agricultural advance corresponding to that which has taken place in Orkney, mainly owing to the poverty and insufficiency of the soil.
Since the same plant, owing to peculiarities of climate, soil and situation, degree of exposure to light and other influences may vary greatly according to the locality in which it occurs, it is only by gathering together for comparison and study a large series of examples of each species that the flora of different regions can be satisfactorily represented.
Other particulars as to habit, local abundance, soil and claim to be indigenous may be written on the back of the sheet or on a slip of writing paper attached to its edge.
Specimens on the bark of trees require pressure until the bark is dry, lest they become curled; and those growing on sand or friable soil, such as Coniocybefurfuracea, should be laid carefully on a layer of gum in the box in which they are intended to be kept.
The inscription, having been buried for so many centuries beneath the soil, is in perfect preservation.
The soil is mostly sand, clay (brick-clay and potter's-clay are not uncommon), and peat-bogs,with a few patches of "black earth."
Volcanic in origin - the Jebel ed-Druz is a group of extinct volcanoes - the friable volcanic soil is extraordinarily fertile.
"They represent," he said, "real property, the most secure of all possessions, the soil on which we tread."
Some daily variation in the temperature of adjoining localities is caused by a dark soil in the one and a light soil in the other, but the differences of mean annual temperature are almost wholly due to differences of latitude and elevation.
Heavy rainfall, high temperature and fertile soil combine to cover the greater part of the state, and particularly the alluvial regions and the coast swamps, with a most luxuriant subtropical vegetation, both arborescent and herbaceous.
Alluvial soil and bluff, the location of which has been indicated, are of primary agricultural importance.
Reclaimed marsh-land and fresh alluvium (the so-called " front-lands " on rivers and bayous) are choice soil for Indian corn, sugar-cane, perique tobacco, semi-tropical fruits and cotton.
The " buckshot clays " of the backlands, which are so stiff that they can scarcely be ploughed until flooded and softened, and are remarkably retentive of moisture, are ideal rice soil; but none of the alluvial lands has an underlying hardpan, and they cannot as a rule be drained sufficiently to make the use of heavy harvesting machinery possible.
Manufacturing industries are for the most part closely related to the products of the soil, about two-thirds of the value of all manufactures in Igoo and in 1905 being represented by sugar and molasses refining, lumber and timber products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and rice cleaned and polished.
The soil of the island is almost wholly of modern formation, mainly alluvial, with superficial limestones as another prominent feature.
A comparatively low cost of labour, the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop, have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to compete with the bounty-fed beet.
The chief importance of nitrogenous compounds depends upon their assimilation by living plants, which, in their development, absorb these compounds from the soil, wherein they are formed mainly by the action of nitrifying bacteria.
Since these compounds are essential to plant life, it becomes necessary to replace the amount abstracted from the soil, and hence a demand for nitrogenous manures was created.
Where a mantle of soil covers the rock it is generally thin but very fertile.
Providence is known as the "pine barrens," from the tree which principally grows in this rocky soil.
Elsewhere three types of soil are distinguished - a black soil, of decayed vegetable matter, where the land is under forest, a reddish clay, and a white soil occurring along the shores.
In those parts of the desert which have a hard level soil of clay, a few stunted mimosas, acacias and other shrubs are produced, together with rue, various bitter and aromatic plants, and occasionally tufts of grass.
Much of the soil of the desert appears to be alluvial; there are numerous traces of streams having formerly passed over it, and still, where irrigation is at all practicable, fertility in the clayey tract follows; but the rains are scanty, the wells few and generally 100 ft.
Apart from the arid wastes of the Karst, the soil is well adapted for the growing of cereals, especially Indian corn; olives, vines, mulberries, figs, pomegranates, melons, oranges, lemons, rice and tobacco flourish in Herzegovina and the more sheltered portions of Bosnia.
On the whole agriculture is backward, despite the richness of the soil; for the cultivators are a very conservative race, and prefer the methods and implements of their ancestors.
Below the feudal nobility and their Moslem soldiers came the Christian serfs, tillers of the soil and taxpayers, whose lives and property were at the mercy of their lords.
But the sultan refused to ratify these articles, and the relations between Russia and Turkey were therefore determined by the patent treaty only, which positively stipulated for the evacuation by the Russians of every spot occupied by them on Turkish soil in Asia.
The river, running through an absolutely flat country, composed entirely of alluvial soil, is apt to change its channel.
With the exception of the Dra'a, the streams rising on the side of the range facing the Sahara do not reach the sea, but form marshes or lagoons at one season, and at another are lost in the dry soil of the desert.
Besides the products of the soil Allier exports coal, mineral waters and cattle for the Paris market.
The following is a summary of the local budget of Cambodia The chief sources of revenue are the direct taxes, including the poll-tax and the taxes on the products of the soil, which together amounted to £172,636 in 1904.
of rough materials, such as broken bricks or mortar rubbish, over which should be placed a layer of rough turf with the grassy side downwards, and then the good loamy soil to form the border, which should have a depth of about 2 ft.
Care must be taken that the roots always have a sufficient supply of moisture and that the soil is moist wherever the roots run.
The surface drifts of the greater part of the state, which are almost wholly of glacial origin, have provided Minnesota with a remarkably fertile soil.
This soil prevails throughout the southern counties and the Minnesota and Red River valleys, in which sections cereal crops predominate.
Toward the east central part of the state there is a somewhat less fertile sandy soil, which is devoted more largely to potatoes and similar crops.
by his queen Matilda of Flanders, was born in 1068 on English soil.
This important war, the conduct and result of which greatly enhanced the prestige of British arms, had for its main object the freedom of the Peninsula of Spain and Portugal from the domination of Napoleon; and hence it deri'ves its name, though it terminated upon the soil of France.
On the other hand, the deep sandy soil near its banks made the transport of bridging materiel by land laborious, and almost certain of discovery.
After gaining recognition as one of the most prominent members of the Suffolk bar, he became associated in 1848 with the Free Soil movement, and took a prominent part in the Buffalo convention of that year.
They should be loosely packed in dry soil or charcoal.
at night, while rain falls during about six months and the soil and atmosphere are moist throughout the year.
Hevea brasiliensis as a rule flourishes to the greatest extent at low altitudes on rich soil capable of retaining moisture.
The nature of the soil appears, however, to be of secondary importance, provided that it is able to hold moisture and that climatic conditions of high and even temperature with considerable rainfall and absence of wind are satisfied.
During the tropical rains the soil is liable, to a greater or less extent, to denudation, which becomes very serious when the land slopes; and in any case, the soil is apt to become impoverished by the loss of its soluble constituents.
Another disadvantage of uncovered soil in a plantation of young rubber trees is that the ground under the heat of a tropical sun rapidly loses its moisture.
The tree grows well on dry and rocky soil without rain for a considerable period of the year, and flourishes at high altitudes up to about 4000 ft.
It prefers rich fertile soil on the banks of watercourses, but does not flourish in swamps.
It will grow on a dry sandy soil, dislikes much moisture, and needs no shade.
The Hussite movement was also a democratic one, an uprising of the peasantry against the landowners at a period when a third of the soil belonged to the clergy.
Napoleon, by the senatus-consulte of the 30th of January 1810, resolved to create appanages for the emperor's princely descendants, such appanages to consist for the most part of lands on French soil.
The soil in the valleys and on the lower slopes of the hills is fertile, indeed 35.08% of the whole area is arable.
Formerly filled with alpine lakes, these valleys are now sheeted with flat alluvial soil and occupied by human settlements, and are drained by rivers which flow along them before they make their way to the north through narrow gorges pierced in the mountain-walls.
The soil freezes many feet deep over immense areas even in southern Siberia.
On the other hand the severe measures taken by the government prevented the growth of anything like legalized slavery on Siberian soil; but the people, ruined as they were both by the intrusion of agricultural colonists and by the exactions of government officials, fell into what was practically a kind of slavery to the merchants.
South Siberia has a very fertile soil and yields heavy crops, but immense tracts of the country are utterly unfit for tillage.
Athena also gave the Athenians the olive-tree, which was supposed to have sprung from the bare soil of the Acropolis, when smitten by her spear, close to the horse (or spring of water) produced by the trident of Poseidon, to which he appealed in support of his claim to the lordship of Athens.
The soil is on the whole fertile, and the produce very varied.
ALFRED FIRMIN LOISY (1857-), French Catholic theologian, was born at Ambrieres in French Lorraine of parents who, descended from a long line of resident peasantry, tilled there the soil themselves.
Although 43.4% of the total area is arable land, the soil is only of moderate fertility and does not satisfy the wants of this thickly-populated province.
According to some, Niobe is the goddess of snow and winter, whose children, slain by Apollo and Artemis, symbolize the ice and snow melted by the sun in spring; according to others, she is an earth-goddess, whose progeny - vegetation and the fruits of the soil - is dried up and slain every summer by the shafts of the sun-god.
Sweet violets like a rich, fairly heavy soil, with a north or north-west aspect if possible; 2 FIG.
Some cotton is grown, although the soil is as a whole poor; the manufactures include salt, metal vessels and stone handmills.
They thrive well in any ordinary garden soil, and will grow beneath the shade of trees.
The soil is varied, much of it being good meadow land or well adapted to the growing of grain and fruit.
The greater part is a rock destitute of soil, and presenting the wildest aspect; the ground is cold, poor and sterile; and the whole face of the country bears marks of volcanic action.
above the sea, and consist of rugged coral rock and limestone, there being very little soil.
The Grafschaft became thus merely a bundle of rights inherent in the soil; and, the count's office having become his property, the old counties of Gauen rapidly disappeared as administrative units, being either amalgamated or subdivided.
This great chapadao is in many respects the best part of Brazil, having a temperate climate,- extensive areas of fertile soil, rich forests and a regular rainfall.
hares gencia Victoria do Brazil, having an abundant rainfall, extensive forests of valuable timber, and large areas of fertile soil.
The Cabetes, who possessed the soil, were fierce and pertinacious; and, assisted by the French, who traded to that coast, Coelho had to gain by inches what was granted him by leagues.
The diversity of soil and climate leads to a great diversity in the agricultural produce.
In the summer of 1767 Horne landed again on English soil, and in 1768 secured the return of Wilkes to parliament for Middlesex.
This immense tract of low land, though in some, parts covered with barren wastes of sand, alternating with marshes, presents in general a very rich and productive soil.
Owing to the improvidence of the Hungarian landowners and the poverty of the peasants the soil of the country is also gradually passing into their hands.3 The Gipsies, according to the special census of 1893, numbered 2 74,94 0.
The central plains, which have the most fertile soil, and from the geographical conditions of the country form its centre of gravity, are occupied almost exclusively by the Magyars, the most numerous and the dominant race.
Sheep are not stocked so extensively as cattle, and are tending rapidly to decrease, a result due to the spread of intensive cultivation and the rise in value of the soil.
In endeavouring, with the aid of the church, to establish his kingship on the Western model Stephen had the immense advantage of building on unencumbered ground, the greater part of the soil of the country being at his The absolute disposal.
On the other hand, his example in manumitting most of his slaves, together with the precepts of the church, practically put an end to slavery in the course of the 13th century, the slaves becoming for the most part serfs, who differed from the free peasants only in the fact that they were attached to the soil (adscripti glebae).
In Sigismund's reign the feudal system, for the first time, became deeply rooted in Magyar soil, and it is a lamentable fact that in 15th-century Hungary it is to be seen at its very worst, especially in those wild tracts, and they were many, in which the king's writ could hardly be said to run.
io) the young monarch and the flower of the Magyar chivalry were overwhelmed by fourfold odds on Turkish soil.
Sixty-two of its seventy-one enactments were directed against the peasants, who were henceforth bound to the soil and committed absolutely into the hands of " their natural lords."
By the end of October the last Turkish regular had quitted Magyar soil, and, to use the words of a contemporary observer, one quarter of Hungary was as utterly destroyed as if a flood had passed over it.
It took no root in the soil.
It was a fertile soil for Gaj's agitation, and in 1848 the Croatian nation found in Baron Jelacic a military leader who voiced the Illyrian idea and hoped to realize it in union with the Habsburg Dynasty and the other subject nationalities of Hungary.
- Meanwhile a certain number of Yugoslav leaders had managed to reach foreign soil before the outbreak of war, and during the winter of 1914 constituted themselves as the Yugoslav Committee.
The crocus succeeds in any fairly good garden soil, and is usually planted near the edges of beds or borders in the flower garden, or in broadish patches at intervals along the mixed borders.
below the surface, and as they become crowded they should be taken up and replanted with a refreshment of the soil, at least every five or six years.
They require the same culture as the more familiar garden varieties; but, as some of them are apt to suffer from excess of moisture, it is advisable to plant them in prepared soil in a raised pit, where they are brought nearer to the eye, and where they can be sheltered when necessary by glazed sashes, which, however, should not be closed except when the plants are at rest, or during inclement weather in order to protect the blossoms, especially in the case of winter flowering species.
Meerkats are sociable animals, living in holes in the rocks on the mountains, and burrowing in the sandy soil of the plains.
The ground containing the gold is soil which has escaped denudation.
Many regions suffer permanently from deficient rainfall; in others, owing to the absence of irrigation works, the water supply is lost, while the burning of the grass at the end of summer, a practice adopted by many farmers, tends to impoverish the soil and render it arid.
They cherish great love of their native soil and native village and cannot remain long from home.
It requires a high temperature (about 80° F.), rich soil and a high degree of humidity for the best development of the tree.
The 2nd and 4th Austrian corps found themselves all at once threatened in flank and rear by heavy masses of Prussian infantry, the leading brigades of the crown prince's army, and they began to withdraw towards the centre of their position in ordered brigade masses, apparently so intent on keeping their men in hand that they seem never to have noticed the approach of the Prussian reserve artillery of the Guard which (under Prince Kraft zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen) was straining forward over heavy soil and through standing corn towards their point of direction, a clump of trees close to the tower of the church of Chlum.
Quite irrespective of the nature of the anatomical lesion, the finding of the diphtheria bacillus on the part affected and the inoculability of this upon a suitable fresh soil are the sole means by which the diagnosis can be made certain.
The soil of the sierra valleys is fertile, and when it is irrigated forage and cereal crops may be grown in abundance.
It was the first definite product of Greek medicine on Roman soil, but was destined to be followed by others, which kept up a more or less successful rivalry with it, and with the Hippocratic tradition.
The love-sick mood and romantic temperament of the young Irishman found congenial soil in the wild surroundings of unexplored Canadian forests, and the enthusiasm thus engendered for the "natural" life of savagery may have been already fortified by study of Rousseau's writings, for which at a later period Lord Edward expressed his admiration.
At the end of 1758 he bought the considerable property of Ferney, on the shore of the lake, about four miles from Geneva, and on French soil.
But a private owner may create a highway at common law by dedicating the soil to the use of the public for that purpose; and the using of a road for a number of years, without interruption, will support the presumption that the soil has been so dedicated.
The Zulu gives little attention to the cultivation of the soil.
In 1823 he returned as an officer in one of the royalist regiments which had been organized on French soil by the consent of the government.
When the solid rock is not exposed the soil sometimes furnishes an indication of the character of the underlying rock.
Fragments of coal, or soil stained black with coal, will be found near the outcrop tif coal beds.
When the location of the deposit has been determined approximately, further search is made by trenches or pits or borings through the surface soil.
'Where mineral deposits lie near the surface underground mining may be replaced by open excavations, and the reduced cost of mining makes it possible to remove the overlying soil and rock to considerable depths.
The invaders of Helles had secured but a precarious foothold on Ottoman soil by the morning of the 26th, twenty-four hours after starting operations; but fair progress was made by them during the course of this second day.
Oxen are used for ploughing the higher lands with light soil, and the heavier and stronger buffaloes for ploughing wet tracts and marshy lands.
The soil was extremely fertile, and teemed with an industrious population.
The original meaning of Urra was perhaps " clayey soil," but it came to signify " the upper country " or " highlands," kengi being " the lowlands."
Thanks to this system of irrigation the cultivation of the soil was highly advanced in Babylonia.
Haynes has systematically and patiently uncovered the remains of the great temple of El-lil, removing layer after layer of debris and cutting sections in the ruins down to the virgin soil.
Assyria in this, as in other matters, the servile pupil of Babylonia, built its palaces and temples of brick, though stone was the natural building material of the country, even preserving the brick platform, so necessary in the marshy soil of Babylonia, but little needed in the north.
The geological formation of the soil belongs to the Quaternary and Pliocene period in its upper strata, and to the Eocene and Cretaceous in the lower.
The soil is very fertile; wheat, Indian corn, olives, vines, fruit trees of many kinds cover both the plain and the surrounding hills; the chief non-fruit-bearing trees are the stone pine, the cypress, the ilex and the poplar, while many other varieties are represented.
If the soil beyond this is very unfavourable, the roots should be prevented from entering it by building a wall at the extreme edge of the border.
The soil itself, which should be 22 or 3 ft.
It is well after the borders are completed to remove the top soil, in which no roots are to be found, every two or three years, and to replace it with a mixture of good loam, rotten manure, lime rubbish and bone meal, to the depth of 6 or 7 in.
apart, the roots being placed an inch deeper in the soil than before, carefully disentangled and spread outwards from the stem, and covered carefully and firmly with friable loam, without manure.
As a preventive to its attacks the copper sulphate sprays and a solution (50%) of iron sulphate have been found very useful, as well as care in planting on well-drained soil that does not lie too low, the disease seldom appearing in dry, well-exposed vineyards.
Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculiarly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irrigation the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced.
Here they are discharged (washed and freed from any adherent soil) into an elevator, which carries them up to the top of the building and delivers them into a hopper feeding the slicer.
As the soil was fertile and well watered, the township had been agricultural up to this time.
The soil is in three domains: that of the state, for the working of which concessions may be granted; that of the penitentiary administration; and that of the native reserve.
SOIL,' the term generally applied to that part of the earth's ' This word comes through O.
To be distinguished from this word is " soil," to make dirty, to stain, defile.
soil or souil, the miry wallowing ground of a wild boar, whence the hunting phrase " to take soil," of a beast of the chase taking to water or marshy ground.
The soil through being acted upon by the air, heat, frost and other agencies usually consists of finer particles than those.
At first sight few natural materials appear to be of less interest than the soil; yet its importance is manifest on the slightest reflection.
The work has been going on for ages, and the finely comminuted particles of rocks form the main bulk of the soil which covers much of the earth's surface, the rest of the soil being composed chiefly of the remains of roots and other parts of plants.
If the whole of the soil in the British Islands were swept into the sea and the rocks beneath it laid bare the surface of the country would ultimately become covered again with soil produced from the rocks by the weathering processes just described.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.