Sodium sentence example

sodium
  • A solution of the free acid may be prepared by adding oxalic acid to the solution of the sodium salt.

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  • A sodium cobaltinitrite is also known.

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  • Sodium amalgam or zinc and hydrochloric acid reduce it to lactic acid, whilst hydriodic acid gives propionic acid.

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  • Similar sodium and ammonium compounds are known.

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  • Hydriodic acid and phosphorus at high temperature give a dihydro-compound, whilst sodium and alcohol give hexaand octo-hydro derivatives.

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  • It is prepared on the industrial scale for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, for the preparation of sodium sulphate by the Hargreaves process, and for use as a bleaching-disinfecting agent and as a preservative.

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  • The salts of the acid, however, are stable, the sodium salt in particular being largely used for photographic purposes under the name of "hypo."

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  • On heating in hydrogen, ammonia or carbon monoxide, or with carbon or sodium, it is reduced to the metallic state.

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  • The tertiary glycols are known as pinacones and are formed on the reduction of ketones with sodium amalgam.

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  • The treatment is therefore to administer an ounce of sodium sulphate in water by the mouth, or to inject a similar quantity of the salt in solution directly into a vein or into the subcutaneous tissues.

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  • This salt may be prepared by digesting flowers of sulphur with sodium sulphite solution or by boiling sulphur with milk of lime.

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  • In this latter reaction the deep yellow solution obtained is exposed to air when the calcium polysulphide formed is gradually converted into thiosulphate by oxidation, and the calcium salt thus formed is converted into the sodium salt by sodium carbonate or sulphate.

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  • The acid is considered to possess the structure 0 2 S(SH) (OH), since sodium thiosulphate reacts with ethyl bromide to give sodium ethyl thiosulphate, which on treatment with barium chloride gives presumably barium ethyl thiosulphate.

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  • He further expressed the belief that the dark lines D of the solar spectrum coincide with the bright lines of the sodium flame.

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  • It is a most important synthetic reagent; with sodium or sodium ethylate it forms sodio-malonic ester, which reacts readily with alkyl halides, forming alkyl malonic esters, which are again capable of forming sodium derivatives, that by further treatment with alkyl halides yield the di-alkyl malonic esters.

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  • Citric acid, being tribasic, forms either acid monometallic, acid dimetallic or neutral trimetallic salts; thus, mono-, diand tri-potassium and sodium citrates are known.

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  • The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.

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  • The process of manufacturing soaps by boiling fatty acids with caustic alkalis or sodium carbonate came into practice with the development of the manufacture of candles by saponifying fats, for it provided a means whereby the oleic acid, which is valueless for candle making, could be worked up. The combination is effected in open vats heated by a steam coil and provided with a stirring appliance; if soda ash be used it is necessary to guard against boiling over.

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  • The more usual method is to take milling soap, neutralize it with sodium bicarbonate or a mixture of fatty acids, and, after perfuming, it is aerated by mixing the hot soap with air in a specially designed crutcher.

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  • This is consistent with Kirchhoff's law and shows that the sodium in a flame possesses the same relative radiation and absorption as sodium vapour heated thermally to the temperature of the flames.

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  • Soft or green soap (potassium oleate), made by acting on olive oil with caustic potash, is also used; its preparation (Linamentum saponis) is known as opodeldoc. Curd soap is also used, and is chiefly a stearate of sodium.

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  • The manufacture of glass, also practised in Egypt, demanded a knowledge of sodium or potassium carbonates; the former occurs as an efflorescence on the shores of certain lakes; the latter was obtained from wood ashes.

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  • In particular, the salts of potassium, sodium and ammonium were carefully investigated, but sodium and potassium salts were rarely differentiated.

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  • In 1808 Davy isolated sodium and potassium; he then turned his attention to the preparation of metallic calcium, barium, strontium and magnesium.

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  • Within two years of the invention the authors announced the discovery of two metals, rubidium and caesium, closely allied to sodium, potassium and lithium in properties, in the mineral lepidolite and in the Diirkheim mineral water.

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  • By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6, and not methyl, CH 3.

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  • It was long supposed that the simplest ring obtainable contained six atoms of carbon, and the discovery of trimethylene in 1882 by August Freund by the action of sodium on trimethylene bromide, Br(CH 2) 3 Br, came somewhat as a surprise, especially in view of its behaviour with bromine and hydrogen bromide.

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  • Perkin, junr., in 1883, that ethylene and trimethylene bromides are capable of acting in such a way on sodium acetoacetic ester as to form triand tetramethylene rings.

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  • We may here mention the synthesis of oxyuvitic ester (5-methyl-4-oxy-I-3-benzene dicarboxylic ester) by the condensation of two molecules of sodium acetoacetic ester with one of chloroform (Ann., 1883, 222, p. 249).

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  • By reducing terephthalic acid with sodium amalgam, care being taken to neutralize the caustic soda simultaneously formed by passing in carbon dioxide, A" dihydroterephthalic acid is obtained; this results from the splitting of a Para-linkage.

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  • Of the principal workers in this field we may notice Friedrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colorations), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman.

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  • Potassium gives a blue-violet flame which may be masked by the colorations due to sodium, calcium and other elements.

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  • Certain substances are insoluble in all these reagents, and other methods, such as the fusion with sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate, and subsequent treatment with an acid, must be employed.

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  • The solution contains magnesium, sodium and potassium, which are separately distinguished by the methods given under their own headings.

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  • The solution is boiled till free from sulphuretted hydrogen and treated with excess of sodium hydrate.

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  • Thus a normal solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36.5 grammes, and so on.

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  • Unfortunately, the term normal is sometimes given to solutions which are strictly decinormal; for example, iodine, sodium thiosulphate, &c. In technical analysis, where a solution is used for one process only, it may be prepared so that I cc. is equal to.

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  • Pure sodium carbonate is prepared by igniting the bicarbonate, and exactly 53 grammes are dissolved in water, forming a strictly normal solution.

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  • A standard sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the sulphuric acid.

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  • Where a solution is likely to change in composition on keeping, such as potassium permanganate, iodine, sodium hydrate, &c., it is necessary to check or re-standardize it periodically.

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  • The substance is heated with metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added.

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  • A blue coloration indicates nitrogen, and is due to the formation of potassium (or sodium) cyanide during the fusion, and subsequent interaction with the iron salts.

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  • Sulphur is detected by heating the substance with sodium, dissolving the product in water, and adding sodium nitroprusside; a bluish-violet coloration indicates sulphur.

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  • In the case of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, NaH 2 PO 4 H 2 O, a stable rhombic form is obtained from warm solutions, while a different, unstable, rhombic form is obtained from cold solutions.

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  • This substance easily splits out alcohol, and the ring compound then formed yields pyrrolidine on reduction by sodium in amyl alcohol solution.

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  • Salicylic acid is now never given internally, being replaced by its sodium salt, which is much cheaper, more soluble and less irritating to mucous membranes.

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  • Whatever drug of this group be taken, the product absorbed by the blood is almost entirely sodium salicylate.

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  • Sodium salicylate circulates in the blood unchanged, decomposition occurring in the kidney, and probably in tissues suffering from the Diplococcus rheumaticus of Poynton and Paine.

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  • It has now been established that, provided the kidneys be healthy, natural salicylic acid, sodium salicylate prepared from the natural acid, and salicin, are not cardiac depressants.

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  • Sodium salicylate escapes from the blood mainly by the kidneys, in the secretion of which sodium salicylate and salicyluric acid can be detected within fifteen minutes of its administration.

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  • It has been suggested that ultramarine is a compound of a sodium aluminium silicate and sodium sulphide.

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  • On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.

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  • The 0-form is obtained by the direct action of hydroxylamine hydrochloride on mesityl oxide, the hydrochloride so formed being decomposed by sodium carbonate.

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  • By the direct action of hydroxylamine on a methyl alcohol solution of mesityl oxide in the presence of sodium methylate a hydr oxylamino - ketone, diacetone hydroxylamine, (CH 3) 2 C(Nhoh) CH20OCH3,is formed.

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  • It is also formed by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on sodium nitrite in the presence of mercury.

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  • With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid.

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  • Acetonyl-acetophenone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CH2.CO.CH3, is produced by condensing phenacyl bromide with sodium acetoacetate with subsequent elimination of carbon dioxide, and on dehydration gives aa-phenyl-methyl-furfurane.

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  • The colloidal particles are electrically charged and become discharged by the ions of sodium, magnesium and calcium present in the sea-water.

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  • Soon afterwards, William Cruickshank decomposed the magnesium, sodium and ammonium chlorides, and precipitated silver and copper from their solutions - an observation which led to the process of electroplating.

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  • In 1807 he decomposed potash and soda, previously considered to be elements, by passing the current from a powerful battery through the moistened solids, and thus isolated the metals potassium and sodium.

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  • Hittorf showed that when a current was passed through a solution of sodium platino-chloride, the platinum appeared at the anode.

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  • The salt must therefore be derived from an acid, chloroplatinic acid, H 2 PtC1 6, and have the formula Na 2 PtC1 6, the ions being Na and PtCls", for if it were a double salt it would decompose as a mixture of sodium chloride and platinum chloride and both metals would go to the cathode.

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  • A freedom of interchange is thus indicated between the opposite parts of the molecules of salts in solution, and it follows reasonably that with the solution of a single salt, say sodium chloride, continual interchanges go on between the sodium and chlorine parts of the different molecules.

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  • Let us allow dilute sodium acetate to react with dilute hydrochloric acid.

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  • Barreswil found that a strongly alkaline solution of copper sulphate and potassium sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt) remained unchanged on boiling, but yielded an immediate precipitate of red cuprous oxide when a solution of glucose was added.

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  • The cyanhydrin is hydrolysable to an acid, the lactone of which may be reduced by sodium amalgam to a glucoheptose, a non-fermentable sugar containing seven carbon atoms. By repeating the process a non-fermentable gluco-octose and a fermentable glucononose may be prepared.

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  • The liquid is now run into neutralizing tanks containing sodium carbonate, and, after settling, the supernatant liquid, termed "light liquor," is run through bag filters and then on to bone-char filters, which have been previously used for the "heavy liquor."

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  • The dissolved salts (potassium, sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, &c.) of the latex are generally nearly entirely absent from the wellprepared rubber.

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  • They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.

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  • Plumbic acid, Pb0(OH) 21 is obtained as a bluish-black, lustrous body of electrolysing an alkaline solution of lead sodium tartrate.

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  • Lead sesquioxide, Pb203, is obtained as a reddish-yellow amorphous powder by carefully adding sodium hypochlorite to a cold potash solution of lead oxide, or by adding very dilute ammonia to a solution of red lead in acetic acid.

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  • A chlorofluoride, PbC1F, is obtained by adding sodium fluoride to a solution of lead chloride.

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  • The normal ortho-phosphate, Pb3(P04)2, is a white precipitate obtained by adding sodium phosphate to lead acetate; the acid phosphate, PbHPO 4, is produced by precipitating a boiling solution of lead nitrate with phosphoric acid; the pyrophosphate and meta-phosphate are similar white precipitates.

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  • When mixed with sodium carbonate and heated on charcoal in the reducing flame lead salts yield malleable globules of metal and a yellow oxide-ring.

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  • The treatment is the prompt use of emetics, or the stomach should be washed out, and large doses of sodium or magnesium sulphate given in order to form an insoluble sulphate.

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  • As the source of monochromatic light a bright sodium burner is used, and the rotation, which is exactly proportional to H, is measured by an accurate polarimeter.

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  • Darzens (Comptes Rendus, 1904, 139, p. 1214) prepares esters of disubstituted glycidic acids, by condensing the corresponding ketone with monochloracetic ester, in the presence of sodium ethylate.

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  • It is also produced by the action of sodium on a mixture of epichlorhydrin and methyl iodide, C 3 H S OC1+CH 3 I+2Na= C 3 H 4 0+NaI+NaC1+CH 4.

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  • It is prepared by oxidizing cinnamyl alcohol, or by the action of sodium ethylate on a mixture of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

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  • In 1855, ignorant of what Wailer had done ten years previously, he succeeded in obtaining metallic aluminium, and ultimately he devised a method by which the metal could be prepared on a large scale by the aid of sodium, the manufacture of which he also developed.

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  • By this means, sodium aluminate is formed; it is then extracted with water and precipitated either by sodium bicarbonate or by passing a current of carbon dioxide through the solution.

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  • The solubility of the various alums in water varies greatly, sodium alum being readily soluble in water, whilst caesium and rubidium alums are only sparingly soluble.

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  • Columbium hydride, CbH, is obtained as a greyish metallic powder, when the double fluoride, CbF 5, 2 KF, is reduced with sodium.

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  • These sodium salts are crystalline solids which are readily soluble in water and are very explosive.

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  • The best object for examination is a grating of fine wires, about fifty to the inch, backed by a sodium flame.

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  • Metallic uranium, as shown by Peligot, can be obtained by the reduction of a mixture of dry chloride of potassium and dry uranous chloride, UC1 4, with sodium at a red heat.

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  • Sodium uranate, Na2U207, is used as a pigment for painting on glass and porcelain under the name of uranium yellow.

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  • It is manufactured by heating pitchblende with lime, treating the resulting calcium uranate with dilute sulphuric acid, and adding sodium carbonate in excess.

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  • Its disintegration for analytical purposes can be effected by fusion with caustic alkali in silver basins, with the formation of soluble stannate, or by fusion with sulphur and sodium carbonate, with the formation of a soluble thiostannate.

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  • Of these sodium stannate, Na2Sn03, is produced industrially by heating tin with Chile saltpetre and caustic soda, or by fusing very finely powdered tinstone with caustic soda in iron vessels.

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  • A colloidal or soluble stannic acid is obtained by dialysing a mixture of tin tetrachloride and alkali, or of sodium stannate and hydrochloric acid.

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  • Tin compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate or potassium cyanide in the reducing blowpipe flame yield the metal and a scanty ring of white Sn02.

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  • The solutions are oxidized, precipitated with ammonia, the precipitate dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and re-thrown down by boiling with sodium sulphate.

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  • Loeb found experimentally that increase of metabolic products in muscle greatly raised its osmotic pressure, and so it would absorb water from a relatively concentrated sodium chloride solution.

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  • As sodium chloride is one of the most permeable of crystalloids it seems strange that damage to the renal tissue should impede its excretion.

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  • The action is very rapid, and the product, which rises to the top of the acids, is separated and washed successively with cold and then tepid water, and finally with water made slightly alkaline with sodium carbonate or hydroxide, to remove all adhering or dissolved acids which would otherwise render the product very unstable.

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  • Ammonium hydroxide has no appreciable action at ordinary temperatures, but strong solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxides start a decomposition, with rise of temperature, in which some nitrate and always some nitrite is produced.

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  • Nitroglycerin shaken up with warm very dilute alkaline solutions, as sodium carbonate, for a few minutes only, always yields sufficient nitrite to give the diazoreaction; and, as stated, strong alkaline solutions always produce some nitrite as one of the decomposition products.

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  • It appears that with soils which are not rich in humus or not deficient in lime, calcium cyanamide is almost as good, nitrogen for nitrogen, as ammonium sulphate or sodium nitrate; but it is of doubtful value with peaty soils or soils containing little lime, nor is it usefully available as a top-dressing or for storing.

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  • In this table n is the refractive index of the glass for sodium light (the D line of the solar spectrum), while the letters C, F and G' refer to lines in the hydrogen spectrum by which dispersion is now generally specified.

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  • It is decomposed with great violence when heated in contact with either sodium or potassium.

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  • Many are found as minerals, the more important of such naturally occurring carbonates being cerussite (lead carbonate, PbC03), malachite and azurite (both basic copper carbonates), calamine (zinc carbonate, ZnCO 3), witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO 3), strontianite (strontium carbonate, SrC03), calcite (calcium carbonate, CaC03), dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate, CaCO 3 MgCO 3), and sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3.

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  • Sodium amalgam converts it into formic acid; whilst with alcohol it yields the normal carbonic ester.

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  • Sodium percarbonates of the formulae Na 2 CO 4, Na2C206, Na 2 C05, NaHCO 4 (two isomers) are obtained by the action of gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on the peroxides Na 2 0 2, Na 2 0 3, NaHO 2 (two isomers)in the presence of water at a low temperature (R.Wolffenstein and E.Peltner, Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 275, 280).

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  • Of the better known metals potassium and sodium are the softest; they can be kneaded between the fingers like wax.

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  • Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).

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  • Potassium, for example, yields peroxide, K202 or K204; sodium gives Na202; the barium-group metals, as well as magnesium, cadmium, zinc, lead, copper, are converted into their monoxides MeO.

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  • Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.

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  • It polymerizes to a tetrose under the action of sodium hydroxide.

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  • This is generally effected by adding the calculated amount of potassium chloride (of which immense quantities are obtained as a by-product in the Stassfurt salt industry) dissolved in hot water to a saturated boiling solution of sodium nitrate; the common salt, which separates on boiling down the solution, is removed from the hot solution, and on cooling the potassium nitrate crystallizes out and is separated and dried.

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  • Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre or sodium nitrate, NaNO,, occurs under the same conditions as ordinary saltpetre in deposits covering immense areas in South America, which are known locally as caliche or terra salitrosa, and abound especially in the provinces of Tarapaca and Antofagasta in Chile.

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  • The conglomerate consists of rock fragments, sodium chloride and various sulphates, cemented together by gypsum to form a hard compact mass 6 to 10 ft.

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  • It contains from 48 to 75% of sodium nitrate and from 20 to 40% of common salt, which are associated with various minor saline components, including sodium iodate and more or less insoluble mineral, and also some organic matter, e.g.

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  • The caliche is worked up in loco for crude nitrate by extracting the salts with hot water, allowing the suspended earth to settle, and then transferring the clarified liquor, first to a cistern where it deposits part of its sodium chloride at a high temperature, and then to another where, on cooling, it yields a crop of crystals of purified nitrate.

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  • Chemically pure sodium nitrate can be obtained by repeated recrystallization of Chile saltpetre or by synthesis.

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  • Both are easily removed by passing chlorine through the cold solution, to produce ferric and manganic salt, and then digesting the liquid with a washed precipitate of basic carbonate, produced from a small portion of the solution by means of sodium carbonate.

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  • Zinc carbonate, ZnCO 3, occurs in nature as the mineral calamine (q.v.), but has never been prepared artificially, basic carbonates, ZnCO 3 .xZn(OH) 2, where x is variable, being obtained by precipitating a solution of the sulphate or chloride with sodium carbonate.

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  • Sainte Claire Deville working independently obtained aluminium by the electrolysis of the fused double sodium aluminium chloride.

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  • Since that date other processes have been devised and the electrolytic processes have entirely replaced the older methods of reduction with sodium.

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  • By the action of sodium amalgam on an alcoholic solution of anthracene, an anthracene dihydride, C14H12, is obtained, whilst by the use of stronger reducing agents, such as hydriodic acid and amorphous phosphorus, hydrides of composition C14H16 and C14H24 are produced.

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  • The distillate is freed from vanadium by digestion with sodium amalgam.

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  • Wallach, Ber., 1881, 14, P. 421); by the action of reducing agents on nitroparaffins; by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on aldehyde ammonias (German Patent 73,812); by the reduction of the phenylhydrazones and oximes of aldehydes and ketones with sodium amalgam in the presence of alcohol and sodium acetate (J.

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  • The simplest aromatic tertiary amine, triphenylamine, is prepared by the action of brombenzene on sodium diphenylamine (C. Heydrich, Ber., 1885, 18, p. 2156).

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  • In addition to magnesium and sodium the lines of potassium, lithium and also the carbon flutings exhibited in cometary spectra, has been seen.

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  • The causticity of alkaline bodies was explained at that time as depending on the presence in them of the principle of fire, "phlogiston"; quicklime, for instance, was chalk which had taken up phlogiston, and when mild alkalis such as sodium or potassium carbonate were causticized by its aid, the phlogiston was supposed to pass from it to them.

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  • When an alkaline chloride, say sodium chloride, is electrolysed with one electrode immersed in a porous cell, while caustic soda is formed at the cathode, chlorine is deposited at the anode.

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  • The chlorine reacts with the caustic soda, forming sodium hypochlorite, and this in turn, with an excess of chlorine and at higher temperatures, becomes for the most part converted into chlorate, whilst any simultaneous electrolysis of a hydroxide or water and a chloride (so that hydroxyl and chlorine are simultaneously liberated at the anode) also produces oxygen-chlorine compounds direct.

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  • A 10-12% solution of sodium chloride is caused to flow upwards through the apparatus and to overflow into troughs, by which it is conveyed (if necessary through a cooling apparatus) back to the circulating pump. Such a plant has been reported as giving 0.229 gallon of a liquor containing I% of available chlorine per kilowatt hour, or 0.171 gallon per e.h.p. hour.

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  • It is found in the form of its acid potassium salt in many plants, especially in wood-sorrel (Oxalis acetosella) and in varieties of Rumex; as ammonium salt in guano; as calcium salt in rhubarb root, in various lichens and in plant cells; as sodium salt in species of Salicornia and as free acid in varieties of Boletus.

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  • A more delicate method consists in adding a very little anthraquinone and sodium amalgam; absolute alcohol gives a green coloration, but in the presence of minute traces of water a red coloration appears.

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  • Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in ethyl alcohol with the production of alcoholates of the formula C2 H5 OK(Na).

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  • Sodium aurosulphide, NaAuS 4H 2 O, is prepared by fusing gold with sodium sulphide and sulphur, the melt being extracted with water, filtered in an atmosphere of nitrogen, and evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.

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  • Sodium aurothiosulphate, 3Na 2 S 2 O 3 Au2S203.4H20, forms colourless needles; it is obtained in the direct action of sodium thiosulphateongoldinthe presence of an oxidizing agent, or by the addition of a dilute solution of auric chloride to a sodium thiosulphate solution.

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  • Of the numerous remedies proposed the most efficacious is perhaps sodium amalgam.

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  • Henry Wurtz in America (1864) and Sir William Crookes in England (1865) made independently the discovery that, by the addition of a small quantity of sodium to the mercury, the operation is much facilitated.

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  • It is also stated that sodium prevents both the " sickening " and the " flouring " of the mercury which is produced by certain associated minerals.

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  • The precipitate is collected in a filter-press, and then roasted in muffle furnaces with nitre, borax and sodium carbonate.

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  • Another process consists in treating a mixture of the residue with one-quarter of its weight of calcined sodium sulphate with sulphuric acid, the residue being finally boiled with a large quantity of acid.

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  • Sodium in boiling amyl alcohol reduces it to aromatic tetrahydro-a-naphthylamine, a substance having the properties of an aromatic amine, for it can be diazotized and does not possess an ammoniacal smell.

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  • When reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution it forms alicyclic tetrahydro-0naphthylamine, which has most of the properties of the aliphatic amines; it is strongly alkaline in reaction, has an ammoniacal odour and cannot be diazotized.

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  • Hampe prepared chemically pure bismuth by fusing the metal with sodium carbonate and sulphur, dissolving the bismuth sulphide so formed in nitric acid, precipitating the bismuth as the basic nitrate, redissolving this salt in nitric acid, and then precipitating with ammonia.

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  • The metal is manufactured, for use as filaments in electric lamps, by the action of sodium on sodium tantalofluoride.

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  • By heating with sodium amalgam and separating with hydrochloric acid, the dichloride, TaC1 2.2H 2 O, is obtained as emerald green hexagonal crystals.

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  • In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia.

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  • Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.

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  • The elements in addition to oxygen which exist in largest amount in sea salt are chlorine, bromine, sulphur, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium.

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  • This residue consists of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, with small quantities of caesium and rubidium chlorides.

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  • The protoxide, OsO, is obtained as a dark grey insoluble powder when osmium sulphite is heated with sodium carbonate in a current of carbon dioxide.

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  • The dioxide, 0s0 2, is formed when potassium osmichloride is heated with sodium carbonate in a current of carbon dioxide, or by electrolysis of a solution of the tetroxide in the presence of alkali.

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  • For instance, if it be fused with sodium carbonate, sodium zirconate, Na2Zr03, is formed.

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  • If, however, its presence is recognized sodium phosphate may be substituted.

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  • Other constituents are cholesterol (0.461.32%), traces of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chlorine and bromine, and various aliphatic amines which are really secondary products, being formed by the decomposition of the cellular tissue.

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  • Davy, inspired by his successful isolation of the metals sodium and potassium by the electrolysis of their hydrates, attempted to decompose a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide by the electric current; an amalgam of calcium was obtained, but the separation of the mercury was so difficult that even Davy himself was not sure as to whether he had obtained pure metallic calcium.

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  • Henri Moissan obtained the metal of 99% purity by electrolysing calcium iodide at a low red heat, using a nickel cathode and a graphite anode; he also showed that a more convenient process consisted in heating the iodide with an excess of sodium, forming an amalgam of the product, and removing the sodium by means of absolute alcohol (which has but little action on calcium), and the mercury by distillation.

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  • The mineral brushite, CaHPO 4.2H 2 0, which is isomorphous with the acid arsenate pharmacolite, CaHAs04.2H20, is an acid phosphate, and assumes monoclinic forms. The normal salt may be obtained artificially, as a white gelatinous precipitate which shrinks greatly on drying, by mixing solutions of sodium hydrogen phosphate, ammonia, and calcium chloride.

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  • It is obtained as rhombic plates by mixing dilute solutions of calcium chloride and sodium phosphate, and passing carbon dioxide into the liquid.

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  • Calcium metasilicate, CaSiO 3, occurs in nature as monoclinic crystals known as tabular spar or wollastonite; it may be prepared artificially from solutions of calcium chloride and sodium silicate.

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  • It readily dissolves sodium and potassium, giving in each case a dark blue solution.

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  • Chattaway determined its composition as N 2 H 3 I 3, by the addition of excess of standard sodium sulphite solution, in the dark, and subsequent titration of the excess of the sulphite with standard iodine.

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  • The hydrogen in ammonia is capable of replacement by metals, thus magnesium burns in the gas with the formation of magnesium nitride Mg3N2, and when the gas is passed over heated sodium or potassium, sodamide, NaNH 2, and potassamide, KNH 2, are formed.

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  • By the addition of sodium amalgam to a concentrated solution of ammonium chloride, the so-called ammonium amalgam is obtained as a spongy mass which floats on the surface of the liquid; it decomposes readily at ordinary temperatures into ammonia and hydrogen; it does not reduce silver and gold salts, a behaviour which distinguishes it from the amalgams of the alkali metals, and for this reason it is regarded by some chemists as being merely mercury inflated by gaseous ammonia and hydrogen.

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  • The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.

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  • The fluorine, which is liberated as a gas at the anode, is passed through a well cooled platinum vessel, in order to free it from any acid fumes that may be carried over, and finally through two platinum tubes containing sodium fluoride to remove the last traces of hydrofluoric acid; it is then collected in a platinum tube closed with fluor-spar plates.

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  • Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in the anhydrous acid with evolution of hydrogen and formation of x.

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  • The atomic weight of fluorine has been determined by the conversion of calcium, sodium and potassium fluorides into the corresponding sulphates.

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  • Sodium chloride, or common salt, is exceedingly common, being the chief salt present in sea-water, besides occurring in extensive stratified deposits.

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  • Sodium carbonates are also widely dispersed in nature, forming constituents of many mineral waters, and occurring as principal saline components in natron or trona lakes, as efflorescences in Lower Egypt, Persia and China, and as urao in Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela.

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  • About Szegedin in Hungary and all over the vast pusztas (steppes) between the Theiss and the Danube, and from the Theiss up to and beyond Debreczin, the soil contains sodium carbonate, which frequently assumes the form of crude alkaline crusts, called "szekso," and of small saline ponds.

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  • Hydrated sulphates occur at several localities in the province of Madrid and in other provinces of Spain, and at Miihlingen in Aargau, and copious deposits of glauberite, the double sulphate of sodium and calcium, are met with in the salt-mines of Villarrubia in Spain, at Stassfurt, and in the province of Tarapaca, Chile, &c. A native nitrate of soda is obtained in great abundance in the district of Atacama and the province of Tarapaca, and is imported into Europe in enormous quantities as cubic nitre for the preparation of saltpetre.

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  • Cryolite, a fluoride of aluminium and sodium, is extensively mined in Greenland and elsewhere for industrial purposes.

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  • These form the principal natural sources of sodium compounds - the chloride as rock salt and in sea-water being of, such predominating importance as quite to outweigh all the others.

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  • From this source all soils contain small proportions of sodium in soluble forms, hence the ashes of plants, although they preferably imbibe potassium salts, contain traces and sometimes notable quantities of sodium salts.

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  • Sodium salts also form essential ingredients in all animal juices.

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  • This method was followed by that proposed by Gay-Lussac and Thenard, who decomposed molten caustic soda with red-hot iron; and this in turn was succeeded by Brunner's process of igniting sodium carbonate with charcoal.

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  • Electrolytic processes had, in fact, been considered since 1851, when Charles Watt patented his method for the production of sodium and potassium from fused chlorides.

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  • During electrolysis, oxygen is evolved at the anode and escapes from the outer vessel, while the sodium deposited in globules on the cathode floats upwards into the iron cylinder, within which it accumulates, and from which it may be removed at intervals by means of a perforated iron ladle, the fused salt, but not the metal, being able to pass freely through the perforations.

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  • The sodium is then cast into moulds.

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  • Metallic sodium possesses a silvery lustre, but on exposure to moist air the surface is rapidly dulled by a layer of the hydroxide.

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  • Matthiessen, sodium ranks fourth to silver, copper and gold as a conductor of electricity and heat, and according to Bunsen it is the most electropositive metal with the exception of caesium, rubidium and potassium.

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  • Sodium also combines directly, sometimes very energetically, with most non-metallic elements.

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  • Heated in a current of carbon dioxide sodamide yields caustic soda and cyanamide, and with nitrous oxide it gives sodium azoimide; it deflagrates with lead or silver nitrate and explodes with potassium chlorate.

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  • Sodium is largely employed in the manufacture of cyanides and in reduction processes leading to the isolation of such elements as magnesium, silicon, boron, aluminium (formerly), &c.; it also finds application in organic chemistry.

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  • In its chemical combinations sodium is usually monovalent; its salts are generally soluble in water, the least soluble being the metantimonate.

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  • Dry carbon dioxide is decomposed by it, free carbon being produced; moist carbon dioxide, on the other hand, gives sodium formate.

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  • Acids yield a sodium salt and free oxygen or hydrogen peroxide; with carbon dioxide it gives sodium carbonate and free oxygen; carbon monoxide gives the carbonate; whilst nitrous and nitric oxides give the nitrate.

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  • Sodium dioxide is chiefly employed as an oxidizing agent, being used in mineral analysis and in various organic preparations; it readily burns paper, wood, &c., but does not evolve oxygen unless heated to a high temperature.

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  • Sodium trioxide, Na 2 O 31 is said to be formed from an excess of oxygen and a solution of sodammonium in liquid ammonia.

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  • Generally speaking, sodium salts closely resemble the corresponding potassium salts, and their methods of preparation are usually the same.

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  • For sodium salts not mentioned below reference should be made to articles wherein the acid is treated, unless otherwise indicated.

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  • Sodium combines directly with the halogens to form salts which are soluble in water and crystallize in the cubic system.

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  • Sodium sulphide, Na 2 S, obtained by saturating a caustic soda solution with sulphuretted hydrogen and adding an equivalent of alkali, is employed in the manufacture of soluble soda glass.

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  • Sodium sulphite, Na2S03, which is employed as an antichlor, is prepared (with 7H20) by saturating a solution of sodium carbonate with sulphur dioxide, adding another equivalent of carbonate and crystallizing.

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  • The manufacture of sodium carbonate, commonly called soda, is treated under Alkali Manufacture.

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  • We may here notice the "percarbonates" obtained by Wolffenstein and Peltner (Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 2 75, 280) on acting with gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on Na202, Na203 and NaHO 2 at low temperatures; the same authors obtained a perborate by adding sodium metaborate solution to a 50% solution of sodium peroxide previously saturated with carbon dioxide.

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  • For sodium nitrite see Nitrogen; for sodium nitrate see Saltpetre; for the cyanide see Prussic Acid; and for the borate see Borax.

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  • Of the sodium silicates the most important is the mixture known as soluble soda glass formed by calcining a mixture of white sand, soda-ash and charcoal, or by dissolving silica in hot caustic soda under pressure.

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  • Sodium is most distinctly recognized by the yellow coloration which volatile salts impart to a Bunsen flame, or, better, by its emission spectrum which has a line (double), the Fraunhofer D, line, in the yellow (the wave-lengths are 5896 and 5890).

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  • From sodium phosphate are made sodii phosphas effervescens and sodii hypophosphis (see Phosphorus).

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  • For sodii arsenas and cacodylate see Arsenic. Sapo durus (hard soap) is a compound of sodium with olive oil, and sago animalis (curd soap) is chiefly sodium stearate.

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  • Poisoning by caustic soda is rare, but occasionally it takes place by swallowing soap lees (sodium carbonate), which may contain some impurities of caustic soda.

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  • The salts of sodium resemble potassium in their action on the alimentary tract, but they are much more slowly absorbed, and much less diffusible; therefore considerable amounts may reach the small intestine and there act as saline purgatives.

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  • Sodium is excreted by all the mucous surfaces and by the liver and kidneys.

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  • A lotion of sodium bicarbonate is useful to allay itching.

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  • Solutions of sodium sulphite are used as mild antiparasitics.

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  • Sodium chloride is an important constituent of the waters of Homburg, Wiesbaden, Nauheim and Kissingen.

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  • Sodium bicarbonate is one of our most useful gastric sedatives and antacids, relieving pain in hyperchloridia.

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  • Sodium phosphate and sulphate are cholagogue purgatives and are used in the treatment of gallstones.

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  • These purgative sodium salts are most useful in the treatment of chronic constipation, and of the constipation associated with gout and hepatic dyspepsia.

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  • Sodium salts have not the depressant effect so marked in those of potassium.

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  • Benzoquinone (para) or ordinary quinone, C 6 H 4 0 2, is formed by the oxidation of aniline with sodium bichromate and sulphuric acid.

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  • The metal, however, is not in great demand, for it is generally found that sodium, which is cheaper, and, weight for weight, more reactive, will fulfil any purpose for which potassium may be desired.

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  • It is worked up either for Epsom salt and common salt, or for sodium sulphate and magnesium chloride.

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  • On the isomeric potassium sodium sulphites see Sulphur.

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  • Analysis, &c. - All volatile potassium compounds impart a violet coloration to the Bunsen flame, which is masked, however, if sodium be present.

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  • Fittig and his pupils (Annalen, 1883, 216, pp. loo, 115; 1885, 227, pp. 55, 119), in which it was shown that the aldehyde forms an addition compound with the sodium salt of the fatty acid, and that the acetic anhydride plays the part of a dehydrating agent.

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  • If a long glass tube with plane ends, and containing some pellets of sodium is heated in the middle by a row of burners, the cool ends remain practically vacuous and do not become obscured.

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  • The sodium vapour in the middle is very dense on the heated side, the density diminishing rapidly towards the upper part of the tube, so that, although not prismatic in form, it refracts like a prism owing to the variation in density.

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  • Thus if a horizontal slit is illuminated by an arc lamp, and the light - rendered parallel by a collimating lens - is transmitted through the sodium tube and focused on the vertical slit of a spectroscope, the effect of the sodium vapour is to produce its refraction spec trum vertically on the slit.

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  • The iodides can be prepared either by direct union of iodine with a metal, from hydriodic acid and a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, or by action of iodine on some metallic hydroxides or carbonates (such as those of potassium, sodium, barium, &c.; other products, however, are formed at the same time).

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  • The solution is readily decomposed on the addition of sodium or potassium bicarbonates, with liberation of iodine.

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  • The most commonly used salt is the iodide of potassium; the iodides of sodium and ammonium are almost as frequently employed, and those of calcium and strontium are in occasional use.

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  • Melsens reconverted this derivative into the original acetic acid by reduction with sodium amalgam.

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  • Potassium cyanide, KNC, and sodium cyanide, NaNC, are two of the most important of the salts of hydrocyanic acid, the former being manufactured in large quantities for consumption in the extraction of gold.

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  • It can be estimated quantitatively by mixing a dilute solution with potassium iodide and hydrochloric acid in excess, adding excess of zinc sulphate, neutralizing the excess of free acid with sodium bicarbonate, and determining the amount of free iodine by a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.

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  • Sodium nitroprusside, Na 2 Fe(NC) 5 N02H 2 O, is the commonest salt.

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  • When heated with sodium the y frequently polymerize.

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  • The esters of the acid may be obtained by distilling a mixture of the sodium or potassium salts and the corresponding alcohol with hydrochloric or sulphuric acids.

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  • Sodium in amyl alcohol solution reduces it to hydroecgonidine C9H15N02, while moderate oxidation by potassium permanganate converts it into norecgonine.

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  • Chromium and its salts may be detected by the fact that they give a deep green bead when heated with borax, or that on fusion with sodium carbonate and nitre, a yellow mass of an alkaline chromate is obtained, which, on solution in water and acidification with acetic acid, gives a bright yellow precipitate on the addition of soluble lead salts.

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  • Wiedemann and Schmidt' that the vapours of sodium and potassium are fluorescent, important as it was from an experimental point of view, caused no surprise.

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  • It possesses all the characteristic properties of an aldehyde; being readily oxidized to benzoic acid; reducing solutions of silver salts; forming addition products with hydrogen, hydrocyanic acid and sodium bisulphite; and giving an oxime and a hydrazone.

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  • Heated with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride it gives cinnamic acid; with ethyl bromide and sodium it forms triphenyl-carbinol (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH; with dimethylaniline and anhydrous zinc chloride it forms leuco-malachite green C6H5CH[C6H4N(CH3)2]2; and with dimethylaniline and concentrated hydrochloric acid it gives dimethylaminobenzhydrol, C 6 H 5 CH(OH)C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2.

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  • Sainte Claire Deville's process, which used to be employed commercially, was essentially the same, except that sodium was substituted for potassium (Comptes rendus, 18 57, 44, p. 394), the product being further purified by redistillation.

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  • It is not possible to prepare the normal carbonate by precipitating magnesium salts with sodium carbonate.

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  • Magnesia alba, a white bulky precipitate obtained by adding sodium carbonate to Epsom salts,is a mixture of Mg(CO 3 H) (OH) 2H 2 O,Mg(CO 3 H) (OH) and Mg(OH) 2.

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  • By - adding sodium phosphate to magnesium sulphate and allowing the mixture to stand, hexagonal needles of MgHPO 4.7H 2 O are deposited.

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  • It may be prepared by adding normal sodium phosphate to a magnesium salt and boiling the precipitate with a solution of magnesium sulphate.

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  • It is prepared by adding sodium phosphate to magnesium sulphate in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride.

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  • The magnesium salts may be detected by the white precipitate formed by adding sodium phosphate (in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride) to their solutions.

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  • Its action upon turmeric is characteristic; a turmeric paper moistened with a solution of boric acid turns brown, the colour becoming much darker as the paper dries; while the addition of sodium or potassium hydroxide turns it almost black.

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  • The most important of the borates is sodium pyroborate or borax (q.v.).

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  • Thus he clearly described the preparation of hydrochloric acid by the action of oil of vitriol on common salt, the manifold virtues of sodium sulphate - sal mirabile, Glauber's salt - formed in the process being one of the chief themes of his Miraculum mundi; and he noticed that nitric acid was formed when nitre was substituted for the common salt.

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  • The simplest case is that of water and a salt, such as sodium chloride, which crystallizes without water.

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  • Other substances give equally good agreements; thus sodium chloride has a calculated constant of 1.12 and an observed one of 1.11.

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  • For experimental purposes it is usually obtained by distilling potassium or sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.

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  • Fuming nitric acid consists of a solution of nitrogen peroxide in concentrated nitric acid and is prepared by distilling dry sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.

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  • In 1808 Sir Humphry Davy, fresh from the electrolytic isolation of potassium and sodium, attempted to decompose alumina by heating it with potash in a platinum crucible and submitting the mixture to a current of electricity; in 1809, with a more powerful battery, he raised iron wire to a red heat in contact with alumina, and obtained distinct evidence of the production of an iron-aluminium alloy.

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  • Deville accordingly returned to pure chemistry and invented a practicable method of preparing sodium which, having a lower atomic weight than potassium, reduced a larger proportion.

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  • Cryolite (A1F 3.5NaF) is a double fluoride of aluminium and sodium, which is scarcely known except on the west coast of Greenland.

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  • Deville first selected the chloride as his raw material, but observing it to be volatile and extremely deliquescent, he soon substituted in its place a double chloride of aluminium and sodium.

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  • Cryolite is not a safe body to electrolyse, because the minimum voltage needed to break up the aluminium fluoride is 4.0, whereas the sodium fluoride requires only 4.7 volts; if, therefore, the current rises in tension, the alkali is reduced, and the final product consists of an alloy with sodium.

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  • Molten cryolite dissolves roughly 30% of its weight of pure alumina, so that when ready for treatment the solution contains about the same proportion of what may be termed "available" aluminium as does the fused double chloride of aluminium and sodium.

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  • Alumina dissolves readily enough in aqueous hydrochloric acid to yield a solution of the chloride, but neither this solution, nor that containing sodium chloride, can be evaporated to dryness without decomposition.

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  • To produce the alkali metal, a calcined mixture of sodium carbonate, coal and chalk was strongly ignited in flat retorts made of boiler-plate; the sodium distilled over into condensers and was preserved under heavy petroleum.

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  • In order to prepare pure alumina, bauxite and sodium carbonate were heated in a furnace until the reaction was complete; the product was then extracted with water to dissolve the sodium aluminate, the solution treated with carbon dioxide, and the precipitate removed and dried.

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  • This purified oxide, mixed with sodium chloride and coal tar, was carbonized at a red heat, and ignited in a current of dry chlorine as long as vapours of the double chloride were given off, these being condensed in suitable chambers.

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  • For the production of the final aluminium, ioo parts of the chloride and 45 parts of cryolite to serve as a flux were powdered together and mixed with 35 parts of sodium cut into small pieces.

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  • Tissier, formerly his assistants, who had devised an improved sodium furnace and had acquired a thorough knowledge of their leader's experiments, also left, and erected a factory at Amfreville, near Rouen, to work the cryolite process.

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  • It consisted simply in reducing cryolite with metallic sodium exactly as in Deville's chloride method, and it was claimed to possess various mythical advantages over its rival.

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  • Gerhard at Battersea, who also employed cryolite, made his own sodium, and was able to sell the product at 3s.

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  • Castner's sodium patents appeared, and The Aluminium Co.

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  • Seeing that sodium was the only possible reducing agent, he set himself to cheapen its cost, and deliberately rejecting sodium carbonate for the more expensive sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and replacing carbon by a mixture of iron and carbon - the so-called carbide of iron - he invented the highly scientific method of winning the alkali metal which has remained in existence almost to the present day.

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  • In 187 2 sodium prepared by Deville's process cost about 4s.

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  • Grabau patented a method of reducing the simple fluoride of aluminium with sodium, and his process was operated at Trotha in Germany.

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  • In 1888 the Alliance Aluminium Co., organized to work certain patents for winning the metal from cryolite by means of sodium, erected plant in London, Hebburn and Wallsend, and by 1889 were selling the metal at 11s.

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  • Minet took out patents for electrolysing a mixture of sodium chloride with aluminium fluoride, or with natural or artificial cryolite.

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  • The process exhibited several disadvantages, the electrolyte had to be kept constant in composition lest either fluorine vapours should be evolved or sodium thrown down, and the raw materials had accordingly to be prepared in a pure state.

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  • The solution of sodium aluminate, containing aluminium oxide and sodium oxide in the molecular proportion of 6 to 1, is next agitated for thirty-six hours with a small quantity of hydrated alumina previously obtained, which causes the liquor to decompose, and some 70% of the aluminium hydroxide to be thrown down.

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  • Sodium Permanganate, NaMn0 4.3H 2 O (?), may be prepared in a similar manner, or by precipitating the silver salt with sodium chloride.

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  • Manganese salts can be detected by the amethyst colour they impart to a borax-bead when heated in the Bunsen flame, and by the green mass formed when they are fused with a mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate.

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  • The valuation of pyrolusite is generally carried out by means of a distillation with hydrochloric acid, the liberated chlorine passing through a solution of potassium iodide, and the amount of iodine liberated being ascertained by means of a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.

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  • Mosander, by fusing its chloride with sodium.

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  • A higher hydrated oxide, CeO 3 xH 2 O, is formed by the interaction of cerous sulphate with sodium acetate and hydrogen peroxide (Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Comptes rendus, 1885, loo, p. 605).

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  • Many hydrated forms of the sulphate are known, as are also double salts of the sulphate with potassium, sodium, ammonium, thallium and cadmium sulphates.

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  • Cerium compounds may be recognized by the red precipitate of ceric hydroxide, which is formed when sodium hypochlorite is added to a colourless cerous salt.

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  • The word " alkali " denotes both soda and potash, but by "alkali manufacture" we understand merely the manufacture of sodium sulphate, carbonate and hydrate.

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  • The term alkali is employed in a technical sense for the carbonate and hydrate (of sodium), but since in the Leblanc process the manufacture of sodium sulphate necessarily precedes that of the carbonate, we include this as well as the manufacture of hydrochloric acid which is inseparable from it.

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  • A great many processes have been proposed for the manufacture of alkali from various materials, but none of these has become of any practical importance except those which start from sodium chloride (common salt); and among the latter again only three classes of processes are actually employed for manufacturing purposes, viz.

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  • The sodium sulphate is afterwards fluxed with calcium carbonate and coal, and a mixture is thus obtained from which sodium carbonate can be extracted by exhausting it with water.

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  • The rise of the ammonia-soda process (since 1870) gradually told upon the Leblanc process, which in consequence has been greatly restricted in Great Britain and Germany, and has become practically extinct in all other countries, except as far as its first part, the manufacture of sodium sulphate and hydrochloric acid, is concerned.

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  • At first principally acid sodium sulphate, NaHSO 4, is formed together with some normal sulphate; later, when the temperature has risen, the NaHSO 4 acts with more NaC1 so that nearly all of it is converted into Na 2 SO 4.

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  • Similar liquids are obtained with a basis of sodium (" eau de Javel "), by passing chlorine into solutions of sodium carbonate.

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  • For the last-named purpose it is sometimes replaced by sodium chlorate.

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  • Its principal constituents are always sodium carbonate and calcium sulphide, which are separated by the action of water, the former being soluble and the latter insoluble.

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  • The inflammable gas is carbon monoxide, which, however, does not burn with its proper purple flame, but with a flame tinged bright yellow by the sodium present.

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  • The lixiviation of the blackash requires great care, as the calcium sulphide is liable to be changed into soluble calcium compounds, which immediately react with sodium carbonate and destroy a corresponding quantity of the latter, rendering the soda weaker and impure.

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  • This change of the calcium sulphide may be brought about either by the oxidizing action of the air or by " hydrolysis," produced by prolonged contact with hot water, the use of which, on the other hand, cannot be avoided in order to extract the sodium carbonate itself.

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  • The clear vat-liquor, if allowed to cool down to ordinary temperature, would separate out part of the sodium carbonate in the shape of decahydrated crystals.

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  • It is continued until the contents of the pan have been coverted into a thick paste of small crystals of monohydrated sodium carbonate, permeated by a mother-liquor which is removed by draining on perforated plates or by a centrifugal machine, and is always returned to the pans.

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  • It is not easy to make it stronger than 92% of sodium carbonate, which is technically expressed as " 52 degrees of available soda " (see next page).

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  • If purer and stronger soda-ash is wanted, the boiling down must be carried out in pans fired from below, and the crystals of monohydrated sodium carbonate " fished " out as they are formed, but this is mostly done after submitting the liquor to the purifying operations which we shall now describe.

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  • The principal impurities of crude vat-liquor are sodium hydrate and sulphide, the latter of which always leads to the formation of soluble double sulphur salts of sodium and iron.

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  • The operation is finished when all the sodium sulphide has been converted into normal sodium carbonate, partly also into acid sodium carbonate (bicarbonate) NaHCO 3; at the same time a precipitate is formed, consisting of ferrous sulphide, alumina and silica, which is removed by another settling tank, and the clear liquor is now ready either for boiling down in a " fishing-pan " for the manufacture of white soda-ash, or for the process of causticizing.

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  • This means that portion which neutralizes the acid employed for testing, and the degrees mean the percentage of Na 2 O thus found, whether it be present as Na 2 CO 3, NaOH, or sodium aluminate or silicate.

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  • At the best about 92% of the sodium carbonate can be converted into caustic soda, 8% remaining unchanged.

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  • After from half an hour to a whole hour the conversion of sodium carbonate into sodium hydrate is brought about as far as is practicable.

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  • The clear caustic soda liquor must be concentrated in such a way that the caustic soda cannot to any great extent be reconverted into sodium carbonate, and that the " salts " which it contains, sodium carbonate, sulphate, chloride, &c., can be separated during the process.

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  • Their formula in Na 2 CO 3, 10H 2 O, corresponding to 37% of dry sodium carbonate.

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  • There the reaction mentioned above takes place, and Owing to the concentration of the liquid the sodium bicarbonate formed is to a great extent precipitated in the shape of small crystals, forming with the mother-liquor a thin magma.

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  • On the other hand the cooling must not be carried too far, for in this case the crystals of sodium bicarbonate become so fine that the muddy mass is very difficult to filter.

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  • Here a separation takes place between the crystals of sodium bicarbonate and the mother-liquor.

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  • The sodium in the latter costs next to nothing, being obtained from natural or artificial brine in which the sodium chloride possesses an extremely slight value.

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  • All endeavours to obtain either hydrochloric acid or free chlorine in the ammoniasoda process have proved commercial failures, all the chlorine of the sodium chloride being ultimately lost in the shape of worthless calcium chloride.

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  • It begins, however, not with ready-made ammonium bicarbonate, but with the substances from which it is formed - ammonia, water and carbon dioxide - which are made to act on sodium chloride.

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  • A nearly saturated solution of sodium chloride is obtained by purifying natural or artificial brine, i.e.

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  • The reversible character of the principal reaction has the consequence that a considerable portion of the sodium chloride (up to 33%) is lost, being contained in the waste calcium chloride solution which issues from the ammonia stills.

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  • It is true that all the chlorine combined with the sodium is lost partly as NaC1 and partly as CaC1 2; none of the innumerable attempts at recovering the chlorine from the waste liquor has been made to pay, and success is less likely than ever since the perfection of the electrolytic processes.

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  • Electrolitic Alkali Manufacture In theory by far the simplest process for making alkalis together with free chlorine is the electrolysis of sodium (or potassium) chloride.

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  • If, however, the action of the chlorine on the sodium hydrate is prevented, which can be done in various ways, they can both be collected in the isolated state and utilized as has been previously described, viz.

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  • This has indeed become the principal, because it is the cheapest, process for the manufacture of potassium and sodium chlorate.

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  • The sodium as it is formed at the cathode at once dissolves in the mercury which protects it against the action of the water as long as the percentage of sodium in the mercury does not exceed, say, 0.02%.

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  • When this percentage has been reached, the cell is rocked to the other side, so that the amalgam flows into one of the outer compartments where the sodium is converted by water into sodium hydrate.

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  • At the same time fresh mercury, from which the sodium had been previously extracted, flows from the other outside compartment into the central one.

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  • The intermediate layer of the salt solution, floating over the caustic soda solution, plays the part of a diaphragm, by preventing the chlorine evolved in the bell from acting on the sodium hydrate formed outside, and this solution offers much less resistance to the electric current than the ordinary diaphragms. This process therefore consumes less power than most others.

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  • The latter dissolves the sodium as it is formed and carries it to an outer compartment where by the action of water the sodium is converted into caustic soda, while the lead returns to the inner compartment.

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  • The same author wrote the articles on the manufacture of sodium and potassium compounds and on chlorine in Thorpe's Dictionary of Applied Chemistry (3 vols., 1890-1893).

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  • Perkin; the method being to sulphonate anthraquinone, and then to convert the sulphonic acid into its sodium salt and fuse this with caustic soda.

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  • It is then oxidized to anthraquinone by means of sodium dichromate and sulphuric acid in leaden vats, steam heated so that the mixture can be brought to the boil.

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  • The solution is poured into water and sodium carbonate is added to neutralize the excess of acid, when the sodium salt of the monosulphonic acid (known as silver salt) separates out.

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  • This is filtered, washed, and then fused with caustic soda, when the sulpho-group is replaced by a hydroxyl group, and a second hydroxyl group is simultaneously formed; in order to render the formation of this second group easier, a little potassium chlorate or sodium nitrate is added to the reaction mixture.

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  • The melt is dissolved in water and the dyestuff is liberated from the sodium salt by hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, or is converted into the calcium salt by digestion with hot milk of lime, then filtered and the calcium salt decomposed by acid.

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  • This is converted into the sodium salt by means of sodium carbonate, and on alkali fusion yields flavopurpurin.

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  • The metal is obtained from zinc blende (which only contains it in very small quantity) by dissolving the mineral in an acid, and precipitating the gallium by metallic zinc. The precipitate is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and foreign metals are removed by sulphuretted hydrogen; the residual liquid being then fractionally precipitated by sodium carbonate, which throws out the gallium before the zinc. This precipitate is converted into gallium sulphate and finally into a pure specimen of the oxide, from which the metal is obtained by the electrolysis of an alkaline solution.

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  • A hydrated form, Ni 3 0 4 ..2H 2 O, is obtained when the monoxide is fused with sodium peroxide at a red heat and the fused mass extracted with water.

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  • Tungsten may be prepared from wolfram by heating the powdered ore with sodium carbonate, extracting the sodium carbonate with water, filtering and adding an acid to precipitate tungstic acid, H 2 W0 4.

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  • On a small scale it is obtained by reducing the trioxide in a current of hydrogen, or the chloride by sodium vapour, or the oxide with carbon in the electric furnace; in the last case the product is porous and can be welded like iron.

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  • A crystalline form was obtained by Debray as olive-green prisms by igniting a mixture of sodium tungstate and carbonate in a current of hydrochloric acid gas, and by Nordenskjold by heating hydrated tungstic acid with borax.

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  • The most important tungstate is the so-called tungstate of soda, which is sodium paratungstate, NaloW12041.28H20.

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  • This salt is obtained by roasting wolfram with sodium carbonate, lixiviating, neutralizing the boiling filtrate with hydrochloric acid and crystallizing at ordinary temperatures.

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  • Several other sodium tungstates are known, as well as potassium and ammonium tungstates.

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  • The sodium compound was first obtained by Wohler on reducing sodium tungstate with hydrogen; coal-gas, zinc, iron or tin also effect the reduction.

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  • A blue bronze, Na2W5015, forming dark blue cubes with a red reflex, is obtained by electrolysing fused sodium paratungstate; a purple-red variety, Na2W309, and a reddish yellow form result when sodium carbonate and sodium tungstate are heated respectively with tungsten trioxide and tinfoil.

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