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sodium

sodium

sodium Sentence Examples

  • A solution of the free acid may be prepared by adding oxalic acid to the solution of the sodium salt.

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  • A solution of the free acid may be prepared by adding oxalic acid to the solution of the sodium salt.

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  • A sodium cobaltinitrite is also known.

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  • Sodium amalgam or zinc and hydrochloric acid reduce it to lactic acid, whilst hydriodic acid gives propionic acid.

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  • Similar sodium and ammonium compounds are known.

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  • It is formed by reducing diortho-dinitrodiphenyl with sodium amalgam and methyl alcohol, or by heating diphenylene-ortho-dihydrazine with hydrochloric acid to 150° C. It crystallizes in needles which melt at 156° C. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridazine tetracarboxylic acid.

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  • 6-trichlor-5-methylpyrimidine by the action of sodium methylate.

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  • Hydriodic acid and phosphorus at high temperature give a dihydro-compound, whilst sodium and alcohol give hexaand octo-hydro derivatives.

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  • The salts of the acid, however, are stable, the sodium salt in particular being largely used for photographic purposes under the name of "hypo."

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  • It is prepared on the industrial scale for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, for the preparation of sodium sulphate by the Hargreaves process, and for use as a bleaching-disinfecting agent and as a preservative.

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  • The water in a soap is rarely directly determined; when it is, the soap, in the form of shavings, is heated to 105° C. until the weight is constant, the loss giving the amount of ' " Soap powders " and " soap extracts " are powdered mixtures of soaps, soda ash or ordinary sodium carbonate.

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  • Molybdenum dioxide, Mo02, is formed by heating sodium trimolybdate, Na2M03010, to redness in a current of hydrogen (L.

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  • Two preparations of hard soap (sodium oleate), made by acting on olive oil with caustic soda, are used in medicine: (1) Emplastrum saponis, made with lead plaster; (2) Pilula saponis cornposita, which contains one in five parts of opium.

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  • By acting upon a solution of sodium hyposulphite with potassium bisulphate, Gernez (Compt.

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  • rend., 1891, 112, p. 866) is obtained by mixing a solution of sodium hyposulphite with double its volume of hydrochloric acid, filtering and extracting with chloroform; the extract yielding the variety on evaporation.

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  • Thionyl chloride, SOC1 21 may be obtained by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on sodium sulphite; by the action of sulphur trioxide on sulphur dichloride at 75 -80° C. (Journ.

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  • On heating in hydrogen, ammonia or carbon monoxide, or with carbon or sodium, it is reduced to the metallic state.

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  • The tertiary glycols are known as pinacones and are formed on the reduction of ketones with sodium amalgam.

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  • This property is usually obtained by mixing soft and hard soaps, or, more rarely, by adding gum tragacanth to a hard soap. In the textile trades the wool scourer employs a neutral olive-oil soap, or, on account of its cheapness, a neutral curd or curd mottled brand; the cotton cleanser, on the other hand, uses an alkaline soap, but for cleaning printed cottons a neutral olive-oil curd soap is used, for, in this case, free alkali and resin are objectionable; olive-oil soap, free from caustic alkali, but often with sodium carbonate, is also used in cleansing silk fibres, although hard soaps free from resin are frequently employed for their cheapness.

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  • Disulphuryl chloride, S 2 O 5 C1 2, corresponding to pyrosulphuric acid, is obtained by the action of sulphur trioxide on sulphur dichloride, phosphorus oxychloride, sulphuryl chloride or dry sodium chloride: 650 3- + 2POC1 3 = P 2 O 5 + 3S 2 O 5 C1 2; S2C12+ 5503 = S 2 0 5 C1 2 + 550 2; SO 3 + SO 2 C1 2 = S 2 0 5 C1 2; 2NaC1 + 3SO 3 = S 2 0 5 C1 2 -1 Na 2 SO 4.

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  • rend., 1869, 69, p. 169) obtained the sodium salt by the action of zinc on a concentrated solution of sodium bisulphite: Zn + 4NaHSO 3 = Na 2 S 2 O 4 + ZnSO 3 + Na 2 SO 3 + 2H 2 O, the salt being separated from the sulphites formed by fractional precipitation.

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  • This salt may be prepared by digesting flowers of sulphur with sodium sulphite solution or by boiling sulphur with milk of lime.

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  • In this latter reaction the deep yellow solution obtained is exposed to air when the calcium polysulphide formed is gradually converted into thiosulphate by oxidation, and the calcium salt thus formed is converted into the sodium salt by sodium carbonate or sulphate.

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  • The acid is considered to possess the structure 0 2 S(SH) (OH), since sodium thiosulphate reacts with ethyl bromide to give sodium ethyl thiosulphate, which on treatment with barium chloride gives presumably barium ethyl thiosulphate.

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  • Trithionic acid, H2S306, is obtained in the form of its potassium salt by the action of sulphur dioxide on a solution of potassium thiosulphate: 2K 2 S 2 0 3 -f3S0 2 = 2K 2 S 3 0 6 -{- S; or by warming a solution of silver potassium thiosulphate KAgS 2 0 3 = Ag 2 S K 2 S 3 0 6; whilst the sodium salt may be prepared by adding iodine to a mixture of sodium thiosulphate and sulphite: Na 2 S0 3 -fNa 2 S 2 0 3 -f12 = Na 2 S 3062NaI.

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  • Tetrathionic acid, H 2 S 4 0 6, is obtained in the form of its barium salt by digesting barium thiosulphate with iodine: 2Ba 2 S 2 0 3 -f12 = BaS406 -F 2BaI, the barium iodide formed being removed by alcohol; or in the form of sodium salt by the action of iodine on sodium thiosulphate.

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  • He further expressed the belief that the dark lines D of the solar spectrum coincide with the bright lines of the sodium flame.

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  • The temperature of the water varies from 98° to 130° Fahr.; in all cases it gives off carbonic acid gas and contains lime, magnesium and sodium products.

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  • sodium carbonates), and with herds of cattle and sheep, receiving in return cotton and hardware and kolas; (4) the Hausa merchants.

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  • It is a most important synthetic reagent; with sodium or sodium ethylate it forms sodio-malonic ester, which reacts readily with alkyl halides, forming alkyl malonic esters, which are again capable of forming sodium derivatives, that by further treatment with alkyl halides yield the di-alkyl malonic esters.

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  • Citric acid, being tribasic, forms either acid monometallic, acid dimetallic or neutral trimetallic salts; thus, mono-, diand tri-potassium and sodium citrates are known.

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  • The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.

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  • The process of manufacturing soaps by boiling fatty acids with caustic alkalis or sodium carbonate came into practice with the development of the manufacture of candles by saponifying fats, for it provided a means whereby the oleic acid, which is valueless for candle making, could be worked up. The combination is effected in open vats heated by a steam coil and provided with a stirring appliance; if soda ash be used it is necessary to guard against boiling over.

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  • The more usual method is to take milling soap, neutralize it with sodium bicarbonate or a mixture of fatty acids, and, after perfuming, it is aerated by mixing the hot soap with air in a specially designed crutcher.

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  • Iridium sesquioxide, Ir 2 0 3, is obtained when potassium iridium chloride is heated with sodium or potassium carbonates, in a stream of carbon dioxide.

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  • It may be obtained as a dark brown amorphous powder by placing a mixture of io parts of the roughly powdered oxide with 6 parts of metallic sodium in a red-hot crucible, and covering the mixture with a layer of well-dried common salt.

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  • After the vigorous reaction has ceased and all the sodium has been used up, the mass is thrown into dilute hydrochloric acid, when the soluble sodium salts go into solution, and the insoluble boron remains as a brown powder, which may by filtered off and dried.

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  • Sainte-Claire Deville obtained a grey product, from which, on dissolving out the aluminium with sodium hydroxide, they obtained a crystalline product, which they thought to be a modification of boron, but which was shown later to be a mixture of aluminium borides with more or less carbon.

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  • Several hydrated forms of the oxide are known, and a colloidal variety may be obtained by the dialysis of a strong hydrochloric acid solution of sodium molybdate.

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  • Ha-lophytes.These are plants living in situations where the substratum contains a high proportion of sodium chloride.

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  • The treatment is therefore to administer an ounce of sodium sulphate in water by the mouth, or to inject a similar quantity of the salt in solution directly into a vein or into the subcutaneous tissues.

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  • In systematic chemistry, sodium hyposulphite is a salt of hyposulphurous acid, to which Schutzenberger gave the formula H 2 S0 2, but which Bernthsen showed to be H 2 S 2 0 4.

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  • Sainte-Claire Deville obtained a grey product, from which, on dissolving out the aluminium with sodium hydroxide, they obtained a crystalline product, which they thought to be a modification of boron, but which was shown later to be a mixture of aluminium borides with more or less carbon.

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  • It is also readily soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, slightly soluble in aqueous ammonia solution, and almost insoluble in sodium carbonate solution.

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  • A thiophenol, C 6 H 5 SH, is known, and is prepared by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on phenol, or by distilling a mixture of sodium benzene sulphonate and potassium sulphydrate.

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  • The mixture is then cooled, acidified by means of sulphuric acid, and titrated with decinormal sodium thiosulphate solution.

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  • Meta-aminophenol is prepared by reducing metanitrophenol, or by heating resorcin with ammonium chloride and ammonia to 200° C. Dimethyl-meta-aminophenol is prepared by heating meta-aminophenol with methyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid in an autoclave; by sulphonation of dimethylaniline, the sulphonic acid formed being finally fused with potash; or by nitrating dimethylaniline, in the presence of sulphuric acid at 0° C. In the latter case a mixture of nitro-compounds is obtained which can be separated by the addition of sodium carbonate.

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  • 8 a to oxidize when sparked with oxygen, and on examining it spectroscopically he saw that the spectrum was not that of argon, but was characterized by a bright yellow line near to, but not identical with, the D line of sodium.

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  • A laboratory method is to mix solutions of sodium nitromethane, CH 2: NO(ONa), and mercuric chloride, a yellow basic salt being formed at the same time.

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  • Ag ?HC 'OH ?H CO 2 H-f-H 2 N OH, and also on the production from sodium nitromethane and mercuric chloride, thus CH 2: NO Ohg - > H 2 O -I-C: NOhg (hg = 2 Hg).

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  • of yttria, Y203, and 42.75 of the oxides of erbium, cerium, didymium, lanthanum, iron, beryllium, calcium, magnesium and sodium.

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  • or by electrolysing the double chloride of yttrium and sodium.

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  • a-propylene glycol, CH 3 CH(OH) CH 2 OH, a liquid boiling at 188° to 189°, and obtained by heating glycerin with sodium hydroxide and distilling the mixture; and trimethylene glycol, CH 2 OH CH 2 CH 2 OH, a liquid boiling at 214° C. and prepared by boiling trimethylene bromide with potash solution (A.

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  • Soft or green soap (potassium oleate), made by acting on olive oil with caustic potash, is also used; its preparation (Linamentum saponis) is known as opodeldoc. Curd soap is also used, and is chiefly a stearate of sodium.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid; zinc and acetic acid reduce it to cinnamic acid, C 6 H 5 CH:CH CO 2 H, whilst sodium amalgam reduces it to hydrocinnamic acid, C6H5 CH2 C02H.

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  • The manufacture of glass, also practised in Egypt, demanded a knowledge of sodium or potassium carbonates; the former occurs as an efflorescence on the shores of certain lakes; the latter was obtained from wood ashes.

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  • In particular, the salts of potassium, sodium and ammonium were carefully investigated, but sodium and potassium salts were rarely differentiated.

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  • In 1808 Davy isolated sodium and potassium; he then turned his attention to the preparation of metallic calcium, barium, strontium and magnesium.

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  • Although unable to isolate the metal, he recognized its analogy to sodium and potassium; this was confirmed by R.

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  • Within two years of the invention the authors announced the discovery of two metals, rubidium and caesium, closely allied to sodium, potassium and lithium in properties, in the mineral lepidolite and in the Diirkheim mineral water.

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  • By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6, and not methyl, CH 3.

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  • Oxidation of thio-ethers results in the formation of sulphoxides, R2: S: 0, and sulphones, R2: S02; oxidation of mercaptans yields sulphonic acids, R S0 3 H, and of sodium mercaptides sulphinic acids, R S0(OH).

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  • It was long supposed that the simplest ring obtainable contained six atoms of carbon, and the discovery of trimethylene in 1882 by August Freund by the action of sodium on trimethylene bromide, Br(CH 2) 3 Br, came somewhat as a surprise, especially in view of its behaviour with bromine and hydrogen bromide.

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  • Perkin, junr., in 1883, that ethylene and trimethylene bromides are capable of acting in such a way on sodium acetoacetic ester as to form triand tetramethylene rings.

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  • CH :CH (OH), formed by acting on formic ester with acetone in the presence of sodium ethylate, readily yields [1.3.51-triacetylbenzene, C 6 H 3 (CO CH 3) 3; oxymethylene acetic ester or formyl acetic ester or ß-oxyacrylic ester, (HO)CH :CH CO 2 C 2 H 51 formed by condensing acetic ester with formic ester, and also its dimolecular condensation product, coumalic acid, readily yields esters of [1.3.

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  • We may here mention the synthesis of oxyuvitic ester (5-methyl-4-oxy-I-3-benzene dicarboxylic ester) by the condensation of two molecules of sodium acetoacetic ester with one of chloroform (Ann., 1883, 222, p. 249).

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  • Torray's observations on nitromalonic aldehyde, N02 CH(CHO)2,formed by acting on mucobromic acid, probably CHO CBr:CBr:000H, with alkaline nitrites; this substance condenses with acetone to give p-nitrophenol, and forms [I.3.5]-trinitrobenzene when its sodium salt is decomposed with an acid.

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  • 'Cooh Ci, BrC CO CBr3+ H H2 HC ("CH, HC C /CH, H02C C02HCI CI (t) (2) C(3) (4) (5) The reduction of o-oxybenzoic acids by sodium in amyl alcohol solution has been studied by A.

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  • By reducing terephthalic acid with sodium amalgam, care being taken to neutralize the caustic soda simultaneously formed by passing in carbon dioxide, A" dihydroterephthalic acid is obtained; this results from the splitting of a Para-linkage.

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  • Of the principal workers in this field we may notice Friedrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colorations), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman.

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  • Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was wanting until Cartmell took the subject up. His results (Phil.

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  • Potassium gives a blue-violet flame which may be masked by the colorations due to sodium, calcium and other elements.

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  • Certain substances are insoluble in all these reagents, and other methods, such as the fusion with sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate, and subsequent treatment with an acid, must be employed.

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  • The solution contains magnesium, sodium and potassium, which are separately distinguished by the methods given under their own headings.

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  • The solution is boiled till free from sulphuretted hydrogen and treated with excess of sodium hydrate.

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  • Thus a normal solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36.5 grammes, and so on.

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  • Unfortunately, the term normal is sometimes given to solutions which are strictly decinormal; for example, iodine, sodium thiosulphate, &c. In technical analysis, where a solution is used for one process only, it may be prepared so that I cc. is equal to.

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  • Pure sodium carbonate is prepared by igniting the bicarbonate, and exactly 53 grammes are dissolved in water, forming a strictly normal solution.

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  • A standard sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the sulphuric acid.

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  • Where a solution is likely to change in composition on keeping, such as potassium permanganate, iodine, sodium hydrate, &c., it is necessary to check or re-standardize it periodically.

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  • The substance is heated with metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added.

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  • A blue coloration indicates nitrogen, and is due to the formation of potassium (or sodium) cyanide during the fusion, and subsequent interaction with the iron salts.

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  • Sulphur is detected by heating the substance with sodium, dissolving the product in water, and adding sodium nitroprusside; a bluish-violet coloration indicates sulphur.

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  • 18, p. 806) a mixture containing sodium hyposulphite and sodium formate for nitrates.

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  • 10, p. 290); the operation is easier if the lime be mixed with sodium carbonate, or a mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate be used.

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  • 38, p. 1 434) has devised a method in which the oxidation is effected by sodium peroxide; the halogens,phosphorus and sulphur can be determined by one operation.

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  • For instance, constant differences are found between the chlorides, bromides and iodides of sodium and potassium According to H.

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  • In the case of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, NaH 2 PO 4 H 2 O, a stable rhombic form is obtained from warm solutions, while a different, unstable, rhombic form is obtained from cold solutions.

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  • Such parallel overgrowths, termed episomorphs, are very common among the potassium and sodium felspars; and K.

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  • This substance easily splits out alcohol, and the ring compound then formed yields pyrrolidine on reduction by sodium in amyl alcohol solution.

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  • Reimer, Ber., 1876, 9, p. 1285); and by the action of sodium on a mixture of phenol and chlorcarbonic ester (T.

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  • Sodium phenolate is heated in a stream of carbon dioxide in an iron retort at a temperature of 180-220° C., when half the phenol distils over and a basic sodium salicylate is left.

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  • Hofmann and Schotensack decompose a mixture of phenol (3 molecules) and sodium carbonate (4 mols.) with carbonyl chloride at 140-zoo° C. When 90% of the phenol has distilled over, the residue is dissolved and hydrochloric acid added, any phenol remaining is blown over in a current of steam, and the salicylic acid finally precipitated by hydrochloric acid.

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  • The acid may also be obtained by passing carbon monoxide over a mixture of sodium phenolate and sodium carbonate at 200°C.: Na2C03+ C 6 H 2 ONa+CO = C 7 H 4 O 2 Na 2 -{- HC02Na;and by heating sodium phenolate with ethyl phenyl carbonate to 200° C.: [[Cghso.

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  • It is to be noted in the Kolbe method of synthesis that potassium phenolate may be used in place of the sodium salt, provided that the temperature be kept low (about 150° C.), for at the higher temperature (220° C.) the isomeric para-oxybenzoic acid is produced.

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  • Its sodium salt is transformed into the isomeric C6H4(0C6H5) CO 2 Na when heated to 300°.

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  • Salicylic acid is now never given internally, being replaced by its sodium salt, which is much cheaper, more soluble and less irritating to mucous membranes.

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  • Whatever drug of this group be taken, the product absorbed by the blood is almost entirely sodium salicylate.

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  • Sodium salicylate circulates in the blood unchanged, decomposition occurring in the kidney, and probably in tissues suffering from the Diplococcus rheumaticus of Poynton and Paine.

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  • It has now been established that, provided the kidneys be healthy, natural salicylic acid, sodium salicylate prepared from the natural acid, and salicin, are not cardiac depressants.

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  • Sodium salicylate escapes from the blood mainly by the kidneys, in the secretion of which sodium salicylate and salicyluric acid can be detected within fifteen minutes of its administration.

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  • At first 20 grains of sodium salicylate should be given every hour: the interval being doubled as soon as the pain disappears, and extended to three hours when the temperature becomes normal.

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  • Normal butyl alcohol, CH 3 (CH 2) 2 CH 2 OH, is a colourless liquid, boiling at 116.8°, and formed by reducing normal butyl aldehyde with sodium, or by a peculiar fermentation of glycerin, brought about by a schizomycete.

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  • ULTRAMARINE, a blue pigment, consisting essentially of a double silicate of aluminium and sodium with some sulphides or sulphates, and occurring in nature as a proximate component of lapis lazuli.

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  • "Ultramarine poor in silica" is obtained by fusing a mixture of soft clay, sodium sulphate, charcoal, soda and sulphur.

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  • It has been suggested that ultramarine is a compound of a sodium aluminium silicate and sodium sulphide.

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  • On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.

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  • HO N Aldoximes are generally obtained by the action of hydroxylamine hydrochloride on the aldehyde in presence of sodium carbonate; the oxime being then usually extracted from the solution by ether.

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  • They may also be prepared by the reduction of primary nitro compounds with stannous chloride and concentrated hydrochloric acid; by the reduction of unsaturated nitro compounds with minium amalgam or zinc dust in the presence of dilute acetic acid' Bouveault, Comptes rendus, 1902, 134, p. 1145):R2C:[[Chno 2 -R 2 C: Ch Nhoh - R 2 Ch Ch: Noh]], and by the action of alkyl iodides on the sodium salt of nitro-hydroxylamine (A.

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  • Soc., 18 9 8, 73, p. 35 2) as a colourless liquid by the addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to an aqueous solution of formaldehyde in the presence of sodium carbonate; the resulting solution was extracted with ether and the oxime hydrochloride precipitated by gaseous hydrochloric acid, the precipitate being then dissolved in water, the solution exactly neutralized and distilled.

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  • It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 39° C. A chloral hydroxylamine, CC1 3 [[Choh Nhoh]], melting at 98° C. is obtained by allowing a mixture of one molecular proportion of chloral hydrate with two molecular proportions of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and one of sodium carbonate to stand for some time in a desiccator.

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  • It melts at 173° C.; and on reduction with sodium in alcoholic solution yields tetramethylene diamine.

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  • The 0-form is obtained by the direct action of hydroxylamine hydrochloride on mesityl oxide, the hydrochloride so formed being decomposed by sodium carbonate.

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  • By the direct action of hydroxylamine on a methyl alcohol solution of mesityl oxide in the presence of sodium methylate a hydr oxylamino - ketone, diacetone hydroxylamine, (CH 3) 2 C(Nhoh) CH20OCH3,is formed.

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  • It is also formed by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on sodium nitrite in the presence of mercury.

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  • Journ., 1811, 8, p. 302), and obtained by the action of chlorine or sodium hypochlorite on ammonium chloride, or by the electrolysis of ammonium chloride solution, is a very volatile yellow oil.

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  • News, 23, p. 206) by reducing a solution of potassium nitrite with sodium amalgam, and subsequent precipitation as silver salt.

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  • Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.

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  • With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid.

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  • Acetonyl-acetophenone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CH2.CO.CH3, is produced by condensing phenacyl bromide with sodium acetoacetate with subsequent elimination of carbon dioxide, and on dehydration gives aa-phenyl-methyl-furfurane.

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  • The colloidal particles are electrically charged and become discharged by the ions of sodium, magnesium and calcium present in the sea-water.

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  • " Eucasein " is the ammonium salt; " nutrose " and " plasmon " are sodium salts.

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  • Soon afterwards, William Cruickshank decomposed the magnesium, sodium and ammonium chlorides, and precipitated silver and copper from their solutions - an observation which led to the process of electroplating.

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  • In 1807 he decomposed potash and soda, previously considered to be elements, by passing the current from a powerful battery through the moistened solids, and thus isolated the metals potassium and sodium.

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  • Hittorf showed that when a current was passed through a solution of sodium platino-chloride, the platinum appeared at the anode.

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  • The salt must therefore be derived from an acid, chloroplatinic acid, H 2 PtC1 6, and have the formula Na 2 PtC1 6, the ions being Na and PtCls", for if it were a double salt it would decompose as a mixture of sodium chloride and platinum chloride and both metals would go to the cathode.

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  • A freedom of interchange is thus indicated between the opposite parts of the molecules of salts in solution, and it follows reasonably that with the solution of a single salt, say sodium chloride, continual interchanges go on between the sodium and chlorine parts of the different molecules.

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  • 3'73 Sodium chloride..

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  • 3.71 Sodium nitrate.

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  • 5.04 Sodium sulphate..

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  • Let us allow dilute sodium acetate to react with dilute hydrochloric acid.

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  • Barreswil found that a strongly alkaline solution of copper sulphate and potassium sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt) remained unchanged on boiling, but yielded an immediate precipitate of red cuprous oxide when a solution of glucose was added.

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  • The cyanhydrin is hydrolysable to an acid, the lactone of which may be reduced by sodium amalgam to a glucoheptose, a non-fermentable sugar containing seven carbon atoms. By repeating the process a non-fermentable gluco-octose and a fermentable glucononose may be prepared.

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  • The liquid is now run into neutralizing tanks containing sodium carbonate, and, after settling, the supernatant liquid, termed "light liquor," is run through bag filters and then on to bone-char filters, which have been previously used for the "heavy liquor."

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  • This liquid is concentrated in vacuum pans to a specific gravity of 40° to 44° B., a small quantity of sodium bisulphite solution being added to bleach it, to prevent fermentation, and to inhibit browning.

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  • The dissolved salts (potassium, sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, &c.) of the latex are generally nearly entirely absent from the wellprepared rubber.

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  • They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.

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  • Plumbic acid, Pb0(OH) 21 is obtained as a bluish-black, lustrous body of electrolysing an alkaline solution of lead sodium tartrate.

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  • Lead sesquioxide, Pb203, is obtained as a reddish-yellow amorphous powder by carefully adding sodium hypochlorite to a cold potash solution of lead oxide, or by adding very dilute ammonia to a solution of red lead in acetic acid.

    0
    0
  • A chlorofluoride, PbC1F, is obtained by adding sodium fluoride to a solution of lead chloride.

    0
    0
  • The normal ortho-phosphate, Pb3(P04)2, is a white precipitate obtained by adding sodium phosphate to lead acetate; the acid phosphate, PbHPO 4, is produced by precipitating a boiling solution of lead nitrate with phosphoric acid; the pyrophosphate and meta-phosphate are similar white precipitates.

    0
    0
  • When mixed with sodium carbonate and heated on charcoal in the reducing flame lead salts yield malleable globules of metal and a yellow oxide-ring.

    0
    0
  • The treatment is the prompt use of emetics, or the stomach should be washed out, and large doses of sodium or magnesium sulphate given in order to form an insoluble sulphate.

    0
    0
  • It is formed when the vapours of toluene, stilbene, dibenzyl, ortho-ditolyl, or coumarone and benzene are passed through a red-hot tube; by distilling morphine with zinc dust; and, with anthracene, by the action of sodium on ortho-brombenzyl bromide (C. L.

    0
    0
  • Phenanthrene-quinone, [C 6 H 4] 2 [CO] 21 crystallizes in orange needles which melt at 198° C. It possesses the characteristic properties of a diketone, forming crystalline derivatives with sodium bisulphite and a dioxime with hydroxylamine.

    0
    0
  • As the source of monochromatic light a bright sodium burner is used, and the rotation, which is exactly proportional to H, is measured by an accurate polarimeter.

    0
    0
  • Darzens (Comptes Rendus, 1904, 139, p. 1214) prepares esters of disubstituted glycidic acids, by condensing the corresponding ketone with monochloracetic ester, in the presence of sodium ethylate.

    0
    0
  • With sodium bisulphite they form the so-called bisulphite compounds R�CH(OH)�SO Na, which are readily resolved into their components by distillation with dilute acids, and are frequently used for the preparation of the pure aldehyde.

    0
    0
  • It is also produced by the action of sodium on a mixture of epichlorhydrin and methyl iodide, C 3 H S OC1+CH 3 I+2Na= C 3 H 4 0+NaI+NaC1+CH 4.

    0
    0
  • It is prepared by oxidizing cinnamyl alcohol, or by the action of sodium ethylate on a mixture of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

    0
    0
  • In 1855, ignorant of what Wailer had done ten years previously, he succeeded in obtaining metallic aluminium, and ultimately he devised a method by which the metal could be prepared on a large scale by the aid of sodium, the manufacture of which he also developed.

    0
    0
  • is the sign of an alkali metal (potassium, sodium, rubidium, caesium), silver or ammonium, and M 111 denotes one of the trivalent metals, aluminium, chromium or ferric iron.

    0
    0
  • By this means, sodium aluminate is formed; it is then extracted with water and precipitated either by sodium bicarbonate or by passing a current of carbon dioxide through the solution.

    0
    0
  • "Neutral alum" is obtained by the addition of as much sodium carbonate to a solution of alum as will begin to cause the separation of alumina; it is much used in mordanting.

    0
    0
  • Sodium alum, Na 2 SO 4 �Al 2 (S04) 3 �24H 2 O, occurs in nature as the mineral mendozite.

    0
    0
  • In the preparation of this salt, it is preferable to mix the component solutions in the cold, and to evaporate them at a temperature not exceeding 60° C. ioo parts of water dissolve iio parts of sodium alum at o° C. (W.

    0
    0
  • The solubility of the various alums in water varies greatly, sodium alum being readily soluble in water, whilst caesium and rubidium alums are only sparingly soluble.

    0
    0
  • Columbium hydride, CbH, is obtained as a greyish metallic powder, when the double fluoride, CbF 5, 2 KF, is reduced with sodium.

    0
    0
  • those containing the groupings CH 2 NO 2 and >CH NO 2) form metallic derivatives; for example, sodium salts, which according to A.

    0
    0
  • These sodium salts are crystalline solids which are readily soluble in water and are very explosive.

    0
    0
  • The primary nitroparaffins combine with nitric oxide in the presence of sodium ethylate, to form nitroalkylisonitramines, R CH(NO 2) N 2 0 2 H (W.

    0
    0
  • It readily forms a sodium salt, from the aqueous solution of which on the addition of a mineral acid an isomeric solid form of the nitro compound (melting at 84° C.) is precipitated.

    0
    0
  • The best object for examination is a grating of fine wires, about fifty to the inch, backed by a sodium flame.

    0
    0
  • Metallic uranium, as shown by Peligot, can be obtained by the reduction of a mixture of dry chloride of potassium and dry uranous chloride, UC1 4, with sodium at a red heat.

    0
    0
  • Sodium uranate, Na2U207, is used as a pigment for painting on glass and porcelain under the name of uranium yellow.

    0
    0
  • It is manufactured by heating pitchblende with lime, treating the resulting calcium uranate with dilute sulphuric acid, and adding sodium carbonate in excess.

    0
    0
  • Stannous Oxide, SnO, is obtained in the hydrated form Sn20(OH)2 from a solution of stannous chloride by addition of sodium carbonate; it forms a white precipitate, which can be washed with air-free water and dried at 80° C. without much change by oxidation; if it be heated in carbon dioxide the black SnO remains.

    0
    0
  • Its disintegration for analytical purposes can be effected by fusion with caustic alkali in silver basins, with the formation of soluble stannate, or by fusion with sulphur and sodium carbonate, with the formation of a soluble thiostannate.

    0
    0
  • the sodium salt H8Na2Sn501E) is the white compound produced from the metal by means of nitric acid.

    0
    0
  • (4) Orthostannic acid is obtained as a white precipitate on the addition of sodium carbonate or the exact quantity of precipitated calcium carbonate to a solution of the chloride.

    0
    0
  • Of these sodium stannate, Na2Sn03, is produced industrially by heating tin with Chile saltpetre and caustic soda, or by fusing very finely powdered tinstone with caustic soda in iron vessels.

    0
    0
  • A colloidal or soluble stannic acid is obtained by dialysing a mixture of tin tetrachloride and alkali, or of sodium stannate and hydrochloric acid.

    0
    0
  • Tin compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate or potassium cyanide in the reducing blowpipe flame yield the metal and a scanty ring of white Sn02.

    0
    0
  • The solutions are oxidized, precipitated with ammonia, the precipitate dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and re-thrown down by boiling with sodium sulphate.

    0
    0
  • sodium carbonate) is added to the final washing water, so that quantities of this alkaline substance ranging from 0 .

    0
    0
  • sodium hydroxide) will in a solid state fire it on contact.

    0
    0
  • Loeb found experimentally that increase of metabolic products in muscle greatly raised its osmotic pressure, and so it would absorb water from a relatively concentrated sodium chloride solution.

    0
    0
  • As sodium chloride is one of the most permeable of crystalloids it seems strange that damage to the renal tissue should impede its excretion.

    0
    0
  • The action is very rapid, and the product, which rises to the top of the acids, is separated and washed successively with cold and then tepid water, and finally with water made slightly alkaline with sodium carbonate or hydroxide, to remove all adhering or dissolved acids which would otherwise render the product very unstable.

    0
    0
  • Ammonium hydroxide has no appreciable action at ordinary temperatures, but strong solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxides start a decomposition, with rise of temperature, in which some nitrate and always some nitrite is produced.

    0
    0
  • Nitroglycerin shaken up with warm very dilute alkaline solutions, as sodium carbonate, for a few minutes only, always yields sufficient nitrite to give the diazoreaction; and, as stated, strong alkaline solutions always produce some nitrite as one of the decomposition products.

    0
    0
  • It appears that with soils which are not rich in humus or not deficient in lime, calcium cyanamide is almost as good, nitrogen for nitrogen, as ammonium sulphate or sodium nitrate; but it is of doubtful value with peaty soils or soils containing little lime, nor is it usefully available as a top-dressing or for storing.

    0
    0
  • In this table n is the refractive index of the glass for sodium light (the D line of the solar spectrum), while the letters C, F and G' refer to lines in the hydrogen spectrum by which dispersion is now generally specified.

    0
    0
  • Silicon hydride, SiH4, is obtained in an impure condition, as a spontaneously inflammable gas, by decomposing magnesium silicide with hydrochloric acid, or by the direct union of silicon and hydrogen in the electric arc. In the pure state it may be prepared by decomposing ethyl silicoformate in the presence of sodium (C. Friedel and A.

    0
    0
  • It is decomposed with great violence when heated in contact with either sodium or potassium.

    0
    0
  • whilst with sodium hydroxide, sodium fluoride is produced: 3SiF4= 4KHO = S102+ 2K 2 SiF 6 + 2H 2 0; SiF 4 + 4NaOH = SiO 2 + 4NaF+ 2H 2 O.

    0
    0
  • It is decomposed readily by water, sodium hydroxide, alcohol and ether: 2SiHF 3 +4H 2 0 = H 4 S10 4 +H 2 SiF 6 -1-211 2; SiHF 3 +3NaOH H 2 O =H4S104+3NaF+H2; 2SiHF 3 +4C 2 H 5 OH =Si(0C 2 H 5) 4 +H 2 SiF 6 +2H 2 i SiHF 3 +3(C 2 H 5) 2 0 =SiH(OC2H5)3+3C2H5F.

    0
    0
  • Taurke (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 1663) by condensing silicon halides with alkyl chlorides in the presence of sodium: SiC14-1-4R Cl+8Na= SiR 4 +8NaCI; SiHC1 3 +3R.

    0
    0
  • Silicon tetraphenyl, Si(C6H5)4, a solid melting at 231° C., is obtained by the action of chlorobenzene on silicon tetrachloride in the presence of sodium.

    0
    0
  • Many are found as minerals, the more important of such naturally occurring carbonates being cerussite (lead carbonate, PbC03), malachite and azurite (both basic copper carbonates), calamine (zinc carbonate, ZnCO 3), witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO 3), strontianite (strontium carbonate, SrC03), calcite (calcium carbonate, CaC03), dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate, CaCO 3 MgCO 3), and sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3.

    0
    0
  • Sodium amalgam converts it into formic acid; whilst with alcohol it yields the normal carbonic ester.

    0
    0
  • Sodium percarbonates of the formulae Na 2 CO 4, Na2C206, Na 2 C05, NaHCO 4 (two isomers) are obtained by the action of gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on the peroxides Na 2 0 2, Na 2 0 3, NaHO 2 (two isomers)in the presence of water at a low temperature (R.Wolffenstein and E.Peltner, Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 275, 280).

    0
    0
  • Of the better known metals potassium and sodium are the softest; they can be kneaded between the fingers like wax.

    0
    0
  • Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).

    0
    0
  • Potassium, for example, yields peroxide, K202 or K204; sodium gives Na202; the barium-group metals, as well as magnesium, cadmium, zinc, lead, copper, are converted into their monoxides MeO.

    0
    0
  • The following, though volatile at higher temperatures, are not volatilized at dull redness: KC1, NaCI, LiC1, NiC1 2, CoC1 2, MnC1 2, ZnCl 2, MgCl 2, PbCl 2, AgCI, the chlorides of potassium, sodium, lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, zinc, magnesium, lead, silver.

    0
    0
  • - The cyanhydrins on hydrolysis give monocarboxylic acids, which yield lactones; these compounds when reduced by sodium amalgam in sulphuric acid solution yield a sugar containing one more carbon atom.

    0
    0
  • Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.

    0
    0
  • It polymerizes to a tetrose under the action of sodium hydroxide.

    0
    0
  • The following table shows the amounts of the chief constituents removed by certain crops in lb per acre: - Plants also remove from the soil silicon, sodium, chlorine, and other elements which are, nevertheless, found to be unessential for the growth and may therefore be neglected here.

    0
    0
  • sal, salt, petra, a rock), the commercial name given to three naturally occurring nitrates, distinguished as (1) ordinary saltpetre, nitre, or potassium nitrate, (2) Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre, or sodium nitrate, (3) wall-saltpetre or calcium nitrate.

    0
    0
  • This is generally effected by adding the calculated amount of potassium chloride (of which immense quantities are obtained as a by-product in the Stassfurt salt industry) dissolved in hot water to a saturated boiling solution of sodium nitrate; the common salt, which separates on boiling down the solution, is removed from the hot solution, and on cooling the potassium nitrate crystallizes out and is separated and dried.

    0
    0
  • sodium nitrite, ethyl nitrite, amyl nitrite) cause relaxation of involuntary muscular fibre and therefore relieve the asthmatic attacks, which depend upon spasm of the involuntary muscles in the bronchial tubes.

    0
    0
  • Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre or sodium nitrate, NaNO,, occurs under the same conditions as ordinary saltpetre in deposits covering immense areas in South America, which are known locally as caliche or terra salitrosa, and abound especially in the provinces of Tarapaca and Antofagasta in Chile.

    0
    0
  • The conglomerate consists of rock fragments, sodium chloride and various sulphates, cemented together by gypsum to form a hard compact mass 6 to 10 ft.

    0
    0
  • It contains from 48 to 75% of sodium nitrate and from 20 to 40% of common salt, which are associated with various minor saline components, including sodium iodate and more or less insoluble mineral, and also some organic matter, e.g.

    0
    0
  • The caliche is worked up in loco for crude nitrate by extracting the salts with hot water, allowing the suspended earth to settle, and then transferring the clarified liquor, first to a cistern where it deposits part of its sodium chloride at a high temperature, and then to another where, on cooling, it yields a crop of crystals of purified nitrate.

    0
    0
  • Chemically pure sodium nitrate can be obtained by repeated recrystallization of Chile saltpetre or by synthesis.

    0
    0
  • Both are easily removed by passing chlorine through the cold solution, to produce ferric and manganic salt, and then digesting the liquid with a washed precipitate of basic carbonate, produced from a small portion of the solution by means of sodium carbonate.

    0
    0
  • Zinc carbonate, ZnCO 3, occurs in nature as the mineral calamine (q.v.), but has never been prepared artificially, basic carbonates, ZnCO 3 .xZn(OH) 2, where x is variable, being obtained by precipitating a solution of the sulphate or chloride with sodium carbonate.

    0
    0
  • Sainte Claire Deville working independently obtained aluminium by the electrolysis of the fused double sodium aluminium chloride.

    0
    0
  • Since that date other processes have been devised and the electrolytic processes have entirely replaced the older methods of reduction with sodium.

    0
    0
  • It is formed by the condensation of acetylene tetrabromide with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride: Br CH Br CH C H +C6H6=4HBr+C6H4) I, )C6H4, Br CH Br CH and similarly from methylene dibromide and benzene, and also when benzyl chloride is heated with aluminium chloride to 200° C. By condensing ortho-brombenzyl bromide with sodium, C. L.

    0
    0
  • By the action of sodium amalgam on an alcoholic solution of anthracene, an anthracene dihydride, C14H12, is obtained, whilst by the use of stronger reducing agents, such as hydriodic acid and amorphous phosphorus, hydrides of composition C14H16 and C14H24 are produced.

    0
    0
  • 1, p. 25) obtained a purer product by heating the chloride with sodium in a steel cylinder; it then formed yellow scales.

    0
    0
  • The distillate is freed from vanadium by digestion with sodium amalgam.

    0
    0
  • Wallach, Ber., 1881, 14, P. 421); by the action of reducing agents on nitroparaffins; by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on aldehyde ammonias (German Patent 73,812); by the reduction of the phenylhydrazones and oximes of aldehydes and ketones with sodium amalgam in the presence of alcohol and sodium acetate (J.

    0
    0
  • The simplest aromatic tertiary amine, triphenylamine, is prepared by the action of brombenzene on sodium diphenylamine (C. Heydrich, Ber., 1885, 18, p. 2156).

    0
    0
  • 1862, 121, p. 144), or by metallic sodium (E.

    0
    0
  • von Konkoly remarked in the fireball of 1873 (July 26) the lines of magnesium and sodium.

    0
    0
  • In addition to magnesium and sodium the lines of potassium, lithium and also the carbon flutings exhibited in cometary spectra, has been seen.

    0
    0
  • The causticity of alkaline bodies was explained at that time as depending on the presence in them of the principle of fire, "phlogiston"; quicklime, for instance, was chalk which had taken up phlogiston, and when mild alkalis such as sodium or potassium carbonate were causticized by its aid, the phlogiston was supposed to pass from it to them.

    0
    0
  • For the theory and elemental laws of electro-deposition see Electrolysis; and for the construction and use of electric generators see Dynamo and Battery: Electric. The importance of the subject may be gauged by the fact that all the aluminium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium carbide, carborundum and artificial graphite, now placed on the market, is made by electrical processes, and that the use of such processes for the refining of copper and silver, and in the manufacture of phosphorus, potassium chlorate and bleach, already pressing very heavily on the older non-electrical systems, is every year extending.

    0
    0
  • When an alkaline chloride, say sodium chloride, is electrolysed with one electrode immersed in a porous cell, while caustic soda is formed at the cathode, chlorine is deposited at the anode.

    0
    0
  • The chlorine reacts with the caustic soda, forming sodium hypochlorite, and this in turn, with an excess of chlorine and at higher temperatures, becomes for the most part converted into chlorate, whilst any simultaneous electrolysis of a hydroxide or water and a chloride (so that hydroxyl and chlorine are simultaneously liberated at the anode) also produces oxygen-chlorine compounds direct.

    0
    0
  • A 10-12% solution of sodium chloride is caused to flow upwards through the apparatus and to overflow into troughs, by which it is conveyed (if necessary through a cooling apparatus) back to the circulating pump. Such a plant has been reported as giving 0.229 gallon of a liquor containing I% of available chlorine per kilowatt hour, or 0.171 gallon per e.h.p. hour.

    0
    0
  • Acid sodium acid.

    0
    0
  • Carbon monoxide takes part in the syntheses of sodium formate from sodium hydrate, or soda lime (at 200 0 -2 20 0), and of sodium acetate and propionate from sodium methylate and sodium ethylate at 160 0 -200°.

    0
    0
  • It is found in the form of its acid potassium salt in many plants, especially in wood-sorrel (Oxalis acetosella) and in varieties of Rumex; as ammonium salt in guano; as calcium salt in rhubarb root, in various lichens and in plant cells; as sodium salt in species of Salicornia and as free acid in varieties of Boletus.

    0
    0
  • It may be obtained synthetically by heating sodium in a current of carbon dioxide to 360° C.; by the oxidation of ethylene glycol; by heating sodium formate to 400° C. (V.

    0
    0
  • This compound melts at 350° C., a temperature far above the melting-point of either sodium or mercury.

    0
    0
  • A more delicate method consists in adding a very little anthraquinone and sodium amalgam; absolute alcohol gives a green coloration, but in the presence of minute traces of water a red coloration appears.

    0
    0
  • Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in ethyl alcohol with the production of alcoholates of the formula C2 H5 OK(Na).

    0
    0
  • Sodium aurosulphide, NaAuS 4H 2 O, is prepared by fusing gold with sodium sulphide and sulphur, the melt being extracted with water, filtered in an atmosphere of nitrogen, and evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.

    0
    0
  • Thus by adding acid sodium sulphite to, or by passing sulphur dioxide at 50° into, a solution of sodium aurate, the salt, 3Na 2 SO 3 Au 2 SO 3.3H20 is obtained, which, when precipitated from its aqueous solution by alcohol, forms a purple powder, appearing yellow or green by reflected light.

    0
    0
  • Sodium aurothiosulphate, 3Na 2 S 2 O 3 Au2S203.4H20, forms colourless needles; it is obtained in the direct action of sodium thiosulphateongoldinthe presence of an oxidizing agent, or by the addition of a dilute solution of auric chloride to a sodium thiosulphate solution.

    0
    0
  • Of the numerous remedies proposed the most efficacious is perhaps sodium amalgam.

    0
    0
  • Henry Wurtz in America (1864) and Sir William Crookes in England (1865) made independently the discovery that, by the addition of a small quantity of sodium to the mercury, the operation is much facilitated.

    0
    0
  • It is also stated that sodium prevents both the " sickening " and the " flouring " of the mercury which is produced by certain associated minerals.

    0
    0
  • nitre, sodium carbonate, &c.

    0
    0
  • The precipitate is collected in a filter-press, and then roasted in muffle furnaces with nitre, borax and sodium carbonate.

    0
    0
  • 26) has shown that the solution is hastened by many oxidizing agents, especially sodium and manganese dioxides and potassium ferricyanide.

    0
    0
  • Another process consists in treating a mixture of the residue with one-quarter of its weight of calcined sodium sulphate with sulphuric acid, the residue being finally boiled with a large quantity of acid.

    0
    0
  • Sodium in boiling amyl alcohol reduces it to aromatic tetrahydro-a-naphthylamine, a substance having the properties of an aromatic amine, for it can be diazotized and does not possess an ammoniacal smell.

    0
    0
  • When reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution it forms alicyclic tetrahydro-0naphthylamine, which has most of the properties of the aliphatic amines; it is strongly alkaline in reaction, has an ammoniacal odour and cannot be diazotized.

    0
    0
  • Sodium and boiling amyl alcohol reduce it to a tetrahydroretene, - t whilst if it be heated with phosphorus and hydriodic acid to 260° C. a dodecahydride is formed.

    0
    0
  • Hampe prepared chemically pure bismuth by fusing the metal with sodium carbonate and sulphur, dissolving the bismuth sulphide so formed in nitric acid, precipitating the bismuth as the basic nitrate, redissolving this salt in nitric acid, and then precipitating with ammonia.

    0
    0
  • rend., 1905, p. 141) has investigated the solutions of mercuric iodide in other alkaline iodides; sodium iodo-mercurate solution has a density of 3.46 at 26°, and gives with an excess of water a dense precipitate of mercuric iodide, which dissolves without decomposition in alcohol; lithium iodo-mercurate solution has a density of 3.28 at 25.6°; and ammonium iodo-mercurate solution a density of 2.98 at 26°.

    0
    0
  • It may be obtained by heating tellurium bismuth with sodium carbonate, lixiviating the fused mass with water, filtering, and exposing the filtrate to air, when the tellurium is gradually precipitated as a grey powder (J.

    0
    0
  • Soc., 1909, 3 1, p. 902) who obtained the sodium and potassium tellurides by the direct union of their component elements and others from these by precipitation.

    0
    0
  • The metal is manufactured, for use as filaments in electric lamps, by the action of sodium on sodium tantalofluoride.

    0
    0
  • By heating with sodium amalgam and separating with hydrochloric acid, the dichloride, TaC1 2.2H 2 O, is obtained as emerald green hexagonal crystals.

    0
    0
  • finding vegetable alkali in certain minerals, such as leucite, proposed to distinguish it as potash, and at the same time assigned to the mineral alkali the name natron, which survives in the symbol, Na, now used for sodium.

    0
    0
  • In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia.

    0
    0
  • Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.

    0
    0
  • The elements in addition to oxygen which exist in largest amount in sea salt are chlorine, bromine, sulphur, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium.

    0
    0
  • According to Krummel the following relations hold, good at 18° C. for the monochromatic light of the D line of the sodium spectrum in units of the fifth decimal place.

    0
    0
  • sodium sulphate is the first ingredient of the salts to separate out, potassium chloride follows at 12° F., sodium chloride at - 7.4° F., magnesium chloride at - 28.5°.

    0
    0
  • This residue consists of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, with small quantities of caesium and rubidium chlorides.

    0
    0
  • He also made the corresponding sodium compound and showed that it evolved the same gas, whilst in 1862 F.

    0
    0
  • The sulphide is converted into sodium osmichloride by fusion with salt, in a current of chlorine, the sodium salt transformed into ammonium salt by precipitation with ammonium chloride, and the ammonium salt finally heated strongly (H.

    0
    0
  • The protoxide, OsO, is obtained as a dark grey insoluble powder when osmium sulphite is heated with sodium carbonate in a current of carbon dioxide.

    0
    0
  • The dioxide, 0s0 2, is formed when potassium osmichloride is heated with sodium carbonate in a current of carbon dioxide, or by electrolysis of a solution of the tetroxide in the presence of alkali.

    0
    0
  • The amorphous metal also results when the chloride is heated with sodium; the oxide reduced with magnesium; or when fused potassium zircono fluoride is electrolysed (Wedekind, Zeit.

    0
    0
  • For instance, if it be fused with sodium carbonate, sodium zirconate, Na2Zr03, is formed.

    0
    0
  • GLAUBER'S SALT, decahydrated sodium sulphate, Na 2 SO 4, 10H 2 O.

    0
    0
  • If, however, its presence is recognized sodium phosphate may be substituted.

    0
    0
  • Other constituents are cholesterol (0.461.32%), traces of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chlorine and bromine, and various aliphatic amines which are really secondary products, being formed by the decomposition of the cellular tissue.

    0
    0
  • Davy, inspired by his successful isolation of the metals sodium and potassium by the electrolysis of their hydrates, attempted to decompose a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide by the electric current; an amalgam of calcium was obtained, but the separation of the mercury was so difficult that even Davy himself was not sure as to whether he had obtained pure metallic calcium.

    0
    0
  • Soc., 1856, p. 28) obtained the metal by electrolysing a mixture of fused calcium and sodium chlorides.

    0
    0
  • Henri Moissan obtained the metal of 99% purity by electrolysing calcium iodide at a low red heat, using a nickel cathode and a graphite anode; he also showed that a more convenient process consisted in heating the iodide with an excess of sodium, forming an amalgam of the product, and removing the sodium by means of absolute alcohol (which has but little action on calcium), and the mercury by distillation.

    0
    0
  • The mineral brushite, CaHPO 4.2H 2 0, which is isomorphous with the acid arsenate pharmacolite, CaHAs04.2H20, is an acid phosphate, and assumes monoclinic forms. The normal salt may be obtained artificially, as a white gelatinous precipitate which shrinks greatly on drying, by mixing solutions of sodium hydrogen phosphate, ammonia, and calcium chloride.

    0
    0
  • It is obtained as rhombic plates by mixing dilute solutions of calcium chloride and sodium phosphate, and passing carbon dioxide into the liquid.

    0
    0
  • It is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate, sparingly soluble in water (Loo parts of water dissolve 24 of the salt at 15° C.), by mixing solutions of a sulphate and a calcium salt; it is more soluble in solutions of common salt and hydrochloric acid, and especially of sodium thiosulphate.

    0
    0
  • Calcium metasilicate, CaSiO 3, occurs in nature as monoclinic crystals known as tabular spar or wollastonite; it may be prepared artificially from solutions of calcium chloride and sodium silicate.

    0
    0
  • It readily dissolves sodium and potassium, giving in each case a dark blue solution.

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  • Chattaway determined its composition as N 2 H 3 I 3, by the addition of excess of standard sodium sulphite solution, in the dark, and subsequent titration of the excess of the sulphite with standard iodine.

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  • The hydrogen in ammonia is capable of replacement by metals, thus magnesium burns in the gas with the formation of magnesium nitride Mg3N2, and when the gas is passed over heated sodium or potassium, sodamide, NaNH 2, and potassamide, KNH 2, are formed.

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  • By the addition of sodium amalgam to a concentrated solution of ammonium chloride, the so-called ammonium amalgam is obtained as a spongy mass which floats on the surface of the liquid; it decomposes readily at ordinary temperatures into ammonia and hydrogen; it does not reduce silver and gold salts, a behaviour which distinguishes it from the amalgams of the alkali metals, and for this reason it is regarded by some chemists as being merely mercury inflated by gaseous ammonia and hydrogen.

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  • Ammonium sodium hydrogen phosphate, NH4.NaHP04.4H20.

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  • The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.

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  • The fluorine, which is liberated as a gas at the anode, is passed through a well cooled platinum vessel, in order to free it from any acid fumes that may be carried over, and finally through two platinum tubes containing sodium fluoride to remove the last traces of hydrofluoric acid; it is then collected in a platinum tube closed with fluor-spar plates.

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  • Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in the anhydrous acid with evolution of hydrogen and formation of x.

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  • The atomic weight of fluorine has been determined by the conversion of calcium, sodium and potassium fluorides into the corresponding sulphates.

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  • SODIUM [[[symbol]] Na, from Lat.

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  • Sodium chloride, or common salt, is exceedingly common, being the chief salt present in sea-water, besides occurring in extensive stratified deposits.

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  • Sodium carbonates are also widely dispersed in nature, forming constituents of many mineral waters, and occurring as principal saline components in natron or trona lakes, as efflorescences in Lower Egypt, Persia and China, and as urao in Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela.

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  • About Szegedin in Hungary and all over the vast pusztas (steppes) between the Theiss and the Danube, and from the Theiss up to and beyond Debreczin, the soil contains sodium carbonate, which frequently assumes the form of crude alkaline crusts, called "szekso," and of small saline ponds.

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  • Hydrated sulphates occur at several localities in the province of Madrid and in other provinces of Spain, and at Miihlingen in Aargau, and copious deposits of glauberite, the double sulphate of sodium and calcium, are met with in the salt-mines of Villarrubia in Spain, at Stassfurt, and in the province of Tarapaca, Chile, &c. A native nitrate of soda is obtained in great abundance in the district of Atacama and the province of Tarapaca, and is imported into Europe in enormous quantities as cubic nitre for the preparation of saltpetre.

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  • Cryolite, a fluoride of aluminium and sodium, is extensively mined in Greenland and elsewhere for industrial purposes.

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  • These form the principal natural sources of sodium compounds - the chloride as rock salt and in sea-water being of, such predominating importance as quite to outweigh all the others.

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  • From this source all soils contain small proportions of sodium in soluble forms, hence the ashes of plants, although they preferably imbibe potassium salts, contain traces and sometimes notable quantities of sodium salts.

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  • Sodium salts also form essential ingredients in all animal juices.

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  • Although many sodium compounds have been known from very remote times, the element was not isolated until 1807, when Sir H.

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  • This method was followed by that proposed by Gay-Lussac and Thenard, who decomposed molten caustic soda with red-hot iron; and this in turn was succeeded by Brunner's process of igniting sodium carbonate with charcoal.

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  • Electrolytic processes had, in fact, been considered since 1851, when Charles Watt patented his method for the production of sodium and potassium from fused chlorides.

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  • Among the difficulties here to be contended with are the destructive action of fused chlorides and of the reduced alkali metals upon most non-metallic substances available for the containing vessel and its partition, and also of the anode chlorine upon metals; also the low fusing-point (95° C. for sodium, and 62° C. for potassium) and the low specific gravity of the metals, so that the separated metal floats as a fused layer upon the top of the melted salt.

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  • Again, pure sodium chloride melts at about 775° C., while sodium boils at 877° C., so that the margin of safety is but small if loss by vaporization is to be prevented.

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  • sodium, potassium and strontium chlorides for sodium extraction), as these melt at a lower temperature than the pure chloride.

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  • During electrolysis, oxygen is evolved at the anode and escapes from the outer vessel, while the sodium deposited in globules on the cathode floats upwards into the iron cylinder, within which it accumulates, and from which it may be removed at intervals by means of a perforated iron ladle, the fused salt, but not the metal, being able to pass freely through the perforations.

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  • The sodium is then cast into moulds.

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  • Sodium hydroxide has certain advantages compared with chloride, although it is more costly; its fusing-point is only 320° C., and no anode chlorine is produced, so that both containing vessel and anode may be of iron, and no porous partition is necessary.

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  • Metallic sodium possesses a silvery lustre, but on exposure to moist air the surface is rapidly dulled by a layer of the hydroxide.

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  • (For the optics of sodium vapour see R.

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  • Matthiessen, sodium ranks fourth to silver, copper and gold as a conductor of electricity and heat, and according to Bunsen it is the most electropositive metal with the exception of caesium, rubidium and potassium.

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  • Sodium also combines directly, sometimes very energetically, with most non-metallic elements.

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  • Heated in a current of carbon dioxide sodamide yields caustic soda and cyanamide, and with nitrous oxide it gives sodium azoimide; it deflagrates with lead or silver nitrate and explodes with potassium chlorate.

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  • Sodium is largely employed in the manufacture of cyanides and in reduction processes leading to the isolation of such elements as magnesium, silicon, boron, aluminium (formerly), &c.; it also finds application in organic chemistry.

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  • In its chemical combinations sodium is usually monovalent; its salts are generally soluble in water, the least soluble being the metantimonate.

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  • Sodium hydride, NaH, is a crystalline substance obtained directly from sodium and hydrogen at about 400°.

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  • Dry carbon dioxide is decomposed by it, free carbon being produced; moist carbon dioxide, on the other hand, gives sodium formate.

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  • 442); it may also be prepared by heating the nitrate or nitrite with metallic sodium, free nitrogen being eliminated (German patent, 142467, 1902).

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  • rend., 1901, 133, p. 223.) Sodium dioxide, Na202, is formed when the metal is heated in an excess of air or oxygen.

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  • When pure, sodium dioxide has a faint yellowish tinge, but on exposure it whitens (W.

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  • Acids yield a sodium salt and free oxygen or hydrogen peroxide; with carbon dioxide it gives sodium carbonate and free oxygen; carbon monoxide gives the carbonate; whilst nitrous and nitric oxides give the nitrate.

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  • Sodium dioxide is chiefly employed as an oxidizing agent, being used in mineral analysis and in various organic preparations; it readily burns paper, wood, &c., but does not evolve oxygen unless heated to a high temperature.

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  • Sodyl hydroxide, NaHO 2, exists in two forms: one, Na O.OH, obtained from hydrogen peroxide and sodium ethylate; the other, 0 :Na OH, from absolute alcohol and sodium peroxide at 0 °.

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  • Sodium trioxide, Na 2 O 31 is said to be formed from an excess of oxygen and a solution of sodammonium in liquid ammonia.

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  • Generally speaking, sodium salts closely resemble the corresponding potassium salts, and their methods of preparation are usually the same.

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  • For sodium salts not mentioned below reference should be made to articles wherein the acid is treated, unless otherwise indicated.

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  • Sodium combines directly with the halogens to form salts which are soluble in water and crystallize in the cubic system.

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  • Sodium sulphide, Na 2 S, obtained by saturating a caustic soda solution with sulphuretted hydrogen and adding an equivalent of alkali, is employed in the manufacture of soluble soda glass.

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  • Sodium sulphite, Na2S03, which is employed as an antichlor, is prepared (with 7H20) by saturating a solution of sodium carbonate with sulphur dioxide, adding another equivalent of carbonate and crystallizing.

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  • It has long been doubted whether sodium yielded an alum; this was settled by N.

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  • Iooi), who obtained cubic crystals from a supersaturated solution of sodium and aluminium sulphates below 20°, higher temperatures giving monoclinic crystals.

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  • The manufacture of sodium carbonate, commonly called soda, is treated under Alkali Manufacture.

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  • We may here notice the "percarbonates" obtained by Wolffenstein and Peltner (Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 2 75, 280) on acting with gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on Na202, Na203 and NaHO 2 at low temperatures; the same authors obtained a perborate by adding sodium metaborate solution to a 50% solution of sodium peroxide previously saturated with carbon dioxide.

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  • For sodium nitrite see Nitrogen; for sodium nitrate see Saltpetre; for the cyanide see Prussic Acid; and for the borate see Borax.

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  • Of the sodium silicates the most important is the mixture known as soluble soda glass formed by calcining a mixture of white sand, soda-ash and charcoal, or by dissolving silica in hot caustic soda under pressure.

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  • Sodium is most distinctly recognized by the yellow coloration which volatile salts impart to a Bunsen flame, or, better, by its emission spectrum which has a line (double), the Fraunhofer D, line, in the yellow (the wave-lengths are 5896 and 5890).

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  • - The metal sodium is not used in medicine, but many of its salts are employed.

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  • From sodium phosphate are made sodii phosphas effervescens and sodii hypophosphis (see Phosphorus).

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  • (4) Soda tartarata (Rochelle salt), a tartrate of sodium and potassium, from which is made pelvis sodae tartaratae effervescens, known as Seidlitz powder.

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  • (5) Sodii citro-tartras effervescens, a mixture of sugar, sodium bicarbonate, citric and tartaric acids.

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  • For sodii arsenas and cacodylate see Arsenic. Sapo durus (hard soap) is a compound of sodium with olive oil, and sago animalis (curd soap) is chiefly sodium stearate.

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  • Poisoning by caustic soda is rare, but occasionally it takes place by swallowing soap lees (sodium carbonate), which may contain some impurities of caustic soda.

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  • The salts of sodium resemble potassium in their action on the alimentary tract, but they are much more slowly absorbed, and much less diffusible; therefore considerable amounts may reach the small intestine and there act as saline purgatives.

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  • Sodium is excreted by all the mucous surfaces and by the liver and kidneys.

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  • A lotion of sodium bicarbonate is useful to allay itching.

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  • Solutions of sodium sulphite are used as mild antiparasitics.

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  • - Sodium chloride is occasionally used in warm water as an emetic, and injections of it into the rectum as a treatment for thread worms. A o 9% solution forms what is termed normal saline solution, which is frequently injected into the tissues in cases of collapse, haemorrhage and diarrhoea.

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  • Sodium chloride is an important constituent of the waters of Homburg, Wiesbaden, Nauheim and Kissingen.

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  • Sodium bicarbonate is one of our most useful gastric sedatives and antacids, relieving pain in hyperchloridia.

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  • Sodium phosphate and sulphate are cholagogue purgatives and are used in the treatment of gallstones.

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  • These purgative sodium salts are most useful in the treatment of chronic constipation, and of the constipation associated with gout and hepatic dyspepsia.

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  • Sodium salts have not the depressant effect so marked in those of potassium.

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  • Meyer, Ber., 1876, 9, P. 543), C3H7NH 2 +HNO 2 =N 2 +2H 2 O+C 3 H 6; by the electrolysis of the alkali salts of saturated dicarboxylic acids; by the decomposition of 0-haloid fatty acids with sodium carbonate, CH 3 CHBr CH(CH 3) CO 2 H =CO 2 -1-HBr+CH 3 CH :CH CH 3; by distilling the barium salts of acids Cn,H 2, ,,- 2 0 2 with sodium methylate in vacuo (I.

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  • Two spatial modifications of pseudobutylene, CH 3 CH: CH CH 3, are known, the cis and the trans; they are prepared by heating the sodium salts of hydro-iodo-tiglic and hydro-iodo-angelic acids respectively (J.

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  • Benzoquinone (para) or ordinary quinone, C 6 H 4 0 2, is formed by the oxidation of aniline with sodium bichromate and sulphuric acid.

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  • The metal, however, is not in great demand, for it is generally found that sodium, which is cheaper, and, weight for weight, more reactive, will fulfil any purpose for which potassium may be desired.

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  • It is worked up either for Epsom salt and common salt, or for sodium sulphate and magnesium chloride.

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  • On the isomeric potassium sodium sulphites see Sulphur.

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  • Analysis, &c. - All volatile potassium compounds impart a violet coloration to the Bunsen flame, which is masked, however, if sodium be present.

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  • It can be prepared by the reduction of phenyl propiolic acid with zinc and acetic acid, by heating benzal malonic acid, by the condensation of ethyl acetate with benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium ethylate or by the so-called "Perkin reaction"; the latter being the method commonly employed.

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  • In making the acid by this process benzaldehyde, acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate are heated for some hours to about 180 C., the resulting product is made alkaline with sodium carbonate, and any excess of benzaldehyde removed by a current of steam.

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  • Fittig and his pupils (Annalen, 1883, 216, pp. loo, 115; 1885, 227, pp. 55, 119), in which it was shown that the aldehyde forms an addition compound with the sodium salt of the fatty acid, and that the acetic anhydride plays the part of a dehydrating agent.

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  • The exact position of the selected ray does not matter much, but the yellow D line of sodium Air FIG.

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  • Kundt, is that exhibited by the vapour of sodium.

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  • It has not been found practicable to make a prism of this vapour in the ordinary way by enclosing it in a glass vessel of the required shape, as sodium vapour attacks glass, quickly rendering it opaque.

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  • Becquerel, however, investigated the character of the dispersion by using prism-shaped flames strongly coloured with sodium.

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  • But the best way of exhibiting the effect is by making use of a remarkable property of sodium vapour discovered by R.

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  • If a long glass tube with plane ends, and containing some pellets of sodium is heated in the middle by a row of burners, the cool ends remain practically vacuous and do not become obscured.

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  • The sodium vapour in the middle is very dense on the heated side, the density diminishing rapidly towards the upper part of the tube, so that, although not prismatic in form, it refracts like a prism owing to the variation in density.

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  • Thus if a horizontal slit is illuminated by an arc lamp, and the light - rendered parallel by a collimating lens - is transmitted through the sodium tube and focused on the vertical slit of a spectroscope, the effect of the sodium vapour is to produce its refraction spec trum vertically on the slit.

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  • But the light of slightly greater wave-length than the D lines, being refracted strongly downward by the sodium vapour, illuminates the.

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  • If the sodium is only gently heated, so as to produce a comparatively rarefied vapour, and a grating spectroscope employed, the spectrum obtained is like that shown in fig.

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  • 5, which was the effect noticed by Becquerel with the sodium flame.

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  • Iodine does not occur in nature in the uncombined condition, but is found very widely but sparingly distributed in the form of iodides and iodates, chiefly of sodium and potassium.

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  • A later method consists in boiling the weed with sodium carbonate; the liquid is filtered and hydrochloric acid added to the filtrate, when alginic acid is precipitated; this is also filtered off, the filtrate neutralized by caustic soda, and the whole evaporated to dryness and carbonized, the residue obtained being known as kelp substitute.

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  • In the second method it is found that the mother-liquors obtained from Chile saltpetre contain small quantities of sodium iodate NaIO 3; this liquor is mixed with the calculated quantity of sodium bisulphite in large vats, and iodine is precipitated: 2Na10 3 +5NaHS0 3 =3NaHS04-{-2Na2S04+H20 +12.

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  • When alkali is added to aqueous iodine, followed immediately by either soda water or sodium bicarbonate, most of the original iodine is precipitated (R.

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  • The iodides can be prepared either by direct union of iodine with a metal, from hydriodic acid and a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, or by action of iodine on some metallic hydroxides or carbonates (such as those of potassium, sodium, barium, &c.; other products, however, are formed at the same time).

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  • The solution is readily decomposed on the addition of sodium or potassium bicarbonates, with liberation of iodine.

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  • The most commonly used salt is the iodide of potassium; the iodides of sodium and ammonium are almost as frequently employed, and those of calcium and strontium are in occasional use.

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  • Melsens reconverted this derivative into the original acetic acid by reduction with sodium amalgam.

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  • Potassium cyanide, KNC, and sodium cyanide, NaNC, are two of the most important of the salts of hydrocyanic acid, the former being manufactured in large quantities for consumption in the extraction of gold.

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  • Rossler and Hasslacher prepare the double potassium sodium cyanide by fusing potassium ferrocyanide with sodium, the product of fusion being extracted with water and the solution evaporated: K 4 Fe(NC) 6 +2Na = Fe+ 4KNC 2NaNC. This process gives a product free from cyanate, which was always formed in the older fusion processes.

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  • 242938 (1894)] passes anhydrous ammonia over heated sodium to form sodamide, which is then brought in a molten condition into contact with carbon: NaNH 2 +C = NaNC+H 2.

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  • 33 28, 3329 (1901)] prepare sodium cyanamide by melting sodium with carbons or some hydrocarbon, and passing ammonia over the melt at from 400 0 -600° C. The temperature is then raised to 700°-800° C., and the sodium cyanamide in contact with the residual carbon forms sodium cyanide.

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  • It can be estimated quantitatively by mixing a dilute solution with potassium iodide and hydrochloric acid in excess, adding excess of zinc sulphate, neutralizing the excess of free acid with sodium bicarbonate, and determining the amount of free iodine by a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.

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  • Sodium nitroprusside, Na 2 Fe(NC) 5 N02H 2 O, is the commonest salt.

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  • When heated with sodium the y frequently polymerize.

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  • A concentrated acid may be obtained from the diluted acid either by neutralization with soda, the sodium salt thus obtained being then dried and heated with the equivalent quantity of anhydrous oxalic acid (Lorin, Bull.

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  • The sodium and potassium salts, when heated to 400° C., give oxalates and carbonates of the alkali metals, but the magnesium, calcium and barium salts yield carbonates only.

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  • The esters of the acid may be obtained by distilling a mixture of the sodium or potassium salts and the corresponding alcohol with hydrochloric or sulphuric acids.

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  • Sodium in amyl alcohol solution reduces it to hydroecgonidine C9H15N02, while moderate oxidation by potassium permanganate converts it into norecgonine.

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  • Chromium and its salts may be detected by the fact that they give a deep green bead when heated with borax, or that on fusion with sodium carbonate and nitre, a yellow mass of an alkaline chromate is obtained, which, on solution in water and acidification with acetic acid, gives a bright yellow precipitate on the addition of soluble lead salts.

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  • Sodium and potassium hydroxide solutions precipitate green chromium hydroxide from solutions of chromic salts; the precipitate is soluble in excess of the cold alkali, but is completely thrown down on boiling the solution.

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  • On pouring a solution of chromous chloride into a saturated solution of sodium acetate, a red crystalline precipitate of chromous acetate is produced; this is much more permanent in air than the other chromous salts and consequently can be used for their preparation.

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  • By adding sodium phosphate to an excess of chrome alum the violet phosphate, CrP04.6H 2 O, is precipitated; on heating to 100° C. it loses water and turns green.

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  • 3H 2 O, is obtained on adding an excess of sodium phosphate to chromic chloride solution.

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  • Mitscherlich in 1834, may be prepared by reducing nitrobenzene in alcoholic solution with zinc dust and caustic soda; by the condensation of nitrosobenzene with aniline in hot glacial acetic acid solution; or by the oxidation of aniline with sodium hypobromite.

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  • Methyl orange (helianthin, gold orange, Mandarin orange), (CH 3) 2 N C 6 H 4 N 2 C 6 H 4 SO 3 Na, is the sodium salt of paradimethylaminobenzene-azo-benzene sulphonic acid.

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  • Hewitt has also attacked the problem by brominating the oxyazobenzenes, and has shown that when the hydrobromic acid produced in the reaction is allowed to remain in the system, a brombenzene-azo-phenol is formed, whilst if it be removed (by the addition of sodium acetate) bromination takes place in the phenolic nucleus; consequently the presence of the mineral acid gives the azo compound a pseudo-quinonoid character, which it does not possess if the mineral acid be removed from the sphere of the reaction.

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  • The most easily obtained mixed azo compounds are those formed by the union of a diazonium salt with the potassium or sodium salt of a nitroparaffin (V.

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  • When now a small bead of a salt of sodium or lithium is placed in the flame the spectrum of the white hot platinum is traversed by the dark absorption of the D lines.

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  • This is consistent with Kirchhoff's law and shows that the sodium in a flame possesses the same relative radiation and absorption as sodium vapour heated thermally to the temperature of the flames.

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  • According to independent experiments by Paschen the radiation of the D line sent out by the sodium flame of sufficient density is nearly equal to that of a black body at 'the same temperature.

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  • The most extensive series which has yet been observed is that of the trunk series of sodium when it is observed as an absorption spectrum; R.

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  • Taking sodium and lithium we find in this way that the lithium lines ought to be double and separated by 7 A.

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  • (a) When a sodium salt is placed in a Bunsen burner in sufficient quantity, the yellow lines are widened.

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  • Young, according to which the dark line observed in the centre of each component of the sodium doublet in a Bunsen burner is transparent to a radiation placed behind.

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  • sodium chloride, introduced into a flame, was dissociated or not, as in either case the spectrum observed would be that of sodium.

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  • the flames of chlorine in hydrogen) do not apparently emit the usual sodium radiation when a sodium salt is placed in them.

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  • Wiedemann and Schmidt' that the vapours of sodium and potassium are fluorescent, important as it was from an experimental point of view, caused no surprise.

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  • It is not possible here to enter into a detailed description of the phenomena of fluorescence (q.v.), though their importance from a spectroscopic point of view has been materially increased through the recent researches of Wood s on the fluorescence of sodium vapour.

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  • The chromates of sodium, potassium and ammonium, as well as the bichromates of potassium and ammonium, were found to give the same absorption spectrum.

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  • Sodium amalgam reduces it to isobutyric acid.

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  • It possesses all the characteristic properties of an aldehyde; being readily oxidized to benzoic acid; reducing solutions of silver salts; forming addition products with hydrogen, hydrocyanic acid and sodium bisulphite; and giving an oxime and a hydrazone.

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  • Heated with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride it gives cinnamic acid; with ethyl bromide and sodium it forms triphenyl-carbinol (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH; with dimethylaniline and anhydrous zinc chloride it forms leuco-malachite green C6H5CH[C6H4N(CH3)2]2; and with dimethylaniline and concentrated hydrochloric acid it gives dimethylaminobenzhydrol, C 6 H 5 CH(OH)C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2.

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  • Heated with sulphur it forms benzoic acid and stilbene: 2C 7 H 6 0+S = C6HS000H+C6H5CHS, 2C 6 H 5 CHS =2S +C14H12 Its addition compound with hydrocyanic acid gives mandelic acid C 6 H 5 CH(OH) COOH on hydrolysis; when heated with sodium succinate and acetic anhydride, phenyl-iso-crotonic acid C 6 H 5 CH: CH CH 2 000H is produced, which on boiling is converted into a-naphthol C 10 H 7 0H.

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  • Sainte Claire Deville's process, which used to be employed commercially, was essentially the same, except that sodium was substituted for potassium (Comptes rendus, 18 57, 44, p. 394), the product being further purified by redistillation.

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  • It may also be prepared by heating a mixture of carbon, oxide of iron and magnesite to bright redness; and by heating a mixture of magnesium ferrocyanide and sodium carbonate, the double cyanide formed being then decomposed by heating it with metallic zinc. Electrolytic methods have entirely superseded the older methods.

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  • It may be prepared by dissolving the metal, its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in dilute hydrochloric acid, or by mixing concentrated solutions of magnesium sulphate and common salt, and cooling the mixture rapidly, when the less soluble sodium sulphate separates first.

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  • It is not possible to prepare the normal carbonate by precipitating magnesium salts with sodium carbonate.

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  • Magnesia alba, a white bulky precipitate obtained by adding sodium carbonate to Epsom salts,is a mixture of Mg(CO 3 H) (OH) 2H 2 O,Mg(CO 3 H) (OH) and Mg(OH) 2.

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  • By - adding sodium phosphate to magnesium sulphate and allowing the mixture to stand, hexagonal needles of MgHPO 4.7H 2 O are deposited.

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  • It may be prepared by adding normal sodium phosphate to a magnesium salt and boiling the precipitate with a solution of magnesium sulphate.

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  • It is prepared by adding sodium phosphate to magnesium sulphate in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride.

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  • The magnesium salts may be detected by the white precipitate formed by adding sodium phosphate (in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride) to their solutions.

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    0
  • Its action upon turmeric is characteristic; a turmeric paper moistened with a solution of boric acid turns brown, the colour becoming much darker as the paper dries; while the addition of sodium or potassium hydroxide turns it almost black.

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  • The most important of the borates is sodium pyroborate or borax (q.v.).

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  • Thus he clearly described the preparation of hydrochloric acid by the action of oil of vitriol on common salt, the manifold virtues of sodium sulphate - sal mirabile, Glauber's salt - formed in the process being one of the chief themes of his Miraculum mundi; and he noticed that nitric acid was formed when nitre was substituted for the common salt.

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  • lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium, and of the alkaline earth metals, viz.

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  • The simplest case is that of water and a salt, such as sodium chloride, which crystallizes without water.

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    0
  • Sodium sulphate, for instance, crystallizes below 32.6° as Na 2 SO 4 IoH 2 O, and above that temperature as the anhydrous solid Na2S04.

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  • 3 gives the equilibrium between sodium sulphate and water in this way.

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  • Here the other metal may be one, such as potassium, or two, such as potassium and sodium, and, in the latter case, the proportion between the two may vary continuously throughout wide limits.

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  • A familiar example is to be found in solutions of sodium sulphate, which may be cooled much below their saturation point and kept in the liquid state till a crystal of the hydrate Na 2 SO 4 IoH 2 O is dropped in, when solidification occurs with a large evolution of latent heat.

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  • Other substances give equally good agreements; thus sodium chloride has a calculated constant of 1.12 and an observed one of 1.11.

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  • For experimental purposes it is usually obtained by distilling potassium or sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.

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  • In practice the theoretical quantity of acid and Chile saltpetre is not used, but the charge is so regulated that the mixture of acid and neutral sodium sulphate formed in the retort remains liquid at the temperature employed, and consequently can be readily removed.

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  • Fuming nitric acid consists of a solution of nitrogen peroxide in concentrated nitric acid and is prepared by distilling dry sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.

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  • In 1808 Sir Humphry Davy, fresh from the electrolytic isolation of potassium and sodium, attempted to decompose alumina by heating it with potash in a platinum crucible and submitting the mixture to a current of electricity; in 1809, with a more powerful battery, he raised iron wire to a red heat in contact with alumina, and obtained distinct evidence of the production of an iron-aluminium alloy.

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  • Deville accordingly returned to pure chemistry and invented a practicable method of preparing sodium which, having a lower atomic weight than potassium, reduced a larger proportion.

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  • Cryolite (A1F 3.5NaF) is a double fluoride of aluminium and sodium, which is scarcely known except on the west coast of Greenland.

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  • Deville first selected the chloride as his raw material, but observing it to be volatile and extremely deliquescent, he soon substituted in its place a double chloride of aluminium and sodium.

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  • Cryolite is not a safe body to electrolyse, because the minimum voltage needed to break up the aluminium fluoride is 4.0, whereas the sodium fluoride requires only 4.7 volts; if, therefore, the current rises in tension, the alkali is reduced, and the final product consists of an alloy with sodium.

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  • The corresponding double chloride is a far better material; first, because it melts at about 180° C., and does not volatilize below a red heat, and second, because the voltage of aluminium chloride is 2.3 and that of sodium chloride 4.3, so that there is a much wider margin of safety to cover irregularities in the electric pressure.

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  • Molten cryolite dissolves roughly 30% of its weight of pure alumina, so that when ready for treatment the solution contains about the same proportion of what may be termed "available" aluminium as does the fused double chloride of aluminium and sodium.

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  • Alumina dissolves readily enough in aqueous hydrochloric acid to yield a solution of the chloride, but neither this solution, nor that containing sodium chloride, can be evaporated to dryness without decomposition.

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  • The Deville process as gradually elaborated between 1855 and 1859 exhibited three distinct phases: - Production of metallic sodium, formation of the pure double chloride of sodium and aluminium,and preparation of the metal by the inter action of the two former substances.

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  • To produce the alkali metal, a calcined mixture of sodium carbonate, coal and chalk was strongly ignited in flat retorts made of boiler-plate; the sodium distilled over into condensers and was preserved under heavy petroleum.

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  • In order to prepare pure alumina, bauxite and sodium carbonate were heated in a furnace until the reaction was complete; the product was then extracted with water to dissolve the sodium aluminate, the solution treated with carbon dioxide, and the precipitate removed and dried.

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  • This purified oxide, mixed with sodium chloride and coal tar, was carbonized at a red heat, and ignited in a current of dry chlorine as long as vapours of the double chloride were given off, these being condensed in suitable chambers.

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  • For the production of the final aluminium, ioo parts of the chloride and 45 parts of cryolite to serve as a flux were powdered together and mixed with 35 parts of sodium cut into small pieces.

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  • Tissier, formerly his assistants, who had devised an improved sodium furnace and had acquired a thorough knowledge of their leader's experiments, also left, and erected a factory at Amfreville, near Rouen, to work the cryolite process.

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  • It consisted simply in reducing cryolite with metallic sodium exactly as in Deville's chloride method, and it was claimed to possess various mythical advantages over its rival.

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  • Gerhard at Battersea, who also employed cryolite, made his own sodium, and was able to sell the product at 3s.

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  • Castner's sodium patents appeared, and The Aluminium Co.

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  • of Oldbury was promoted to combine the advantages of Webster's alumina and Castner's sodium.

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  • Seeing that sodium was the only possible reducing agent, he set himself to cheapen its cost, and deliberately rejecting sodium carbonate for the more expensive sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and replacing carbon by a mixture of iron and carbon - the so-called carbide of iron - he invented the highly scientific method of winning the alkali metal which has remained in existence almost to the present day.

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  • In 187 2 sodium prepared by Deville's process cost about 4s.

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  • per lb, the greater part of the expense being due to the constant failure of the retorts; in 1887 Castner's sodium cost less than is.

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  • Grabau patented a method of reducing the simple fluoride of aluminium with sodium, and his process was operated at Trotha in Germany.

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  • In 1888 the Alliance Aluminium Co., organized to work certain patents for winning the metal from cryolite by means of sodium, erected plant in London, Hebburn and Wallsend, and by 1889 were selling the metal at 11s.

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  • per lb, and aluminium reduced with sodium became a thing of the past.

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  • Minet took out patents for electrolysing a mixture of sodium chloride with aluminium fluoride, or with natural or artificial cryolite.

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  • The process exhibited several disadvantages, the electrolyte had to be kept constant in composition lest either fluorine vapours should be evolved or sodium thrown down, and the raw materials had accordingly to be prepared in a pure state.

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  • with a solution of sodium hydroxide having the specific gravity 1� 4 5.

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  • The solution of sodium aluminate, containing aluminium oxide and sodium oxide in the molecular proportion of 6 to 1, is next agitated for thirty-six hours with a small quantity of hydrated alumina previously obtained, which causes the liquor to decompose, and some 70% of the aluminium hydroxide to be thrown down.

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  • Samples dating from the old sodium days are still in existence, and when they exhibit unpleasant properties the defect is often ascribed to the metal instead of to the process by which it was won.

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  • Crystallized alumina is also obtained by heating the fluoride with boron trioxide; by fusing aluminium phosphate with sodium sulphate; by heating alumina to a dull redness in hydrochloric acid gas under pressure; and by heating alumina with lead oxide to a bright red heat.

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  • Aluminium hydrate, Al(OH) 3, is obtained as a gelatinous white precipitate, soluble in potassium or sodium hydrate, but insoluble in ammonium chloride, by adding ammonia to a cold solution of an aluminium salt; from boiling solutions the precipitate is opaque.

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  • Sodium aluminate is obtained in the manufacture of alumina; it is used as a mordant in dyeing, and has other commercial applications.

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  • It combines with ammonia to form AlC13.3NH3; and forms double compounds with phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus oxychloride, selenium and tellurium chlorides, as well as with many metallic chlorides; sodium aluminium chloride, AlC1 3 �NaC1, is used in the production of the metal.

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  • Aluminium phosphates may be prepared by precipitating a soluble aluminium salt with sodium phosphate.

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  • Aluminium silicates are widely diffused in the mineral kingdom, being present in the commonest rock-forming minerals (felspars, &c.), and in the gem-stones, topaz, beryl, garnet, &c. It also constitutes with sodium silicate the mineral lapis-lazuli and the pigment ultramarine.

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  • They may be prepared by the oxidation of secondary alcohols; by the addition of the elements of water to hydrocarbons of the acetylene type RC CH; by oxidation of primary alcohols of the type RR' CH CH 2 OH:RR' CH CH 2 OH --> R CO R'+H20+H2C02; by distillation of the calcium salts of the fatty acids, C.H2.02; by heating the sodium salts of these acids CnH2n02 with the corresponding acid anhydride to 190 C. (W.

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  • Sodium amalgam reduces them to secondary alcohols; phosphorus pentachloride replaces the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine, forming the ketone chlorides.

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  • They also condense with aldehydes, under the influence of alkalis or sodium ethylate (L.

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  • It combines with sodium bisulphite and with hydrocyanic acid.

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  • Acetyl acetone, CH 3 CO CH 2 CO CH 3, may be prepared by the action of aluminium chloride on acetyl chloride, or by condensing ethyl acetate with acetone in the presence of sodium (L.

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  • Acetonyl acetone, CH 3 CO CH 2 CH 2 CO -CH a liquid boiling at 194° C., may be obtained by condensing sodium aceto-acetate with mono-chloracetone (C. Paal, Ber., 1885, 18, p. 59), CH3000H2C1+Na CH [[Coch3(Coor) ->Ch3co Ch2 Ch 000h,(Coor) -Ch3co]] CH2 CH2 000H3; or by the hydrolysis of diaceto-succinic ester, prepared by the action of iodine on sodium aceto-acetate (L.

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  • phenanthrenequinone).Alizarin black,C l oH 4 (OH) 2 0 2 NaHS03, the sodium bisulphite compound of 7.8 dioxy-anaphthoquinone, is a dyestuff used for printing on cotton in the presence of a chromium mordant The naphthoquinone is prepared by the action of zinc and concentrated sulphuric acid on a-dinitronaphthalene.

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  • It is reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution to "aromatic" tetrahydro-a-naphthol (reduction occurring in the ring which does not contain the hydroxyl group).

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  • Martius yellow, C10H5(N02)20Na H20, the sodium salt of 2.4 dinitro-a-naphthol (for notation see Naphthalene), is prepared by the action of nitric acid on a-naphthol -2.4-disulphonic acid.

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  • 4), formed when diazotized naphthionic acid (a-naphthylamine-4-sulphonic acid) is boiled with dilute sulphuric acid (Nevile and Winther, Ber., 1880, 1 3, p. 1 949), or when sodium naphthionate is heated with concentrated caustic soda solution under pressure at 240°-260° C. (German patent 46307 (1888)).

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  • 0-Naphthol, C 1 oH 7 OH, prepared by fusing sodium 0-naphthalene sulphonate with caustic soda, crystallizes in plates which melt at 122° C. With ferric chloride it gives a green colouration, and after a time a white flocculent precipitate of a dinaphthol.

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  • Chemie, 1868, p. 34), or by heating the sulphonate with sodium formate (V.

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  • Phenyl nitramine, C 6 H S NH N02, is a colourless crystalline solid, which melts at 46° C. Sodium amalgam in alkaline solution reduces it to phenylhydrazine.

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  • Well-dried hydroxylamine hydrochloride is dissolved in methyl alcohol and mixed with sodium methylate; a solution of methyldichloramine in absolute ether is then added and an ethereal solution of diazomethane distils over.

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  • It is reduced by sodium amalgam (in alcoholic solution) to methylhydrazine, CH 3 NH NH 2.

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  • Sodium and potassium carbonates are valuable for fluxing off silica; mixed with potassium nitrate sodium carbonate forms a valuable oxidizing fusion mixture; "black flux" is a reducing flux composed of finely divided carbon and potassium carbonate, and formed by deflagrating a mixture of argol with 4 to 2 its weight of nitre.

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  • The third most valuable indication which molecular structure gives about these isomers is how to prepare them, for instance, that normal hexane, represented by CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH3, may be obtained by action of sodium on propyl iodide, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 I, the atoms of iodine being removed from two molecules of propyl iodide, with the resulting fusion.

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  • They form unstable addition products with sodium ethylate or methylate.

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  • The very high refractive power (index = 2.417 for sodium light) gives the stone its extraordinary brilliancy; for light incident within a diamond at a greater angle than 241° is reflected back into the stone instead of passing through it; the corresponding angle for glass is 401°.

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  • Debray prepared it, in a compact state, by reducing the volatilized chloride with melted sodium, in an atmosphere of hydrogen.

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  • p. 554) have also prepared the metal by heating beryllium potassium fluoride with sodium; P. M.

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  • 120-127) has obtained it in lustrous hexagonal crystals by electrolysing the double fluoride of beryllium and sodium or potassium with an excess of Crystal of beryl.

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  • et de phys., 18 73, [4] 28, p. 366), or by the action of sodium amalgam on methacrylic acid, CH 2: C(CH 3) 000H.

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  • The principal articles of this trade are salt, kola nuts, ivory, leather, sodium carbonates and spices.

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  • It crystallizes in deliquescent prisms and melts with partial decomposition at 119-120° C. It behaves as a ketonic acid, being reduced in aqueous solution by sodium amalgam to tartronic acid, and also combining with phenylhydrazine and hydroxylamine.

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  • Common salt, or simply salt, is the name given to the native and industrial forms of sodium chloride, NaCI.

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  • The proportion of sodium chloride in the water of the ocean, where it is mixed with small quantities of other salts, is on the average about 3.33%, ranging from 2.9% for the polar seas to 3.55% or more at the equator.

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  • At a density of 1.218 the deposit becomes augmented by sodium chloride, which goes down mixed with a little magnesium chloride and sulphate.

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  • At specific gravity 1.2461 a Up to the time then that the water became concentrated to specific gravity 1.218 only 0.150 of deposit had formed, and that chiefly composed of lime and iron, but between specific gravity I 218 and 1.313 there is deposited a mixture of Of this about 95% is sodium chloride.

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  • By night the liquor gives nearly pure magnesium sulphate; in the day the same sulphate mixed with sodium and potassium chlorides is deposited.

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  • The blue colour, which disappears on heating or dissolving the salt, has been variously ascribed to the presence of sodium subchloride, sodium, sulphur or of a certain compound of iron, or again to the existence of minute cavities with parallel walls.

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  • Pure halite consists only of sodium chloride, but salt usually contains certain magnesium ccmpounds rendering it deliquescent.

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