Societies Sentence Examples
In Russia such societies began to be formed about 1816.
Various missionary societies have also established schools.
Yet these two societies are none the less in inevitable relation.
Free and peaceful societies function best when government is transparent and open.
The building societies and financial institutions in receipt of deposits, or so many of them as were on an unsound footing, failed at an early period of the depression, so also did the weaker banks.Advertisement
The learned societies and great men of Assyria--where are they?
As the work of the societies succeeded, they gradually passed out of existence.
On that occasion all Europe united to do him honour, many learned societies sent delegates to express their congratulations, the king of Italy gave him his own portrait on a gold medallion, and among the numerous addresses he received was one from Kaiser Wilhelm II., who took the opportunity of presenting him with the Grand Gold Medal for Science.
The rupture of the concordat at once terminates the obligations which resulted from it on both sides; but it does not break off all relation between the church and the state, since the two societies continue to coexist on the same territory.
The name is generally applied not only to the order of Ku Klux Klan, but to other similar societies that existed at the same time, such as the Knights of the White Camelia, a larger order than the Klan; the White Brotherhood; the White League; Pale Faces; Constitutional Union Guards; Black Cavalry; White Rose; The '76 Association; and hundreds of smaller societies that sprang up in the South after the Civil War.Advertisement
It may be compared in some degree to such European societies as the Carbonara, Young Italy, the Tugendbund, the Confreries of France, the Freemasons in Catholic countries, and the Vehmgericht.
He was a fellow of the Royal, Royal Astronomical, Geological and other scientific societies.
He summoned experienced teachers, Protestant as well as Catholic, from Germany, established middle and higher schools in all parts of the empire, superseded the antiquated textbooks and methods of instruction, and encouraged the formation of learned societies and the growth of a professional spirit and independence among the teachers.
So far we have looked at poverty and how it is redefined as societies grow richer.
If I had known how to name them, I should then have signed off in detail from all the societies which I never signed on to; but I did not know where to find a complete list.Advertisement
The visitor was Bitski, who served on various committees, frequented all the societies in Petersburg, and a passionate devotee of the new ideas and of Speranski, and a diligent Petersburg newsmonger--one of those men who choose their opinions like their clothes according to the fashion, but who for that very reason appear to be the warmest partisans.
It also has a lycee, training-colleges, a school of artillery, a library and several learned societies.
In Italy, people can apply for loans through savings banks, assurance companies and mutual benefit societies.
The masses were still more or less indifferent, but among the nobility and the educated middle Secret classes, cut off from all part in free political life, there societies, was developed either the spirit of despair at Italys The Car..
He was five times president of the Royal Astronomical Society, was correspondent of the French Academy and belonged to many other foreign and American societies.Advertisement
Some of these officers had been in touch with the revolutionary movements, and had adopted the idea then prevalent in France, Germany and Italy that the best instrument for assuring political progress was to be found in secret societies.
The lay societies of the Beghards and the Beguines (for men and women respectively) date from the end of the 12th century, and soon became extremely popular both in the Low Countries and on the Rhine.
All Boehme's works were translated into English in the time of the Commonwealth, and regular societies of Boehmenists were formed in England and Holland.
To the transactions of various learned societies he contributed from first to last between three and four hundred papers, and few of his contemporaries wrote so much for the various reviews.
These associations were soon aided in their important labours by numerous local societies which sprang up in all parts of the kingdom.Advertisement
In the subsequent years the principle, which had already made great progress in Ireland, began to obtain a hold in England and Wales, where, in 1906, there were 145 local co-operative societies with a turn-over of £350,000.
It is hardly necessary to say that the Shire Horse Society has never received a penny of public money, nor has any other of the voluntary breeders' societies.
Other cattle societies, all well caring for the interest of their respective breeds, are the Shorthorn Society of Great Britain and Ireland, the Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn Association, the Hereford Herd Book Society, the Devon Cattle Breeders' Society, the South Devon Herd Book Society, the Sussex Herd Book Society, the Longhorned Cattle Society, the Red Polled Society, the English Guernsey Cattle Society, the English Kerry and Dexter Cattle Society, the Welsh Bla.
Other sheep societies include the Leicester Sheep Breeders' Association, the Cotswold Sheep Society, the Lincoln Longwool Sheep Breeders' Association, the Oxford.
The interests of pig-breeders are the care of the National Pig Breeders' Association, in addition to which there exist the British Berkshire, the Large Black Pig, and the Lincoln CurlyCoated White Pig Societies, and the Incorporated Tamworth Pig Breeders' Association.
The addresses of the secretaries of the various live-stock societies in the United Kingdom are published annually in the Live Stock Journal Almanac. The Maintenance of the Health of Live Stock.
It is true that Cuchulinn seems to stand in a special relation to the Tuatha De Danann leader, the god Lug, but in primitive societies there is always a tendency to ascribe a divine parentage to men who stand out pre-eminently in prowess beyond their fellows.
Every lineal descendant, over eighteen years of age, of any passenger of the "Mayflower" is eligible to membership. Branch societies have since been organized in several of the states and in the District of Columbia, and a triennial congress is held in Plymouth.
The town has two hospitals, several schools, and is the headquarters of important insurance societies.
Societies for the discussion and publication of papers on entomology were naturally established as the number of students increased.
The societies which Bourne formed were for a time allowed to go under (Wesleyan) Methodist protection, but the crisis came in 1810, when the Stanley class of ten members declined to wash their hands of the Camp-Meeting Methodists, and so were refused admission.
Numerous and costly excavations have been carried out by the Greek government and by native and foreign scientific societies, while accidental discoveries have been frequently made during the building of the modern town.
The name was imported from Ireland, where it had been used to designate one of the Ribbon societies that devoted its energies to intimidating and maltreating process servers and the agents of landlords, and whose greatest activity was between 1835 and 1855.
The Molly Maguires of Pennsylvania consisted of similar classes of Irishmen, but there seems to have been no connexion between the two societies.
He was the author of over 70 papers on mechanics and physics published in the transactions of learned societies, notably Sub-Mechanics of the Universe, issued by the Royal Society, whose gold medal he won in 1888.
An elaborate universal alphabet, abounding in diacritical marks, has been devised for the purpose by Professor Lepsius, and various other systems have been adopted for Oriental languages, and by certain missionary societies, adapted to the languages in which they teach.
In the interests of self-preservation against the world, the state and the heretics, the Christian communities had formed themselves into compact societies with a definite creed and constitution, and they felt that their existence was threatened by the white heat of religious subjectivity.
Most of the leading breeds have clubs or societies, which have been founded by admirers with a view to furthering the interests of their favourites; and such combinations as the Bulldog Club (incorporated), the London Bulldog Society, the British Bulldog Club, the Fox Terrier Club, the Association of Bloodhound Breeders - under whose management the first man-hunting trials were held, - the Bloodhound Hunt Club, the Collie Club, the Dachshund Club, the Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club, the English Setter Club, the Gamekeepers' Association of the United Kingdom, the International Gun Dog League, the Irish Terrier Club, the Irish Wolfhound Club, the St Bernard Club, the National Terrier Club, the Pomeranian Club, the Spaniel Club, the Scottish Terrier Club and the Toy Bulldog Club have done good work in keeping the claims of the breeds they represent before the dogowning public and encouraging the breeding of dogs to type.
The Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth (London, 1876) by Robert Barclay, a descendant of the Apologist, contains much curious information about the Quakers.
His success here led to his appointment in 1841 as delegate of Perugia, which was at that time a centre of anti-papal secret societies.
In 1781 he writes," I cannot but observe that these were the first rudiments of the Methodist societies."In the presence of such facts we can understand the significance of the mission to Georgia.
He preached in all the churches that were open to him, spoke in many religious societies, visited Newgate and the Oxford prisons.
Wesley's headquarters at Bristol were in the Horse Fair, where a room was built in May 1739 for two religious societies which had been accustomed to meet in Nicholas Street and Baldwin Street.
Wesley issued the rules of the united societies in February 1743.
Societies were also formed in Somerset, Wilts, Gloucestershire, Leicester, Warwickshire, Nottinghamshire and the south of Yorkshire.
He named one hundred preachers who after his death were to meet once a year, fill up vacancies in their number, appoint a president and secretary, station the preachers, admit proper persons into the ministry, and take general oversight of the societies.
The expenses were met by collections made in the Calvinistic Methodist Societies, and as the funds increased masters were multiplied, until in 1786 Charles had seven masters to whom he paid £io per annum; in 1787, twelve; in 1789, fifteen; in 1794, twenty.
In 18 To, owing to the growth of Methodism and the lack of ordained ministers, he led the Connexion in the movement for connexionally ordained ministers, and his influence was the chief factor in the success of that important step. From 1811 to 1814 his energy was mainly devoted to establishing auxiliary Bible Societies.
Independent of the government are various schools and learned societies in Havana (q.v.).
And he held that such association should be the voluntary act of the working men, the government merely reserving the right to examine the books of the various societies.
To disavow the acts and desires of the army and of the secret societies for defence with which all north Germany was honeycombed would be to imperil the very existence of the monarchy, whilst an attack on the wreck of the Grand Army meant the certainty of a terrible retribution from the new armies now rapidly forming on the Rhine.
A little farther away are the headquarters of the Patriotic Society (Patriotische Gesellschaft), founded in 1765, with fine rooms for the meetings of artistic and learned societies.
His work consisted largely in organizing the Christian societies which he found in existence on his arrival, and in planting the faith in regions such as the extreme west of Connaught which had not yet come under the sway of the gospel.
There are nevertheless eighteen scientific societies in Siberia, which issue publications of great value.
The total losses suffered by private citizens and corporate societies until the advent of Bolshevism is valued at 1,930,000,000 gold rubles; Soviet Russia inflicted losses to the amount of 953,000,000 gold rubles; German occupation and warfare to that of 481,000,000 marks.
There are several scientific societies and institutions in the country, but they rarely undertake original work.
The most active are the geographical societies, but very little has been done in the direction of scientific exploration.
It is built round a square interior court surrounded by arcades, and is occupied by learned societies.
Beyond appearing at the meetings of learned societies he took little part in public affairs; he lived alone, conducting his investigations in a deliberate and exhaustive manner, but in the most rigid seclusion, no person being admitted to his laboratory on any pretext.
At the head of the learned and scientific societies stands the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1830; the Kisfaludy Society, the Petofi Society, and numerous societies of specialists, as the historical, geographical, &c., with their centre at Budapest.
There are besides a number of learned societies in the various provinces for the fostering of special provincial or national aims. There are also a number of societies for the propagation of culture, both amongst the Hungarian and the non-Hungarian nationalities.
In the 17th century the lovers of the new philosophy, the investigators of nature by means of observation and experiment, banded themselves into academies or societies for mutual support and intercourse.
Between 1847 and 1858 branch societies were formed in different parts of India, especially in Bengal, and the new society made rapid progress, for which it was largely indebted to the spread of English education and the work of Christian missionaries.
For the record and diffusion of rapidly growing knowledge, learned societies, universities and laboratories, greatly increased in number and activity, issue their transactions in various fields; and by means of yearbooks and central news-sheets the accumulation of knowledge is organized and made accessible.
Burlington House, in Piccadilly, built in 1872 on the site of a mansion of the earls of Burlington, houses the Royal Society, the Chemical, Geological, Linnaean and Royal Astronomical Societies, the Society of Antiquaries and the British Association for the Advancement of Science, of which the annual meetings take place at different British or colonial towns in succession.
It originally occupied rooms in Crane Court, City, and was moved in 1780 to Somerset House, where others of the societies named were also located.
Other museums are Sir John Soane's collection in Lincoln's Inn Fields and the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, while the scientific societies have libraries and in some cases collections of a specialized character, such as the museums of the Royal College of Surgeons, the Royal Architectural Society, and the Society of Art and the Parkes Museum of the Sanitar y Institute.
There are a number of art galleries in and about Bond Street and Piccadilly, Regent Street and Pall Mall, such as the New Gallery, where periodical exhibitions are given by the New English Art Club, the Royal Society of Painters in WaterColours, the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, other societies and art dealers.
Among other societies with similar objects in view are the "Thames Valley Legitimist Club" and the "Legitimist Jacobite League of Great Britain and Ireland."
Altenburg is the seat of the higher courts of the Saxon duchies, and possesses a cathedral and several churches, schools, a library, a gallery of pictures and a school of art, an infirmary and various learned societies.
Mission work is undertaken by various Protestant and Roman Catholic societies.
When in his seventieth year, Ferguson, intending to prepare a new edition of the history, visited Italy and some of the principal cities of Europe, where he was received with honour by learned societies.
He received many distinctions from British and foreign scientific societies.
He was made fellow of the Royal and the Royal Geographical Societies.
There are also many academies and learned societies of different kinds, of which one of the most important is the Accademia della Crusca for the study of the Italian language, which undertook the publication of a monumental dictionary.
There are also a theatre, an institute of music, a library, a museum, a zoological garden, and numerous scientific societies.
Some of the religious gilds supported schools, or helped to maintain roads, bridges and town-walls, or even came, in course of time, to be closely connected with the government of the borough; but, as a rule, they were simply private societies with a limited sphere of activity.
Separate societies of craftsmen were formed in England soon after the gild merchant came into existence; but at first they were few in number.
As has already been intimated, however, many artisans probably belonged both to their own craft fraternity and to the gild merchant, and the latter, owing to its great power in the town, may have exercised some sort of supervision over the craftsmen and their societies.
These societies are not clearly visible in England or on the continent before the early part of the 12th century.
The development of these societies was even more rapid on the continent than in England.
The formation of these societies marks a cleft within the ranks of some particular class of artisans - a conflict between employers, or master artisans, and workmen.
Generally they associate in small societies, and seldom wander far from home.
Layard also from time to time contributed papers to various learned societies, including the Huguenot Society, of which he was first president.
Besides the Hofburg library, there are important libraries belonging to the university and other societies, the corporation and the various monastic orders.
He received medals and prizes from many learned societies and in 1907 was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics.
There are numerous high-grade schools, musical and other learned societies and excellent hospitals.
Not that he would have allowed the state to touch doctrine, to determine polity or discipline; but he would have had it to recognize historical achievement, religious character and capacity, and endow out of its ample resources those societies which had vindicated their right to be regarded as making for religion.
In the article Societies an account is separately given of the transactions and proceedings of learned and scientific bodies.
But on either side of this refusal are to be found elaborate projects of friendly societies and widows' funds, which practically cover, in a clumsy and roundabout manner, the whole ground of life insurance.
He was welcomed in all societies, from the palace to the studio.
Alloys have formed a subject of reports to several scientific societies.
The local societies became "Corps," and their evangelists "Field Officers," with Booth as "General" of the whole body.
Every bond of intercourse was broken, and in the Catholic Churches the worst calumnies were retailed about the deceased prophets and the leaders of the societies they had founded.
Several modern societies have been formed from time to time (some of which are still flourishing in Great Britain) for the study of Rosicrucianism and allied subjects, but in no sense are they directly derived from the "Brethren of the Rosy Cross" of the 17th century, though keen followers thereof.
Two other declarations may be quoted to show how necessary such confessions are even to religious societies which refuse to be bound by them.
There are also several excellent clubs and societies, social, political, scientific, and sporting; including among the last the famous Royal Ulster Yacht Club.
Metz also possesses several learned societies, charitable institutions and schools, and a military academy.
The extension of intercourse between the various small groups or societies of men, and still more their union in larger groups, made a common epoch necessary, and led to the adoption of such a starting point by each larger group. These leading epochs continued in use for many centuries.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
In 1906 1,226,906 inhabitants of the state were members of religious societies.
The Board of Control of State Institutions has supervisory and inquisitorial powers over all county and private institutions in the state in which insane are kept, and over homes for friendless children maintained by societies or institutions.
The emperor agreed to the first steps being taken, namely the suppression of the existing lodges; but he was naturally suspicious of secret societies, even when ostensibly admitted to their secrets, and Speranski's abortive plan only resulted in adding the clergy to the number of his enemies.
But there were strong Italian nationalists and anti-Austrian tendencies among the younger nobles and army officers, and the Carbonari and other revolutionary societies had made much progress.
Hanover has a number of colleges and schools, and is the seat of several learned societies.
Recognizing the value of an intellectual centre, he made Reykjavik not only the political, but the spiritual capital of Iceland by removing all the chief institutions of learning to that city; he was the soul of many literary and political societies, and the chief editor of the Ny Felagsrit, which has done more than any other Icelandic periodical to promote the cause of civilization and progress in Iceland.
The reports of travellers and of various missionary societies have thrown a great deal of light on the natural history of the island, on its resources, and the islanders.
Three German mission societies formed settlements on New Guinea, with a branch one on the Gazelle peninsula.
There are also several scientific organizations and societies.
It was largely a zoopantheon; thus zootheism influenced the organization of tribes and societies in the tribes.
In larger or smaller numbers of cognate kindred, for shorter or longer periods of time, near or far from home, the aborigines developed their legislatures, courts, armies, secret societies and priesthoods.
He studied at the universities of Bonn and Berlin till 1834, was then accused of participation in the students' societies, which the government was endeavouring to suppress, and was condemned to six years' imprisonment, afterwards reduced to six months.
Up to 1810 missionary work had been carried on at home by several local societies, but in that year the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was organized.
To these last societies is largely due the growth of the Congregational body in the west.
This tendency to denominational union is manifest partly in the work of the various educational and missionary societies which have been enumerated, but more strikingly in the institution of the National Council, which is convened at intervals of three years, and is composed of ministers and lay delegates representing the churches.
In 1820 he was accused of being connected with some of the students' revolutionary societies, and was compelled to resign.
It was regarded by the followers of Quesnay as entitled to a place amongst the foremost products of human wisdom, and is named by the elder Mirabeau, in a passage quoted by Adam Smith, as one of the three great inventions which have contributed most to the stability of political societies, the other two being those of writing and of money.
The predominance of Germanic influence in the city is evidenced by at least 75 musical clubs and numerous Turnverein societies.
At the same time Waitz's pen was not idle, and his industry is to be traced in the list of his works and in the Proceedings of the different historical societies to which he belonged.
In the meantime several nursing societies, in addition to those previously mentioned, had been founded in England, and elsewhere.
In Germany, their original home, both training schools and societies have multiplied and developed.
Its author declared later that it procured him an honorary membership of the patriotic societies of Carlisle, Berwick and Newcastle.
Organizations have been established to advocate this method of living under the name of "Vegetarian Societies" in many countries - chiefly the United Kingdom, America, Germany, France, Austria, Holland and Australia.
In England, the oldest and one of the most important societies is "The Vegetarian Society," of which the headquarters are at Oxford Street, Manchester.
There are also several small London societies, and an active London Association.
A few provincial towns, too, have small societies.
An attempt has been made to organize the various vegetarian societies of the world under the title of "The Vegetarian Federal Union."
The headquarters of the London societies and of the "Union" are at Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street, E.C.
There are nominally about 35 organized societies in existence, but the extent to which public opinion and practice in the matter of dietary has been affected by vegetarianism is not to be gauged by the membership of such organizations.
He took an active part in the foundation and direction of a number of societies for religious and social work, notably the National Home Reading Union Society and English Land Colonization Society, and was.
In addition to the Transactions of these societies - many of which contain valuable contributions to their respective departments in their relation to the East Indies - a considerable number of publications are issued in Batavia.
The kahin, therefore, is not a degraded priest but such a soothsayer as is found in most primitive societies, and the Canaanite priests grew out of these early revealers.
The State grants generous support to local authorities and to cooperative societies.
For the purchase and distribution of the land a " State Land Office" has been set up. A share in the distribution may be claimed on the one hand by private persons to the amount of 15 hectares (37 ac.) - the amount suitable for cultivation by one family; on the other hand by agricultural, housing and cooperative societies.
The Sokol societies, in collaboration with the army gymnastic clubs and with the Y.M.C.A., devote themselves systematically to the physical and moral welfare of the troops.
It also has training-colleges, a lycee, a school of art and technics, museums of antiquities, natural history and painting, and several learned societies.
Its university, removed from Vilna to Kiev in 1834, has about 2500 students, and is well provided with observatories, laboratories, libraries and museums; five scientific societies and two societies for aid to poor students are attached to it.
Of the learned societies the more important are the medical (1840), the naturalists' (1869), the juridical (1876), the historical of Nestor the Chronicler (1872), the horticultural (1875), and the dramatic (1879), the archaeological commission (1843), and the society of church archaeology.
He spent large sums in promoting the spread of Christianity, contributing liberally to missionary societies, and to the expenses of translating the Bible or portions of it into various languages.
There are Zoological Gardens at Melbourne (founded in 1857), Adelaide, Sydney and Perth, and small gardens at Wellington, New Zealand, supported partly by private societies and partly by the municipalities.
He also set up societies, in accordance with the recommendations in Josiah Wedgwood's little book on the subject; and these exercised a great influence on the religious life of the people.
On Wednesday and Thursday, January 5th and 6th, 1 743, the friends of aggressive Christianity in Wales met at Wadford, near Caerphilly, Glam., in order to organize their societies.
Exhorters were divided into two classes - public, who were allowed to itinerate as preachers and superintend a number of societies; private, who were confined to the charge of one or two societies.
The societies were distinctly understood to be part of the established church, as Wedgwood's were, and every attempt at estranging them therefrom was sharply reproved; but persecution made their position anomalous.
The societies split up into Harrisites and Rowlandites, and it was only with the revival of 1762 that the breach was fairly repaired.
The city has several other musical societies - the Apollo and Orpheus clubs (1881 and 1893), a Liederkranz (1886), and a United Singing Society (1896) being among the more prominent; and there are two schools of music - the Conservatory of Music and the College of Music.
He condemned the Bible societies, and under Jesuit influence reorganized the educational system.
She fostered the higher education of women in Rumania, and established societies for various charitable objects.
At his death on the 3rd of July 1854 Raoul Rochette was perpetual secretary of the Academy of Fine Arts and a corresponding member of most of the learned societies in Europe.
It was taken up anew by the Cambridge Philological Society in 1886, by the Modern Languages Association in 1901, by the Classical Association in 1904-1905, and the Philological Societies of Oxford and Cambridge in 1906.
For the purpose of creating villages, land was put at the disposition of societies or individuals, who undertook to people them with immigrants fulfilling the same conditions as independent settlers.
The societies or individuals undertaking village settlements must do so from philanthropic motives, inasmuch as within two years of the founding of a village, the land, under pain of forfeiture to the state, must be transferred gratuitously to the villagers.
He was a fellow of the Royal, Linnean and Geological Societies.
Chalmers was a member of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies of London, an honorary member of the Antiquarian Society of Scotland, and a member of other learned societies.
The heat of a first enthusiasm necessarily cooled when the political conditions that Societies produced it passed away; and, if the prophetic Gilds.
But the prophetic societies were in their origin one symptom of that upheaval of national life of which the institution of the human sovereign reigning under the divine King was the chief fruit; they preserved the traditions of that great movement;.
This is in fact the difference between him and Elijah Elisha, the successor of Elijah, stood in much closer relations to the prophetic societies than his great master had done.
Their existence was believed in, and they did actually exist, not only in the catholic congregations - if the expression may be used - but also in the Marcionite Church and the Gnostic societies.
Protestant missionary societies have engaged energetically in the task not only of translating, but of printing, publishing and distributing the Scriptures.
These were increased in 1815 by the Brunswick, Bremen, Schleswig-Holstein, Strassburg and Eichsf eld (Saxony) Bible Societies, and the Icelandic Bible Society.
In 1816-1817 came the Norwegian Bible Society, the Polish Bible Society and ten minor German Bible Societies.
Twelve cantonal societies had also been formed in Switzerland.
Up to 1816-1817 these societies had printed altogether 436,000 copies of the Scriptures, and had received from the British and Foreign Bible Society gifts amounting to over X 62,000.
During 1905, nine cantonal Bible societies in Switzerland circulated altogether 71,000 copies; the Netherlands Bible Society reported a circulation of 54,544 volumes, 48,137 of which were in Dutch; the Danish Bible Society circulated 45,289 copies; the Norwegian Bible Society circulated 67,058 copies; and in Sweden the Evangelical National Society distributed about 110,000 copies.
Of these non-British societies the most noteworthy was established in Russia.
Six more societies-including those of New York and of Massachusetts-were formed during 1809, and other societies, auxiliaries and associations quickly followed.
Turkish, classical Chinese, and Korean versions have been made by the American and British societies jointly.
The total distribution effected by the American Bible Society and its federated societies had in 1909 exceeded 84,000,000 volumes, in over a hundred different languages.
The Trades Hall at Carlton is the meeting-place of the trades-union societies of Victoria, and is the focus of much political influence.
It is frequently found among the tutelary deities of North American dancing or secret societies.
These contain a theatre, library and reading-room, the rooms of the college societies and others.
The formation of societies for religious and other purposes was frequent at Rome from the earliest times in all classes of the free population.
After the time of Sulla these societies were regarded by the government with suspicion, mainly on account of the political uses to which they were turned, and various measures were passed for their suppression in Rome and Italy.
It is doubtful how far these societies served to organize and improve particular industries.
There is no evidence to show that any societies during the first three centuries consisted solely of workers at a single craft.
Even benefit societies were feared and forbidden by the Roman autocrats, and the " dominical suppers " of the Christians were not likely to be spared.
Other institutions are the public library, which from 1808 to 1898 was a subscription library; the Berks County Law Library; the Berks County Historical Society; and the Harmonie Maennerchor, organized in 1847 and one of the oldest singing societies in the United States.
Such considerations help us to understand the enormous importance attached in ancient societies to the right of intermarriage, as also to grasp the origin of wills and testaments.
But many primitive societies do not trace descent through males and yet may be said to worship ancestors.
In both societies he was known as Il Lasca or Leuciscus, and this pseudonym is still frequently substituted for his proper name.
Within fifty years from his death his societies could reckon 50,000 members.
Of the numerous learned and scientific societies, the chief is the Royal Society of Canada, founded in 1881.
Among other provincial agencies for Agri imparting information there are farmers' institutes, cultural travelling dairies, live-stock associations, farmers', dairymen's, seed-growers', and fruit-growers' associa- tions tions, and agricultural and horticultural societies.
The Dominion government makes in turn to one of the chief local agricultural exhibition societies a grant of $50,000 for the purposes of the national representation of agriculture and live-stock.
Although he occasionally read a paper to scientific societies when a young man, he never could become a lecturer on account of his shyness.
For some years the emperor, with his sound common-sense and dislike of exaggeration, held the balance fairly between the two extremes; but long years of uninterrupted labour, anxiety and disappointment weakened his zeal for reform, and when radicalism assumed more and more the form of secret societies and revolutionary agitation, he felt constrained to adopt severe repressive measures.
In 1876 he fiercely assailed the practice of receiving interest or rent, and he henceforth lived on his capital, which he gave freely to friends, dependants, public societies, charitable and social objects.
He was loaded with the degrees of the universities and membership of numerous societies and academies.
The " peace societies," which are scattered over the whole world, number several hundreds.'
This most useful institution, which has its office at Bern, serves as a means of bringing and keeping together all the known peace societies.
He was also an honorary member of most of the learned societies of Europe.
Reference must also be made to the articles on Anglo-Saxon antiquities in the Victoria County Histories, and to various papers in Archaeologia, the Archaeological Journal, the Journal of the British Archaeological Society, the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, the Associated Architectural Societies' Reports, and other antiquarian journals.
The town has long been an important military centre with a large permanent camp. There are a free grammar school (founded 1 539), a technical and university extension college, a literary institute and medical and other societies.
The publication of these papers is said to have exercised a beneficial influence in drawing attention to the inadequate calculations on which many insurance and benefit societies had recently been formed.
It is the seat of many benevolent, scientific and literary societies and establishments.
Wesley had given the sacrament to the societies when he visited them and this privilege was greatly missed.
This was really shelving the question, but it gave time for opinion to ripen, and in 1793 it was resolved by a large majority that "the societies should have the privilege of the Lord's Supper where they unanimously desired it."
In 1794, this privilege was definitely granted to ninety-three societies.
It prepared a "Plan of Pacification" which was approved by the conference and by an assembly of trustees, and was welcomed by the societies.
The conference of 1797 set itself to remove any ground for distrust among the societies and to enlist their hearty support in all branches of the work.
The preachers had long been accustomed to consult the leader's meetings of their societies, but it was now clearly decided that stewards and leaders should be appointed in connexion with the leaders' meeting, and certain rights were granted to that meeting as to the admission and expulsion of members.
A conservative secession "on account of Hopkinsian errors" in 1822 of six ministers (five then under suspension) organized a General Synod and the classes of Hackensack and Union (central New York) in 1824; it united with the Christian Reformed Church, established by immigrants from Holland after 1835, to which there was added a fresh American secession in 1882 due to opposition (on the part of the seceders) to secret societies.
Soon after the greater crusading societies had been formed similar orders, such as those of St James of Compostella, Calatrava and Alcantara, were established to fight the Moors in Spain instead of the Saracens in the Holy Land.
Societies formed in Glasgow and Edinburgh in the spring of the same year gave their attention to the continent of Africa.
In 1796 and 1797 respectively the New York and the Northern societies were formed for work among Indians by Presbyterians, Baptists and Reformed Dutch, acting in concert.
It is not possible to follow in detail the history of the hundred or' more organized societies of some size that have thus come into being since the end of the 18th century, still less that of the three or four hundred smaller agencies.'
Moreover, the older and larger societies have much increased the proportion of graduates on their staffs.
The Anglican societies and the regular and older Nonconformist societies (Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian and the London Missionary Society, which is virtually Congregationalist) have shared in these humbler recruits; but a large proportion of them have joined several younger " non-denominational " or " interdenominational " missions.
From an early date many of the wives of missionaries have done good service; but the going forth of single women in any appreciable number has only been encouraged by the societies in the last quarter of the 19th century.
The bulk of the work has been done by voluntary societies, membership in which depends upon a pecuniary subscription, and the administration of which is entrusted to elected committees.
In the case of the two leading Church of England societies, the bishops (being members) are ex officio on all executive committees; but their labours in other directions prevent their ordinarily attending.
In the Church of England the question was broached in Convocation, shortly after the revival of that body, in 1859; and during the next few years many suggestions were put forth for the establishment of a Board of Missions which should absorb the societies, or at least direct their work.
These boards, however, were not to supersede the societies, but to supplement their work, by collecting information, fostering interest, registering results and acting as referees when required.
Their most active members are men who are also leaders in their respective societies, and have thus gained experience in missionary administration.
The closing years of the 19th century were remarkable for the centenary commemorations of the older missionary societies.
The non-episcopal missions thus formed and supported are worked quite independently of the home societies of the denominations respectively.
The German societies are numerous and important, and have increased in number and in vigorous work.
At least two of these societies, and other new associations formed for the purpose, and the Moravians, have taken up work in German East Africa.
The old Swedish and Norwegian missionary societies work in South Africa, Madagascar and India; but large numbers of Scandinavians have been stirred up in missionary zeal, and have gone out to China in connexion with the China Inland Mission; several were massacred in the Boxer outbreaks.
The older American societies, especially the American Board (Congregational), the Presbyterian Boards, the Methodist Episcopal Church Society, the Baptist Missionary Union, and the Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church, have much extended their work.
There are several societies in England, Scotland, Germany and America.
Roman missions are carried on both by missionary societies and by religious orders, all under the supreme direction of the pope, and also more or less under the general supervision of the Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide at Rome since its foundation by Gregory XV.
Of the religious societies engaged in the evangelization of these many fields of labour, some have been established exclusively for foreign missionary work among the heathen - notably the famous Societe des Missions Etrangeres of Paris, the oldest and greatest of all (dating from 1658, and consisting of 34 bishops, 1200 European missionaries and 700 native priests); the German " Society of the Divine Word," whose headquarters are at Steyl in Holland; the Belgian Society of Scheat; the celebrated French Society of the " White Fathers," founded by the late Cardinal Lavigerie for African missions; the English Society of St Joseph, founded at Mill Hill by Cardinal Vaughan; and some others.
Such are the Franciscans, Dominicans, Jesuits, Lazarists, Augustinians, Marists, &c. Besides the above orders of priests, an immense number of religious societies of women are engaged in works of education and charity throughout the whole of the foreign mission field.
In German New Guinea the Neuendethelsau (1886) and Rhenish (1887) Societies have fourteen stations.
They were followed by the Glasgow Missionary Society (1821), the Paris Evangelical Society (1829), the Moravian, Rhenish and Berlin Societies, and the American Board.
The upper Congo region opened up by Livingstone and Stanley has been a favourite sphere for what are known as " faith societies," e.g.
The English United Methodists and some Swedish societies have begun work among the Gallas.
Alexander Duff, a Scottish Presbyterian, had begun his great educational work in Calcutta, and Bible tract and book societies were springing up everywhere.
In 1830 ten societies with 106 stations and 147 agents were at work; 1834 saw the founding of the Basel Mission on the west coast, the American Mission in Madura, the American Presbyterian Mission in Ludhiana.
It would be impossible to trace in detail the wort' done by the different societies since Carey's time.
The great changes that have been wrought in India, politically, commercially, intellectually and religiously, by the combined action of the British government and the Christian missions, are evidenced among other tokens by the growth of such societies as the Arya Samaj and the Brahmo Samaj.
Hindu tract societies and young men's associations, which are modelled on Christian organizations.
In 1910 there were 4614 missionaries (including wives), representing 122 societies, 1272 Indian ministers, and 34,095 other native workers, including teachers and Bible-women.
In 1829 came representatives of the American Board, in 1836 Peter Parker began his medical mission, and on the opening of the Treaty Ports the old edicts were withdrawn, and other societies crowded in to a field more than ample.
The work is carried on by eleven societies or religious orders with over 40 bishops and 1000 European priests, mostly French.
The London Mission has always been conspicuous for the contribution made by its agents to linguistic and literary knowledge, the name of James Legge being an outstanding example; it is now, in co-operation with other societies, earnestly taking up the new educational and medical openings.
One of the most interesting features of missionary work in China is the comity that prevails among the workers of different societies and agencies.
Protestant societies have done much to bring the Bible to the knowledge of the nominally Roman Catholic population.
This list gives a total of 69 Foreign Missionary Societies, of which 34 are American, 19 British, 10 German, and 6 other societies.
The first was the English Alpine Club (founded in the winter of 1857-1858), followed in 1862 by the Austrian Alpine Club (which in 1873 was fused, under the name of the German and Austrian Alpine Club, with the German Alpine Club, founded in 1869), in 1863 by the Italian and Swiss Alpine Clubs, and in 1874 by the French Alpine Club, not to mention numerous minor societies of more local character.
Of the numerous institutions for the encouragement of the sciences and the fine arts, the following are strictly national - the Royal Academy of Sciences (1855), the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1854), the National Academy of the Plastic Arts, the Royal School of Music, the National Archives, besides various other national collections and museums. Provincial scientific societies exist at Middelburg, Utrecht, 's Hertogenbosch and Leeuwarden, and there are private and municipal associations, institutions and collections in a large number of the smaller towns.
Among societies of general utility are the Society for Public Welfare (Maatschappij tot nut van't algemeen, 1785), whose efforts have been mainly in the direction of educational reform; the Geographical Society at Amsterdam (1873); Teyler's Stichting or foundation at Haarlem (1778), and the societies for the promotion of industry (1777), and of sciences (1752) in the same town; the Institute of Languages, Geography and Ethnology of the Dutch Indies (1851), and the Indian Society at the Hague, the Royal Institute of Engineers at Delft (1848), the Association for the Encouragement of Music at Amsterdam, &c.
Infant schools, which are generally in the hands of private societies or the municipal authorities, are not interfered with by the state.
Membership of the corps is gained after a somewhat trying novitiate, but is the only passport to the various social and sports societies.
But the long liberal ascendancy closed the ranks of the CatholicCalvinist coalition, and united them against the neutral schools, and in 1889 they were able to pass a law enabling not only the unsectarian public schools, but all private schools organized by societies and bodies recognized by the law to receive subventions from the state.
Among the literary and scientific associations of Copenhagen may be mentioned the Danish Royal Society, founded in 1742, for the advancement of the sciences of mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, &c., by the publication of papers and essays; the Royal Antiquarian Society, founded in 1825, for diffusing a knowledge of Northern and Icelandic archaeology; the Society for the Promotion of Danish Literature, for the publication of works chiefly connected with the history of Danish literature; the Natural Philosophy Society; the Royal Agricultural Society; the Danish Church History Society; the Industrial Association, founded in 1838; the Royal Geographical Society, established in 1876; and several musical and other societies.
Among the numerous learned societies may be mentioned the Belgian Royal Academy founded in 1769 and revived in 1818.
Sir Walter assures us that a Scots earl took this maxim so seriously to heart that he planted a large tract of country with trees, a practice which in these days is promoted by the English and Royal Scottish Arboricultural Societies.
Learned Societies.T here are numerous societies and unions, some of an exclusively scientific character and others designed for the popular diffusion of useful knowledge.
The patriotism and Pan-Germanism of the gymnastic societies (Turuvereine) and students associations (Burschenschaften) expressed themselves with more noise than discretion; in the South-German parliaments the platitudes and catchwords of the Revolution were echoed.
The constitutional crisis in Prussia, however, brought both societies into line, and in 1863 the National Union united with the Reform Union in an attempt to defeat Prussian policy in the Schleswig-Holstein question.
The whole organization of newspapers, societies and trades unions was at once broken up. Almost every political newspaper supported by the party was suppressed; almost all the pamphlets and books issued by them were forbidden; they were thereby at once deprived of the only legitimate means which they had for spreading their opinions.
In 1887 the two chief societies for supporting the colonial movement joined under the name of the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft.
The Catholics formed societies which were joined by large numbers of workmen.
The law was based on an old Prussian principle; insurance was made compulsory, but the state, instead of doing the work itself, recognized the existing friendly and other societies; they were still to enjoy their corporate existence and separate administration, but they were placed under state control, and for this purpose an imperial insurance department was created in the office of the secretary of state for the interior.
The masters were compelled to insure themselves against the payments for which they might become liable, and for this purpose had to form trades associations, self-governing societies, which in each district included all the masters for each particular trade.
The co-operation of masters and men in the administration of the societies has a good effect on the relations of the classes.
No great parliamentary leader took the place of Windthorst, Lasker and Bennigsen; the extra - parliamentary societies, less responsible and more violent, grew in influence.
The general tendency among the numerous societies of Christian Socialism, which broke up almost as quickly as they appeared, was to drift from the alliance with the ultra-Conservatives and to adopt the economic and many of the political doctrines of the Social Democrats.
A strong feeling arose that social and political dangers could only be avoided by an increase in religious life, and the emperor gave the authority of his name to a movement which produced numerous societies for home mission work, and (at least in Berlin) led to the erection of numerous churches.
In nearly every Law of state there still existed old laws forbidding political combina- societies to unite with one another.
The object of them was to prevent a network of societies from being formed extending over large districts, and so acquiring political power.
In consequence of the ameiidments in the Upper House the Prussian law was lost; and at last, in 1899, a short imperial law was carried to the effect that societies of every kind might enter into union with one another.
For some years it had been recogpized that the collection and arrangement of the authorities for German history was too great an undertaking for any one man, and societies under very influential patronage were founded for this purpose.
Another development followed the production of the Monumenta, this being the establishment in most of the German states of societies the object of which was to foster the study of local history.
In meeting all the extraordinary demands resulting from the Civil War he displayed great energy and resourcefulness, and was active in thwarting the schemes of the secessionists in the neighbouring state of Kentucky, and of the Knights of the Golden Circle, the Order of American Knights, and the Sons of Liberty (secret societies of Southern sympathizers and other opponents of the war) in Indiana.
Missionary societies, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, are represented in the colony, and their schools are well attended, as are the schools belonging to the government.
Other newspapers were afterwards established upon the same principles; anti-slavery societies, founded upon the doctrine of immediate emancipation, sprang up on every hand; the agitation was carried into political parties, into the press, and into legislative and ecclesiastical assemblies; until in 1861 the Southern states, taking alarm from the election of a president known to be at heart opposed to slavery though pledged to enforce all the constitutional safeguards of the system, seceded from the Union and set up a separate government.
Anti-slavery societies were greatly multiplied throughout the North, and many men of influence, both in the church and in the state, were won to the cause.
Garrison countenanced the activity of women in the cause, even to the extent of allowing them to vote and speak in the anti-slavery societies, and appointing them as lecturing agents; moreover, he believed in the political equality of the sexes, to which a strong party was opposed upon social and religious grounds.
Besides the government primary and secondary schools, there are many other schools in the large towns owned by the Moslems, Copts, Hebrews, and by various missionary societies, and in which the education is on the same lines.
Finally, it may be mentioned that a sum proportionately large is available from public funds and regular parliamentary grants for furthering science and arts by temporary subventions to students, authors, artists and others of insufficient means, in order to enable them to carry out particular works, to profit by foreign travel, &c. The principal scientific societies and institutions are detailed under Copenhagen.
The society of sciences, that of northern antiquaries, the natural history and the botanical societies, &c., publish their transactions and proceedings, but the Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, of which 14 volumes with 259 plates were published (1861-1884), and which was in the foremost rank in its department, ceased with the death in 1884 of the editor, the distinguished zoologist, I.
The numerous minor explorations, however, chiefly carried on by Government authorities and local archaeological societies, had been less interrupted.
The followers of these two men, and of their successor, Renwick, who later was hanged, became the armed and organized " Societies," a large force of yeomen and farmers in south-western Scotland, usually styled Cameronians.
He was also a fellow of Brasenose College, honorary fellow of Exeter, a fellow of the British Academy and of other learned societies, and a governor of Harrow School.
At the head of the scientific societies stands the academy of sciences, founded in 1825, for the encouragement of the study of the Hungarian language and the various sciences except theology.
In 1795 he wrote thirteen letters (signed "Germanicus") defending the President in his attack on the American Jacobin or democratic societies.
Seven years before he had started a model farm at Frechine, where he demonstrated the advantages of scientific methods of cultivation and of the introduction of good breeds of cattle and sheep. Chosen a member of the provincial assembly of Orleans in 1787, he busied himself with plans for the improvement of the social and economic conditions of the community by means of savings banks, insurance societies, canals, workhouses, &c.; and he showed the sincerity of his philanthropical work by advancing money out of his own pocket, without interest, to the towns of Blois and Romorantin, for the purchase of barley during the famine of 1788.
Next year, on the 1st of August, the convention passed a decree for the uniformity of weights and measures, and requested the Academy to take measures for carrying it out, but a week later Fourcroy persuaded the same convention to suppress the Academy together with other literary societies patentees et dotees by the nation.
The Knights of the Golden Circle, and other secret societies, whose aims were the promulgation of state sovereignty and the extension of aid to the Confederate states, began to flourish, and it is said that in 1864 there were 50,000 members of the Sons of Liberty in the state.
Henry Hines, of the Confederate army, was appointed by Jefferson Davis to co-operate with these societies.
His house was the centre of the highest culture of Hamburg, and a monument of his influence in that city still remains in the Haus der patriotischen Gesellschaft, where the learned and artistic societies partly founded by him still meet.
Karl Sand, the murderer of Kotzebue, was one of his pupils; and a letter of his, found on another student, warning the lad against participation in secret societies, was twisted by the suspicious authorities into evidence of his guilt.
The writers speak of themselves as " apostles," or messengers, of Christ; they refer to similar societies " in Christ Jesus," which they call " churches of God," in Judaea, and they say that these also suffer from the Jews there, who had " killed the Lord Jesus " some time before.
Laibach is the principal centre of the national Slovenian movement, and it contains a Slovene theatre and several societies for the promotion of science and literature in the native tongue.
In the finite world or temporal state, religion, as the finite organization of a church, is, like other societies, subordinate to the state.
The multiplication of art periodicals, lectures, books, photographs, meetings of societies and gilds, museums, schools of arts and crafts, polytechnics, scholarships, facilities for travel, exhibitions, even those of the Royal Academy, to which objects of applied art are now admitted, not only encourages many persons to become workers and designers in the applied arts, but exposes everything to the plagiarist, who travesties the freshest idea before it has well left the hands of its originator.
Aihong other similar organizations are an Academy of Medical, Physical and Natural Sciences (1863); a national library, established in 1901, and having in 1908 about 40,000 volumes, including the finest collection in the world of materials for Cuban history; an anthropological society; various medical societies; and a Bar association.
He was also, though he deplored the conduct of the militants, a decided supporter of woman suffrage; and he took an active interest in, and lent a helping hand to, many social movements, the Working Men's College, Toynbee Hall, the Hampstead Garden Suburb, Children's Country Holidays, the Shakespeare National Memorial, as well as to a number of miscellaneous church societies.
He was a supporter of the Church Missionary and the British and Foreign Bible societies, and laboured for the abolition of slavery.
The town is the seat of several learned societies including the Societe des Antiquaires, which has a rich museum of antiquities.
He received the highest recognition, not only from philosophers and learned societies all over the world, but also from the emperor and the German people.
Societies of Cameronians for the maintenance of the Presbyterian form of worship were formed about 1681; their testimony, "The Informatory Vindication," is dated 1687; and they quickly became the most pronounced and active adherents of the covenanting faith.
The amount of papers on Korea scattered through English, German, French and Russian magazines, and the proceedings of geographical societies, is very great, and for the last three centuries Japanese writers have contributed largely to the sum of general knowledge of the peninsula.
The fortunes of the societies are, however, of less importance than their leading doctrine.
This state of affairs was defined and developed in the course of centuries, till it produced the present state of centralization, according to a law which can equally be observed in other societies.
This we should expect indeed from its insistence upon individual freedom; yet, notwithstanding certain notable exceptions, amid the diversity there is a substantial unity, a unity which in our day finds expression in common organizations for great practical ends, for example in the " Bible Societies," " Tract Societies," the " Young Men's Christian Associations," " Societies of Christian Endeavour," &c., which disregard denominational lines.
They brought with them from China their aptitude for the organization of secret societies which, almost from the first, assumed the guise of political associations.
The Carnegie Institution of Washington, founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1902 and endowed by him with $22,000,000 ($10,000,000 in 1902; $12,000,000 later), is designed "to encourage in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research and discovery, and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind; and in particular to conduct, endow and assist investigation in any department of science, literature or art, and to this end to co-operate with governments, universities, colleges, technical schools, learned societies and individuals; to appoint committees of experts to direct special lines of research; to publish and distribute documents; and to conduct lectures, hold meetings and acquire and maintain a library."
He took an active interest in foreign missions, and was president of several of the most important philanthropic and religious societies of London.
Apart from some fulminations against such modern pests s socialism, communism, secret societies, Bible societies, clerico-liberal societies," the Syllabus says nothing that the papacy had not been saying for hundreds of years.
Agricultural societies exist in each province.
Finland has several scientific societies enjoying a world-wide reputation, as the Finnish Scientific Society, the Society for the Flora and Fauna of Finland, several medical societies, two societies of literature, the FinnoUgrian Society, the Historical and Archaeological Societies, one juridical, one technical and two geographical societies.
Finland is wonderfully rich in periodicals of all kinds, the publications of the Finnish Societies of Literature and of Sciences and other learned bodies being specially valuable.
Neither as financial nor as protective expedients were the custom duties of classical societies of much importance.
The growth of Evangelical sentiment in the church, along with the example of the great missionary societies founded in the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, led to the institution of the various missionary schemes still carried on, and their history forms the chief part of the history of the church for a number of years.
The conditions that we describe by the comprehensive term " civilization " occasion a specification and corresponding differentiation of the life of societies; whence there result competing types of culture, each instinct with the spirit of propagandism and, one might almost say, of empire.
Judson appealed to his American brethren to support him in missionary work among the heathen, and Rice returned to America to organize missionary societies to awaken interest in Judson's mission.
Other societies in the Eastern, Middle and Southern states speedily followed.
To counteract this influence, Baptist State Conventions were formed by the friends of missions and education, only contributing churches, associations, missionary societies and individuals being invited to membership (1821 onward - Massachusetts had effected state organization in 1802).
Stockholm is the seat of the principal learned societies and royal academies (see Sweden).
There are one or more agricultural societies in each lan, and there are various state educational establishments in agriculture, such as the agricultural high schools at Ultuna near Upsala, and at Alnarp near Lund in Skane, an important agricultural centre, with dairy schools and other branch establishments.
Finally, there are numerous horticultural societies, large nurseries and gardening schools at Stockholm, Alnarp and elsewhere, and botanical gardens attached to the universities of Lund and Upsala.
The higher education of the people is provided by people's high schools in the rural districts, especially for the peasantry, maintained by the county councils, agricultural societies and the state, and providing a two years' course both in general education and in special practical subjects according to local needs.
Among the scientific and literary societies are to be noted the Swedish Academy, consisting of 18 members, which was instituted in 1786 by Gustavus III., after the pattern of the Academie Frangaise, for the cultivation of the Swedish language and literature; and the Academy of Science, founded in 1739 by Linnaeus and others for the promotion of the natural sciences.
These societies had their origin in the associations formed in the middle of the 19th century for the purpose of disseminating information regarding bankruptcies, assignments and bills of sale.
Taking the Berlin force as illustrative of the police system in the German Empire, police duties are as various as in France; the system includes a political police, controlling all matters relating to the press, societies, clubs and public and social amusements.
Preparations for a new expedition into the interior were set on foot, and meanwhile Emin was honoured in various ways by learned societies in Germany and elsewhere.
Most of the African population are pagans and each tribe has its secret societies and fetishes.
In 1829 the Paris Evangelical Society (whose agents have laboured chiefly in Basuto and Barotse lands) sent out their first missionaries, who were closely followed by the agents of other societies (see Mlsslons).
Lappenberg, who was a member of numerous learned societies in Europe, wrote many other historical works.
The inhabitants of towns were forced into the societies known as gild-merchants, which in course of time monopolized the municipal government, became exclusive, and so caused the growth of similar societies among excluded citizens.