Her earliest political activities in her student days were connected with the Socialist movement in the country of her birth, but about 1895 she migrated to Germany.
After the outbreak of the revolution of 1848 he was elected to the Constituent Assembly, and in 1849 to the Legislative Assembly, but his speeches on behalf of the extreme socialist wing were of so abstract and mystical a character that they had no effect.
He was chief of the Socialist left, which then mustered sixty members, and edited until 1896 their organ in the press, La Petite Republique.
Mr. Snowden made himself extremely unpopular during the World War owing to his pacifist opinions, and was one of the Socialist members of Parliament who lost their seats at the general election of 1918.
In the spring of 1908 there were agrarian strikes at Parma; the labor contracts had pressed hardly on the peasantry, who had cause for complaint; but while some improvement had been effected in the new contracts, certain unscrupulous demagogues, of whom Alceste De Ambris, representing the syndacalist wing of the Socialist party, was the chief, organized a widespread agitation.
A motion presented by the Socialists in the Chamber for the immediate discussion of a bill to prevent the massacres of the proletariate having been rejected by an enormous majority, the 28 Socialist deputies resigned their seats; on presenting themselves for re-election their number was reduced to 25.
Hyndman and others in Socialist meetings and processions in London to demand work for the unemployed.
The crisis came with the discovery of a treasonable plot for the subornation of the army, in which many Socialist members of the Duma were involved.
From this time his relations with the government were less friendly, and in 1878 he brought about the rejection of the first Socialist Bill.
This train of thinking naturally drew him towards the socialist philosophers of the school of Saint-Simon, whom he joined.
He strongly promoted the League of Nations in the early part of that year; he attended the International Socialist Conference at Berne; and in Dec. 1920 he paid an informal visit to Ireland in the hope of promoting peace.
He attached himself to the "possibilist" group of the socialist party, the section opposed to the root-and-branch measures of Jules Guesde.
For a time the government, while keeping itself informed of his activities, left him alone; for it suited the Directory to let the socialist agitation continue, in order to frighten the people from joining in any royalist movement for the overthrow of the existing regime.
From that time, Briand became one of the leaders of the French Socialist party.
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Among other things, he made a more thorough study of socialist writers, with the result that, though he was not converted to any of their schemes as being immediately practicable, he began to look upon some more equal distribution of the produce of labour as a practicability of the remote future, and to dwell upon the prospect of such changes in human character as might render a stable society possible without the institution of private property.
His extreme liberalism prevented his opposing the spread of Socialist doctrines preached far and wide by Benjamin Constant.
The southerners are apathetic except when roused, and socialist doctrines find their chief adherents in the north.
The years 1900 and 1901 strikes were increasingly numerous, chiefly on account of the growth of Socialist and working-class organizations.
In 1893, after many vicissitudes, the Italian Socialist Labor Party was founded, and has now become the Italian Socialist Party, in which the majority of Italian workmen enrol themselves.
The closing of the French market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators took advantage to organize the workmen of the towns and the peasants of the country into groups known as fasci.
AMAND BAZARD (1791-1832), French socialist, the founder of a secret society in France corresponding to the Carbonari of Italy, was born at Paris.
FERDINAND LASSALLE (1825-1864), German socialist, was born at Breslau on the 11th of April 1825, of Jewish extraction.
But the acceptance of a portfolio in a bourgeois ministry led to his exclusion from the Unified Socialist party (March 1906).
Finally the defection of the Radical and Socialist groups induced him to resign on the 17th of January 1905, although he had not met an adverse vote in the Chamber.
The Government which took office in June 1920 was a coalition Cabinet of the Christian Democrat and Popular Socialist parties plus three ministers who did not belong to any party.
Purizkis (Christian Democrat); of War, Dr. Shimkus (Popular Socialist); of the Interior, K.
That he was such he denied more than once (Lemire, Le Cardinal Manning et son action sociale, Paris, 1893, p. 210), nor was he ever a Socialist in principle; but he favoured some of the methods of Socialism, because they alone seemed to him practically to meet the case of that pressing poverty which appealed to his heart.
He early threw himself into the Socialist movement, and became before long, as organizer and writer, an important personality in it.
He was appointed secretary of the Labour party in 1900 and held the position for r r years; and editor of the " Socialist Library " in 1905.
It was as chairman of the Independent Labour party - the section led by Mr. Keir Hardie - that he entered the House of Commons; and he explained at the congress of the party in April 1907 that its object was to mould society into the socialist State.
He remained a pacifist throughout the war, and used his influence in this direction in the labour and socialist movement, but he seldom spoke in Parliament, though he associated himself with the occasional anti-war demonstrations of Mr. Snowden and Mr. Arthur Ponsonby, and claimed the right of public meeting and free speech for pacifists.
He was active in the summer of 1917 in promoting the participation of representatives of the English Labour and Socialist parties in an International Socialist Conference at Stockholm, to which German representatives were coming, and he went to Paris with bIr.
An attempt was made on his life early in 1 9 04, and he was assassinated on the 28th of July of the same year by a bomb thrown under his carriage as he was on his way to Peterhof to make his report to the tsar; the assassin, Sasonov, was a member of the fighting organization of the socialist revolutionary party.
He made capital of the Socialist agitation and of the repression to which other statesmen resorted, and gave the agitators to understand that were he premier they would be allowed a free hand.
CLOVIS HUGUES (1851-1907), French poet and socialist, was born at Menerbes in Vaucluse on the 3rd of November 1851.
Elected deputy by Marseilles in the general elections of 1881, he was at that time the sole representative of the Socialist party in the chambers.
"GUSTAV NOSKE (1868-), German Socialist leader and former Republican Minister of National Defence, was born July 9 1868 at Brandenburg.
S., is famous in connexion with the socialist experiments of Robert Owen.
Pressed by Cavallotti, Rudini in March 1897 dissolved the Chamber and conducted the general election in such a way as to crush by government pressure the partisans of Crispi, and greatly to strengthen the (Socialist, Republican and Radical) revolutionary parties.
Com posed mainly of elements drawn from the Left, and dependent for a majority upon the support of the subversive groups of the Extreme Left, the formation of this cabinet gave the signal for a vast working-class movement, during which the Socialist party sought to extend its political influence by means of strikes and the organization of labor leagues among agricultural laborers and artisans.
By this time Dozsa was losing control of the rabble, which had fallen under the influence of the socialist parson of Czegled, Lorincz Meszaros.
He sat in the House of Commons for North Lanarkshire from 1886 to 1892, and during this period became known as an extreme Socialist, taking part with H.
The Public Safety Bill for the reform of the police laws, taken over by him from the Rudini cabinet, and eventually promulgated by royal decree, was fiercely obstructed by the Socialist party, which, with the Left and Extreme Left, succeeded in forcing General Pelloux to dissolve the Chamber in May 1900, and to resign office after the general election in June.
After the modification of the Pelloux cabinet (May 1899) he became leader of the ministerial majority, and bore the brunt of the struggle against Socialist obstruction in connexion with the Public Safety Bill.
FELIX PYAT (1810-1889), French Socialist, was born at Vierzon (Cher) on the 4th of October 1810, the son of a Legitimist lawyer.
The then Provisional Government at Petrograd favoured an international Labour and Socialist Conference, which was being promoted by the International Socialist Bureau and was to meet at Stockholm.
ALEXANDRE MILLERAND (1859-), French socialist and politician, was born in Paris on the 10th of February 1859.
He continued to play a prominent part in International Socialist politics, striving to arrange concerted action of the working classes to make wars impossible by means of general strikes.
The Baltic volunteers were defeated by the Bolsheviks on Dec. 29 at Hintzenberg; and since the agreement made on Dec. 29 by Ulmanis with the German representative, the Socialist Winnig, did not attract a sufficient number of volunteers from Germany for the formation of an Iron Div., Riga fell on Jan.
In adventures in Asia Minor, He was reported in x920-21 to have been employed at Moscow as director of the Asiatic department in the Soviet Government, and to have posed at the Baku Congress of Oriental Peoples as the leader of a great Socialist movement in the middle east and north Africa.
"ROSA LUXEMBURG (1870-1919), German Socialist and revolutionary agitator, was born a Jewess on Dec. 25 1870 in Russian Poland.
But for this he would hardly have established so absolute an antithesis between industrial and military competition, and have shown himself readier to recognize that the law of the struggle for existence, just because it is universal and equally (though differently) operative in every form of society, cannot be appealed to for guidance in deciding between the respective merits of an industrial or military and of an individualist or socialist organization of society.
The Peasants' party combined with the Popular Socialist party, while the "Workers' Federation" and the "Yeomen's Union" (these being but the small landowners) formed part of the Christian Socialist governing bloc. Legally recognized parties which were not represented in the Seim were: (a) the Progressive party (Pajanga); (b) the Liberal party (known as the Santara Union); (c) " Landlords' Association" (which comprised only large landed proprietors).
The most remarkable of the works from this period are - (I) the Bestimmung des Menschen (Vocation of Man, 1800), a book which, for beauty of style, richness of content, and elevation of thought, may be ranked with the Meditations of Descartes; (2) Der geschlossene Handelsstaat, 1800 (The Exclusive or Isolated Commercial State), a very remarkable treatise, intensely socialist in tone, and inculcating organized protection; (3) Sonnenklarer Bericht an das grossere Publicum iiber die neueste Philosophie, 1801.
This was, however, far from satisfying the parties of the extreme Left, and the strength of Social Democracy in Saxony was even more strikingly displayed in 1909 when, in spite of plural voting, under a complicated franchise, 25 Socialist members were returned to the Saxon diet.
He held this position until 1906, and in that year was returned as Socialist member for Blackburn.
He was a disciple of Lueger, a Christian Socialist, and framed a new municipal statute and associations based on the Christian view of society.
The Socialist deputy, Mr Mezbffy, who wished to move an interpellation on the question, was howled down by the Independents with shouts of " Away with him!
After the coup d'etat of 1851 he settled with his family in Jersey, where he pursued agricultural experiments and wrote his socialist poem La Greve de Samarez.