I'm not much of a social person I guess.
She works with social services.
She works with social services.
She had always been a recluse at heart, often declining a social outing with her friends so that she could be alone with a book or her writing.
In any case, she would never be a social fit.
I always wondered if that was why Mom and Dad split up for a while - because Mom was used to a different lifestyle and social circle.
That wasn't too surprising, considering the fact that she insisted she wasn't a social person.
Did he miss the social life he had in Houston?
Nowadays, the social reformer is cool and hip.
"Certainly," she replied as if it were a social visit.
But the social aspects of the gathering were of importance to the participants as well.
I guess in social circles he would be considered a big player.
I guess in social circles he would be considered a big player.
In a state of deep depression, she stopped by the social services office on the way home and picked up some literature and a form.
Their social life was church, they had no television and even when Carmen had attended college, they had requested that she stay at home every night instead of living in a dorm.
Their greatest social obligation had been the local church fund raiser.
Their greatest social obligation had been the local church fund raiser.
Justin says I should get out more, but I came here to take a break from the miseries of social life.
On the record, tell the public this; you've been led to believe the psychic tipster is a woman of an age able to collect social security.
After this came the Great Depression, which so overwhelmed the social support structures that Americans turned to the government for help and have never turned back.
Dean quickly understood this was no social call.
Carmen would want to encourage him in this and Katie would consider it a social achievement.
Could you have foreseen that the advent of a technology called "air conditioning" in homes would alter the social fabric of the nation?
In the first moment of Pierre's outburst Anna Pavlovna, despite her social experience, was horror-struck.
"We were ready to call social services this morning before you showed up," Laurie admitted.
Once borders are secured, nations turn to social order.
But over time, as incomes around the world rise, people will migrate more and more to products associated with social practices that match their own ideals.
Julie maintained no Face Book or Twitter account, nor could Betsy locate her on any other social network sites.
The children and their governesses were glad of Pierre's return because no one else drew them into the social life of the household as he did.
Well aware of Hannah.s social ladder climbing aspirations, Katie couldn.t help her retort.
Fred mentioned she was a social minded do-gooder type citizen.
This isn't a social visit.
Alex needed to give Social Services an answer tomorrow.
Alex needed to give Social Services an answer tomorrow.
If not for the worried flicker of her gaze past him to see who followed, Damian would have thought this a social call.
But this beautiful edifice was not my destination nor were its inhabitants my social equal.
Weeks had passed since the two had spoken and the conversation was more social than business.
Sometimes I had a companion in my fishing, who came through the village to my house from the other side of the town, and the catching of the dinner was as much a social exercise as the eating of it.
It helps us bring about our social ideals.
He soon returned to announce that he was unable to confirm Josh Mulligan's death via the Internet social security death records.
He soon returned to announce that he was unable to confirm Josh Mulligan's death via the Internet social security death records.
Now, thanks to an overzealous social worker, Martha was scheduled to become reacquainted with mommy dearest—in Denver, over three hundred miles away from Bird Song's nest.
We've seen this: If you are running for president of the United States, merely using the words "freeze" and "Social Security" in the same sentence has the retirees of the nation heating up pots of tar and emptying their down pillows.
It kind of ticked me off—like I was an assignment he had to take care of, and our going out wasn't a social thing.
Owing to the historical past of Naples, and its social and economic condition at the end of the 17th century, the only study that really flourished there was that of law; and this soon penetrated from the courts to the university, and was raised to the level of a science.
It would fast become the social event of the year.
The second way people choose a nutritional theory is to develop it from their overall social and political understanding of the world.
Taxes will rise, and social programs will grow.
All had been collecting Social Security for a good part of Dean's lifetime.
They have social security.
The social reformer of the past is depicted as a dour spinster wielding an axe to break barrels of "Demon Rum."
You're pretty well armed for a social visit.
It's Social Security day.
She reasons: When we think of social networks, we are individualistic in our approach.
Though it was unintelligible why he had told it, or why it had to be told in Russian, still Anna Pavlovna and the others appreciated Prince Hippolyte's social tact in so agreeably ending Pierre's unpleasant and unamiable outburst.
The higher a man stands on the social ladder, the more people he is connected with and the more power he has over others, the more evident is the predestination and inevitability of his every action.
My purpose in this chapter will not be to persuade the reader of any political doctrine of trade; please apply your own political and social values as you see fit.
Social structures will change, and the purpose of education will be to learn to reason and find one's passion.
He felt himself not only free from social obligations but also from that feeling which, it seemed to him, he had aroused in himself.
We will be able to examine all kinds of social issues: Why are some areas poorer than others?
Let's say Linda has come up with a pretty interesting idea: A social network for couples.
"Rousseau's Contrat Social," said the vicomte with a tolerant smile.
In Wrentham we caught echoes of what was happening in the world--war, alliance, social conflict.
Helen's instincts are decidedly social; she likes to have people about her and to visit her friends, partly, I think, because they always have things she likes to eat.
With the present complex forms of political and social life in Europe can any event that is not prescribed, decreed, or ordered by monarchs, ministers, parliaments, or newspapers be imagined?
But that was no social call.
But that was no social call.
In the modern era, what we have seen around the world is a general increase in social services and the welfare state over time.
Fred slipped out early to renew his social life while the Deans ate soup and sandwiches.
The prince, who generally kept very strictly to social distinctions and rarely admitted even important government officials to his table, had unexpectedly selected Michael Ivanovich (who always went into a corner to blow his nose on his checked handkerchief) to illustrate the theory that all men are equals, and had more than once impressed on his daughter that Michael Ivanovich was "not a whit worse than you or I."
Being close enough so that she could attend college while living at home had been their rationalization, but she suspected they were also trying to stimulate her social life.
The Amish have no need for Social Security.
Illuminism is not a pure doctrine, just because it is attracted by social activity and puffed up by pride.
"I, I..." said Pierre, feeling it necessary to minimize his social position as much as possible so as to be nearer to the soldiers and better understood by them.
But back then, being pregnant with no husband didn't get you up the social ladder any too fast.
First her Ashley was in the hospital, then a nurse wanted to call social services to take the kids away.
Its social good, on average, is $2,000 a pan.
Dean laughed and told her his visit was neither social nor to perform mayhem—it was police business, sort of.
"I'm sorry, he's out," Dean answered, feeling like a social secretary.
"I'm sorry, he's out," Dean answered, feeling like a social secretary.
As a government grows in size, even if the growth is in social programs, it inevitably grows in its intrusion on civil liberty.
The club offers social opportunities for members, including dining, holiday events and childrens' functions.
It seemed to Dean she'd spent her life on the outside, in some respects by choice, somehow driven from one social plane down to another, much lower, until there was nothing left but death.
And it facilitates social interaction and connection.
Vive l'Empereur! came the voices of men, old and young, of most diverse characters and social positions.
Sackler and DeLeo were packing up, off to follow a lead on the whereabouts of a forger of Social Security checks who had been working overtime in recent months.
His small social security check was barely enough to provide spending money and keep him supplied with paperback mysteries, his passion.
The new Beaumont hotel was all a glitter in preparation of an affair of some high social order and there was a general excitement everywhere.
The highest Petersburg society was assembled there: people differing widely in age and character but alike in the social circle to which they belonged.
A man, not the usual wimpy social lady, was the culprit who organized the hasty departure.
I desire to speak impartially on this point, and as one not interested in the success or failure of the present economical and social arrangements.
Only two things indicated the social condition of Moscow--the rabble, that is the poor people, and the price of commodities.
It was a nice social outlet during the long winter.
A short, balding man, who looked as if a haircut was more a social event than a necessity, rose to leave, and with a glance at the back room said, "Ol' Ralph always was a bit weird."
Arthur's social friends pawed all over one another on one side of the room, while his lawyer pals held down the other side, acting as if it were a board meeting instead of a wake.
Marrying me will do wonders for your social life - once you learn to dress properly.
Arthur's social friends pawed all over one another on one side of the room, while his lawyer pals held down the other side, acting as if it were a board meeting instead of a wake.
To some extent, we have this in the form of high taxes on cigarettes, which are seen to have negative externalities, and a home interest deduction on income taxes, as home ownership is viewed as having positive social good.
Social propriety states that the immediate family of an Ancient.s mate or high level Immortal—
Thanks to the burgeoning of technology and social media, public opinion is the most powerful political force in the world today.
In a variety of ways it does a great deal of social service similar to that of gilds of help. Its administration has always been in the hands of laymen, and it works through local "conferences" or branches, the general council having been suspended because it declined to accept a cardinal as its official head.
We'll look at their lives, and the social aspects of this change, in a coming chapter called "Left Behind."
You here to kill Linda Segal, The Ice Lady, or is this a social call?
Yet a closer inquiry into the social conditions of Vico s time, and of the studies then flourishing, shows him to have been thoroughly in touch with them.
"Hannah used me to climb the social ladder, and I did not mind, because she is a beautiful, sweet girl," he said.
He just isn't social.
I was not then at an age for reflecting on social grievances.
Social conditions in western Virginia were entirely unlike those existing in the eastern portion of the state.
The rugged nature of the country made slavery unprofitable, and time only increased the social, political and economic differences between the two sections of the state.
The subjects of the poems are threefold: (I) amatory and personal, mostly regarding Cynthia - seventy-two (sixty Cynthia elegies), of which the last book contains three; (2) political and social, on events of the day - thirteen, including three in the last book; (3) historical and antiquarian - six, of which five are in the last book.
Among his companions on his voyage round the Cape were the Baron Imhoff, a speculative portrait-painter, and his wife, a lady of some personal attractions and great social charm, who was destined henceforth to be Hastings's lifelong companion.
The commune forms the basis of the native social system.
The man who breaks the law is himself a product of social evolution and cannot be regarded as solely responsible for his disposition to transgress.
Among its social clubs are the Albemarle, the Asheville, the Elks, the Tahkeeostee and the Swannanoa Country clubs.
From a sick-bed, from which he never rose, he conducted this work with surprising energy, and there composed those poems, too few in number, but immortal in the English language, such as the "Song of the Shirt" (which appeared anonymously in the Christmas number of Punch, 1843), the "Bridge of Sighs" and the "Song of the Labourer," which seized the deep human interests of the time, and transported them from the ground of social philosophy into the loftier domain of the imagination.
He had married in 1905 Miss Ethel Annikin, who became well known as a speaker and writer on social subjects.
In 1880 he entered the Reichstag as representative of a Berlin constituency, but was ousted in 1893 by a Social Democrat.
The withdrawal of Mersenne in 1614 to a post in the provinces was the signal for Descartes to abandon social life and shut himself up for nearly two years in a secluded house of the faubourg St Germain.
It may be assumed that the social corruption in Jerusalem was such as is usually found in wealthy communities, made bolder in this case, perhaps, by the political unrest and the weakness of the royal government under Zedekiah.
The wild and inaccessible character of the country, the fierce and lawless disposition of the people, the difficulties presented by their language and their complex social institutions, and the inability of the Turkish authorities to afford a safe conduct in the remoter districts, combine to render Albania almost unknown to the foreign traveller, and many of its geographical problems still remain unsolved.
The tribal organization in northern Albania is an interesting survival of the earliest form of social combination; it may be compared in many respects with that which existed in the Scottish highlands in the time of the Stuart kings.
Settled social conditions, however, soon established themselves.
There were civil laws which regulated clothing, food and social festivity.
The former began in 1865 in Pulaski, Tennessee, as a social club of young men.
The whites who were responsible for the conduct of the blacks were warned or driven away by social and business ostracism or by violence.
The desire is reasonable, moral, social, religious; it has the same worth as the loftiest ideals, and worthiest aspirations of the soul of man.
Each family, or family group, had a dual organization which has been termed (i) the Social, (2) the Local.
The Social or matriarchal took precedence of the Local or patriarchal organization.
When that system was abolished, the social conditions of New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia became more equal.
The disturbance of social, industrial and commercial affairs, during the first two or three years of the gold era, was very great.
Here, too, he published, in 1531, his most important work, the Chronica, Zeitbuch and Geschichtsbibel, largely a compilation on the basis of the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493), and in its treatment of social and religious questions connected with the Reformation, exhibiting a strong sympathy with heretics, and an unexampled fairness to all kinds of freedom in opinion.
Rathenau published various books, pamphlets and articles, on social and economic questions, some of which attracted world-wide attention, especially his Von kommenden Dingen (1920).
His high social position, his influence at court, his character, as well as his undoubted abilities and learning, not often in Austria found in a man of his rank, gave him great influence.
It remained in the hands of the Romans during both the Punic and the Social Wars, and was a fortress of importance to them.
After the Social War it became a municipium and under Augustus a colony.
The growth of traffic on this basis has been considerable, and the arrangement has proved of advantage to the public, as it provide, cheap facilities at times which are convenient for social conversation.
It would be an anachronism to think of Francis as a philanthropist or a "social worker" or a revivalist preacher, though he fulfilled the best functions of all these.
The great variety in physical and social conditions throughout the peninsula gives corresponding variety to the methods of agriculture.
The relations between owners and tillers of the soil are still regulated by the ancient forms of agrarian contract, which have remained almost untouched by social and political changes.
The possibility of reforming these contracts in some parts of the kingdom has been studied, in the hope of bringing them into closer harmony with the needs of rational cultivation and the exigencies of social justice.
The institutions which co-operate with the universities are the special schools for engineers at Turin, Naples, Rome and Bologna (and others attached to some of the universities), the higher technical institute at Milan, the higher veterinary schools of Milan, Naples and Turin, the institute for higher studies at Florence (Istituto di studi superiori, pratici e di perfezionamento), the literary and scientific academy of Milan, the higher institutes for the training of female teachers at Florence and Rome, the Institute of Social Studies at Florence, the higher commercial schools at Venice, Ban and Genoa, the commercial university founded by L.
But in Italy, although they were severally identified with the papal and imperial parties, they really served as symbols for jealousies which altered in complexion from time to time and place to place, expressing more than antagonistic political principles, and involving differences vital enough to split the social fabric to its foundation.
The conflict is a social one, between civic and feudal in.stitution.s, between commercial and military interests, between progress and conservatism.
Here we can attempt only a general survey of the events, political, civic and social, which heralded the Risorgimento in its first phase.
In Naples King Ferdinand retained some of the laws and institutions of Murats rgime, and many of the functionaries of the former government entered Naples his service; but he revived the Bourbon tradition, the odious police system and the censorship; and a degrading religious bigotry, to which the masses were all too much inclined, became the basis of government and social iife.
In 1901-1902 the social economic condition of Italy was a matter of grave concern.
anti-clericals and freemasons, divorce being regarded not as a social institution but as a weapon against Catholicism.
He wrote twenty-three books on the period between the Social War and the dictatorship of Sulla.
Sir Leslie Stephen finds that moral laws are the conditions needful for the good of the social organism, and are imposed as such by society upon its individual members.
Does not Stephen himself rather say that morally good things are conditions of social, not personal welfare?
It was destroyed by Hannibal in 216 B.C., but restored in 210; in 90 B.C. it served as the Roman headquarters in the Social war, and was successfully held against the insurgents.
They are, however, always bright and merry, are under no special social restrictions and have considerable influence.
This moral development is regarded as a gradual approach to that rational, social and political state in which will be realized the greatest possible quantity of liberty.
From this time forth she led the life of a woman of letters, writing novels, of which The Minister's Wooing (18J9) is best known, and many studies of social life in the form both of fiction and essay.
1880), the Christians were particularly dangerous, inasmuch as they taught a unity which transcended that of the Roman Empire, and must, therefore, have been regarded as antagonistic to the existing political and social organism.
It is no "fugitive and cloistered virtue" that Aurelius seeks to encourage; on the contrary, man must lead the "life of the social animal," must "live as on a mountain"; and "he is an abscess on the universe who withdraws and separates himself from the reason of our common nature through being displeased with the things which happen."
While the prime principle in man is the social, "the next in order is not to yield to the persuasions of the body, when they are not conformable to the rational principle which must govern."
The confessions of sin which he introduced descend to minute ritual details and rise to the most exalted aspects of social and spiritual life.
Meanwhile Mithradates and the East were forgotten in the crisis of the Social or Italic War, which broke out in 91 and threatened Rome's very existence.
His military genius was displayed in the Social War and the campaigns against Mithradates; while his constitutional reforms, although doomed to failure from the lack of successors to carry them out, were a triumph of organization.
After his release Wakefield seemed disposed for a while to turn his attention to social questions at home, and produced a tract on the Punishment of Death, with a terribly graphic picture of the condemned sermon in Newgate, and another on incendiarism in the rural districts, with an equally powerful exhibition of the degraded condition of the agricultural labourer.
He was an able leader during the Revolutionary period, when his wealth and social position were of great assistance to the patriot party.
This interval was diligently devoted to the pursuit of classical and historical studies, to preparing himself for ordination, and to searching investigations, under the stimulus of continual discussion with a band of talented and congenial associates, of the profoundest questions in theology, ecclesiastical polity and social philosophy.
His interest also in public matters was incessant, especially ecclesiastical questions, and such as bore upon the social welfare and moral improvement of the masses.
He was one of the first to see that for Biblical exegesis it was necessary to reconstruct the social environment of olden times, and he skilfully applied his practical knowledge of statecraft to the elucidation of the books of Samuel and Kings.
The new creed, the new speech, the new social system, had taken such deep root that the descendants of the Scandinavian settlers were better fitted to be the armed missionaries of all these things than the neighbours from whom they had borrowed their new possessions.
Other noteworthy buildings are the Federal building (containing post-office, custom-house and Federal court-rooms; erected at a cost of $3,000,000); Tomlinson Hall, capable of seating 3000 persons, given to the city by Daniel Tomlinson; the Propylaeum, a club-house for women; the Commercial club; Das Deutsche Haus, belonging to a German social club; the Maennerchor club-house; the Union railway station; the traction terminal building; the city hall, and the public library.
To form a true understanding of what is strictly implied in the word "nobility," in its social as opposed to a purely moral sense, it is needful to distinguish its meaning from that of several words with which it is likely to be confounded.
The pre-eminence so handed on may be of any kind, from substantial political power to mere social respect and precedence.
The remote descendant of a duke, even though he may chance to be heir presumptive to the dukedom, is in no way distinguished from any other gentleman; it is even possible that he may not hold the social rank of gentleman.
They were a social caste, which strove to keep, and which largely succeeded in keeping, all high offices and political power in its own hands.
Many of them equalled the patricians in wealth and antiquity of descent, and as soon as inter-marriage was allowed they became in all things their social equals.
The plebs, like the English commons, contained families differing widely in rank and social position, among them those families which, as soon as an artificial barrier broke down, joined with the patricians to form the new older settlement, a nobility which had once been the whole people, was gradually shorn of all exclusive privilege, and driven to share equal rights with a new people which had grown up around it.
But we see no sign of the growth of a body made up of patricians and leading plebeians who contrived to keep office to themselves by a social tradition only less strong than positive law.
That coat-armour has been lavishly granted and often assumed without right, that the word "gentleman" has acquired various secondary senses, proves nothing; that is the natural result of a state of things in which the status of gentry carries with it no legal advantage, and yet is eagerly sought after on social grounds.
the social conditions of Great Britain and Germany.
The nobility of France, keeping the most oppressive social and personal privileges, had been shorn of all political and even administrative power; the tyrants of the people were the slaves of the king.
And as far as regards the social side of kingship this is true.
Even the modified form of absolute monarchy which has existed in some Western countries, while it preserves, perhaps even strengthens, the social position of a nobility, destroys its political power.
In 1881 he came to London, and until 1897 engaged in lecturing and social work.
He married in 1895 Helen Dendy, herself the author of books on social problems. During 1903-8 he was professor of moral philosophy at St.
Chieti, q.v.], the chief town of the Marrucini, the whole of whose territory was placed under its municipal jurisdiction by the Romans, after the "Social War."
They had slaves, but so few as not to alter the social conditions.
Chapman, who finds that the eggs are laid in old wood, and that the triungulin seeks to attach itself to a social wasp, who carries it to her nest.
For example, were there no reactionary peasant among the delegates, a reactionary majority might be forced to return a Social Democrat to the Duma.
of higher schools, in which careful instruction is given in natural and social sciences, have been opened in the chief cities under the name of " pedagogical courses."
This may be explained by a variety of causes, of which the chief is the maintenance by the Slays down to a very late period of gentile or tribal organization and gentile marriages, a fact vouched for, not only in the pages of the Russian chronicler Nestor, but still more by visible social evidences, the gens later developing into the village community, and the colonization being carried on by large co-ordinated bodies of people.
The Baptists have also made considerable progress, notably among the Molokani.1 Social Conditions.
Thus the cultivators, whether noble or peasant, have not profited much from the change in their economic circumstances brought about by the social emancipation of 1861.
Documents relating to the political and social movements in Russia (London, 1897).
Bestuzhev-Riumin, Russkaya istoriya (2 vols., St Petersburg, 1872), especially for internal history and social life; A.
trans., 1896), an admirable account, partly historical, partly based on personal observation of the government, religion and the social and economic conditions of Russia; Combes de Lestrade, La Russie economique et sociale (Paris, 1896); " Nikolai " (pseudonym of Danielson), Histoire des developpement economique de la Russie depuis l'abolition du servage (Paris, 1899).
It may be pointed out, however, that the social and geographical conditions are different in the United - Kingdom and the United States, and in each country the.
In the first instance it is probable that among Christians, as among Jews, every meal, and especially every social meal, was regarded as being in some sense a thank-offering.
BEHRAMJI MALABARI (1853-), Indian journalist and social reformer, was born in 1853 at Baroda, the son of a poor Parsi in the employment of the state, who died shortly after his birth.
Their mental and social standard is high among Pacific peoples; they are simple, honourable, generous and hospitable, but brave fighters.
10 foll., 4 " Magic and Social Relations " in Sociological Papers, ii.
Prophetic personality now moved in a larger sphere than that of divination, important though that function be in the social life of the ancient state as instrumental in declaring the will of the deity when any enterprise was on foot.
In the old religion the race or clan was the unit of religion as well as of social life.
But the prevalence of the worship of " other gods " and of graven images in these " high places," and the moral debasement of life which accompanied these cults, made it clear that the " high places " were sources of grave injury to Israel's social life.
ZALMOXIS, or ZAMOLxIS, a semi-mythical social and religious reformer, regarded as the only true God by the Thracian Getae.
The fools are given a local colour, and Barclay appears as the unsparing satirist of the social evils of his time.
but his eclogues were, like his Italian models, also satires on social evils.
It ought to be added that in each of the twentyfive years of his subsequent acquaintance with London " the prospect gradually brightened," and his social as well as his intellectual qualities secured him a wide circle of friends.
At thirty, still a dependant, without a settled occupation, without a definite social status, he often regretted that he had not " embraced the lucrative pursuits of the law or of trade, the chances of civil office or India adventure, or even the fat slumbers of the church."
To illustrate the intensity of the pleasure he found alike in the solitude of his study and in the relaxations of genial social intercourse, almost any page taken at random, either from the Life or from the Letters, would suffice.
William Howard Taft attended the public schools of Cincinnati, graduated at the Woodward High School of that city in 1874, and in the autumn entered Yale College, where he took high rank as a student and was prominent in athletics and in the social life of the institution.
In short, the country was already thoroughly democratic in spirit, while Federalism stood for obsolescent social ideas and was infected with political "Toryism" fatally against the times.
It was at Strassburg that he published his remarkable volume La Cite antique (1864), in which he showed forcibly the part played by religion in the political and social evolution of Greece and Rome.
Mommsen (Unteritalische Dialekten, p. 345) pointed out that in the social war all the coins of Pompaedius Silo have the Latin legend "Italia," while the other leaders in all but one case used Oscan.
Joyce, A Short History of Ireland (London, 1893), and A Social History of Ancient Ireland (2 vols., London, 1903); The Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters, edited by J.
Entering the diplomatic service at an early age, he was appointed successively to the legations of Madrid, Vienna, Berlin and Versailles, but in 1871 returned to Italy, to devote himself to political and social studies.
Bazard, after remaining for some time in obscurity in Paris, came to the conclusion that the ends of those who wished well to the people would be most easily attained, not through political agitation, but by effecting a radical change in their social condition.
The elders of these groups possessed some influence, and tended to form an aristocracy, which took the lead in social life, although their authority generally depended merely upon custom.
The Hebrews of Israel and Judah were, political history apart, men of the same general stamp, with the same cult and custom; for the study of religion and social usages, therefore, they can be treated as a single people.
A more intricate social organization caused internal weakness, and Eastern history shows with what rapidity peoples who have become strong by discipline and moderation pass from the height of their glory into extreme corruption and disintegration.'
Day, Social Life of the Hebrews; and, for some comparison of customary usage in the Semitic field, to S.
Worship is simpler at the smaller shrines than at the more famous temples; and, as the rulers are the patrons of the religion and are brought into contact with the religious personnel, the character of the social organization leaves its mark upon those who hold religious and judicial functions alike.
The prophets taught that the national existence of the people was bound up with religious and social conditions; they were in a sense the politicians of the age, and to regard them simply as foretellers of the future is to limit their sphere unduly.
5, 6), no social reform was possible; but now the young Josiah, the popular choice, was upon the throne.
It is the work of rebuilding and reorganization, of social and of religious reforms, which we encounter in the last pages of biblical history, and in the records of Ezra and Nehemiah we stand in Jerusalem in the very centre of epoch-making events.
In this separation of the Judaeans from religious and social intercourse with their neighbours, the work of Ezra (q.v.) requires notice.
The synagogue had become a firmly established institution, and the personal and social life of the masses had come under the control of communal law.
Little more than half a century after the overthrow of the Jewish nationality, the Mishnah was practically completed, and by this code of rabbinic law - and law is here a term which includes the social, moral and religious as well as the ritual and legal phases of human activity - the Jewish people were organized into a community, living more or less autonomously under the Sanhedrin or Synedrium and its officials.
(1792-1835) economic and social restrictions were numerous.
During the War of Independence the Jews of America took a prominent part on both sides, for under the British rule many had risen to wealth and high social position.
While in Russia this took the form of actual massacre, in Germany and Austria it assumed the shape of social and civic ostracism.
Neither in the Social War, nor in the rising of Spartacus, who held out a long time in the Sila (71 B.C.), do the Bruttii play a part as a people.
To the university were added schools of pharmacy and of applied social science, and a department of religious education.
Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill, a Study of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York, 1906), contains some interesting observations on the changes in social conditions resulting from the growth of the cotton-manufacturing industry.
His Journals (3 vols., New York, 1852), apart from their importance as a history of his life work, constitute a valuable commentary on the social and industrial history of the United States during the first forty years of their existence.
The social instincts and industrious habits of ants have always made them favourite objects of study, and a vast amount of literature has accumulated on the subject of their structure and their modes of life.
Such " workers " are essential to the formation of a social community of Hymenoptera, and their wingless condition among the ants shows that their specialization has been carried further in this family than among the wasps and bees.
Further, while among wasps and bees we find some solitary and some social genera, the ants as a family are social, though some FIG.
His plans were interrupted by his death, and his successor, Ieyasu, who shaped the social and political life of Japan for nearly 300 years (1603-1868), definitely decided on a policy of seclusion and isolation.
It is a matter of history that both mother and daughter were active agents in fostering that view of the social relations of the sexes which found its most famous expression in the "Courts of Love," and which was responsible for the dictum that love between husband and wife was impossible.
The chief adviser of Theodoric, the East Gothic king in Italy, he accepted with ardour that monarch's great scheme, if indeed, he did not himself originally suggest it, of welding Roman and Goth together into one harmonious state which should preserve the social refinement and the intellectual culture of the Latin-speaking races without losing the hardy virtues of their Teutonic conquerors.
The name does not indicate a social caste, or a religious sect; it is not even tribal.
The village community has always existed as the social unit in the Mahratta territories, though with less cohesion among its members than in the village communities of Hindustan and the Punjab.
- (Residence at the Court of London, p. 286.) Bentham's love of flowers and music, of green foliage and shaded walks, comes clearly out in this pleasant picture of his home life and social surroundings.
After the Social War it became a municipium.
Below the villeins in the social scale came the cottiers possessing smaller holdings, sometimes only a garden, and no oxen.
The much-debated Corn Laws, after undergoing various modifications, and proving the fruitful source of business uncertainty, social discontent and angry partisanship, were finally abolished in 1846, although the act was not consummated until three years later.
Is it possible then to obtain unanimity as to the methods of arriving at conclusions in social and political matters, so as to secure similar agreement of opinion among the specially skilled, and similar general respect for their authority ?
Mill remarks that the uncertainty hanging over the very elements of moral and social philosophy proves that the means of arriving at the truth in those sciences are not yet properly understood.
By 1831 the period of depression had passed; Mill's enthusiasm for humanity had been thoroughly reawakened, and had taken the definite shape of an aspiration to supply an unimpeachable method of search for conclusions in moral and social science.
Be this as it may, enthusiastic as he was for a new logic that might give certainty to moral and social conclusions, Mill was no less resolute that the new logic should stand in no antagonism to the old.
Its chief importance is perhaps the stress which it laid on the vital connexion which must subsist between true economic theory and the wider facts of social and national development.
This fact, no doubt, should be taken into account in any detailed criticism of the philosophic work; it was taken up not as an end but as ancillary to a social and ethical system.
The title of his work, Principles of Political Economy, with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy, though open to criticism, indicated a less narrow and formal conception of the field of the science than had been common amongst his predecessors.
In the fifth of his early essays he asserted that the method a priori is the only mode of investigation in the social sciences, and that the method a posteriori "is altogether inefficacious in those sciences as a means of arriving at any considerable body of valuable truth."
Sometimes he speaks of political economy as a department "carved out of the general body of the science of society;" whilst on the other hand the title of his systematic work implies a doubt whether political economy is a part of "social philosophy" at all, and not rather a study preparatory and auxiliary to it.
The standard of life of the ordinary well-to-do middle class in England, for example, includes not only food, clothing and shelter of a kind different in many respects from that of a similar class in other countries and of other classes in England, but a highly complicated mechanism, both public and private, for ministering to these primary needs, habits of social intercourse, educational and sanitary organization, recreative arrangements and many other elements.
In many a country district the gradations of social rank were more continuous, the opportunities of intercourse more frequent, and the capacity for organization greater than in modern times.
The different threads of social activity are so closely interwoven that we cannot follow any one for very long without forming wrong impressions, and it becomes necessary to turn back and study others which seemed at first sight unrelated to the subject of our investigations.
Under an apparently uniform and stable system of social regulation there was much variation and movement, the significance of which it is impossible to estimate.
We cannot suppose that there occurred, at or about the commencement of the 19th century, a breach of historical continuity of such a character that institutions, customs, laws and social conventions were suddenly swept away, the bonds of society loosened, and the state and people of England dissolved into an aggregate of competing individuals.
Although the British Empire contains within itself every known species of railway enterprise, the study of railways and other means of transport, and their relation to the business, the commerce and the social life of the country, is deplorably backward.
It is obvious that no inquiry into commercial policy, or into such social questions as the housing of the poor, can be effective unless this deficiency is remedied.
The whole social and political fabric of the British Empire depends upon the efficiency of its industrial system.
For the present their means were very scanty, and, as the ardent royalism of his brother officers limited his social circle, he plunged into work with the same ardour as before, frequently studying fourteen or fifteen hours a day.
(1886), chiefly on Pletho's scheme of political and social reform for the Peloponnese, as set forth in the pamphlets addressed to Manuel II.
Crete, so much so that, for the present we must regard it as the fountain-head of Aegean civilization, and probably for long its political and social centre.
(See Crete.) (3) Social Organization.
There can be little doubt that a strong power was now fixed in one Aegean centre, and that all the area had come under its political, social and artistic influence.
In the light of this knowledge we shall be able to formulate the moral code, which, in turn, will serve as a criterion of actual civic and social institutions.
Carrying on the same analytical method into the special department of moral philosophy, Green held that ethics applies to the peculiar conditions of social life that investigation into man's nature which metaphysics began.
the moral ideal, as a whole, can be realized only in some society of persons who, while remaining ends to themselves in the sense that their individuality is not lost but rendered more perfect, find this prefection attainable only when the separate individualities are integrated as part of a social whole.
Social union is the indispensable condition of the development of the special capacities of the individual members.
Human self-perfection cannot be gained in isolation; it is attainable only in inter-relation with fellow-citizens in the social community.
The chief depositaries of these Mandaean mysteries are the priests, who enjoy a high degree of power and social regard.
The females of some social insects have been known to live for many years.
The present library (antedated by several circulating, social and professional collections) may justly be said to have had its origin in the efforts of the Parisian, Alexandre Vattemare (1796-1864), from 1830 on, to foster international exchanges.
Excellent political training such a government unquestionably offered; but it became unworkable as disparities of social condition increased, as the number of legal voters (above 7000 in 1822) became greater, and as the population ceased to be homogeneous in blood.
Simmons College and Harvard University maintain the Boston school for social workers (1904).
Beneficent social work out of the more usual type is directed by the music and bath departments of the city government.
The cost of the public schools for the five years from 1901-1902 to 1906-1907 was $27,883,937, of which $7,057,895.42 was for new buildings; the cost of the police department was $11,387,314.66 for the six years 1902-1907; and of the water department $4,941,343.37 for the six years 1902-1907; of charities and social work a much larger sum.
Population.-Up to the War of Independence the population was not only American, but it was in its ideas and standards essentially Puritan; modern liberalism, however, has introduced new standards of social life.
Large foreign colonies, like adjoining but unmixing nations, divide among themselves a large part of the city, and give to its life a cosmopolitan colour of varied speech, opinion, habits, traditions, social relations and religions.
Prices were low, foreign commerce was already large, business thriving; wealth gave social status; the official British class lent a lustre to society; and Boston " town " was drawing society from the " country."
The merchant princes and social leaders of the time are painted with elaborate show of luxury in the canvases of Copley.
He differs from Schopenhauer in making salvation by the "negation of the Will-to-live" depend on a collective social effort and not on individualistic asceticism.
We must provisionally affirm life and devote ourselves to social evolution, instead of striving after a happiness which is impossible; in so doing we shall find that morality renders life less unhappy than it would otherwise be.
SAMUEL AUGUSTUS BARNETT (1844-), English clergyman and social reformer, was born at Bristol on the 8th of February 1844, the son of Francis Augustus Barnett, an iron manufacturer.
The central and older portion of the city is laid out in squares surrounding a public Green of 16 acres, which was in former days the centre of religious and social life.
On first thoughts it would seem desirable that all spinners should buy cotton outright to cover their contracts, but on second thoughts the social disadvantage of their doing so becomes apparent.
Joyce, A Social History of Ancient Ireland (London, 1903).
He did not deal with the history of the people, with economic or social problems - the dignity of history was to him a reality.
Some of his addresses on social matters have been published under the heading "Essays on the Social Gospel" (1907).
social history of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem Dodu's Histoire des institutions du royaume latin de Jerusalem is very useful; E.
Education and Social Condition.
The social condition of the people is higher than that of the majority of South African natives.
In the social reform he supported Bismarck, and as the undisputed leader of the largest party in the Reichstag he was able to exercise influence over the action of the government after Bismarck's retirement.
At home a Union for Social Service was formed in 1906, the natural outcome of Thomas Jackson's efforts for the hungry and distressed in Clapton and Whitechapel, and of similar work at St George's Hall, Southwark.
1); strange social upheavals may be seen: the poor 2 set in high places, the rich cast down, slaves on horseback, princes on foot (x.
29) that this condition of things is due to social development: man was created upright (Gen.
7 point to social, not intellectual, conditions, and a slight change (pm for 'non) gives the sense" poor."death is practically the end-all; and so poor a thing is life that the dead are to be considered more fortunate than the living, and more to be envied than either class is he who never came into existence (iv.
There can thus be no social contact between man and God, no communion of soul, no enthusiasm of service.
The Solomonic authorship has long since been given up: the historical setting of the work and its atmosphere - the silent assumption of monotheism and monogamy, the nonnational tone, the attitude towards kings and people, the picture of a complicated social life, the strain of philosophic reflection - are wholly at variance with what is known of the 10th century B.C. and with the Hebrew literature down to the 5th or 4th century B.C. The introduction of Solomon, the ideal of wisdom, is a literary device of the later time, and probably deceived nobody.
The general historical situation, also, presupposed or referred to, is that of the period from the year 200 B.C. to the beginning of our era; in particular, the familiar references to kings as a part of the social system, and to social dislocations (servants and princes changing places, x.
The reign of Herod, a period of despotism and terror, and of strife between Jewish religious parties, is preferred by some scholars (Gratz, Cheyne and others) as best answering to the social situation depicted in the book, while still others (as Renan) decide for the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (10478 B.
The reason of such outbreaks, however, is usually to be found in political and social rather than in religious grievances.
Instead of the personal pronouns, both in their full and abbreviated forms, conventional nouns are in frequent use to indicate the social position or relation of the respective interlocutors, as, e.g.
Not only in words concerning commerce and agriculture, but also in terms connected with social, religious and administrative matters that influence is traceable in Malay.
By the forms of the letters of the inscriptions, and by the architectural details, the age of the monument has been approximately fixed in the 3rd century B.C. The bas-reliefs give us invaluable evidence of the literature, and also of the clothing, buildings and other details of the social conditions of the peoples of Buddhist India at that period.
Taking Varro for his model, Fenestella was one of the chief representatives of the new style of historical writing which, in the place of the brilliant descriptive pictures of Livy, discussed curious and out-of-the-way incidents and customs of political and social life, including literary history.
A competent fortune, good prospects, social position, and a strong family connexion were all thrown aside in order to tempt fate in the New World.
1861) of the Theological Seminary, especially in President King's Reconstruction in Theology (1901); Theology and the Social Consciousness (1902); The Seeming Unreality of the Spiritual Life (1908) and The Laws of Friendship - Human and Divine (1909).
Nor did the commons obtain relief through any commercial or colonial enterprises such as those which alleviated social distress in many other Greek states.
The brilliant summary of the historian Thucydides in the famous Funeral Speech of Pericles (delivered in 430), in which the social life, the institutions and the culture of his country are set forth as a model, gives a substantially true picture of Athens in its greatest days.
He had long had the ear of the Chamber in matters of social legislation, and after the Panama scandals had discredited so many politicians his influence grew.
The growth of the anti-Masonic movement was due to the political and social conditions of the time rather than to the Morgan episode, which was merely the torch that ignited the train.
His publications include Philosophy of Kant (1878); Critical Philosophy of Kant (1889); Religion and Social Philosophy of Comte (1885); Essays on Literature and Philosophy (1892); Evolution of Religion (Gifford Lectures, 1891-1892); Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); and he is represented in this encyclopaedia by the article on Cartesianism.
The sesqui-centennial of Pittsburgh, elaborately observed in 1908, marked the beginning of a new period of corporate, educational, social and material development.
His large estates and high social standing, together with his personal ability, gave Mason great influence among the Virginia planters, and he became identified with many enterprises, such as the organization of the Ohio Company and the founding of Alexandria (1749).
Atargatis, in the capacity of fro?uovxos, wears a mural crown, is the ancestor of the royal house, the founder of social and religious life, the goddess of generation and fertility (hence the prevalence of phallic emblems), and the inventor of useful appliances.
Bernard Shaw, though concerned mainly with the social philosophy of the Ring, gives a luminous account of Wagner's mastery of musical movement.
A masterly conspectus of the general character of the Hellenistic kingdoms in their political, economic and social character, their artistic and intellectual culture is given by Beloch, Griech.
We hear that Heraclea surrendered under compulsion to Hannibal in 212 B.C. and that in the Social war the public records were destroyed by fire.
Joseph John Gurney of Norwich, a brother of Elizabeth Fry, by means of his high social position and his various writings (some published before 1835), was the most prominent actor in this movement.
ecclesiastical and social subjects.
The meetings for business further concern themselves with arrangements for spreading the Quaker doctrine, and for carrying out various religious, philanthropic and social activities not neces sarily confined to the Society of Friends.
It considers questions of policy, and some of its sittings are conferences for the consideration of reports on religious, philanthropic, educational and social work which is carried on.
Whilst the work is essentially religious in character, a well-equipped school also caters for the social,.
The effect of the work upon the Society itself may be summarized thus: some addition to membership; the creation of a sphere of usefulness for the younger and more active members; a general stirring of interest in social questions.'
The social life of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th is portrayed in Records of a Quaker Family, the Richardsons of Cleveland, by Mrs Boyce, and The Diaries of Edward Pease, the Father of English Railways, edited by Sir A.
The Somali have very little political or social cohesion, and are divided into a multiplicity of rers or fakidas (tribes, clans).
This post he held for eighteen months only, but in that brief period he obtained a reputation as a social and municipal reformer.
Meanwhile, and throughout his long episcopate of thirty-two years, he foreshadowed the zeal and the enlightened policy later to be displayed in the prolonged period of his pontificate, building and restoring many churches, striving to elevate the intellectual as well as the spiritual tone of his clergy, and showing in his pastoral letters an unusual regard for learning and for social reform.
This last was slightly tinged with modern socialism; it was described as "the social Magna Carta of Catholicism," and it won for Leo the name of "the workingman's pope."
His policy towards all governments outside Italy was to support them wherever they represented social order; and it was with difficulty that he persuaded French Catholics to be united in defence of the republic. The German Kulturkampf was ended by his exertions.
Of this stage in the social movement slavery seems to have been, as we have said, a universal and inevitable accompaniment.
But wherever theocratic organizations established themselves slavery in the ordinary sense did not become a vital element in the social system.
But it is not so well understood that slavery discharged important offices in the later social evolution - first, by enabling military action to prevail with the degree of intensity and continuity requisite for the system of incorporation by conquest which was its final destination; and, secondly, by forcing the captives, who with their descendants came to form the majority of the population in the conquering community, to an industrial life, in spite of the antipathy to regular and sustained labour which is deeply rooted in human nature.
It was in the Roman state that military action - in Greece often purposeless and, except in the resistance to Persia, on the whole fruitless - worked out the social mission which formed its true justification.
On the morality of the masters - whether personal, domestic, or social - the effects of the institution were disastrous.
But we are not to suppose that even he, latitudinarian and innovator as he was, could have conceived the possibility of abolishing an institution so deeply rooted in the social conditions, as well as in the ideas, of his time.
Augustus set himself against the undue multiplication of manumissions, probably considering the rapid succession of new citizens a source of social instability, and recommended a similar policy to his successor.
It is sometimes objected that the Christian church did not denounce slavery as a social crime and insist on its abolition.
When the work of conquest had been achieved, it could not be expected that a radical alteration should be suddenly wrought either in the social system which was in harmony with it, or even in the general ideas which had grown up under its influence.
Before that end could be accomplished, an essentially new social situation must come into existence.
Not very long after the disappearance of serfdom in the most advanced communities comes into sight the new system of colonial slavery, which, instead of being the spontaneous outgrowth of social necessities and subserving a temporary need of human development, was politically as well as morally a monstrous aberration.
As a social reformer Wesley was far in advance of his time.
In its social life Alexandria is the most progressive and occidental of all the cities of North Africa, with the possible exception of Algiers.
It contains a short description of the ancient world, with remarks on historical, social, religious and natural history questions.
Far more interesting as explaining the diffusion and the religious and social importance of his doctrine is his conception of the second and third ages.
The History covers the years between the Roman invasion and the death of Henry VIII., and the "new plan" is the combination of an account of the domestic life and commercial and social progress of the people with the narrative of the political events of each period.
pp. 56, 61), " either in their social or religious position to interfere with their freedom of action.
In the Second Punic War it thrice bade defiance to Hannibal; but in the Social War it was betrayed into the hands of the Samnites, who kept possession till Marius, with whom they had sided, was defeated by Sulla, who in 80 B.C. subjected it with the rest of Samnium.
It became a colony in 383 B.C. It was among the twelve Latin colonies that refused further help to Rome in 209 B.C. After the Social War it became a municipium.
At Oxford he formed a close friendship with Arnold Toynbee, and was associated with his schemes of social work; and subsequently he wrote a tribute to his friend, Arnold Toynbee: a Reminiscence (1895).
The latter were concerned only with the maintenance of the sole worship of Yahweh and of social morality.
The reports of the earlier wise men, men of practical sagacity in political and social affairs, have come to us from unfriendly sources; it is quite possible that among them were some who took interest in life for its own sake, and reflected on its human moral basis.
The social unification produced by the conquests of Alexander brought the Jews into intimate relations with Greek thought.
In recent years there has been an immigration of Italians into Louisiana, which seems likely to prove of great social and economic importance.
Aside from the recurrent loss of life, the pecuniary loss from such epidemics was enormous, and the interference with commerce and social intercourse with other countries extremely vexatious.
All hold their own with the white in industrial usefulness to the community, and though the blacks are more backward in education and various other tests of social advancement, still their outlook is full of promise.
Partly because of political and social divisions thus revealed, conspiracies being rife in the decade 1820-1830, and partly as preparation for the defence against Mexico and Colombia, who throughout these same years were threatening the island with invasion, the captains-general, in 1825, received the powers above referred to; which became, as time passed, monstrously in disaccord with the general tendencies of colonial government and with increasing liberties in Spain, but continued to be the spiritual basis of Spanish rule in the island.
de Labra, including La Cuestion social en las Antillas Espanolas (Madrid, 1874), Sistemas coloniales (Madrid, 1874), &c.; R.
His political programme was, however, entirely subordinate to the social, that of bettering the condition of the working classes, for which he believed the schemes of Schulze-Delitzsch were utterly inadequate.
In this way the fourth estate would be emancipated from the despotism of the capitalist, and a great step taken in the solution of the great " social question."
Pressure from Hungary and Byzantium gradually welded these isolated social units into a single nation, whose ruler was known as the Ban.
These charges are not wholly unfounded; but the chief social and political evils in Bosnia and Herzegovina may be traced to historical causes operative long before the Austro-Hungarian occupation, and above all to the political ambition of the rival churches.
Bordeaux, La Bosnie populaire (Paris, 1904) for social life and mining.
He had joined the Social Democratic movement which in those days was spreading widely in Russia.
In that scheme the rise and growth of capitalism was considered to be a necessary preliminary to social revolution, and it was thought that Russia had hardly entered that stage: therefore it was not ripe for a social upheaval.
But he rightly felt that the social catastrophe would be most likely to break out in Russia, as the worst governed and the least civilized country.
But for us, Russian Social Democrats, there can be no doubt that, from the point of view of the working-classes and of the toiling masses of all the Russian peoples, the lesser evil would be a defeat of the Tsarist monarchy.
The abundant documents in the hands of her descendants, the families of Broglie and Haussonville, have indeed furnished material for books and papers, but these are almost wholly on the social aspect of Mme de Stael, not on her literary merit.
The Goodrich House (1897), the Hiram House and the Alta House are among the best equipped and most efficient social settlements in the country.
All his novels treat of phases of American development, historical or social, and form a sort of chronological sequence.
In 1847 he wrote his biographies of Simon, Lord Lovat, and of Duncan Forbes, and in 1849 prepared for Chambers's Series manuals of political and social economy and of emigration.
For the peculiar social conditions with which the Christian missionary would be confronted in Ireland see Brehon Laws and Ireland: Early History.
The new constitution, therefore, started badly, and it was soon evident that William intended to make his will prevail, and to carry out his projects for what he conceived the social, industrial and educational welfare of the kingdom regardless of the opposition of Belgian public opinion.
During his legislative career in Victoria he was active in promoting social legislation and an ardent advocate of preference in favour of Great Britain.
Though not a profound and systematic philosophical thinker, Thomasius prepared the way for great reforms in philosophy, and, above all, in law, literature, social life and theology.
THEODORE PARKER (1810-1860), American preacher' and social reformer, was born at Lexington, Massachusetts,..
By his voice, his pen, and his utterly fearless action in social and political matters he became a great power in Boston and America generally.
In this narrower sense the word has played a great part in ethical systems, which have spoken of the social or parental "affections" as in some sense a part of moral obligation.
21 1921 was one of the numerous achievements of Latvian diplomacy; but an attempt against the life of the ex-Premier Ulmanis and the opposition of the Social Democrats and Communists showed that the pacification necessary for a work of reconstruction had not yet been accomplished.
One stirring social incident at least marked this part of his life, for, during the revolutionary insurrection in March 1848, the young mathematician, as a member of a company of student volunteers, kept guard in the royal palace from 9 o'clock on the morning of the 24th of March till 1 o'clock on the afternoon of the following day.
Most Hebrew prophecies contain pointed references to the foreign politics and social relations of the nation at the time.
With the rise of Llanelly the industrial importance of Carmarthen has tended to decline; but owing to its central position, its close connexion with the bishops of St David's and its historic past the town is still the chief focus of all social, political and ecclesiastical movements in the three counties of Cardigan, Pembroke and Carmarthen.
It is now simply a title of honour and one, moreover, the social value of which differs enormously, not only in the different European countries, but within the limits of the same country.
Nevertheless the title, which has long been very sparingly bestowed, always implies a good social position.
These Napoleonic countships, increased under subsequent reigns, have produced a plentiful crop of titles of little social significance, and have tended to lower the status of the counts deriving from the ancien regime.
As for that of count, it is safe to say that in France its social value is solely dependent on its historical associations.
An Italian contc may or may not be a gentleman; he has long ceased, qua count, to have any social prestige, and his rank is not recognized by the Italian government.
In Spain, on the other hand, the title of conde, the earlier history of which follows much the same development as in France, is still of much social value, mainly owing to the fact that the rule of primogeniture exists, and that, a large fee being payable to the state on succession to a title, it is necessarily associated with some degree of wealth.
grafinya), a foreign importation, has little social prestige attached to it, being given to officials of a certain rank.
The church had exercised a preponderating influence in all matters relating to education and the social life of the people, and it was felt that no sweeping reforms could be secured until its domination had been broken.
Nobrega's first act was one which has exercised the most beneficial influence over the social system of Brazil, namely, the establishment of a college on the then unreclaimed plains of Piratininga.
A grand social reform was effected in the law passed in September 1871, which enacted that from that date every child born of slave parents should be free, and also declared all the slaves belonging to the state or to the imperial household free from that time.
In social economy his views are very vague; he preserves the family, country and property, but finds in all three, as they now are, a despotism which must be eliminated.
social disgrace) was "an act free from moral turpitude," although the law properly held it to be wilful murder.
It was marked by a breadth and boldness of views on political and social questions which betokened an original mind.
documents, mainly concerned with the Slovaks; Rene Gonnard, La Hongrie au XX e siecle (Paris, 1908), an admirable description of the country and its people, mainly from the point of view of economic development and social conditions; Geoffrey Drage, Austria-Hungary (London, 1909), a very useful book of reference; P. Alden (editor), Hungary of To-day, by members of the Hungarian Government (London, 1909); see also " The Problem of Hungary " in the Edinburgh Review (No.
His care for the common people was sincere and constant, but his beneficial efforts in this direction were thwarted by the curious interaction of two totally dissimilar social factors, feudalism and Hussitism.
Moreover, the next century and a half was a period of domestic tranquillity, during which Hungary was able to repair the ruin of the long Turkish wars, nurse her material resources, and take the first steps in the direction of social and political reform.
Till then there can be no social peace in Hungary."
The Grof Dormandi Kalmdn(Count Coloman Dormandi) of Bela Beresenyi (1877) is a social tragedy of the French school.
Besides Stephen Petelei (Jetti, a name - "Henrietta " - Felhok, " Clouds ") and Zoltan Ambrus (Pokhdlo Kisasszony, " Miss Cobweb "; Gyanu, " Suspicion") must be mentioned especially Francis Herczeg, who has published a number of very interesting studies of Hungarian social life (Simon Zsuzsa, " Susanna Simon "; Fenn es lenn, " Above and Below "; Egy ledny tortenete, " The History of a Girl "; Idegenete kozott, " Amongst Strangers "); Alexander Brody, who brings a delicate yet resolute analysis to unfold the mysterious and fascinating inner life of persons suffering from overwrought nerves or overstrung mind (A kitlelkil asszony, " The Double-Souled Lady "; Don Quixote kisasszony, " Miss Don Quixote "; Faust orvos, " Faust the Physician "; Tiinder Ilona, Rejtelmek, "Mysteries"; Az eziest kecske, " The Silver Goat "); and Edward Kabos, whose sombre and powerful genius has already produced works, not popular by any means, but full of great promise.
von Barenbach) espouses Neo-Kantism (Tdrsadalmi elmeletek es eszmenyek, 1887, " Social Theories and Ideals ").
Tyler then formulated a number of fresh demands, including the confiscation of ecclesiastical estates and the institution of social equality.
Its first beginnings are seen in the imitative tendencies of animals by which the young of one generation acquire some of the habits of their parents, and by which gregarious and social animals acquire a community of procedure ensuring the advantage of the group. " Taboo," the systematic imposition by the community of restrictions upon the conduct of the individual, is one of its earliest manifestations in primitive man and can be observed even in animal communities.
He went to Berlin as major and military attaché, and there, from 1909 to 1911, he pursued his military studies and enjoyed a social career as a ladies' favourite.
Leclercq, Les Boers et leur etat social (Paris, 1900).
Psychology is inseparably linked with physiology; and the phases of social life exhibited by animals other than man, which sometimes curiously foreshadow human policy, fall strictly within the province of the biologist.
He inherited a strong sentiment of independence from his mother; and his objections to the social homage expected by those whom the catechism boldly styled his "betters" made him an "agitator."
Presumably therefore his social rank was far above that of Amos and Micah; certainly the high degree of rhetorical skill displayed in his discourses implies a long course of literary discipline, not improbably in the school of some older prophet (Amos vii.
With a curious respect for those theories his familiarity with the secret social history of France had caused him to entertain, he hoped and attempted to retain a hold over the king through the influence of Lady Yarmouth, though the futility of such means had already been demonstrated to him by his relations with Queen Caroline's "ma bonne Howard."
In this period, however, the tunica, corresponding to the Greek chiton, was universally worn in ordinary life, and the toga gradually became a full-dress garment which was only worn over the tunica on important social occasions; Juvenal (iii.
The family is the base of the social system in Annam and is ruled by its head, who is also priest and judge.
The education of a mandarin includes local history, cognizance of the administrative rites, customs, laws and prescriptions of the country, the ethics of Confucius, the rules of good breeding, the ceremonial of official and social life, and the practical acquirements necessary to the conduct of public or private business.
The extension of the Pan-American railway across the state, from San Geronimo, on the Tehuantepec National line, to the Guatemalan frontier, is calculated to improve the industrial and social conditions of the people.
We have already compared the body to a social community, each constituent element of which - the cell - lives its own life but subordinates its individuality to the good of the whole organism.
For long the Brahmas did not attempt any social reforms. But about 1865 the younger section, headed by Babu Keshub Chunder Sen, who joined the Samaj in 1857, tried to carry their religious theories into practice by demanding the abandonment of the external signs of caste distinction.
This led to the formation of the Sadharana (Universal) Brahma Samaj, now the most popular and progressive of the three sections of the movement and conspicuous for its work in the cause of literary culture, social reform and female education in India.
The greater part of Dunbar's work is occasional - personal and social satire, complaints (in the style familiar in the minor verse of Chaucer's English successors), orisons and pieces of a humorous character.
He found the medical profession of his time split up into a number of sects, medical science confounded under a multitude of dogmatic systems, the social status and moral integrity of physicians degraded.
The degradation of medicine between Galen and Harvey, if in part it consisted in the blind following of the authority of the former physician, was primarily due to other causes; and its new development was not due to the discovery of the experimental method alone: social and political causes also are concerned in the advance even of the exact sciences.
But bodily defect is largely a result of evil circumstances, in the prevention of which the physician is not unsuccessfully engaged, and the growth of sympathy means a stronger cement of the social structure.
The government had now no choice but to secure if possible the person of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, whose social position more than his abilities made him the most important factor in the conspiracy.
We may also infer that he had not been through his whole career so much estranged from the social life of his day as he seems to have been in his later years.
His "grandeur in social function" was unequalled and his interests were very wide.
As for himself, he looked about for a place where he could combine the social liberty of France with the political liberty of Geneva, and he found one.
The various title-words of the several articles are often the merest stalkinghorses, under cover of which to shoot at the Bible or the church, the target being now and then shifted to the political institutions of the writer's country, his personal foes, &c., and the whole being largely seasoned with that acute, rather superficial, common-sense, but also commonplace, ethical and social criticism which the 18th century called philosophy.
In the 17th and 18th centuries it was a favourite duellingground, and in the present day it is not infrequently the scene of political and other popular demonstrations (as is also Trafalgar Square), while the neighbourhood of Marble Arch is the constant resort of orators on social and religious topics.
The labours of the regular clergy here lie largely in the direction of social reform, and churches and missions have been established and are maintained by colleges, such as Christ Church, Oxford, schools and other bodies.
Much of the life of the time was then in the City, but the last years of Stuart London take us to the 18th century, when social life had permanently shifted to the west end.
going on to consider the chief incidents of this change it will be well to refer to some features of the social life of James's reign.
I, Historical and Social (1906), vol.
The Fort Orange Club, the Catholic Union, the Albany Club, the University Club, the City Club of Albany, the Country Club, the German Hall Association and the Adelphi Club are the chief social organizations.
Govind Singh1675-1708the 15th centuries, and during a visit to Benares he renounced some of the social and caste observances of the Hindus, called his disciples the liberated, and freed them from all restrictions in eating and social intercourse.
These he inspired with military ardour in the hope of social freedom and of national independence.
In his ethical system Ferguson treats man throughout as a social being, and illustrates his doctrines by political examples.
Royalty and the Church, when they acquire the lead in social life, work out a new penal system based on outlawry, death penalties and corporal punishments, which make their first appearance in the legislation of Withraed and culminate in that of !Ethelred and Canute.
We find a division of social ranks which reminds us of the threefold gradation of Lower Germany (edelings, frilings, lazzen - eorls, ceorls, laets), and not of the twofold Frankish one (ingenui Franci, Romani), nor of the minute differentiation of the Upper Germans and Lombards.
Besides the Istituto di studii superiori there is the Istituto di scienze sociali "Cesare Alfieri," founded by the marchese Alfieri di Sostegno for the education of aspirants to the diplomatic and consular services, and for students of economics and social sciences (about 50 students); an academy of fine arts, a conservatoire of music, a higher female training-college with 150 students, a number of professional and trade schools, and an academy of recitation.
The political and social institutions of the Guanches varied.
In primitive religions inclusive of almost every serious offence even in fields now regarded as merely social or political, its scope is gradually lessened to a single part of one section of ecclesiastical criminology, following inversely the development of the idea of holiness from the concrete to the abstract, from fetishism to mysticism.
Italy, and it kept its independence even in Roman times, and only became a municipium after the Social War.
They are important because they played a prominent role in the social life of England, especially as eleemosynary institutions, down to the time of their suppression in 1547 Religious gilds, closely resembling those of England, also flourished on the continent during the middle ages.
But the regulation of industry was always paramount to social and religious aims; the chief object of the craft gild was to supervise the processes of manufacture and to control the monopoly of working and dealing in a particular branch of industry.
Bats are social, nocturnal and they migrate to a warmer climate, or hibernate.
One of these is the change of conditions in the political or social environment which made growth necessary.
This is the great social fact - the failure of government to perform one of its most primary duties, the necessity of finding some substitute in private life - extending in greater or less degree through the whole formative period of feudalism, which explains the transformation of institutions that brought it into existence.
Feudalism formed the starting-point also of the later social nobilities of Europe.
It was often the policy of kings to increase the social privileges and legal exemptions of the nobility while taking away all political power, so that it is necessary in the history of institutions to distinguish sharply between these nobilities and the feudal baronage proper.
By training and temperament he was better qualified to appreciate and describe the social life of the people than their physical surroundings, and if the results of his great journey are disappointing to the geographer, his account of the society of the oasis towns, and of the remarkable men who were then ruling in Hail and Riad, must always possess an absorbing interest as a portrait of Arab life in its freest development.
The narrative of the last named forms a valuable supplement to that published by the Blunts, and together with Doughty's, furnishes as complete a picture as could be wished for of the social and political life of J.
In all these months he was supported by Therese, whom he married on the 26th of December 1794, and who became the leader of the social life of Paris.
Among the factors, economic, geographic, political and social, which combined to bring about the decline of the Hanseatic League, none was probably more influential than the absence of a German political power comparable in unity and energy with those of France and England, which could quell particularism at home, and abroad maintain in its vigour the trade which these towns had developed and defended with their imperfect union.
(1904), which is valuable for the social history of France in the 13th century.
Even before it fell from its high estate as the social centre of the German-speaking world, it had suffered severely by the crushing defeats of 1859 and the consequent exodus of the Austrian nobles.
The efforts of the Hungarians to complete their social and economic, no less than their political, emancipation from Austria and Vienna have been unremittingly pursued.
Creevey was a Whig and a follower of Fox, and his active intellect and social qualities procured him a considerable intimacy with the leaders of this political circle.
He is remembered through the Creevey Papers, published in 1903 under the editorship of Sir Herbert Maxwell, which, consisting partly of Creevey's own journals and partly of correspondence, give a lively and valuable picture of the political and social life of the late Georgian era, and are characterized by an almost Pepysian outspokenness.
Of the tribal distribution of this race, of its linguistic, social and political characteristics, and of the history of its relation to the other peoples of Spain, we have only the most general, fragmentary and contradictory accounts.
In the sierras they have the same general occupations, but there are no social bars to their advancement, and they become lawyers, physicians, priests, merchants, officials and capitalists.
They are of considerable value as illustrating the social life of the period and the history of the Latin language.
Henri de Tourville, in his Histoire de la formation particulariste (1903), basing his argument on the Ynglinga Saga, interpreted in the light of " Social Science," reveals Odin, " the traveller," as a great " caravan-leader " and warrior, who, driven f rem Asgard - a trading city on the borders of the steppes east of the Don - by " the blows that Pompey aimed at Mithridates," brought to the north the arts and industries of the East.
The most important of them was his j3tos 7-Cis `EXXaSos (Life in Greece), in which the moral, political and social condition of the people was very fully discussed.
1-8), social immorality and its doom (vi.
Comte is in no true sense a follower of Saint-Simon, but it was undoubtedly Saint-Simon who launched him, to take Comte's own word, by suggesting the two starting-points of what grew into the Comtist system - first, that political phenomena are as capable of being grouped under laws as other phenomena; and second, that the true destination of philosophy must be social, and the true object of the thinker must be the reorganization of the moral, religious and political systems. We can readily see what an impulse these far-reaching conceptions would give to Comte's meditations.
The occasion of the breach between them (1824)was an attempt on Saint-Simon's part to print a production of Comte's as if itwereinsomesortconnected with Saint-Simon's schemes of social reorganization.
Such sympathy with youthful hope, in union with industry and intelligence, shows that Comte's dry and austere manner veiled the fires of a generous social emotion.
The social feeling that inspired this disinterested act showed itself in other ways.
Still this partial divorce of himself from the record of the social and scientific activity of his time, though it may save a thinker from the deplorable evils of dispersion, moral and intellectual, accounts in no small measure for the exaggerated egoism, and the absence of all feeling for reality, which marked Comte's later days.
His letters when he was a young man of one-and-twenty, and before he had published a word, show how strongly present the social motive was in his mind, and in what little account he should hold his scientific works, if he did not perpetually think of their utility for the species.
In this he points out that modern society is passing ing movements, - the first, a disorganizing movement owing to the break-up of old institutions and beliefs; the second, a movement towards a definite social state, in which all means of human prosperity will receive their most complete development and most direct application.
The first is theoretic or spiritual, aiming at the development of a new principle of co-ordinating social relations, and the formation of the system of general ideas which are destined to guide society.
He refers to de Maistre's memorable book, Du Pape, as the most profound, accurate and methodical account of the old spiritual organization, and starts from that as the model to be adapted to the changed intellectual and social conditions of the modern time.
- (Dr Bridges.) The first and greatest aim of the Positive Philosophy is to advance the study of society into the third of the three stages, - to remove social phenomena from the sphere of theological and metaphysical conceptions, and to introduce among them the same scientific observation of their laws which has given us physics, chemistry, physiology.
Social physics will consist of the conditions and relations of the facts of society, and will have two departments, - one, statical, containing the laws of order; the other dynamical, containing the laws of progress.
Comte's special object is a study of social physics, a science that before his advent was still to be formed; his second object is a review of the methods and leading generalities of all the positive sciences already formed, so that we may know both what system of inquiry to follow in our new science, and also where the new science will stand in relation to other knowledge.
They are thus the double key of The double Comte's systematization of the philosophy of all the key of sciences from mathematics to physiology, and his positive analysis of social evolution, which is the base of philo= sociology.
When the positive method has been finally extended to society, as it has been to chemistry and physiology, these social facts will be resolved, as their ultimate analysis, into relations with one another, and instead of seeking causes in the old sense of the word, men will only examine the conditions of social existence.
logical Of course the first step was to approach the phenomena of human character and social existence with the expectation of finding them as reducible to general laws as the other phenomena of the universe, and with the hope of exploring these laws by the same instruments of observation and verification as had done such triumphant work in the case of the latter.
The facts of history must be explained, not by providential interventions, but by referring them to conditions inherent in the successive stages of social existence.
Thus we acquire a bodyof empirical generalizations as to social phenomena, and then we connect the generalizations with the positive theory of human nature.
On the other hand, if laws of social phenomena, empirically generalized from history, can, when once suggested, be affiliated to the known laws of human nature; if the direction actually taken by the developments and changes of human society, can be seen to be such as the properties of man and of his dwelling-place made antecedently probable, the empirical generalizations are raised into positive laws, and sociology becomes a science."
Next, as all investigation proceeds from that which is known best to that which is unknown or less well known, and as, in social states, it is the collective phenomenon that is more easy of access to the observer than its parts, therefore we must consider and pursue all the elements of a given social state together and in common.
The social organization must be viewed and explored as a whole.
There is a nexus between each leading group of social phenomena and other leading groups; if there is a change in one of them, that change is accompanied by a corresponding modification of all the rest.
" Not only must political institutions and social manners, on the one hand, and manners and ideas, on the other, be always mutually connected; but further, this consolidated whole must be always connected by its nature with the corresponding state of the integral development of humanity, considered in all its aspects of intellectual, moral and physical activity."
Is there any one element which communicates the decisive impulse to all the rest, - any predominating agency in the course of social evolution?
The answer is that all the other Decisive - parts of social existence are associated with, and drawn along by, the contemporary condition of intellec- intellectual development.
The history of intellectual development, therefore, is the key to social evolution, and the key to the history of intellectual development is the Law of the Three States.
Among other central thoughts in Comte's explanation of history are these: - The displacement of theological by positive conceptions has been accompanied by a gradual rise of an industrial regime out of the military regime; - the great permanent contribution of Catholicism was the separation which it set up between the temporal and the spiritual powers,; - the progress of the race consists in the increasing preponderance of the distinctively human elements over the animal elements; - the absolute tendency of ordinary social theories will be replaced by an unfailing adherence to the relative point of view, and from this it follows that the social state, regarded as a whole, has been as perfect in each period as the co-existing condition of humanity and its environment would allow.
Whatever additions it may receive, and whatever corrections it may require, this analysis of social evolution will continue to be regarded as one of the great achievements of human intellect.
The third volume of the Positive Polity treats of social dynamics, and takes us again over the ground of historic evolution.
The present work, on the contrary, is addressed to those who are already sufficiently convinced of the certain existence of social laws, and desire only to have them reduced to a true and conclusive system."
Comte's immense superiority over such praeRevolutionary utopians as the Abbe Saint Pierre, no less than over the group of post-revolutionary utopians, is especially visible in this firm grasp of the cardinal truth that the improvement of the social organism can only be effected by a moral development, and never by any changes in mere political mechanism, or any violences in the way of an artificial redistribution of wealth.
This is the key to the regeneration of social existence, as it is the key to that unity of individual life which makes all our energies converge freely and without wasteful friction towards a common end.
Looking at the problem in this way, even a moralist who does not expect theology to be the instrument of social revival, might still ask whether the sympathetic instincts will not necessarily be already developed to their highest point, before people will be persuaded to accept the religion, which is at the bottom hardly more than sympathy under a more imposing name.
Congreve, Essays Political, Social and Religious (1874); J.
ii.; Edward Caird, The Social Philosophy and Religion of Comte (Glasgow, 1885); Hermann Gruber, Aug.
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