How to use So-that in a sentence

so-that
  • She was draped across his lap so that his body shaded her from the sun and he was fanning her with her hat.

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  • She had charged the phone last night, so that couldn't be the problem.

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  • The fence had been altered so that the shed was now included in the new pasture.

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  • Hiring help so that he was relived of that worry was a good start.

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  • He glanced up as she entered and turned the photo around so that she could see the picture.

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  • His hands gripped her shoulders and pulled her back so that he could see her face.

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  • Each day they changed positions in line so that no one ate the dust from all the wagons every day.

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  • She flicked the whip so that the end of it snapped on his shoulder - a warning, no more.

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  • Instead, she allowed him to gently turn her body so that he could gaze into her eyes.

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  • She turned her back on Bordeaux and pulled her shirt from her pants, unbuttoning it so that the water could reach the sweat stained area under her breasts.

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  • She turned her head so that he would not see the tears burning her eyes.

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  • She scooted closer to him, shifting the blanket so that she could drape the excess around his shoulders.

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  • I put aside a dozen or so that looked promising but that was all.

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  • Jonathan had taken the time to learn sign language so that he could talk to Alex and she had kept him away from the hospital.

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  • And yet, her heart had increased its rate and demand so that she must breath.

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  • In the wild, predators killed the weak so that there would be more for the strong.

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  • Alcohol buffered her from her all-out panic, enough so that she was able to sip coffee without dropping the mug.

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  • He lived only so that she would not be alone.

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  • When Morino rode far enough ahead so that he couldn't hear their conversation, Carmen finally spoke to Alex.

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  • She made sure the door was ajar so that she could hear what was going on inside the room.

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  • You're on a belayed line that is passed under one thigh and over the opposite shoulder so that it can be paid out, nice and smooth, a little at a time....

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  • Taking mincing steps so that the water wouldn't slosh out of the buckets, she worked her way toward the barn door.

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  • She leaned over the gate, calling his name softly so that the goats wouldn't be frightened.

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  • Her body continued its momentum down the hill and she fell, twisting so that she wouldn't fall on the kid.

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  • She turned away from him so that he couldn't see she was ready to cry again.

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  • Ignoring his whines and growls, she grabbed his feet and rolled him over so that he was lying on the sack.

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  • He pulled her next to him, so that her back was leaning against his chest.

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  • He'd found her voice soothing and enjoyed talking to her when he was her Guardian, enough so that he'd looked forward to their paths crossing.

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  • I chose to sacrifice my life so that you'd have the chance to do this, Rhyn.

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  • I shouldn't let anyone tell me how I should dress so that I will look like someone I'm not.

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  • Carmen lowered the kitten so that Destiny could reach her.

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  • He reached out and tilted her chin so that she faced him.

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  • Fabre states that the mother-insect carefully arranges the food-supply so that the most nutritious and easily digested portion is nearest the egg, to form the first meal of the young larva.

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  • She turned her hand over, so that her palm touched the warmth of his.

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  • By the time they got back to the house, the creek was substantially lower – enough so that the bridge was emerging.

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  • There were two runs, so that grass could grow in one while the other was being used.

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  • He took her chin in one hand and turned her face so that he could look into her eyes.

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  • Tonight she would keep her emotions in check so that Alex wouldn't get so frustrated.

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  • The barn was just far enough from the house, and positioned so that the odors – if there were any – would not reach the house.

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  • Katie had offered to return their rented clothing so that they could enjoy their honeymoon together without mundane chores.

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  • Washing her hands in the kitchen sink so that she wouldn't disturb him, she sneaked a peak in the refrigerator.

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  • Alex had the shed built so that she could feed the buffalo without going into the pen, but today she wanted to check on the cow.

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  • Lifting her feet so that she lay in his arms, he smiled down at her.

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  • If he thought she would be unfaithful so that she could have the baby she always wanted, then why wouldn't he think she would be unfaithful because she was lonely?

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  • Carmen shifted Natalie to one hip and gulped a sob as she tried to divert the flow of tears so that she could see.

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  • What remains to be done is, not to explain how such a world manages to be what it is, nor how we came to form these notions, but merely this - to expel from the circle and totality of our conceptions those abstract notions which are inconsistent and jarring, or to remodel and define them so that they may constitute a consistent and harmonious view.

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  • But this idea involves the further conception of Leibnitz, that of a pre-established harmony, by which the Creator has taken care to arrange the life of each monad, so that it agrees with that of all others.

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  • Fortunately, the compounds at first examined by the chemists engaged in verifying these laws were comparatively simple, so that the whole numbers referred to above were small.

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  • But on account of experimental errors in weighing and measuring, and through loss of material in the transfer of substances from one vessel to another, such analyses are rarely trustworthy to more than one part in about Soo; so that small changes in weight consequent on the chemical change could not with certainty be proved or disproved.

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  • It is now agreed that the molecule of water contains two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, so that the atomic weight of oxygen becomes 16, and similarly that the molecule of ammonia contains three atoms of hydrogen and one of nitrogen, and that consequently the atomic weight of nitrogen is 14.

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  • A new paper was started, to which was given the name of Kossuth Hirlapia, so that from the first it was Kossuth rather than the Palatine or the president of the ministry whose name was in the minds of the people associated with the new government.

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  • For while at New College only twenty out of seventy fellows were to study law instead of arts, philosophy and theology, at All Souls College sixteen were to be " jurists " and only twenty-four " artists "; and while at New College there were ten chaplains and three clerks necessarily, at All Souls the number was not defined but left optional; so that there are now only one chaplain and four bible clerks.

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  • During his tenancy of office the system adopted at Shanghai was applied to the other treaty ports, so that when on Mr Lay's resignation Mr Hart was appointed inspector-general of foreign customs, he found himself at the head of an organization which collected a revenue of upwards of eight million taels per annum at fourteen treaty ports.

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  • The mouth, with its jaws, forms a conical outgrowth which projects backwards, so that its apex lies beneath the prothorax.

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  • As one is exhausted another is in full bearing, so that by a systematic arrangement a single proprietor will send to the surface from 300 lb to 3000 lb of mushrooms per day.

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  • Many other fungi in addition to the fairy-ring champignon grow in circles, so that this habit must merely be taken with its other characters in cases of doubt.

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  • On the east and west the ravines already mentioned afforded, in the main, a sufficient protection, so that a massive wall was unnecessary, while near the south-eastern angle a breastwork was formed by the excavation of the natural rock, 2 which in later times was honeycombed with tombs.

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  • Close to this temple on the west is the site of the gate known in later times as the Porta Aurea, through which the modern road passes, so that no traces now remain.

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  • They are placed at a distance apart less than the focal length of a, so that the wires of the micrometer, which must be distinctly seen, are beyond b.

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  • I, 2 and 3), used to bolt the head of one of the screws, and the instrument was provided with a slipping piece, giving motion to the micrometer by screws acting on two slides, one in right ascension, the other in declination, so that " either of the, webs can be placed upon either component of a double star with ease and certainty (Mem.

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  • The end-plane of this cylinder receives the pressure of the micrometer screw, so that by turning the small drum-head the coincidence-reading of the movable web with the fixed web can be changed, and thus any given angle can be measured with different FIG.

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  • All the essential parts of the micrometer, including the slides, micrometer box, tube, etc., are of steel or cast-iron, so that changes of temperature do not affect the adjustments.

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  • The dialects differ very much in different parts of the island, so that those who speak one often cannot understand those who speak another, and use Italian as the medium of communication.

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  • Leone to the west of Cagliari, and antimony and other metals near Lanusei, but in smaller quantities than in the Iglesias district, so that comparatively little mining has as yet been done there.

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  • In 1557, however, a great flood caused the Tiber to change its course, so that it no longer flowed under the walls of the castle, but some half a mile farther west; and its old bed (Fiume Morto) has ever since then served as a breeding ground for the malarial mosquito (Anopheles claviger).

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  • But for the same reason its policy was always narrow, so that it never exercised any beneficial influence on the world at large.

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  • At the point of entering the alluvial plain the bed of the Tigris seems to be lower than that of the Euphrates, so that the canals run from the latter to the former stream.

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  • One end of each pipe is plain, so that it may be cut to any desired length; pipes with shaped ends obviously must be obtained in the exact lengths required.

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  • Taps to baths and lavatories should be connected to the main services by a flow and return pipe so that hot water is constantly flowing past the tap, thus enabling hot water to be obtained immediately.

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  • The manuscripts had not been arranged or examined, so that the extent of the loss is unknown.

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  • With the exception of the top squares, every square is divided into two parts by a diagonal, the units being written on one side and the tens on the other, so that when a multiple consists of two figures they are separated by the diagonal.

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  • On the west the shore is perfectly flat, so that a slight rise in the water causes the inundation of a considerable area - a fact not without its influence on the estimates made at varying periods as to the size of the lake.

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  • There was also at one time communication between the Shari and the Bahr-el-Ghazal, so that the water of the firstnamed stream reached Chad by way of the Bahr-el-Ghazal.

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  • Of the immigrant arrivals for the forty-seven years given, 1,331,536 were Italians, 4 1 4,973 Spaniards, 170,293 French, 37,953 Austrians, 35,435 British, 30,699 Germans, 25,775 Swiss, 19,521 Belgians, and the others of diverse nationalities, so that Argentina is in no danger of losing her Latin character through immigration.

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  • The Kalmucks and Circassians of the Kuban attacked it repeatedly in the r 7th century, so that it had to be fortified by a strong earthen and palisaded wall, traces of which are still visible.

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  • The Greeks held out for a considerable time, but had finally to surrender, probably from want of food, to Simon Maccabaeus, who demolished the Acra and cut down the hill upon which it stood so that it might no longer be higher than the Temple, and that there should be no separation between the latter and the city.

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  • The wall of Herod Agrippa was planned on a grand scale, but its execution was stopped by the Romans, so that it was not completed at the time of the siege of Jerusalem by Titus.

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  • It rapidly absorbs the elements of water wherever possible, so that a strip of paper plunged into the gas is rapidly charred.

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  • Then he may offer sacrifice so that his prayers be accepted."

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  • He was in communication all his life with the leading contemporary statesmen, so that his correspondence is one of the most interesting and important of historical documents.

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  • Some of these lake-beds are at or slightly below sea-level, so that a very slight depression of the land to the south of them would connect much of the interior with the Southern Ocean.

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  • They present to the fierce play of the sun almost a level surface, so that during the day that surface becomes intensely heated and at night gives off its heat by radiation.

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  • Many of the gumtrees throw off their bark, so that it hangs in long dry strips from the trunk and branches, a feature familiar in " bush " pictures.

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  • In ordinary banks the deposits amounted to £106,625,000, so that the total deposits stood at £143,830,000, equivalent to the very large sum of £34, 18s.

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  • Provision was made for necessary alteration of the constitution of the Commonwealth, but so that no alteration could be effected unless the question had been directly submitted to, and the change accepted by the electorate in the states.

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  • During the whole period from 1873 onwards, prices, other than of labour, were steadily tending downwards, so that the cost of living in 1890 was much below that of 1873.

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  • The chief streams are the Werra, which traverses the south and east of the duchy, and various tributaries of the Main and the Saale, so that Saxe-Meiningen belongs to the basins of the three great rivers Weser, Rhine and Elbe.

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  • Battersea Fields, bordering the river, were formerly a favourite resort, so that the park also perpetuates a memory.

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  • It was a popular opinion in the middle ages that extreme unction extinguishes all ties and links with this world, so that he who has received it must, if he recovers, renounce the eating of flesh and matrimonial relations.

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  • The Arno is navigable for barges as far as Florence; but it is liable to sudden floods, and brings down with it large quantities of earth and stones, so that it requires careful regulation.

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  • Douglas Ogilby (Catalogue of Australian Mammals, p. 1, Sydney, 1902), but expressed the hope "that further inquiries might be made by naturalists in Australia as to the actual finding of such eggs in the burrows, so that this most interesting point might be finally settled."

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  • And again- "And if a merchant throve, so that he fared thrice over the wide sea.

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  • In May 1793 he was temporarily replaced as commander of the National Guard in Paris, so that he might take command of a force which he had organized to operate in La Vendee.

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  • Marsollier's longer life, in two volumes (1700), is quite untrustworthy; still more so that by Loyau d 'Amboise (1833), which is rather a romance than a biography.

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  • In this arrangement a catch is provided so that the plate being once driven back by the wind cannot return until released by hand; but the catch does not prevent the plate being driven back farther by a gust stronger than the last one that moved it.

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  • Now, we know that the number of electrochemical equivalents electrolysed is proportional to the whole amount of electricity which passed through the circuit, and the product of this by the electromotive force of the battery is the work done by the latter, so that in this case also Joule showed that the heat generated was proportional to the work done.

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  • Thus the principle of Carnot involves the conclusion that a greater proportion of the heat possessed by a body at a high temperature can be converted into work than in the case of an equal quantity of heat possessed by a body at a low temperature, so that the availability of heat increases with the temperature.

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  • By continuing this process every unit of mass which enters B will carry with it more energy than each unit which leaves B, and hence the temperature of the gas in B will be raised and that of the gas in A lowered, while no heat is lost and no energy expended; so that by the application of intelligence alone a portion of gas of uniform pressure and temperature may be sifted into two parts, in which both the temperature and the pressure are different, and from which, therefore, work can be obtained at the expense of heat.

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  • The ratio of this to the whole work done by the battery is (C - C')/C, so that the efficiency is increased by diminishing C'.

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  • The accuracy and the paraphernalia are equally exemplified in all Wagner's additions and alterations of the classical orchestral scheme, for these all consist in completing the families of instruments so that each timbre can be presented pure in complete harmony.

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  • Though a distinct borough it is united on the west with Rochester and on the east with Gillingham, so that the three boroughs form, in appearance, a single town with a population which in 1901 exceeded 110,000.

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  • Before that time there was no basin or wet-dock, though the river Medway to some extent answered the same purpose, but a portion of the adjoining salt-marshes was then taken in, and three basins have been constructed, communicating with each other by means of large locks, so that ships can pass from the bend of the Medway at Gillingham to that at Upnor.

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  • Jib cranes can be subdivided into fixed cranes and portable cranes; in the former the central post or pivot is firmly fixed in a permanent position, while in the latter the whole crane is mounted on wheels, so that it may be transported from place to place.

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  • In electric cranes a useful method is to arrange the connexions so that the lifting motor acts as a dynamo, and, driven by the energy of the falling load, generates a current which is converted into heat by being passed through resistances.

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  • When portable cranes are fitted with springs and axle-boxes, drawgear and buffers, so that they can be coupled to an ordinary railway train, they are called " breakdown " or " wrecking " cranes.

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  • It is now possible to apply motive power exactly where it is wanted, and to do so economically, so that the crane designer has a perfectly free hand in adding the various motions required by the special circumstances of each case.

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  • The lower end e of the cable in the tank T is taken to the testing room, so that continuous tests for electrical condition can be made.

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  • This cone is driven by gearing from the wire drum, so that it rotates at the speed of the outgoing wire, the direction of rotation being such as to cause the nut to travel towards the smaller end of the cone.

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  • It is a well-ascertained fact that the insulator, gutta-percha, is, when kept under water, practically imperishable, so that it is only the original strength of the sheathing wires and the deterioration allowable in them that have to be considered.

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  • The general graphy, principle Arms a and arrangement b, one at eachstation and d B, are connected to the line wire, and are made to rotate simultaneously over metallic segments, 3, 4, and I', 3', 4', at the two stations, so that when the arm a is on segment i at A, then b is on segment I' at B, and so on.

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  • At each station sets of telegraph apparatus are connected to the segments, so that when the arms are kept rotating the set connected to I becomes periodically connected to the set connected to I', the set connected to 2 to the set connected to 2', and so on.

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  • By this method of transmission the battery is always to the line for the same interval of time, and alternately with opposite poles, so that the effect of electrostatic induction is reduced to a minimum.

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  • Two receiving instruments, a siphon recorder and a mirror galvanometer, are shown; one only is absolutely necessary, but it is convenient Cable to have the galvanometer ready, so that in case of accident to the recorder it may be at once switched into circuit by the switch s.

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  • The recorder coil is connected mechanically to a second similar coil, which is suspended between the poles of a laminated magnet, so that the motions of the two are similar.

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  • In many cases additional condensers or inductance coils are inserted in various places so that the arrangement is somewhat disguised, but by far the larger part of the electric wave wireless telegraphy in 1907 was effected by transmitters having antennae either inductively or directly coupled to a closed condenser circuit containing a spark gap.

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  • The impedance of the primary or alternator circuit is so adjusted that when both the chokers are in circuit the current flowing is not sufficient to charge the condensers; but when one choker is short-circuited the impedance is reduced so that the condenser is charged, but the alternating arc is not formed.

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  • This hammer is arranged so that when the armature vibrates it gives little blows to the underside of the tube and shakes up the filings.

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  • It was then found that when electric waves fell on the antenna a sound was heard in the telephone as each wave train passed over it, so that if the wave trains endured for a longer or shorter time the sound in the telephone was of corresponding duration.

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  • These two circuits are syntonized so that the closed or condenser circuit and the open or antenna circuit are adjusted to have, when separate, the same natural electrical time of vibration.

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  • It was then proposed to arrange a detector so that it was affected by the algebraic sum of the two oscillations, and by swivelling round the double receiving antennae to locate the direction of the sending station by finding out when the detector gave the best signal.

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  • To the brass bottom of the case is attached 'a thin disk of polished hard carbon C, which is slightly less in diameter than the brass bottom, so that the carbon disk almost entirely covers this brass back, leaving only a slight annular space around its edge.

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  • This arrangement is still employed, a hook being attached to the switch lever so that the mere hanging up of the telephone puts the bell in circuit.

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  • This shaft, which carries a set of " wipers " connected to the incoming circuit, is susceptible of a vertical and a rotational movement, so that the wipers may be brought, first opposite any particular horizontal series of contacts, and then into actual contact with any particular set in the series.

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  • To the confusion of his father and brothers he went about dressed in rags, so that his old companions pelted him with mud.

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  • From the neighborhood of Potenza, the main ridge of the Apennines is continued by the Monti della Maddalena in a direction nearly due south, so that it approaches within a short distance of the Gulf of Policastro, whence it is carried on as far as the Monte Pollino, the last of the lofty summits of the Apennine chain, which exceeds 7000 ft.

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  • Hence this part of the country has a cold winter climate, so that while the mean summer temperature of Milan is higher than that of Sassari, and equal to that of Naples, and the extremes reached at Milan and Bologna are a good deal higher than those of Naples, the mean winter temperature of Turin is actually lower than that of Copenhagen.

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  • Throughout the region north of the Apennines no plants will thrive which cannot stand occasional severe frosts in winter, so that not only oranges and lemons but even the olive tree cannot be grown, except in specially favoured situations.

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  • At harvest-time the produce is placed in the barns of the lessor, who first deducts 25% as premium, then 16% for battiteria (the difference between corn before and after winnowing), then deducts a proportion for rent and subsidies, so that the portion retained by the actual tiller of the soil is extremely meagre.

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  • The value of the product has, however, proportionately increased, so that the sum realized was little less, while less than half the number of men was employed.

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  • Wages are higher, the cost of the prime necessaries of life is, as a rule, lower, though taxation on some of them is still enormous; so that the remuneration of work has improved.

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  • The annuity payable to the pope has, for instance, been made subject to quinquennial prescription, so that in the event of tardy recognition of the law the Vatican could at no time claim payment of more than five years annuity with interest.

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  • Unfortunately, the new survey was made largely optional, so that provinces which had reasor to hope for a diminution of land tax under a revised assessment hastened to complete their survey, while others, in which the average of the land tax was below a normal assessment, neglected to comply with the provisions of the scheme.

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  • But Edward's title had been expressly sanctioned by act of parliament, so that there was no more room for election in his case than in that of George I., and the real motive of the changes was to shorten the weary ceremony for the frail child.

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  • Budding from the hydrocaulus may be combined with budding from the hydrorhiza, so that numer ous branching colonies arise from a common basal stolon.

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  • Interradial tentacles may be also developed, so that the total number present may be increased to eight or to an indefinitely large number.

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  • In this order the radial canals are represented only by wide gastric pouches, and in the family Solmaridae are suppressed altogether, so that the tentacles and the festoons of the ring-canal arise directly from the stomach.

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  • The muscle-fibres arise as processes from the bases of the epithelial cells; such cells may individually become sub-epithelial in position, as in the polyp; or, in places where muscular tissue is greatly developed, as in the velum or sub-umbrella, the entire muscular epithelium may be thrown into folds in order to increase its surface, so that a deeper sub-epithelial muscular layer becomes separated completely from a more superficial bodyepithelium.

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  • Moreover, all the medusae budded from a given hydroid colony are either male or female, so that even the non-sexual polyp must be considered to have a latent sex.

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  • The actinula, when free, may multiply by larval budding, but in all cases both the original actinula and all its descendants become converted into medusae, so that there is no alter nation of generations.

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  • The radial canals are represented by wide gastric pouches, and may be absent, so that the tentacles arise directly from the stomach (Solmaridae).

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  • In such cases the original parent-actinula does not itself become a medusa, but remains arrested in development and ultimately dies off, so that a true alternation of generations is brought about.

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  • No gastric pouches; the numerous tentacles arise direct from the stomach, into which also the peronial canals open, so that the ring-canal is cut up into separate festoons.

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  • For a century, from Maximian to Maximus (286-388), it was (except under Julian, who preferred to reside in Paris) the administrative centre from which Gaul, Britain and Spain were ruled, so that the poet Ausonius could describe it as the second metropolis of the empire, or "Rome beyond the Alps."

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  • The canon provides that any clerk having a complaint against another clerk must not pass by his own bishop and turn to secular tribunals, but first lay b a re his cause before him, so that by the sentence of the bishop himself the dispute may be settled by arbitrators acceptable to both parties.

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  • The latter was treated as a mere delegate, from whom an appeal could be made to the bishop. The former had one consistory with the bishop, so that appeals from him had to be made to the court of the metropolitan.

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  • Inasmuch as its action changed very materially with age, " the buyer should in all instances be informed, so that he may not be deceived."

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  • Soon after the apothecaries were formed into a separate company they took into consideration means to prevent the frauds and adulterations practised by the grocers and druggists, and, to remedy the evil, established a manufactory of their own in 1626 so that they might make preparations for their own members.

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  • The latter are often swollen at the ends, so that the cross-wall separating two successive cells has a larger surface than if the cells were of uniform width along their entire length.

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  • In other cases the trace passes inwards and joins the central hydrom strand, so that a connected water-conducting system between stem and leaf is established.

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  • This arrangement is a method of checking transpiration by creating a still atmosphere above the pore of the stoma, so that water vapour collects in it and diminishes the further outflow of vapour.

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  • The whole of the middle lamella or originally formed cell-wall separating one from another disappears before the adult state is reached, so that the walls of the hydroids consist of a framework of lignified bars, with open communication between the cell cavities.

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  • The hypocotyl usually elongates, by its cells increasing very greatly in the longitudinal direction both in number and size, so that the cotyledons are raised into the air as the first foliage-leaves.

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  • Throughout the Angiosperms the epidermis of the shoot originates from separate initials, which never divide tangentially, so that the young shoot is covered by a single layer of dividing cells, the dermatogen.

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  • When a given initial cell of the cambium has once begun to produce cells of this sort it continues the process, so that a radial plate of parenchyma cells is formed stretching in one plane through the xylem and phloem.

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  • In Gymnosperms, where vessels and fibres are absent, the late summer wood is composed of radially narrow thick-walled tracheids, the wood of the succeeding spring being wide-celled and thin-walled, so that the limit of the years growth is very well marked.

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  • In some cases the heart-wood, instead of becoming specially hard, remains soft and easily rots, so that the trunk of the tree frequently becomes hollow, as is commonly the case in the willow.

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  • In others the secondary phloem is produced more abundantly in those places where the secondary xylem is deficient, so that the stem remains cylindrical in section, the phloem occupying the bays left in the xylem mass.

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  • Sometimes the original cambial ring is broken into several arcs, each of which is completed into an independent circle, so that several independent secondary vascular cylinders are formed.

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  • The requirements of the several protoplasts must be met by supplies from without, and, as many of them are deep seated, varieties of need arise, so that various members of the colony are set apart for special duties, masses of them being devoted to the discharge of one function, others to that of another, and so on.

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  • This is due to the fact that while young the turgidity and consequent growth are greater in the dorsal side of the leaf, so that it becomes rolled up. As it develops the maximum turgidity and growth change to its upper side, and so it becomes unfolded or expanded.

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  • When the pinnate leaf of a Mimosa pudica, the so-called sensitive plant, is pinched or struck, the leaf droops rapidly and the leaflets become approximated together, so that their upper surfaces are in contact.

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  • It has been shown that if the organ containing them is shaken for some time, so that the contact between them and the protoplasm of the cells is emphasized, the stimulus becomes more efficient in producing movement.

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  • Further, it has been found convenient to designate the leaf-bearing stem as a whole by the term shoot, so that the body may, as Sachs suggested, be primarily analysed into shoot and root.

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  • Aristotle left no work on geography, so that it is impossible to know what facts he associated with the science of the earth's surface.

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  • They traded also on the Red sea, and opened up regular traffic with India as well as with the ports of the south and west, so that it was natural for Solomon to employ the merchant navies of Tyre in his oversea trade.

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  • But where the side is not a uniform scarp, but made up of a series of ridges and valleys, the tendency will be to distribute the detritus in an irregular manner, directing it away from one place and collecting it in great masses in another, so that in time the land form assumes a new appearance.

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  • In the case of a large hollow in a very dry climate the rate of g evaporation may be sufficient to prevent the water from ever rising to the lip, so that there is no outflow to the sea, and a basin of internal drainage is the result.

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  • In many birds the spaces between the metasternum and the posterior processes and again the spaces between this and the oblique process are filled up by proceeding ossification and either remain as notches, or as fenestrae, or they are completely abolished so that the breastbone is turned into one solid more or less oblong plate.

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  • The right and left lobes themselves are rent asunder (so to speak), so that they are freely visible from above, filling the corners formed by the hemispheres and the cerebellum.

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  • In many owls the right and left ears are asymmetrical, and this asymmetry affects the whole of the temporal region, all the bones which surround the outer and middle ear, notably the squamosal and the quadrate, so that the skull becomes lopsided, one ear being turned obliquely down, the other upwards.

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  • For the other books, the recognized Targum on the Prophets is that ascribed to Jonathan ben Uzziel (4th century ?), which originated in Palestine, but was edited in Babylonia, so that it has the same history and linguistic character as Onkelos.

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  • Babhli is not only greater in bulk than Yerushalmi, but has also received far greater attention, so that the name Talmud alone is often used for it.

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  • His son Samuel, who died at Marseilles about 1230, was equally prolific. He translated the Moreh Nebhukhim during the life of the author, and with some help from him, so that this may be regarded as the authorized version; Maimonides' commentary on the Mishnah tractate Pirge.Abhoth, and some minor works; treatises of Averroes and other Arabic authors.

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  • He energetically pressed the Panama prosecution, so much so that he was accused of having put wrongful pressure on the wife of one of the defendants in order to procure evidence.

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  • In early times irrigating canals distributed the waters over the plain, and made it one of the richest countries of the East, so that historians report three crops of wheat to have been raised in Babylonia annually.

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  • But since the Russians became masters of this region, its former inhabitants (Circassian tribes) have emigrated in thousands, so that the country is now only thinly inhabited.

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  • By conducting the distillation slowly, so that the temperature within the chamber remains at a sufficiently low degree, it is possible to obtain the whole of the product in the form of "flowers."

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  • The head is extended from behind forwards, so that the crown (epicranium) is large, while the face (clypeus) is small.

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  • It has been suggested that the power of stridulation would be advantageous to wood-boring grubs, the sound warning each of the position of its neighbour, so that adjacent burrowers may not get in each other's way.

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  • The deeper tints are, however, peculiar to the nuptial plumage, or are only to be faintly traced at other times, so that in winter the adults - and the young always - have a much plainer appearance, ashy-grey and white being almost the only hues observable.

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  • They are Lamaists by religion and immigrated to the mouth of the Volga from Dzungaria, in the 17th century, driving out the Tatars and Nogais, and after many wars with the Don Cossacks, one part of them was taken in by the Don Cossacks, so that even now there are among these Cossacks several Kalmuck sotnias or squadrons.

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  • The redemption was not calculated on the value of the allotments of land, but was considered as a compensation for the loss of the compulsory labour of the serfs; so that throughout Russia, with the exception of a few provinces in the S.E., it was - and still remains, notwithstanding a very great increase in the value of land - much higher than the market value of the allotment.

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  • What added to the practical difficulties of this arrangement was that the post of grand-prince was not an hereditary dignity in the sense of descending from father to son, but was always to be held by the senior member of the dynasty; and in the subordinate principalities the same principle of succession was applied, so that reigning princes had to be frequently shifted about from one district to another, according as they could establish the strongest claim to vacant principalities.

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  • In accordance with the admonitions of Jenghiz to his children and grandchildren, they retained their pastoral mode of life, so that the subject races, agriculturists and dwellers in towns, were not disturbed in their ordinary avocations.

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  • For some time longer the Tatars remained troublesome neighbours, capable of invading and devastating large tracts of Russian territory and of threatening even the city of Moscow, but the Horde was now broken up into independent and mutually hostile khanates, and the Moscow diplomatists could generally play off one khanate against the other, so that there was no danger of the old political domination being re-established.

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  • On such lines the beginning of a rack section is provided with a piece of rack mounted on springs, so that the pinions of the engine engage smoothly with the teeth.

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  • At stations on double-track railways which have a heavy traffic four tracks are sometimes provided, the two outside ones only having platforms, so that fast trains get a clear road and can pass slow ones that are standing in the station.

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  • At terminal stations, especially at such as are used by short-distance trains which arrive at and start from the same platform, a third track is often laid between a pair of platform tracks, so that the engine of a train which has arrived at the platform can pass out and place itself at the other end of the train, which remains undisturbed.

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  • In this way a train is distributed with great rapidity, especially if the points giving access to the different sidings are worked by power so that they can be quickly manipulated.

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  • The relation between the b.h.p. and the torque on the driving-axle is 55 o B.H.P. =Tu., (9) It is usual with steam locomotives to regard the resistance R as including the frictional resistances between the cylinders and the driving-axle, so that the rate at which energy is expended in moving the train is expressed either by the product RV, or by the value of the indicated horse-power, the relation between them being 55 0 I.H.P. =RV (Io) or in terms of the torque 55 0 I.H.P.X€=RVe=TW (II) The individual factors of the product RV may have any value consistent with equation (to) and with certain practical conditions, so that for a given value of the I.H.P. R must decrease if V increases.

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  • This must be exerted in addition to the horse-power calculated in the previous section, so that the total indicated horse-power which must be developed in the cylinders is now 354+223 =577.

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  • This high mean pressure cannot be maintained for long, because as the speed increases the demand for steam per unit of time increases, so that cut-off must take place earlier and earlier in the stroke, the limiting steady speed being attained when the rate at which steam is supplied to the cylinders is adjusted by the cut-off to be equal to the maximum rate at which the boiler can produce steam, which depends upon the maximum rate at which coal can be burnt per square foot of grate.

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  • When the road leads the train up an incline, however, the tractive force must be increased, so that the need for coupled wheels soon arises if the road is at all a heavy one.

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  • Lines representing efficiency ratios of o 6, 0.5 and 0.4 are plotted on the diagram, so that the efficiency ratios corresponding to the various experiments plotted may be readily read off.

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  • Compound working permits of a greater range of expansion than is possible with a simple engine, and incidentally there is less range of pressure per cylinder, so that the pressures and temperatures per cylinder have not such a wide range of variation.

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  • The distribution of steam to both cylinders is effected by one piston-valve operated by a link motion, so that there is considerable mechanical simplicity in the arrangement.

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  • The seats, holding two persons, are placed transversely on each side of the central passage, and have reversible backs, so that passengers can always sit facing the direction in which the train is travelling.

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  • Sometimes, as on the Central London railway, the acceleration of gravity is also utilized; the different stations stand, as it were, on the top of a hill, so that outgoing trains are aided at the start by having a slope to run down, while incoming ones are checked by the rising gradient they encounter.

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  • Many of them are fault block mountains, the crust having been broken and the blocks tilted so that there is a steep face on one side and a gentle slope on the other.

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  • In Ireland, in Cromwell's time, wolves were particularly troublesome, and said to be increasing in numbers, so that special measures were taken for their destruction, such as the offering of large rewards for their heads, and the prohibition (in 1652) of the exportation of "wolf-dogs," the large dogs used for hunting the wolves.

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  • The active measures taken then and later reduced their numbers greatly, so that towards the end of the century they became scarce, but, as in the case of the sister island, the date of their final disappearance cannot now be ascertained.

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  • At this early period he seems already to have adopted in some degree the plan of study he followed in after life and recommended in his Essai sur l'etude - that is, of letting his subject rather than his author determine his course, of suspending the perusal of a book to reflect, and to compare the statements with those of other authors - so that he often read portions of many volumes while mastering one.

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  • He became president of a consumers' food council in Dec. 1917, so that the office might keep in regular touch with the needs of the public. When Lord Rhondda died, in June 1918, he succeeded him to the general satisfaction.

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  • It has been estimated that the sun is at present contracting so that its diameter diminishes 10 m.

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  • The Latin colony of Alba Fucens near the north-west corner of the lake was founded in the adjoining Aequian territory in 303, so that from the beginning of the 3rd century the Marsians were in touch with a Latin-speaking community, to say nothing of the Latin colony of Carsioli (298 B.C.) farther west.

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  • The antennae of Diptera, which are also extremely important in classification, are thread-like in the more primitive families, such as the Tipulidae (daddy-long-legs), where they consist of a considerable number of joints, all of which except the first two, and sometimes also the last two, are similar in shape; in the more specialized families, such as the Tabanidae (horse-flies), Syrphidae (hover-flies) or Muscidae (house-flies, blue-bottles and their allies), the number of antennal joints is greatly reduced by coalescence, so that the antennae appear to consist of only three joints.

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  • As a rule the general facies as well as dimensions are remarkably uniform throughout a family, so that tropical species -often differ little in appearance from those inhabiting temperate regions.

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  • It propagated and spread with extraordinary rapidity, so that by Dominic's death in 1221, only five or six years after the first practical steps towards the execution of the idea, there were over 500 friars and 60 friaries, divided into 8 provinces embracing the whole of western Europe.

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  • He was by nature soft-hearted, so that he often shed tears through warm sympathy....

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  • Here we have a different final system with a different amount of intrinsic energy, so that the thermal effect of the action is altogether different.

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  • For ordinary combustions compressed oxygen is used, so that the combustible substance burns almost instantaneously, the action being induced by means of some electrical device which can be controlled from without the calorimeter.

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  • The observed heat of combustion of sugar is, however, 1354000, so that the error of the rule is here 20 per cent.

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  • He succeeded in forming a Cabinet which comprised a number of non-Giolittians of all parties, but only a few of his own "old guard," so that he won the support of a considerable part of the Chamber, although the Socialists and the Popolari (Catholics) rendered his hold somewhat precarious.

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  • It seems that the Zealots made more headwa y in Galilee than in Judaea - so much so that the terms Galilean and Zealot are practically interchangeable.

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  • Indeed even Gentiles helped them, so that the whole world (Dio Cassius says) was stirred.

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  • It is nevertheless certain that some of the old traditions were preserved by the remnants of the old population now reduced to a subject condition, and that these finally leavened the whole lump, so that once more - this time under a Hellenic guise - Crete was enabled to anticipate mainland Greece in nascent civilization.

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  • Under the Venetian government Candia, a fortress originally built by the Saracens, and called by them " Khandax," became the seat of government, and not only rose to be the capital and chief city of the island, but actually gave name to it, so that it was called in the official language of Venice " the island of Candia," a designation which from thence passed into modern maps.

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  • The mandibles, which are frequently used for carrying various objects, are situated well to the outside of the maxillae, so that they can be opened and shut without interfering with the latter.

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  • The foundress-queen is now waited on by the workers, who supply her with food and spare her all cares of work, so that henceforth she may devote her whole energies to egg-laying.

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  • These segments spring apparently from the top of the ovary - the real explanation, however, being that the end of the flower-stalk or "thalamus," as it grows, becomes dilated into a sort of cup or tube enclosing and indeed closely adhering to the ovary, so that the latter organ appears to be beneath the perianth instead of above it as in a lily, an appearance which has given origin to the term "inferior ovary."

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  • There are, it is true, mountain ranges which are formed of folded beds; but in many cases the direction of the chains is different from that of the folds, so that the ranges must owe their elevation to other causes; and the folds, moreover, are of ancient date, for the most part Archaean or Palaeozoic. The configuration of the region is largely due to faulting, trough-like or tray-like depressions being formed, and the intervening strips, which have not been depressed, standing up as mountain ridges.

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  • Its open advocacy of force attracts warlike races, and the intensity of its influence is increased by the fusion of secular and religious power, so that the Moslem Church is a Moslem state characterized by slavery, polygamy, and, subject to the autocracy of the ruler, by the theoretical.

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  • The Turks, and to some extent the Arabs in Spain, were successful because they first conquered the parts of Asia and Africa adjoining Europe, so that the final invaders were in touch with Asiatic settlements.

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  • A large part of the Temple records from that time onwards were destroyed under the Restoration, so that exact knowledge of the facts is practically impossible.

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  • Among the Polychaeta the sexual worm is often more marked from the asexual form, so much so that these latter have been placed in different species or even genera.

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  • It is noteworthy that in this family only among the Polychaeta, the nephridia are not restricted to a single pair in each segment; so that the older view that the gonad ducts are metamorphosed nephridia is not at variance with the anatomical facts which have been just stated.

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  • Each of the three must have been regarded in his centre as the most important member in a larger or smaller group, so that their union in a triad marks also the combination of the three distinctive pantheons into a harmonious whole.

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  • Lovering is first mentioned as master in 1619, so that Taylor probably spent seven years at the school before he was entered at Gonville and Caius College as a sizar in 1626, 1 eighteen months after Milton had entered Christ's, and while George Herbert was public orator and Edmund Waller and Thomas Fuller were undergraduates of the university.

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  • Ewell, so that when the Federal troops, under General Godfrey Weitzel (1835-1884) entered the city on the following morning (3rd April) a.

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  • The summer pruning of established wall or espalier-rail trees consists chiefly in the timely displacing, shortening back, or rubbing off of the superfluous shoots, so that the winter pruning, in horizontal training, is little more than adjusting the leading shoots and thinning out the spurs, which should be kept close to the wall and allowed to retain but two or at most three buds.

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  • This procedure was followed on each of the three fields so that in every year one of them was fallow.

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  • The generally wet character of the seasons in 1879 and the two or three years following was mainly responsible for the high prices of meat, so that the supplies of fresh beef and mutton from Australia which now began to arrive found a ready market, and the trade in imported fresh meat which was thus commenced has practically continued to expand ever since.

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  • In the five subsequent years the proportion was fundamentally altered, so that with a greatly increased importation of grain, that of meal and flour was in the proportion of about one-ninth.

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  • No very great reliance can be placed upon the figures relating to turnips (which include swedes), as these are mostly fed to sheep on the ground, so that the estimates as to yield are necessarily vague.

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  • The grazier buys and sells cattle much less frequently than the butcher buys them, so that the latter is naturally more skilled in estimating the weight of a beast through the use of the eye and the hand.

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  • She refused all offers of marriage so that she might remain by the side of her brother, whom she loved passionately.

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  • We have to be saturated, as it were, with 18th-century influences, so that we can realize the conditions in which industry and trade were carried on, before we can rightly explain the course of development.

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  • The community we are studying must have reached such a stage of development that its economic functions and those immediately cognate to them form a well-defined group, and adequate means must be available so that we can, as it were, watch the performance of these functions and test our hypotheses and conclusions by observation and experience.

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  • His assumptions are based upon ordinary observation and experience, and are usually accurate in proportion to his practical shrewdness and sagacity, so that he is not interested in the speculative flights of philosophy, except in so far as they influence or have influenced conduct.

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  • Moreover, all these subjects hang together, so that it seems impossible to come to a decision about one of them without knowing all about the others.

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  • In the more southern parts of the island it often reaches a height of 90 ft., and specimens exist considerably above that size; but the young shoots are apt to be injured in severe winters, and the tree on light soils is also hurt by long droughts, so that it usually presents a ragged appearance; though, in the distance, the lofty top and horizontal boughs sometimes stand out in most picturesque relief above the rounded summits of the neighbouring trees.

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  • Unfortunately, from the tenable theory that the intensity of a sensation increases by definite additions of stimulus, Fechner was led on to postulate a unit of sensation, so that any sensation s might be regarded as composed of n units.

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  • Below the surface these walls are excavated with blood-vessels, so that the sac is practically a series of blood-vessels covered with renal epithelium, and forming 6 Cephalic tentacle.

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  • The detorted visceral commissure shows a tendency to the concentration of all its elements round the oesophagus, so that except in the Bullomorpha and in Aplysia the whole nervous system is aggregated in the cephalic region, either dorsally or ventrally.

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  • A further degree of modification occurs when the male duct takes its origin from the hermaphrodite duct above the external opening, so that there are two distinct apertures, one male and one female, the latter being the original opening.

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  • Great Britain must never conduct her affairs so that the navy of any one power could engage her at any moment with a reasonable prospect of success.

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  • At the end of the world the devil Ur will swallow up the earth and the other intermediate higher worlds, and thereupon will burst and fall into the abyss of darkness where, along with all the worlds and powers of darkness, he will ultimately cease to be, so that thenceforward the universe will consist of but one everlasting world of light.

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  • The Mandaean places of worship, being designed only for the priests and their assistants (the worshippers remaining in the forecourt), are excessively small, and very simply furnished; two windows, a door that opens towards the south so that those who enter have their faces turned towards the pole star, a few boards in the corner, and a gabled roof complete the whole structure; there is neither altar nor decoration of any kind.

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  • The opening words of the Philobiblon and the Epistolae as given by Bale represent those of the Philobiblon and its prologue, so that he apparently made two books out of one treatise.

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  • The head of an insect carries usually four pairs of conspicuous appendages - feelers, mandibles and two pairs of maxillae, so that the presence of four primitive somites is immediately evident.

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  • All of these are to be regarded as primitively post-oral, but in the course of development the mouth moves back to the mandibular segment, so that the first three somitesocular, antennal and intercalary - lie in front of it.

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  • Elaboration in the form of the feelers, often a secondary sexual character in male insects, may result from a distal broadening of the segments, so that the appendage becomes serrate, or from the development of processes bearing sensory organs, so that the structure is pinnate or feather-like.

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  • These nervures consist of a series of trunks radiating from the wing-base and usually branching as they approach the wing-margins, the branches being often connected by short transverse nervures, so that the wing-area is marked off into a number of " cells " or areolets.

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  • In the abdominal exoskeleton the segmental structure is very clearly marked, a series of sclerites - dorsal terga and abdominal sterna - being connected by pale, feebly chitinized cuticle, so that considerable freedom of movement between the segments is possible.

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  • Concomitant with this separation there is commencement of the formation of a new cuticle within the old one, so that when the latter is cast off the insect appears with a partly completed new cuticle.

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  • But in general we find that elaboration of imaginal structure is associated with degradation in the nature of the larva, cruciform and vermiform larvae being characteristic of the highest orders of the Hexapoda, so that unlikeness between parent and offspring has increased with the evolution of the class.

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  • A gnat pupa swims through the water by powerful strokes of its abdomen, while the caddis-fly pupa, in preparation for its final ecdysis, bites its way out of its subaqueous protective case and rises through the water, so that the fly may emerge into the air.

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  • From the evidence of fossils it seems that the higher sub-order - Apocrita - can be traced back to the Lias, so that we believe the Hymenoptera to be more ancient than the Diptera, and far more ancient than the Lepidoptera.

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  • Moreover, both in drawing and in colouring there is frequently much that is untrue to nature, so that it has not uncommonly happened for them to fail in the chief object of all zoological plates, that of affording sure means of recognizing specimens on comparison.

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  • Then, it is true, two lateral points of ossification appear at the margin, but subsequently the remaining three are developed, and when once formed they grow with much greater rapidity than in the fowl, so that by the time the young duck is quite independent of its parents, and can shift for itself, the whole sternum is completely bony.

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  • The Saururae have the metacarpals well developed and not ancylosed, and the caudal vertebrae are numerous and large, so that.

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  • Camden, about the end of the 17th century, wrote that "the people are very industrious, so that though the soil about it be barren and improfitable, not fit to live on, they have so flourished..

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  • Another, Daniel Neal, in 1720, found Boston conversation " as polite as in most of the cities and towns in England, many of their merchants having the advantage of a free conversation with travellers; so that a gentleman from London would almost think himself at home at Boston, when he observes the number of people, their houses, their furniture, their tables, their dress and conversation, which perhaps is as splendid and showy as that of the most considerable tradesmen in London."

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  • The lemniscate of Bernoulli may be defined as the locus of a point which moves so that the product of its distances from two fixed points is constant and is equal to the square of half the distance between these points.

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  • In the trap-door species of Lycosidae, like, for instance, Lycosa opifex of the Russian steppes, the hinge is weak and the lid of the burrow is kept normally shut by being very much thicker and heavier at its free margin opposite the hinge so that it readily falls by its own weight.

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  • Quite commonly the burrow has a second passage running obliquely upwards from the main passage to the surface of the soil, and this subsidiary track may itself be shut off from the main branch by an inner door, so that when an enemy has forced an entrance through the main door, the spider retreats behind the second, leaving the intruder to explore the seemingly empty burrow.

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  • To the web is attached a trap-line which when drawn taut holds the snare stretched and tight, and when relaxed loosens the whole structure so that the threads fall together.

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  • Now, Coccinellidae (ladybirds) are known to be highly distasteful to most insectivorous mammals and birds, and snails would be quite unfit food for the Pompilid or Ichneumonid larvae, so that the reason for the mimicry in these cases is also perfectly clear.

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  • In June 1906 he was preferred to a canonry at Westminster, and when in December he resigned the wardenship of Toynbee Hall the position of president was created so that he might retain his connexion with the institution.

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  • They are adapted to special conditions which are lacking in their new surroundings, but a few will probably do fairly well the first year, and the seeds from these probably rather better the next, and so on, so that in a few years' time a strain may be available which is equal or even superior to the original one introduced.

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  • West Africa.-Cotton has long been grown in the various countries on the west coast of Africa, ginned by hand or by very primitive means, spun into yarn, and woven on simple looms into " country cloths "; these are often only a few inches wide, so that any large cloths have to be made by sewing the narrow strips together.

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  • Various elements in the Republican party, nevertheless, had stoutly opposed their appointment, so that the President's choice showed that he was prepared to exert his independence of party managers and to insist upon administrative efficiency.

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  • His guiding principle in treating both of the history and of the present condition of the church was - that Christianity has room for the various tendencies of human nature, and aims at permeating and glorifying them all; that according to the divine plan these various tendencies are to occur successively and simultaneously and to counterbalance each other, so that the freedom and variety of the development of the spiritual life ought not to be forced into a single dogmatic form" (Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 280).

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  • Other houses of the Brothers of Common Life, otherwise called the "Modern Devotion," were in rapid succession established in the chief cities of the Low Countries and north and central Germany, so that there were in all upwards of forty houses of men; while those of women doubled that figure, the first having been founded by Groot himself at Deventer.

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  • The river is tapped here by the feeder of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, so that there is direct water communication with Chicago and St Louis.

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  • It is evident that accurate knowledge of the character and structure of the rock-formations in petroliferous territories is of the greatest importance in enabling the expert to select favourable sites for drilling operations; hence on well-conducted petroleumproperties it is now customary to note the character and thickness of the strata perforated by the drill, so that a complete section may be prepared from the recorded data.

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  • The samson-post is placed flush with one side of the main sill, the band-wheel jack-post being flush with the other side, so that the walking-beam, which imparts motion to the string of tools, works parallel with the main sill.

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  • Their principal use is to give a sharp jar to the drill on the upstroke so that the bit is dislodged if it has become jammed in the rock.

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  • The device employed for this purpose is known as the water-packer, and consists in its simplest form of an india-rubber ring, which is applied between the tubing and the well-casing, so that upon compression it makes a tight joint.

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  • The stills were formerly completely bricked in, so that the vapours should be kept fully heated until they escaped to the condenser, but since the introduction of the " cracking process," the upper part has usually been left exposed to the air.

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  • This apparatus has an oil-cup consisting of a cylindrical brass or gunmetal vessel, the cover of which is provided with three rectangular holes which may be closed and opened by means of a perforated slide moving in grooves; the movement of the slide causes a small oscillating colzaor rape-oil lamp to be tilted so that the flame (of specified size) is brought just below the surface of the lid.

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  • The land is poor in minerals, including coal; water-power also is deficient, so that the introduction of European industries is attended with difficulties even apart from the insecurity of affairs, which forbids such experiments as the improvement of agriculture by means of European capital.

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  • From these lands the Egyptian kings often derived rich booty, so that in those days Syria must have been civilized and prosperous.

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  • The value of the trade depends on regular rains, so that in seasons of drought the exports seriously diminish.

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  • The extinction of the western caliphate and the dispersion of the once noble heritage of the Ommayads into numerous petty independent states, had taken place some thirty years previously, so that Castilian and Moslem were once again upon equal terms, the country being almost equally divided between them.

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  • The instrument therefore does not begin to read from zero current, but from some higher limit which, generally speaking, is about one-tenth of the maximum, so that an ammeter reading up to io amperes will not give much visible indication below i ampere.

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  • The needle is balanced so that gravity compels it to take a certain position in which the fragment of iron occupies a position in the centre of the field of the coil where it is weakest.

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  • In the construction of this soft-iron instrument it is essential that the fragment of iron should be as small and as well annealed as possible and not touched with tools after annealing; also it should be preferably not too elongated in shape so that it may not acquire permanent magnetization but that its magnetic condition may follow the changes of the current in the coil.

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  • It is essential that the permanent magnet should be subjected to a process of ageing so that its field may not be liable to change subsequently with time.

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  • In the case of ammeters intended for very small currents, the whole current can be sent through the coil, but for larger currents it is necessary to provide in the instrument a shunt which carries the main current, the movable coil being connected to the ends of this shunt so that it takes a definite small fraction of the current passed through the instrument.

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  • Each instrument is accompanied by a pair of weights and by a square root table, so that the product of the square root of the number corresponding to the position of the sliding weight and the ascertained constant for each weight, gives at once the value of the current in amperes.

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  • He immediately recalled his forced confession, and besought all Christian men " to pray for him, so that his tears might secure the pity of the Almighty."

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  • In 1889 the convicts were placed under the care of a supervisor of convicts, and in 1905 the law was amended so that one or more supervisors could be appointed at the will of the governors.

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  • This is worn round the waist folded in a knot, the women allowing it to fall to the ankle, the men, when properly dressed in accordance with ancient custom, folding it over the hilt of their waist-weapon, and draping it around them so that it reaches nearly to the knee.

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  • Eusebius having gone wrong on this point, others of the Fathers followed suit, so that Philo is reckoned by Jerome among the ecclesiastical writers of the Christians.

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  • It later became one of the chief centres of the Reformation movement in Switzerland, so that the bishop retired in 1525 to Porrentruy, where he resided till 1792, finally settling at Soleure in 1828, the bishopric having been wholly reorganized since 1814.

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  • They naturally favoured the city at the expense of the rural districts, so that in 1832 the latter proclaimed their independence, and in 1833 were organized into the half canton of Basel Landschaft, the city forming that of Basel Stadt.

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  • These additions are skilfully worked into the series of meditations; so that when the exercitant by meditation has moved his soul to act, here are practical directions at hand.

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  • The court was surrounded with arcades, all of which constituted the prayer chamber, so that its plan is necessarily different to the normal type; the existing buildings date only from the first half of the 17th century, as the whole mosque was destroyed by a torrent in 1626.

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  • The Kubbet-esSakhra, or Dome of the Rock, at Jerusalem, is only a shrine erected over the sacred rock, so that the title often ascribed to it as "the mosque of Omar" is misleading.

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  • The great court on the,north side has a lofty cloister round it, so that in many respects it follows the normal type.

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  • It differs from the normal type in many respects, as it includes residences for various sects, so that portions of it, with the several storeys externally, resemble an immense mansion or warehouse, and this would seem to have led to an important change inside, as instead of a cloister of two or more aisles there are four immense halls all covered with pointed barrel vaults.

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  • They, however, had no confidence in the arch, which, as the Hindu says, "never sleeps but is always tending to its own destruction," so that the pointed arch, which had almost become the emblem of the Mahommedan religion, had to be dispensed with for the covered aisles which surrounded the great court, and in the triple entrance gateway the form of an arch only was retained, as it was constructed with horizontal courses of masonry for the haunches, and with long slabs of stone resting one against the other at the top. A similar construction was employed in the great mosque at Ajmere, built A.D.1200-1211at the same time as the Delhi mosque.

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  • But this also in India is built in horizontal courses, so that the form only and not the construction of the Cairene domes is followed.

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  • But the difference between these two classes of elements is one of degree only, and they gradually merge into each other; moreover the electric relations of elements are not absolute, but vary according to the state of combination in which they exist, so that it is just as impossible to divide the elements into two classes according to this property as it is to separate them into two distinct classes of metals and non-metals.

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  • One other instance may be given; the equation 2NH3=N2+3H2 represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, consisting of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia the volume becomes doubled.

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  • In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen H2+Br2=HBr+HBr, in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid.

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  • He numbers the carbon atoms placed at the corners of a hexagon from i to 6, and each side in the same order, so that the carbon atoms i and 2 are connected by the side 1, atoms 2 and 3 by the side 2, and so on.

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  • Unfortunately, the term normal is sometimes given to solutions which are strictly decinormal; for example, iodine, sodium thiosulphate, &c. In technical analysis, where a solution is used for one process only, it may be prepared so that I cc. is equal to.

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  • Liquids are amenable to the same treatment, but especial care must be taken so that they volatilize slowly.

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  • To reduce these figures to a common standard, so that the volumes shall contain equal numbers of molecules, the notion of molecular volumes is introduced, the arbitrary values of the crystallographic axes (a, b, c) being replaced by the topic parameters' (x, ?i, w), which are such that, combined with the axial angles, they enclose volumes which contain equal numbers of molecules.

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  • If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.

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  • Siegfried is then persuaded to transform himself by his magic Tarnhelm into the likeness of his host, Gutrune's brother Gunther, in order to bring Briinnhilde (whose name is now quite new to him) from her fire-encircled rock, so that Gunther may have her for his bride and Siegfried may wed Gutrune.

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  • It was but natural that he should diverge more and more widely from the traditional doctrine, so that at length the relation between his teaching and that of the church appeared to be one of opposition rather than of reconciliation.

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  • Here the eggs are fertilized and here they segment so that the young embryos are formed within their mother's 9 body.

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  • Paul habitually expanded and deepened this, and, in this case, that paragraph is enormously enlarged, so that it may be regarded as including chapters i.-iii., and as carrying the main thought of the epistle.

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  • The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).

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  • In Phoenician itself and in the other Semitic alphabets the position of the middle legs of the W is altered so that the symbol takes such forms as or V or w, ultimately ending sometimes in a form like K laid sideways, he.

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  • It issues from the south-west corner of Lake Ladoga in two channels, which are obstructed by sandstone reefs, so that the better of the two has a depth of only 7 to 16 ft.

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  • It causes some pain, so that a sedative should be added.

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  • Fir trees and branches from the neighbouring forest are collected and planted in front of the houses, so that for a few hours Hasselt has the appearance of being restored to its primitive condition as a wood.

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  • This year was a jubilee year, and crowds of pilgrims flocked to the city from all parts of the world bringing money for the purchase of indulgences, so that Alexander was able to furnish Cesare with funds for his enterprise.

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  • The object, however, can be fully attained only if the scale of the map is sufficiently large, if the horizontal and vertical scales are identical, so that there shall be no exaggeration of the heights, and if regard is had, eventually, to the curvature of the earth's surface.

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  • If contoured maps are available it is easy to build up a strata-relief, which facilitates the completion of the relief so that it shall be a fair representation of nature, which the strata-relief cannot claim to be.

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  • The places to which colonies were to be sent were not specified (with the exception mentioned above), so that the commissioners would be able to sell wherever they pleased, and it was left to them to decide what was public or private property.

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  • He held that philosophy consists in the study of truth and wisdom, and that God alone is truth and wisdom, - so that philosophy is but religion, and true religion is genuine philosophy.

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  • The best sheet formed the first or outside sheet of the roll, and the others were joined on in order of quality, so that the worst sheets were in the centre of the roll.

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  • In mounting, the specimen is floated out in a flat white dish containing sea-water, so that foreign matter may be detected, and a piece of paper of suitable size is placed under it, supported either by the fingers of the left hand or by a palette.

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  • As a rule also the catacombs had 111 more than one entrance, and frequently communicated with an arenaria or sand-quarry; so that while one entrance was carefully watched, the pursued might escape in a totally different direction by another.

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  • The loculi were intact and the epitaphs still in their places, so that " they form a kind of museum, in which the development, the formulae, and the symbolic figures of Christian epigraphy, from its origin to the end of the 3rd or 4th century, can be notified and contemplated, not in artificial specimens as in the Lateran, but in the genuine and living reality of their original condition."

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