How to use So-called in a sentence

so-called
  • It's a word often used to describe so-called "disposable" clothes - those that are worn once or twice and then tossed, either due to poor construction and inability to hold up or simply to losing their trendy status.

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  • So-called experts can't fix that either.

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  • It could do serious harm to your so-called anonymity.

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  • What are her so-called complications?

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  • So you think you were the so-called prize?

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  • When asked why he now went public with his so-called gift, he replied he was establishing a business to locate missing children.

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  • The doctor would learn he or she was treating the so-called psychic tipster but nothing else about the person's identity.

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  • That would give him a heads-up on how much credibility we put on the so-called psychic tipster.

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  • Do you recognize when the call comes from the so-called Psychic Tipster?

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  • He wants to stop this so-called Psychic Tipster who'd nearly caught him several times.

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  • It was clear she'd overheard a lot of information and as I was fearful she might confide in someone else, I admitted to her that Howie was the person the world was seeking, the so-called psychic tipster.

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  • I left a message, from Tommy, his so called fishing buddy, saying I had a fish story for him and requesting him to call as soon as possible.

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  • Incidentally, he supposedly came on the radar as a result of a tip from this man or woman everyone's read about; the so-called psychic tipster person.

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  • As I understand it, the so-called visions were perpetrated with the assistance of a second person, now dead.

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  • The government agents who dogged him have given up chase for the so called tipster so he is free to finally enjoy his retirement.

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  • It's taking three so-called experts way too long to figure it out.

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  • I mean it's so far from our so-called civilized world.

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  • Vacuolated tissue of pharyngeal wall, the so-called " pleurochords " of Masterman.

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  • While the majority of the Thysanoptera are thus vegetarian in their diet, and are frequently injurious in farm and garden, some species, at least occasionally, adopt a predaceous habit, killing aphids and small mites (so-called "red-spiders") and sucking their juices.

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  • Gammer Gurton's Needle is the second extant English comedy, properly so called.

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  • Besides the Belt there are several parks and reserves, including botanical and acclimatization gardens, the so-called Ocean Beach, and two race-courses.

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  • Nicolo is the so-called Oratory of Phalaris, a shrine of the 2nd century B.C., 274 ft.

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  • Aliwal North was so called to distinguish it from Aliwal South, now Mossel Bay, the seaport of the pastoral Grasveld district, on the west side of Mossel Bay.

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  • The Campidano and other fertile spots, such as the so-called Ogliastra on the east side of the island, inland of Tortoli, the neighbourhood of Oliena, Bosa, &c., produce a considerable quantity of wine, the sweet, strong, white variety called Vernaccia, produced near Oristano, being especially noteworthy.

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  • This occurred especially in the last half of the 19th century, largely owing to the abolition of the so-called beni ademprivili.

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  • The tombs of their inhabitants are of two classes - the so-called tombe dei giganti, or giants' tombs, and the domus de gianas, or houses of the spirits.

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  • The Golden Temple is so called on account of its copper dome, covered with gold foil, which shines brilliantly in the rays of the Indian sun, and is reflected back from the waters of the lake; but the building as a whole is too squat to have much architectural merit apart from its ornamentation.

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  • Four years later he captured Caryae, ravaged the territory of the Parrhasii and defeated the Arcadians, Argives and Messenians in the "tearless battle," so called because the victory did not cost the Spartans a single life.

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  • It is also known as the Ko-kayaing, so called from the original nine canals of the district.

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  • According to these observations, two distinct types of so-called tabby cats are recognizable.

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  • The so-called orange tabby is one phase of the erythristic type.

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  • Turning to the tailless or so-called Manx cats, in which the tail should be represented merely by a tuft of hair without any remnant of bone, it seems that the strain is to be met with in many parts of Russia, and there is a very general opinion that it originally came from Japan or some other far eastern country.

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  • In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.

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  • This is the so-called c narion, or pineal gland, where in a minimized point the mind on one hand and the vital spirits on the other meet and communicate.

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  • These include his so-called posthumous works.

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  • This Volkerpsychologie (folkor comparative psychology) is one of the chief developments of the Herbartian theory of philosophy; it is a protest not only against the so-called scientific standpoint of natural philosophers, but also against the individualism of the positivists.

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  • Apart from the great interest of his philosophical work, Lazarus was pre-eminent among the Jews of the so-called Semitic domination in Germany.

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  • The rafts used are the so-called kelleks, of wood supported on inflated skins, which are broken up at Bagdad, the wood sold and the skins carried back by caravan.

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  • And this constitutes the modern (so-called) "Tatar city" of Peking, the south front of which is identical with the south front of the city of Kublai.

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  • The university adopted the reformed faith in 1 534, and in 1537 a Protestant theological seminary, a residential college - the so-called Stift - was incorporated with it.

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  • Their only obligation to the Turkish government is to furnish a contingent in time of war; the only law they recognize is either traditional custom(adet) or the unwritten Kanun-i Leks Dukajinit, a civil and criminal code, so called from its author, Leka Dukajini, who is supposed to have lived in the 13th or 14th century.

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  • Albanian is peculiarly interesting as the only surviving representative of the so-called Thraco-Illyrian group of languages which formed the primitive speech of the peninsula.

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  • On the whole, the preponderating preference has always been in favour of so-called extemporaneous, or free prayer; and the Westminster Directory of Public Worship has to a large extent stereotyped the form and order of the service in most Presbyterian churches.

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  • From archaeological discoveries it would appear that the ancient town was preceded by a prehistoric settlement of the Bronze Age, the dwellings of which rested upon piles - one, indeed, of the so-called terremare, which are especially frequent in the neighbourhood of Parma.

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  • The so-called " pampas-grass " (Gynerium argenteum) is not found at all on the dry lands, but in the wet grounds of the south and south-west.

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  • During the era of so-called " prosperity " between 1881 and 1890 an enormous amount of bank notes were issued under various authorizations, especially that of the " free banking law " of 1887.

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  • The so-called Celtic type, exemplified by individuals of rather less than average height, brown-haired and brachycephalic, is the fundamental element in the nation and peoples the region between the Seine and the Garonne; in southern France a different type, dolichocephalic, short and with black hair and eyes, predominates.

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  • Dispensations, and also the one-year voluntariat, which had become a short cut for the so-called intellectual class to employment in the civil service rather than a means of training reserve officers, were abolished.

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  • In regard to the constitution and maintenance of the naval forces, the administration of the arsenals is divided into three principal departments, the first concerned with naval construction, the second with ordnance, including gun-mountings and small-arms, and the third with the so-called submarine defences, dealing with all torpedo materiel.

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  • The so-called "Gothenburg System" of municipal control over the sale of spirits was actually devised at Falun as early as 1850.

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  • On the other hand, it is noteworthy that this marsupial retains in its lower jaw the so-called mylo-hyoid groove, which is found in the aforesaid Jurassic mammals.

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  • The so-called rivers have a strong flow only after heavy rains, and some of them do not ever reach the main drainage line.

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  • Another notable feature of the interior is the so-called lake area, a district stretching to the north of Spencer Gulf.

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  • We pass on to the other curious order of non-placental mammals, that of the Monotremata, so called from the structure of their organs of evacuation with a single orifice, as in birds.

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  • The so-called red garnet, a pretty fish, with hues of carmine and blue stripes on its head, is much esteemed for the table.

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  • Putting aside the exotic vegetation of the north and east coast-line, the Australian bush gains its peculiar character from the prevalence of the so-called gum-trees (Eucalyptus) and the acacias, of which last there are 300 species, but the eucalypts above all are everywhere.

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  • The iron-bark of the eastern coast uplands is well known (Eucalyptus sideroxylon), and is so called from the hardness of the wood, the bark not being remarkable except for its rugged and blackened aspect.

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  • The so-called Great Palace consists of a group of detached buildings, apparently ten in number, standing on two platforms of different elevations.

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  • The so-called Latin crusade of 1203 placed the imperial crown of Constantinople on the head of Baldwin of Flanders.

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  • The Asiatic elephant; the seladang, a bison of a larger type than the Indian gaur; two varieties of rhinoceros; the honey bear (bruang), the tapir, the sambhur (rusa); the speckled deer (kijang), three varieties of mouse-deer (napoh, plandok and kanchil); the gibbon (ungka or wawa'), the siamang, another species of anthropoid ape, the brok or coco-nut monkey, so called because it is trained by the Malays to gather the nuts from the coco-nut trees, the lotong, kra, and at least twenty other kinds of monkey; the binturong (arctictis binturong), the lemur; the Asiatic tiger, the black panther, the leopard, the large wild cat (harimau akar), several varieties of jungle cat; the wild boar, the wild dog; the flying squirrel,.

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  • The name is taken from Nicotiana, the tobacco plant, so called after Jean Nicot (1530-1600), French ambassador at Lisbon, who introduced tobacco into France in 1560.

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  • The first edition of his united or so-called "Complete" works was published at Toulouse in 1637.

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  • Next come the mercantile castes, mostly belonging to the Jain sect; these are followed by the powerful cultivating tribes, such as the Jats and Gujars, and then come the so-called aboriginal tribes, chief of whom are the Minas, Bhils and Meos.

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  • The so-called " contracts," including a great variety of deeds, conveyances, bonds, receipts, accounts and, most important of all, the actual legal decisions given by the judges in the law courts, exist in thousands.

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  • The so-called " Sumerian Family Laws " are thus preserved.

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  • Hence it will be seen that the difference between various forms of the so-called spark systems of wireless telegraphy is not very great.

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  • The so-called musical arc of Duddell has been the subject of considerable investigation, and physicists are not entirely in accordance as to the true explanation of the mode of production of the oscillations.

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  • The cadmium molecule, as shown by determinations of the density of its vapour, is monatomic. The metal unites with the majority of the heavy metals to form alloys; some of these, the so-called fusible alloys, find a useful application from the fact that they possess a low melting-point.

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  • The only lake properly so called in southern Italy is the Lago del Matese, in the heart of the mountain group of the same name, of small extent.

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  • The so-called lakes on the coast of the Adriatic north and south of the promontory of Gargano are brackish lagoons communicating with the sea.

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  • Of the numerous sub-varieties, the finest is said to be that of the Val di Chiana, where the animals are stall-fed all the year round; next is ranked the so-called Valle Tiberina type.

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  • In Sicily the so-called Modica race is of note; and in Sardinia there is a distinct stock which seldom exceeds the weight of 700 lb.

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  • The cities of Gaeta and Naples, Sicily and the so-called Theme of Lombardy in South Apulia and Calabria, still recognized the Byzantine emperor.

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  • The discords which followed on the break-up of the Carolingian power, and the weakness of the so-called Italian emperors, who were unable to control the feudatories (marquises of Ivrea and Tuscany, dukes of Friuli and Spoleto), from whose ranks they sprang, exposed Italy to ever-increasing misrule.

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  • Crispis so-called megalomania gave place to retrenchment in home affairs and to a deferential attitude towards all foreign powers.

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  • The weakness of the government in dealing with the strike riots caused a feeling of profound dissatisfaction, and the so-called experiment of liberty, conducted with the object of conciliating the extreme parties, proved a dismal failure.

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  • At a subsequent period the demand for instruction in the sacrificial science called into existence a still more practical set of manuals, the so-called Kalpa-sutras, or ceremonial rules, detailing, in succinct aphorisms, the approved course of sacrificial procedure, without reference to the supposed origin or import of the several rites.

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  • The first of the three fires laid down is the garhapatya, or householder's fire, so called because, though not taken from his ordinary house-fire, but as a rule specially produced by friction, it serves for cooking the sacrificial food, and thus, as it were, represents the domestic fire.

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  • He regards the Ontological argument strictly so called as having been exploded by Kant.

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  • The so-called "pure" acid is applied to infected living tissues, especially to tuberculous sinuses or wounds, after scraping them, in order to destroy any part of the tuberculous material still remaining.

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  • The epithelial layer consists of (1) so-called " indifferent " cells secreting the perisarc or cuticle and modified to form glandular cells in places; for example, the adhesive cells in the foot.

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  • The sub-epithelial layer consists primarily of the so-called inter stitial cells, lodged between the narrowed basal portions of the epithelial cells.

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  • The medial portion forms radiating tracts of fibres, the so-called " bell-muscles " running underneath, and parallel to, the radial canals; when greatly developed, as in Tiaridae, they form ridges, so-called mesenteries, projecting into the sub-umbral cavity.

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  • The statocysts present in general the structure of either a knob or a closed vesicle, composed of (I) indifferent supporting epithelium; (2) sensory, so-called auditory epithelium of slender cells, each.

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  • In this way the medusa sinks from an independent per sonality to an organ of the polyp-colony, becoming a so-called medusoid gonophore, or bearer of the reproductive organs, and losing gradually all organs necessary for an independent existence, namely those of sense, locomotion and nutrition.

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  • Two types of budding must be distinguished - the direct, so-called palingenetic type, and the indirect, so-called coenogenetic type.

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  • If the embryo is set free as a free-swimming, so-called planula-larva, in the blastula, parenchymula, or gastrula stage, then a free actinula stage is not found; if, on the other hand, a free actinula occurs, then there is no free planula stage.

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  • The spadix forms a gelatinous cyst, the so-called acrocyst (ac), external to the gonotheca (gth), enclosing and protecting the embryos.

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  • Similarly the ring-canal runs round the edge of the lobe as the so-called festoon-canal, and then runs upwards under the peronium to the base of the tentacle as one of a pair of peronial canals, the limbs of the V-like figure already mentioned.

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  • They may be branched, so-called " gonodendra," and amongst them may occur special forms of palpons, " gonopalpons."

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  • He argues, from the principle quicquid est in effectibus esse et in causis, that the elements and the whole world have sensation, and thus he appears to derive the organic part of nature out of the so-called " inorganic."

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  • This was copied from the then existent practice in admiralty appeals and was the origin of the so-called court of delegates.

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  • The so-called "black amber" is only a kind of jet.

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  • In addition to these lines, all tadpoles show more or less distinctly a small whitish gland in the middle of the head between the eyes, the so-called frontal gland or pineal gland, which in early stages is connected with the brain.

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  • Some of the so-called " Orphic tablets," metrical inscriptions engraved on small plates of gold, chiefly dating from the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., have been discovered in tombs in southern Italy, Crete and Rome.

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  • The Bryophyta and Pteridophyta have sprung from the higher Thallophyta, and together form the larger group Archegoniatae, so-called from the form of the organ (archegonium) in which the egg-cell is developed.

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  • Above each cavity is situated a so-called water-sloma, no doubt derived phylogenetically from an ordinary stoma, and enclosed by guard-cells which have nearly or entirely lost the power of movement.

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  • In a good many cases, sometimes in isolated genera or species, sometimes characteristic of whole families, so-called anomalous cambial layers are formed in the stem, either as an extension of, or in addition to, the original cambial cylinder.

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  • The so-called anomalous cambiums in roots follow the same lines as those of the stem.

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  • As a result of this activity Van Tieghems so-called Stelar theory has been revised and modified in the light of more extended and detailed anatomical and developmental knowledge.

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  • When the pinnate leaf of a Mimosa pudica, the so-called sensitive plant, is pinched or struck, the leaf droops rapidly and the leaflets become approximated together, so that their upper surfaces are in contact.

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  • The so-called eelworms (Nematodes) may do immense damage on roots and in the grains of cereals, and every one knows how predatory slugs and snails are.

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  • This so-called direct effect of external conditions upon the form and structure of the body differs from the indirect effect in that the resulting variations bear a relation, of the nature of adaptation, to those conditions; the effect of the conditions is not only to cause variation, but to cause variation in a particular direction.

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  • The western dry areas have the old-world leguminous Astragalus and Prosopis (Mesquit), but are especially characterized by the northward extension of the new-world tropical Cactaceae, Mgmmillaria, Cereus and Opuntia, by succulent Amar llideae such as A gave (of which the so-called American aloe is a type), and by arborescent Liliaceae (Yucca).

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  • There is an interestini connection with Europe through the so-called Iberian flora.

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  • The so-called oaks of Australia are Casuarma, which also occurs in New Caledonia, but is wanting in New Zealand.

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  • Another region so called is that part of the Sahara washed by the Atlantic. The name is also used to designate the territory under French jurisdiction west of Timbuktu and north of the Senegal.

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  • The so-called alkaline earth-metals are the elements beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium.

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  • Carbolic acid is distinguished from all other acids so-called - except oxalic acid and hydrocyanic acid - in that it is a neurotic poison, having a marked action directly upon the nervous system.

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  • The so-called "beetle-stones" of the coal-formation of Newhaven, near Leith, which have mostly a coprolite nucleus, have been applied to various ornamental purposes by lapidaries.

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  • His so-called deathbed confession is not genuine.

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  • The posterior, so-called processus Zygomaticus is very variable; in many Galli it encloses a foramen by distally joining the orbital process.

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  • The three middle metatarsals become fused together into a cannon bone; the upper part of the third middle metatarsal projects behind and forms the so-called hypotarsus, which in various ways, characteristic of the different groups of birds (with one or more sulci, grooved or perforated), acts as guiding pulley to the tendons of the flexor muscles of the toes.

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  • This so-called third, upper or posterior conch is not a true conch, nor is that of the vestibulum; only the middle one forms a scroll, and this corresponds to the only one of reptiles and the lower of the mammals.

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  • For instance, the Tyranninae are anacromyod, while the closely allied Pipras and Cotingas are katacromyod; both these modifications can be shown to have been derived but recently from the weak mesoand oligomyodian condition which prevails in the majority of the so-called Oligomyodi.

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  • Now, mere geographical considerations, taken from the situation and configuration of the islands of the so-called Indian or Malay Archipelago, would indicate that they extended in an unbroken series from the shores of the Strait of Malacca to the southern coast of New Guinea, which confronts that of north Australia in Torres Strait, or even farther to the eastward.

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  • Between fifty and sixty so-called families of land birds alone are found within its limits, and of them at least nine are peculiar; the typical genera of which are Buphaga, Euryceros, Philepitta, Musophaga, Irrisor, Leptosoma, Colius, Serpentarius, Struthio, Aepyornis.

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  • In a few weeks he collected thousands of so-called Kuruczok (a corruption of Cruciati), consisting for the most part of small yeomen, peasants, wandering students, friars and parish priests, the humblest and most oppressed portion of the community, to whom alone a crusade against the Turk could have the slightest attraction.

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  • Another work of Mantegna's later years was the so-called " Madonna della Vittoria," now in the Louvre.

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  • Its date is now usually given as about Soo B.C. 1 In the next century the document E was composed, so called from its using 1 The dating of these documents is extremely difficult, since it is based entirely on internal evidence.

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  • Canons were adopted, thirty according to the generally received tradition, although the most ancient texts contain but twentyeight, and, as Hefele points out, the so-called twenty-ninth and thirtieth are properly not canons, but repetitions of proposals made in a previous session.

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  • The so-called pagoda of the Great Buddha is the chief native building.

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  • The principal reptiles are a lizard, a tortoise, the vivora de la crux (a dangerous viper, so called from marks like a cross on its head) and the rattlesnake in Maldonado and the stony lands of Minas.

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  • In germination of the seed the root of the embryo (radicle) grows out to get a holdfast for the plant; this is generally followed by the growth of the short stem immediately above the root, the so-called "hypocotyl," which carries up the cotyledons above the ground, where they spread to the light and become the first green leaves of the plant.

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  • The so-called cities (7rbXas) of the TEpioucot answered pretty well to the local plebeian tribes; the difference is that the 7repioLKOC never became a united corporate body like the Roman plebs.

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  • Wallace as representing the so-called Wallace's Line, whereby he demarcated the Asiatic from the Australian fauna.

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  • Most of the Chrysomelidae are metallic in colour and convex in form; in some the head is concealed beneath the prothorax, and the so-called "tortoise" beetles (Cassidinae) have the elytra raised into a prominent median ridge.

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  • The Finland rappa-kivi, the Serdobol gneiss, and the Pargas and Rustiala marble (with the so-called Eozoon canadense) yield good building stone; while iron, copper and zinc-ore are common in Finland and in the Urals.

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  • Its most famous development was the so-called " Third Section " (of the imperial chancery) instituted by the emperor Nicholas I.

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  • It was only then, too, that a reform was started in secondary education, with the object of revising the so-called " classical " system favoured in the lyceums since the 'seventies, the complete failure of which has been demonstrated after nearly thirty years of experiment.

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  • Of these the most remarkable are the so-called Khlysti (" flagellants," from klyesat, " to strike, lash," but possibly a corruption of Khristi, " Christs ").

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  • Closer akin to certain Western forms of dissidence from traditional Catholicism, though of native growth, are the Molokani or Molokans, so called popularly because they continue to drink milk (moloko) during fasts.

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  • Accompanied by these so-called Oprichniki, who have been compared to the Turkish Janissaries of the worst period, he ruthlessly devastated large districts - with no other object apparently than that of terrorizing the population and rewarding his myrmidons - and during a residence of six weeks in Novgorod, lest the old turbulent spirit of the municipal republic should revive, he massacred, it is said, no less than 60,000 of the inhabitants, including many women and children.

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  • After holding more than 200 sittings the so-called Commission was dissolved without getting beyond the realm of theory and pia desideria.

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  • The large Adminis- territorial units of administration created by Peter the trative Great were broken up into so-called " governments " reforms. (gubernii) and further subdivided into districts (uyezdy), and each government was confided to the care of a governor and a vice-governor assisted by a council.

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  • In foreign affairs Catherine devoted her attention mainly to pushing forward the Russian frontier westwards and south- Foreign wards, and as France was the traditional ally of policy of Sweden, Poland and Turkey, she adopted at first Cath- the so-called systeme du Nord, that is to say, a close erine.

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  • Wholesale arrests were made by the police, and many of the accused were imprisoned or exiled to distant provinces, some by the regular tribunals, and others by so-called " administrative procedure " without a formal trial.

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  • Subsequently, by obtaining from the Tsungli-Yaman a long lease of Port Arthur and Talienwan and a concession to unite those ports with the Trans-Siberian by a branch line, she tightened her hold on that portion of the Chinese empire and prepared to complete the work of aggression by so-called " spontaneous infiltration."

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  • At that time the so-called transcontinental railways, connecting the Pacific coast of the United States with the central portions of the country, and thus with the group of railways reaching the Atlantic seaboard, consisted of five railways within the borders of the United States, and one in Canada.

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  • The so-called " long-and-short-haul clause," which forbade a greater charge for a long than for a short haul over the same line, if circumstances were substantially similar, was also robbed of all its vitality by court decision.

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  • The most recent type of state commission is the so-called Public Utility Commission, of which the best examples are those of New York and Wisconsin, established in 1907.

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  • The ruling gradient of a section of railway is the steepest incline in that section, and is so called because it governs or rules the maximum load that can be placed behind an engine working over that portion of line.

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  • The so-called light railways in the United States and the British colonies have been made under the conditions peculiar to new countries.

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  • The species C. torulosa of North India, so called from its twisted bark, attains an altitude of 150 ft.; its branches are erect or ascending, and grow so as to form a perfect cone.

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  • This stream empties into the Humboldt lake, the overflow from which goes into the so-called Carson Sink.

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  • A so-called " rainy season " lasts from October to April, but the precipitation is chiefly in the form of snow on the mountains.

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  • The present cathedral contains several early Christian marble sarcophagi, a silver cross of the 6th century (that of Agnellus), and the so-called throne of the Archbishop Maximian (54655 2), adorned with reliefs in ivory, which, however, was really brought to Ravenna in iooi by John the Deacon, who recorded the fact in his Venetian chronicle, as a present from the Doge Pietro Orseolo to the Emperor Otho III.

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  • In George IV.'s reign were issued the so-called "lion shillings," bearing the royal crest, a crowned lion on a crown, a design reverted to in the coinage of Edward VII.

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  • In the other half of the monarchy (the so-called Cisleithan) this was not possible, and the authority and influence of the emperor were even increased by the contrast with the weaknesses and failures of the parliamentary system.

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  • Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.

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  • Jerusalem had suffered some serious catastrophe before Nehemiah's return; a body of exiles returned, and in spite of interference the work of rebuilding was completed; through their influence the Judaean community underwent reorganization, and separated itself from its so-called heathen neighbours.

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  • At the end of the 12th century was established the " exchequer of the Jews," which chiefly dealt with suits concerning money-lending, and arranged a " continual flow of money from the Jews to the royal treasury," and a so-called " parliament of the Jews " was summoned in 1241; in 1275 was enacted the statute de Judaismo which, among other things, permitted the Jews to hold land.

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  • In more modern usage in the Roman Catholic Church prelates, properly so-called, are those who have jurisdiction in foro externo, but a liberal interpretation has given the title a more general significance.

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  • The so-called Labyrinth, near the ruins of Gortyna, was a subterranean quarry from which the city was built.

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  • The so-called Esna barrage across the Nile (built 1906-1908) is 30 m.

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  • The chief cultivated plants are maize, the sugar-cane, tobacco, cotton, coffee and especially henequen, the so-called "Sisal hemp," which is a strong, coarse fibre obtained from the leaves of the Agave rigida, var.

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  • The so-called mysticism of the Persian Sufis is less intense and practical, more airy and literary in character.

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  • In the 17th century mysticism is represented in the philosophical field by the so-called Cambridge Platonists, and especially by Henry More (1614-1687), in whom the influence of the Kabbalah is combined with a species of christianized Neoplatonism.

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  • In northern Asia are found other aborigines, such as the Ainus of Japan and the so-called hyperborean races (Chukchis, &c.), but no materials are at present forthcoming for their history.

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  • In prehistoric times they were spread over the whole of India, but were driven to the centre and south of the peninsula by the third stratum of Aryans, and perhaps also by invasions of so-called Mongolian races from the north-west.

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  • Some authorities hold that Egyptian civilization came from Babylonia, and that the so-called Hamitic languages are older and less specialized members of the Semitic family.

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  • Below it are covered promenades, and from it steps descend to the lower town, the oldest part of which (the so-called Marina), sloping gradually towards the sea, is probably the nucleus of the Roman municipium, while the quarter of Stampace lies to the west, and beyond it again the suburb of Sant' Avendrace.

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  • It was not until 1403 that the kings of Aragon were able to conquer the district of Arborea, which, under the celebrated Eleonora (whose code of laws - the so-called Carta de Logu- was famous), offered a heroic resistance.

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  • The Kurisches Haff is separated from the Baltic by a long spit, or tongue of land, the so-called Kurische Nehrung, 72 m.

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  • In Europe on the whole the so-called pessimistic attitude was commoner in the Teutonic north than in the Mediterranean basin.

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  • He left behind him a colossal collection of MSS., the so-called Nordinska Samlingarna, which were purchased and presented to Upsala university by Charles XIV.

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  • In 1676, during " Bacon's Rebellion," a party of Virginians under Bacon's command killed about 150 Indians who were defending a fort on a hill a short distance east of the site of Richmond in the " Battle of Bloody Run," so called because the blood of the slain savages is said to have coloured the brook (or " run ") at the base of the hill.

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  • In both cases the socalled fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk (the so-called calyx tube) greatly dilated, and enclosing within its cellular flesh the five cartilaginous carpels which constitute the "core" and are really the true fruit.

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  • As to the source of the nitrogen of the root-crops-the so-called " restorative crops "-these are as dependent as any crop that is grown on available nitrogen within the soil, which is generally supplied by the direct appli cation of nitrogenous manures, natural or artificial.

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  • The duty of the so-called examiners was to examine the letters of the agents of the Company in India, and to draft instructions in reply.

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  • Of what possible use are the works of the so-called classical writers, except in relation to the history of economics and the practical influence of theory in past times ?

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  • On the 30th of January he caused the official French paper, the Moniteur, to publish in extenso a confidential report sent by Colonel Sebastiani describing his so-called commercial mission to the Levant.

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  • Still worse was the prospect when Sir Arthur Wellesley with a British force landed in Portugal, gained the battle of Vimiero (21st of August), and brought the French commander, Junot, by the so-called convention of Cintra, to agree to the evacuation of the country by all the French troops.

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  • The underworld is made up of four vestibules and three hells properly so called.

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  • The priestly dress, which is all white, consists of drawers, an upper garment, and a girdle with the so-called taga (" crown");.

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  • Clamatores, being a majority of that division of the Picariae of Nitzsch, so called by Andreas Wagner, in 1841, 1 which have their feet normally constructed; 3.

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  • In the so-called Second Apology, Justin takes occasion from the trial of a Christian recently held in Rome to argue that the innocence of the Christians was proved by the very persecutions.

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  • The most striking example is undoubtedly the Ca' d'Oro, so called from the profusion of gold employed on its façade.

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  • The scuole were divided into the six scuole grandi, so called from their numbers, wealth and privileges, and the scuole minori or fraglie, which in most cases were associated with an art or craft.

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  • The so-called Spectre Huntsman of the Malay Peninsula is said to be a man who scours the firmament with his dogs, vainly seeking for what he could not find on earth - a buck mouse-deer pregnant with male offspring; but he seems to be a living man; there is no statement that he ever died, nor yet that he is a spirit.

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  • Carinthia is so called from the Carni, a Celtic people, and in the time of Augustus it formed part of Noricum.

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  • The beautiful Public Garden and the finest residential quarter of the city - the Back Bay, so called from that inner harbour from whose waters it was reclaimed (1856-1886) - stand on what was once the narrowest, but to-day is the widest and fairest portion of the original site.

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  • Along one line there was a gradual elaboration of the tube until it culminated, so far as structural complexity is concerned, in the so-called trapdoor nests or burrows of various families; along the other line the tubular retreat either retains its primitive simplicity in association with a new structure, the snare or net, or is entirely superseded by the latter.

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  • Snares of another type consisting of a tangled mass of threads amongst which the spiders pick their way with ease, but which are impassable to insects, are spun by members of the Theridiidae and Pholcidae; but by common consent the so-called orbicular web, so characteristic of the Argyopidae but by no means confined to them, is regarded as manifesting the greatest perfection of instinct in snare-spinning.

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  • These webs, which are typically subcircular in form, consist of a system of threads radiating from a common centre and crossed at intervals, and approximately at right angles, by a series of concentric lines, the whole being suspended in a triangular, quadrangular or polygonal framework formed of so-called foundation lines, attached to the branches or leaves of trees or other firm objects in the neighbourhood.

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  • This is effected by the so-called habit of "ballooning" practised by very young spiders, which float through the air, often at great altitudes, in the direction of the prevalent winds.

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  • There remains one other important group, the so-called " kidney " cottons in which there are only long hairs, and the seed easily comes away clean as with " Sea Island," but, instead of each seed being separate, the whole group in each of the three compartments of the capsule is firmly united together in a more or less kidney-shaped mass.

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  • The only time the hoe is used is to thin out the cotton in the row; all the rest of the cultivation is by various forms of ploughs and so-called cultivators.

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  • Various attempts have been made to substitute a comb for the knife or beater, and one of the latest productions is the " Universal fibre gin," in which a series of blunt combs working horizontally replace the solid beater and so-called knife of the Macarthy gin.

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  • The union of the two orders, already suggested at the council of Lyons in 1245, was nominally achieved by the council of Vienne in 1311; but the so-called "union" was in reality the suppression of the Templars, and the confiscation of all their resources by the cupidity of Philippe le Bel.

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  • The significance of two or more (in Drepanophorus very numerous) small sacs containing so-called " reserve " stylets resembling in shape that of the central dart is insufficiently known.

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  • Plant (1819-1899) and once formed a part of the so-called " Plant System " of railways.

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  • Two years later the American Congress annexed the portion of West Florida between the Pearl and the Mississippi rivers to Louisiana (hence the so-called Florida parishes of Louisiana), and that between the Pearl and the Perdido to the Mississippi Territory.

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  • The wife is so called in Prov.

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  • Where Javanese is the principal language, Malay is sometimes found written with Javanese characters; and in Palembang, in the Menangkabo country of Middle Sumatra, the Rechang or Renchong characters are in general use, so called from the sharp and pointed knife with which they are cut on the smooth side of bamboo staves.

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  • The so-called " floating soaps " are soaps made lighter than water either by inserting cork or a metallic plate so as to form an air space within the tablet.

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  • In the female the ovary is a large unpaired organ from the anterior end of which arise two oviducts, and connected with the latter are a pair of large so-called copulatory pouches, which perhaps act as receptacula seminis.

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  • On the west are the so-called Bohemian-Moravian Mountains, forming the elevated east margin of Bohemia.

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  • Some of the rock chambers originally intended for tombs were afterwards converted, perhaps under pressure of necessity, into habitations, as in the case of the so-called " Prison of Socrates," which consists of three chambers horizontally excavated and a small round apartment of the " beehive " type.

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  • At this time there existed a belief, held at a later date by Berzelius, Gmelin and many others, that the formation of organic compounds was conditioned by a so-called vital force; and the difficulty of artificially realizing this action explained the supposed impossibility of synthesizing organic compounds.

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  • In this formula, the so-called " centric formula," the assumption made is that the fourth valencies are simply directed towards the centre of the ring; nothing further is said about the fourth valencies except that they exert a pressure towards the centre.

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  • Of great importance is his introduction of vegetable juices (the so-called indicators, q.v.) to detect acids and bases.

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  • The so-called "Spaniard's Hole" still marks the spot where the peat-boat lay.

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  • Of course, generally speaking, less advance was made than in many previous decades, owing to the interregnum caused by the World War, when all British, French, German, and Austrian work was held up, and only the Americans and to a lesser degree the so-called " Egyptian " Service of Antiquities (manned by French and English) did any digging at all; while in all the European countries the energies of all the archaeologists who were not superannuated were transferred to the field of war, and there was no time left to write little papers, still less big books.

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  • Philological investigations show that it is probable that the progenitors I From the enlistment of Kabyles speaking the Zouave dialect the Zouave regiments of the French army came to be so called.

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  • Far greater interest attaches to the so-called AngloSaxon Map of the World in the British Museum (Cotton MSS.), where it is bound up in a codex which also contains a copy of the Periegesis of Priscianus.

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  • The maritime discoveries and surveys of that age of great discoveries were laid down upon so-called " plane-charts," that is, charts having merely equidistant parallels indicated upon them, together with the equator, the tropics and polar FIG.

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  • The original surveys, carefully revised, have been published since 1870 as a Topographical Atlas of Switzerland - the so-called Siegfried Atlas, in 552 sheets.

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  • Of Russia in Europe only the more densely peopled governments have been surveyed, since 1816, in the manner of other European countries, while for most regions there R are only so-called "military surveys."

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  • Thus in borage it is rotate, tubular in comfrey, funnel-shaped in hounds-tongue, and salvershaped in alkanet (Anchusa); the throat is often closed by scale-like outgrowths from the corolla, forming the so-called corona.

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  • So early as the year '70, a church party in Asia Minor - the so-called Alogi - rejected the whole body of apocalyptic writings and denounced the book of Revelation as a book of fables.

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  • In the so-called Montanistic controversy (c. 160-220) one of the principal issues involved was the continuance of the chiliastic expectations in the churches.

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  • Pomeranians have been given most attention in Germany and Belgium, while the so-called Spitz has been popular in England and America.

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  • On the so-called Harpy monument from Lycia, now in the British Museum, the Harpies appear carrying off some small figures, supposed to be the daughters of Pandareus, unless they are intended to represent departed souls.

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  • A so-called Roman camp, on an elevation overlooking the sea, is actually a modern beacon.

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  • Slaves who had rendered eminent services to the public, as those who fought at Arginusae and at Chaeronea, were at once admitted to the status of citizens in the class of (so-called) Plataeans.

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  • This is the so-called multangular tower, on the N.W.

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  • It is so called by Camoens in the Lusiads.

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  • Its skin is sometimes used for leather and boot-thongs, but the so-called "porpoise-hides" are generally obtained from the beluga.

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  • All the so-called " giant cities of Bashan " without exception are now known to be Greco-Roman, not earlier than the time of Herod, and, though in themselves of very high architectural and historical interest, have no connexion whatever with the more ancient periods.

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  • Lucke, who was one of the most learned, many-sided and influential of the so-called "mediation" school of evangelical theologians (Vermittelungstheologie), is now chiefly known by his Kommentar fiber die Schriften d.

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  • Reclaimed marsh-land and fresh alluvium (the so-called " front-lands " on rivers and bayous) are choice soil for Indian corn, sugar-cane, perique tobacco, semi-tropical fruits and cotton.

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  • It proved as great a drain upon his purse as it had proved to the crown, and he willingly parted with it to the so-called " Western Company," afterwards incorporated with the great Company of the Indies.

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  • For the so-called nitrogen iodide see Ammonia.

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  • The synod of Chalcedon in 451, following the lines of Pope Leo I.'s famous letter, endeavoured to steer a middle course between the so-called Nestorian and Eutychian positions.

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  • Accordingly, every treatise on applied mathematics, properly so-called, is directed to the criticism of the "laws" from which the reasoning starts, or to a suggestion of results which experiment may hope to find.

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  • A remarkable natural phenomenon is that of the so-called "banana holes," which frequently occur in the limestone.

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  • After 1 8 2 the revolts, frequently renewed, of the so-called 9 ?

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  • The crew was supposed to consist of fifty, agreeing in number with the fifty oars of the "Argo," so called from its builder Argos, the son of Phrixus, or from apryos (swift).

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  • Close to this stands the so-called tomb of Sitte Zobeide (Zobaida), with its octagonal base and pineapple dome, one of the most conspicuous and curious objects in the neighbourhood of Bagdad.

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  • There are about 34,000 Jews occupying a quarter of their own in the north-western part of the city; while in a neighbouring quarter dwell upwards of 6000 Christians, chiefly so-called Chaldaeans or Nestorians.

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  • The so-called notes verbales are unsigned, and are merely of the nature of memoranda (of conversations, &c.).

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  • In 1902 the city arranged for grouping its public buildings - in the so-called "Group Plan" - at a cost of $25,000,000.

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  • The so-called bay narrows northward into the strait successively known as Smith Sound, Kane Basin, Kennedy Channel and Robeson Channel.

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  • The whole interior of Greenland is completely covered by the so-called inland ice, an enormous glacier forming a regular shield-shaped expanse of snow and glacier ice, and burying all valleys and mountains far below its surface.

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  • The so-called Whittlesey Wash, in the neighbourhood of the town, is among several tracts in the fens which are perennially flooded.

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  • For the purposes of this article it will be taken in its most restricted sense, as signifying the Roman province which was so called after the district that intervened between the river Ister (Danube) and the Haemus Mountains (Balkan) had been formed into the separate provinces of Moesia, and the region between the rivers Strymon and Nestus, which included Philippi, had been added to Macedonia.

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  • The exclusion of the handicraftsmen from the Rath led, early in the 15th century, to a rising of the craft gilds against the patrician merchants, and in 1410 they forced the latter to recognize the authority of a committee of 48 burghers, which concluded with the senate the so-called First Recess; there were, however, fresh outbursts in 1458 and 1483, which were settled by further compromises.

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  • The other document is the so-called Letter to Coroticus.

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  • The substance known as moldavite, often regarded as an obsidian, and the so-called obsidian bombs, or obsidianites, are described under MOLDAVITE.

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  • In England red vestments are worn at the mass (of the Holy Spirit) attended by the Roman Catholic judges and barristers at the opening of term, the so-called "Red Mass."

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  • Behind the citadel, and along its glacis on the southern side, are the gardens of Kalemegdan, commanding a famous view across the river; behind Kalemegdan comes Belgrade itself, a city of white houses, among which a few great public buildings, like the high school, national bank, national theatre and the so-called New Palace, stand forth prominently.

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  • The attempt of the king to enforce the official use of the Dutch language, and the foundation of the so-called philosophical college at Louvain helped to exacerbate the growing discontent.

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  • A narrow and shallow channel leads from the western side of the lake into another sheet of water, the Lake of Ishkul, so called from Jebel Ishkul, a hill on its southern bank 1740 ft.

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  • The latex is collected in the so-called dry season between June and February.

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  • At Prague a demagogue, the priest John of Zelivo, for a time obtained almost unlimited authority over the lower classes of the townsmen; and at Tabor a communistic movement (that of the so-called Adamites) was sternly suppressed by Zizka.

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  • Thus so-called coloured-gold deposits may be produced by the judicious introduction of suitable impurities.

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  • An English translation by the side of the Welsh text of the so-called triads of Dyvnwal Moel Mud is given by Owen, in the The Ancient Laws of Wales.

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  • This result he considered to be due, not to any removal of impurities, but to an actual splitting-up of the yttrium molecule into its constituents, and he ventured to draw the provisional conclusion that the so-called simple bodies are in reality compound molecules, at the same time suggesting that all the elements have been produced by a process of evolution from one primordial stuff or "protyle."

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  • This sinus is continued round the oesophagus as the peri-oesophageal sinus, and thus the whole complex of the small arm-sinus has the relations of the so-called vascular system of a Sipunculid.

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  • The latter enlarges into a spherical stomach into which open the broad ducts of the so-called liver.

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  • It is at this point that Van Buren's connexion began with so-called "machine politics," a connexion which has made his name odious to some historians of the period.

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  • The results of Omars research werea revised edition of the Zif or astronomical tables, and the introduction of the Tarikh-i-Malikshahi or JalalI, that is, the so-called Jalalian or SeljUk era, which commences in A.H.

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  • The high land north of the headwaters of the Mino forms the sole connecting link between the Cantabrians properly so-called and the mountains of central and western Galicia.

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  • He was conspicuous in the agitation raised by the so-called Orange plot to set aside King William IV.

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  • He was specially identified with measures concerning trusts and railways, and had a leading part in drafting the so-called Esch-Cummins bill under which the Government in 1920 handed back to private control the railways of the United States.

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  • A discussion of the interesting question relating to the non Semitic so-called Sumero-Akkadian language and race will be found in the article Sumer.

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  • The most famous of these are B euves de Comarchis, Ernaud de Girone, Garin d'Anseun, Aimer le chaff, so called from his long captivity with the Saracens.

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  • His dissatisfaction with Ptolemaic doctrines was of early date; and he returned from Italy, where so-called Pythagorean opinions were then freely discussed, in strong and irrevocable possession of the heliocentric theory.

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  • It afterwards became a province (Margiana) of the Graeco-Syrian, Parthian and Persian kingdoms. On the Margus - the Epardus of Arrian and now the Murghab - stood the capital of the district, Antiochia Margiana, so called after Antiochus Soter, who rebuilt the city founded by Alexander the Great.

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  • Electro-Thermal Relations.-The Hall electromotive force is only one of several so-called " galvano-magnetic effects " which are observed when a magnetic field acts normally upon a thin plate of metal traversed by an electric current.

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  • The coxal glands of the Arachnida are structures of the same nature as the green glands of the higher Crustacea and the so-called " shell glands " of the Entomostraca.

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  • An internal skeletal plate, the so-called " entosternite " of fibrocartilaginous tissue, to which many muscles are attached, is placed between the nerve-cords and the alimentary tract in the prosoma of the larger forms (Limulus, Scorpio, Mygale).

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  • In primitive forms the respiratory lamellae of the appendages of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th, or of the 1st and 2nd mesosomatic somites are sunk beneath the surface of the body, and become adapted to breathe atmospheric oxygen, forming the leaves of the so-called lung-books.

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  • It is difficult to determine the relation of the so-called Latin Actus Vercellenses (which there are good grounds for assuming were originally called the IIpa cts IIirpov) with the Acts of John and Paul.

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  • The so-called Emblemata (insertions) of Tribonian were therefore indispensable, though, of course, we cannot say whether they were always made in the best way.

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  • It was his just boast to have transformed mechanics (defined by him as a "geometry of four dimensions") into a branch of analysis, and to have exhibited the so-called mechanical "principles" as simple results of the calculus.

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  • The so-called foxes of South America, such as the crab-eating fox (C. thous), Azara's fox (C. azarae), and the colpeo (C. magellanicus), are aberrant members of the typical genus Canis.

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  • Arbitrators strictly so called may (as in the " Alabama " case) proceed to award damages after they have decided the question of liability; whilst " mixed commissions," before awarding damages, usually have to decide whether the pecuniary claims made are or are not well founded.

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  • The eastern range of this central system, which crosses western Minas Geraes from the so-called Serra das Vertentes to the valley of the Paracatu, a western tributary of the Sao Francisco, is called the Serra da Canastra and Serra da Matta da Corde.

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  • There remains only the elevated valley of the Parahyba do Sul, lying between the so-called Serra das Vertentes of southern Minas Geraes and the Serra do Mar, and extending from the Serra da Bocaina, near the city of Sao Paulo, eastward to Cape Frio and the coastal plain north of that point.

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  • Newhaven (population of parish, 7636), so called from the harbour constructed in the reign of James IV., had a shipbuilding yard of some repute in former times.

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  • The so-called free government subject to the empire lasted for twenty-seven years; and the desired protection of Spain weighed more and more heavily until it became a tyranny.

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  • Other wild fruits are the so-called Cape gooseberry (not native to Natal) and the kaw apple or Dingaan apricot, which grows on a species of ebony tree.

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  • Nevertheless Hugo, by the composition of his Summa sententiarum, endeavoured to give a methodical or rational presentation of the content of faith, and was thus the first of the so-called Summists.

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  • The columns have marked entasis, and the flutings end in a semicircle, above which is generally a torus (always present in the so-called temple of Ceres).

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  • The most famous of the temples of Paestum, the so-called temple of Neptune, comes next in point of date (about 420 B.C.).

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  • This province enjoys to a large extent autonomy, granted by the so-called compromise of 1868.

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  • The so-called zone tariff, adopted for the first time in Europe by the Hungarian state railways, was inaugurated in 1889 for passengers and in 1891 for goods.

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  • The most conspicuous event of Andrew's reign was the promulgation in 1222 of the so-called Golden Bull, which has aptly been called the Magna Carta of Hungary, and is in some of its provisions strikingly reminiscent of that signed seven years previously by the English king John.

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  • Nominally a truce for 25 years on the uti possidetis basis, the peace of Karlowitz left in the emperor's hands the lying between the rivers Maros, Theiss, Danube and the mountains of Transylvania, the so-called TemeskOz, or about one-eleventh of the modern kingdom.

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  • The so-called Provisorium had begun.

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  • Fortunately, in Kalman Tisza, the leader of the Liberal From the first, Tisza was exposed to the violent attacks of the opposition, which embraced, not only the party of Independence, champions of the principles of 1848, but the so-called National party, led by the brilliant orator Count Albert Apponyi, which aimed at much the same ends but looked upon the Compromise of 1867 as a convenient substructure on which to build up the Magyar state.

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  • Neither could forgive Tisza for repudiating his earlier Radical policy, the so-called Bihar Programme (March 6, 1868), which went far beyond the Compromise in the direction of independence, and both attacked him with a violence which his unyielding temper, and the ruthless methods by which he always knew how to secure victory, tended ever to fan into fury.

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  • As a result of this compromise the budget of 1899 was passedlin little more than a month, and the commercial and tariff treaty with Austria were renewed till 1903.2 But the government had to pay for this complacency with a so-called " pactum," which bound its hands in several directions, much to the profit of the opposition during the " pure " elections of 1901.

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  • As good text-books, for which the so-called " Ladies' Prize " was awarded by the academy, we may mention the Termeszettan (Physics) and Termeszettani foldrajz (Physical Geography) of Julius Greguss.

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  • The long-sought cause of the "great inequality" of Jupiter and Saturn was found in the near approach to commensurability of their mean motions; it was demonstrated in two elegant theorems, independently of any except the most general considerations as to mass, that the mutual action of the planets could never largely affect the eccentricities and inclinations of their orbits; and the singular peculiarities detected by him in the Jovian system were expressed in the so-called "laws of Laplace."

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  • In this work, which is one of the most valuable contributions to the literature of algebra, Cardan shows that he was familiar with both real positive and negative roots of equations whether rational or irrational, but of imaginary roots he was quite ignorant, and he admits his inability to resolve the so-called lation of Arabic manuscripts.

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  • Meanwhile the newly constituted " Party of Right," resting upon a narrow Catholic clerical basis, aimed at the reunion of Dalmatia with CroatiaSlavonia in the so-called Triune Kingdom, within whose bounds it affected to deny the very existence of Serbs.

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  • Thus it was that the so-called " Natur-philosophen " of the last decade of the 18th century, and their successors in the first quarter of the 19th, found few adherents among the working zoologists and botanists.

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  • The adherence to type, the favourite conception of the transcendental morphologist, was seen to be nothing more than the expression of one of the laws of thremmatology, the persistence of hereditary transmission of ancestral characters, even when they have ceased to be significant or valuable in the struggle for existence, whilst the so-called evidences of design which was supposed to modify the limitations of types assigned to Himself by the Creator were seen to be adaptations due to the selection and intensification by selective breeding of fortuitous congenital variations, which happened to prove more useful than the many thousand other variations which did not survive in the struggle for existence.

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  • The former are " innate " variations, the latter are " superimposed " variations (so-called " acquired variations ").

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  • At first sight it appears difficult to understand how g PP the complicated series of actions which are definitely exhibited as so-called " instincts " by a variety of animals can have been due to the selection of congenital variations, or can be otherwise explained than by the transmission of habits acquired by the parent as the result of experience, and continuously elaborated and added to in successive generations.

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  • Finally, on the 26th of October 1740, a so-called "positive declaration" signed by 194 dignitaries, in the name of the Russian nation, conferred the regency on Biren.

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  • The House of Burgesses consists of 160 members, of whom 80 are elected in secret ballot by the direct suffrages of all tax-paying citizens, 40 by the owners of house-property within the city (also by ballot), and the remaining 40, by ballot also, by the so-called "notables," i.e.

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  • The jurisdiction of the Free Port was on the 1st of January 1882 restricted to the city and port by the extension of the Zollverein to the lower Elbe, and in 1888 the whole of the state of Hamburg, with the exception of the so-called "Free Harbour" (which comprises the port proper and some large warehouses, set apart for goods in bond), was taken into the Zollverein.

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  • Claudius Ptolemy (130) rectified this error, and in the so-called syntonous or intense diatonic scale reduced the proportions of his tetrachord to s, iii, f, -i.

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  • On the western border, where the natives were of less warlike character than those on their southern and northern frontiers, intrigues were already going on with petty tribal chiefs, and the Boers drove out a portion of the Barolongs from their lands, setting up the so-called republics of Stellaland and Goshen.

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  • We have now to consider the so-called spurious bows which are sometimes seen at the inner edge of the primary and at the outer edge of the secondary bow.

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  • There are two main divisions, the Lao Pong Dam ("Black Paunch Laos"), so-called from their habit of tattooing the body from the waist to the knees, and the Lao Pong Kao ("White Paunch Laos") who do not tattoo.

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  • With one-third its weight of water it forms the so-called "butter of tin."

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  • Another translator from Greek was Paul, Monophysite bishop of Callinicus or ar-Rakkah, who, being expelled from his diocese in 519, retired to Edessa and there occupied himself in translating into Syriac the works of Severus, the Monophysite 1 So called " because his dress consisted of a barda`tha, or coarse horse-cloth, which he never changed till it became quite ragged " (Wright).

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  • The Paulicians were, according to Esc., Manicheans, so called after Paul of Samosata, son of a Manichean woman Callinice.

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  • Such were the birrus (so-called from its red colour), abolla and lacerna.

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  • The nitrates are also very insoluble substances, all the so-called solvents merely converting them into jelly.

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  • The employment of guncotton as a propellant was possible only after the discovery that it could be gelatinized or made into a colloid by the action of so called solvents, e.g.

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  • The production of the so-called "artificial silk" depends on this action.

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  • The so-called collodion cottons are nitrated celluloses, but of a lower degree of nitration (as a rule) than guncotton.

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  • The nucleus in its vegetative stage shows a fine network throughout containing in the meshes the so-called nuclear-sap; attached to the network are the chromosomes, in the form of small irregular masses, which have a strong affinity for the " basic dyes."

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  • This splitting up of the fats previously combined with albumin in the cell by the action of natural ferments - lipases - and the setting free of the fats under the influence of toxins represent the normal and the pathological process in the production of so-called fatty degeneration.

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  • The so-called Campo Santo, close to the baptistery, contains a mosaic pavement with emblematic figures belonging probably to the 8th and 9th centuries, and running under the cathedral.

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  • It was the main entrance on the north, and no doubt is to be identified with the so-called Scala Greca, where the modern highroad leaves the plateau.

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  • To the east of the gorge the wall still follows the edge of low cliffs of the, coast, and continues to do so all along the east side of Achradina 1 The date of the fragment of city wall immediately to the north-east of the so-called palaestra is uncertain; it is therefore doubtful whether it can belong to this system of defences (Lupus, pp. 308, 331).

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  • The so-called pneumatic school was founded by Athenaeus, in the 1st century after Christ.

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  • The most important of these were the so-called iatro-physical or mechanical and the iatro-chemical schools.

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  • The so-called iatro-chemical school stood in a much closer relation to practical medicine than the iatrophysical.

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  • Among the most ardent of his followers was Francois Joseph Victor Broussais (1772-1838), whose theoretical views, partly founded on those of Brown and partly on the so-called vitalist school of Theophile Bordeu (1722-1776) and Paul Joseph Barthez (1734-1806), differed from these essentially in being avowedly based on anatomical observations.

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  • His systematic doctrines founded the so-called "natural history school"; but his real merit was that of the founder or introducer of a method.

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  • Especially may be noticed the so-called edition of Kehl, in which Voltaire himself, and later Beaumarchais, were concerned (70 vols., 1785-89); those of Dalibon and Baudouin, each in 97 volumes (from which "the hundred volumes of Voltaire" have become a not infrequent figure of speech); and the excellent edition of Beuchot (1829) in 72 volumes.

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  • Here was established, by licence from James I., the so-called Milk Fair, which remained, its ownership always in the same family, until 1905, when, on alterations being made to the Mall, a new stall was erected for the owners during their lifetime, though the cow or cows kept here were no longer allowed.

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  • Many of the names of the rich residential streets and squares in the west have associations with the various owners of the properties; but Mayfair is so called from a fair held on this ground in May as early as the reign of Charles II.

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  • Braun and Hogenberg's map was published in 1572-1573, and the so-called Agas's map was probably produced soon afterwards, and was doubtless influenced by the publication of Braun and Hogenberg's excellent engraving; Norden's maps of London and Westminster are dated 1593.

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  • His attitude in the so-called "Creole Case" attracted particular attention.

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  • The so-called oil air-pumps are much more efficient; the valve difficulty is avoided, and the risk of leakage minimized; whilst in addition there is no air clearance between the piston and the base of the cylinder as in the older mechanical forms. The Fleuss pump may be taken as an example.

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  • Akin to the geometrical works is that On the Dioptra, a remarkable book on land-surveying, so called from the instrument described in it, which was used for the same purposes as the modern theodolite.

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  • The so-called rivers of the delta, the Ngawun, Pyamalaw, Panmawaddy, Pyinzalu and Pantanaw, are simply the larger mouths of the Irrawaddy, and the whole country towards the sea is a close network of creeks where there are few or no roads and boats take the place of carts for every purpose.

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  • In this way the so-called " fondi d'oro "of the catacombs in Rome were made.

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  • The so-called " Hedwig " glasses may also have originated in Constantinople.

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  • The third division would consist of the collections of the so-called Pseudo-leges Canuti, the laws of Edward the Confessor, of Henry I., and the great compilation of the Quadripartitus, then of a number of short notices and extracts like the fragments on the "wedding of a wife," on oaths, on ordeals, on the king's peace, on rural customs (Rectitudines singularum personarum), the treatises on the reeve (gerefa) and on the judge (dema), formulae of oaths, notions as to wergeld, &c. A fourth group might be made of the charters, n as they are based on Old English private and public law and supply us with most important materials in regard to it.

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  • One of these is the so-called " Synchronous History of Assyria and Babylonia," consisting of brief notices, written by an Assyrian, of the occasions on which the kings of the two countries had entered into relation, hostile or otherwise, with one another; a second is the Babylonian Chronicle discovered by Dr Th.

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  • The so-called " Stele of the Vultures," now in the Louvre, was erected as a monument of the victory.

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  • Another very important source of revenue is the so-called "tourist industry," which in late years has assumed immense proportions; the city contains a large number of hotels and boarding-houses which every year are filled to overflowing with strangers from all parts of the world.

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  • The rules of the art were set down in the so-called Tabulatur or law-book of the gild.

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  • At such competitions or Schulsingen judges were appointed, the so-called Merker, whose duty it was to criticize the competitors and note their offences against the rules of the Tabulatur.

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