(1324-1359), to whom Boccaccio dedicated one of his works, and who set on foot an alliance with the pope, Venice and the Hospitallers, which resulted in the capture of Smyrna (1344).
In 1804 Rich went to Constantinople, where, and at Smyrna, he stayed some time, perfecting himself in Turkish.
It was the most northern of the Ionian cities, and was situated on the coast of the peninsula which separates the gulf of Cyme, occupied by Aeolian settlers, from the Hermaean Gulf, on which stood Smyrna and Clazomenae.
About 1880, while the Gediz Chai was throwing its silt unchecked into the Gulf of Smyrna and gradually filling the navigable channel, there was talk of reviving Fokia as a new port for Smyrna, and connecting it with the Cassaba railway.
He either died during his confinement or escaped to Smyrna.
the Church writers who flourished toward the end of the apostolic age and during the half century that followed it, including Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp of Smyrna and the author known as "Barnabas."
With Plutarch, who dedicated to him his treatise IIEpi Tov irpwrov 11vxpov, with Herodes Atticus, to whom he bequeathed his library at Rome, with Demetrius the Cynic, Cornelius Fronto, Aulus Gellius, and with Hadrian himself, he lived on intimate terms; his great rival, whom he violently attacked in his later years, was Polemon of Smyrna.
Clement proclaimed a crusade in 1343, but nothing was accomplished beyond a naval attack on Smyrna (29th of October 1344).
St Polycarp, the disciple of St John the Evangelist and bishop of Smyrna, visited Rome in 159 to confer with Anicetus, the bishop of that see, on the subject; and urged the tradition, which he had received from the apostle, of observing the fourteenth day.
loo), nor by Theon of Smyrna (c. A.D.
It was this enterprise which brought him into antagonism with Rome, since Smyrna and Lampsacus appealed to the republic of the west, and the tension became greater after Antiochus had in 196 established a footing in Thrace.
- Smyrna is the principal centre of cotton cultivation in this region.
2.5 East Indies „ ' 1 Smyrna or Turkey 5.7 The British Cotton Growing Association works under the sanction of a royal charter and has met with valuable official support.
In 1344 a Crusade, in which Venice, the Cypriots, and the Hospitallers all joined, ended in the conquest of Smyrna; in 1345 another Crusade, led by Humbert, dauphin of Vienne, ended in failure.
Civil in place of military government was instituted; immigration began; and Andrew Turnbull, an Englishman, brought over a band of about 1500 Minorcans (1769), whom he engaged in the cultivation of indigo at New Smyrna.
In 1776, the Minorcans of New Smyrna refused to work longer on the indigo plantations; and many of them removed to St Augustine, where they were protected by the authorities.
But it was the old cry of the " autonomy of the Hellenes," raised by Smyrna and Lampsacus, which ultimately brought Antiochus III.
171 (1st ed.), line lot;; but here the tax seems to be, not an imperial one, but one paid to the city of Smyrna.
1652-1697), " a religious maiden," visited Smyrna, the Morea and the court of Mahommed IV.
Hermodorus and Hermippus of Smyrna place him 5000 years before the Trojan war, Xanthus 6000 years before Xerxes, Eudoxus and Aristotle 6000 years before the death of Plato.
The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.
The table on the following page, for which the writer is indebted to the kindness of Carolidi Effendi, formerly professor of history in the university of Athens, and in 1910 deputy for Smyrna in the Turkish parliament, shows the various races of the Ottoman Empire, the regions which they inhabit, and the religions which they profess.
Among the Christians, especially the Armenians, the Greeks of Smyrna and the Syrians of Beirut, it has long embraced a considerable range of subjects, such as classical Greek, Armenian and Syriac, as well as modern French, Italian and English, modern history, geography and medicine.
Tobacco is grown all over the empire, the most important market for it being Smyrna.
The chief centres of export are Adrianople (more than half), Constantinople and Smyrna, the others being Brusa, Beirut, Ismid, Mytilene and Salonica.
After capturing Smyrna he returned to Samarkand (1405).
The modern town is connected with Smyrna by railway, and exports cotton, wool, opium, cocoons and cereals.
Sir Edward Codrington, then commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean, received the treaty and his instructions on the night of the loth/11th of August at Smyrna, and proceeded at once to Nauplia to communicate them to the Greeks.
In 1838 he went to Asia Minor, making Smyrna his headquarters.
After taking sketches of the most interesting objects and copying a number of inscriptions, he returned to Smyrna through Caria and Lydia.
His first speech appears to have been on the 22nd of January 1673, in which he inveighed against the stop of the exchequer, the attack on the Smyrna fleet, the corruption of courtiers with French money, and "the ill ministers about the king."
The unsuitability of the harbour for modern steamers, the bad anchorage outside and the extension of railways from Smyrna have greatly lessened its former importance as an emporium for west central Anatolia.
The Church of Smyrna had early to explain its position in this matter with regard to St Polycarp: "We worship Christ, as the Son of God; as to the martyrs, we love them as the disciples and imitators of the Lord" (Martyrium Polycarpi, xvii.
At the time however when active operations began the 42nd Division and one of the French divisions could 1 The chief naval incidents of this month were: - a raid by the Turkish destroyer " Demir Hissar " which sank the British transport " Manitou " on March 16, but had to be blown up next day off Chios to avoid capture; an attempt of the British submarine E15 to enter the Straits, which led to her being forced ashore (April 16) and in the sequel to her destruction by a daring boat's crew from the " Majestic " (April 18); bombardments of the defences of Smyrna on March 28, April 6 and April 22; and operations at Gaza and El Arish on the Syrian coast by the French battleship " St.
Other rock-sculptures at Giaur Kalessi, in Galatia, and in the Karabel pass near Smyrna, he suspected of belonging to the same class 2; and visiting the last-named locality in the autumn, he found Hittite pictographs accompanying one of the two figures.
3 He announced his discoveries in 1880, and proclaimed the fact that a great Hittite empire, extending from Kadesh to Smyrna, had risen from the dead.
Asian excavation; but small Hittite objects have been sold in Smyrna and Aidin.
The Nymphi (Kara Bel) and Niobe sculptures near Smyrna are probably memorials of that extension, Certainly some inland Anatolian power seems to have kept Aegean settlers and culture away from the Ionian coast during the Bronze Age, and that power was in all likelihood the Hatti kingdom of Cappadocia.
By Macrinus he was entrusted with the administration of Pergamum and Smyrna; and on his return to Rome he was raised to the consulship about 220.
from the Bosporus at HaidarPasha, and 389 from Smyrna by way of Afium-Kara-Hissar.
The vilayet is now traversed by the Anatolian railway, and contains the railhead of the Ottoman line from Smyrna.
Its site is now absolutely deserted, except that a tiny village, Sart, merely a few huts inhabited by seminomadic Yuruks, exists beside the Pactolus, and that there is a station of the Smyrna & Cassaba railway 1 m.
His journey to the province was marked by plundering, extortion and the murder of C. Trebonius, proconsul of Asia, who refused to allow him to enter Smyrna.
of Smyrna (105 by railway).
The town is connected by railway with Afium-Kara-Hissar and Smyrna.
From one of the mineral springs comes a heavily charged water known in commerce as "Eau de Vals," and in great request in Smyrna.
In 1693 he commanded the Smyrna convoy, which was scattered and partly taken by the French admiral Tourville near Lagos Bay.
8, 10, and at Smyrna, ii.
POLYCARP (c. 69 - c. 155), bishop of Smyrna and one of the Apostolic Fathers, derives much of his importance from the fact that he links together the apostolic age and that of nascent Catholicism.
The sources from which we derive our knowledge of the life and activity of Polycarp are: (1) a few notices in the writings of Irenaeus, (2) the Epistle of Polycarp to the Church at Philippi, (3) the Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp, (4) the Epistle of the Church at Smyrna to the Church at Philomelium, giving an account of the martyrdom of Polycarp. Since these authorities have all been more or less called in question and some of them entirely rejected by recent criticism, it is necessary to say a few words about each.
The Letter of the Church at Smyrna to the Philomelians is a most important document, because we derive from it all our information with regard to Polycarp's martyrdom.
The epistle gives a minute description of the persecution in Smyrna, of the last days of Polycarp and of his trial and martyrdom; and as it contains many instructive details and professes to have been written not long after the events to which it refers, it has always been regarded as one of the most precious remains of the 2nd century.
Though Polycarp must have been bishop of Smyrna for nearly half a century we know next to nothing about his career.
- Ignatius, while on his way to Rome to suffer martyrdom, halted at Smyrna and received a warm welcome from the church and its bishop. Upon reaching Troas he despatched two letters, one to the church at Smyrna, another addressed personally to Polycarp. In these letters Ignatius charged Polycarp to write to all the churches between Smyrna and Syria (since his hurried departure from Troas made it impossible for him to do so in person) urging them to send letters and delegates to the church at Antioch to congratulate it upon the cessation of the persecution and to establish it in the faith.
A great festival was in progress at Smyrna.
Maximus Of Smyrna >>
Brewer) to Smyrna, Turkey, for the purpose of studying Oriental languages, but after three years he returned to the United States, and in 1837 graduated at Williams College at the head of his class.
a protector of voyagers, at Thasos and Smyrna.
Eastern Thrace and a considerable territory around Smyrna were assigned to Greece.
In his work against the Heresies and in his letter to Florinus, about 185-191, he tells how he had himself known Bishop Polycarp of Smyrna, and how Polycarp " used to recount his familiar intercourse with John and the others who had seen the Lord "; and explicitly identifies this John with the Zebedean and the evangelist.
In 1472 he captured and destroyed Smyrna; the following year he placed Catherine Cornaro, queen of Cyprus, under Venetian protection, and by that means the republic obtained possession of the island in 1475.
310), he tried his hand at poetry in his early youth, while tending sheep at Smyrna.
Before the opening of the Smyrna-Aidin railway its roadstead was frequented by vessels trading with the Anatolian coast, and it has often been proposed to connect it with the railway system by a branch line, and thus enable it to compete with Smyrna.
Again recalled in 1878, he was appointed governor of Syria, and in August exchanged offices with the governor of Smyrna.
of Smyrna on the river Hermus at the foot of Mt Sipylus.
This unit passed also into Italy, the libra of Picenum and the double of the Etrurian and Sicilian libra (17); it was there divided in unciae and scripulae (44), the mean of 6 from Italy and Sicily being 6600; one weight (bought in Smyrna) has the name "Leitra" on it.
The same view - the "patripassian" as it was also called, because it implied that God the Father had suffered on the cross - obtained fresh support in Rome about 2 15 from certain disciples of Noetus of Smyrna, who received a modified support from Bishop Callistus.
Pionius, the Catholic martyr of Smyrna, c. 250, also used water.
He retired to Mytilene, and afterwards to Smyrna, where he spent the rest of his life, and where Cicero saw him as late as the year 78.
It was doubtless during his stay at Smyrna that he wrote his autobiography and a history of Rome in Greek, part of which is known to have been devoted to the Numantine War.
The master and his scholars were called Peripatetics (ol Ert Tov 7reptlredrov), certainly from meeting, like other philosophical schools, in a walk (7repL7raros), and perhaps also, on the authority of Hermippus of Smyrna, from walking and talking there, like Protagora s s and his followers as described in Plato's Protagoras (314 E, 315 e).
As the crusaders marched by way of Dorylaeum and Iconium towards Antioch, the Greeks subdued the Turkish amirs residing at Smyrna, Ephesus, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Lampes and Polybotus; 1 and Kilij Arslan, with his Turks, retired to the north-eastern parts of Asia Minor, to act with the Turkish amirs of Sivas (Sebaste), known under the name of the Danishmand.
It is connected with Smyrna by a branch of the Aidin railway, and has a trade in cotton, figs, raisins and tobacco.
The account given by the church at Smyrna of the death of their bishop Polycarp (155) gives us an insight into these feelings.
When the Christians of Smyrna decided that the bones of the martyrs were of more worth than gold or gems, and when Origen (Exh.
The second and much more serious host of warriors, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, he conducted also into Asia, promising to supply them with provisions in return for an oath of homage, and by their victories recovered for the Empire a number of important cities and islands - Nicaea, Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, Philadelphia, Sardis, and in fact most of Asia Minor (1097-1099).
The seat of government is Smyrna.
The site is now partly occupied by Dineir (q.v., sometimes locally known also as Geiklar, " the gazelles," perhaps from a tradition of the Persian hunting-park, seen by Xenophon at Celaenae), which is connected with Smyrna by railway; there are considerable remains, including a great number of important Graeco-Roman inscriptions.
Kelisman), an ancient town of Ionia and a member of the Ionian Dodecapolis (Confederation of Twelve Cities), on the Gulf of Smyrna, about 20 m.
At Smyrna he met with a kind reception from the English consul, Mr Bretton, upon whose death he afterwards wrote a Latin elegy.
A considerable sponge fishery is carried on round the coasts by traders from Smyrna.
After occupying various subordinate posts at the Porte he became successively under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, governorgeneral of Syria and Smyrna, minister of commerce, and governor-general of Tripoli; minister successively of justice and of marine (1869); grand vizier from 1871 to 1872 and from 1875 to 1876.
So is that of his successors, both the Syracusan Moschus and Bion of Smyrna, who came to Sicily as to his natural school.
565); similar characteristics are noted in the rebuilt Smyrna (ib.
Lampsacus or Smyrna, could still make good their independence against Antiochus III.
There was a tendency towards concentration in large cities of the new type, which caused many of the lesser towns, like Lebedus, Myus or Colophon, to sink to insignificance, while Ephesus grew in greatness and wealth, and Smyrna rose again after an extinction of four centuries.
The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
In the 8th and probably in the 9th century B.C. communication with Phrygia seems to have been maintained especially by the Greeks of Cyme, Phocaea and Smyrna.
The kingdom of Lydia appears to have become important about the end of the 8th century, and to have completely barred the path between Phrygia and Cyme or Smyrna.
Besides a considerable agricultural trade, Deventer has important iron foundries and carpet factories (the royal manufactory of Smyrna carpets being especially famous); while cotton-printing, rope-making and the weaving of woollens and silks are also carried on.
Most of his plays were written and acted at Athens, but he led a wandering life, and died at Smyrna.
In 1808 plague was at Constantinople, in 1809 at Smyrna.
Earthquakes are frequent all over the peninsula, but especially in the south-east and west, where the Maeander valley and the Gulf of Smyrna are notorious seismic foci.
So recently as about 1880 it discharged into the Gulf of Smyrna, but the shoals formed by its silt-laden waters were so obstructive to navigation that it was turned back into its old bed.
On the west coast the climate is moderate, but the influence of the cold north winds is felt as far south as Smyrna, and the winter at that place is colder than in corresponding latitudes in Europe.
(4) From Smyrna to Manisa, Ala-shehr and Afium Kara-hissar, with a branch line from Manisa to Soma.
(5) From Smyrna to Aidin and Dineir, with branches to Odemish, Tireh, Sokia, Denizli, Ishekli, Seidi Keui and Bouja, constructed and worked by an English company.
There are two competing routes for the eastern trade - one running inland from Constantinople (Haidar Pasha), the other from Smyrna.
The first is connected by ferry with the European railway system; the second with the great sea routes from Smyrna to Trieste, Marseilles and Liverpool.
in Pamphylia and the Smyrna district, are of very recent importation; but most of them belong by blood to the indigenous races.
In and near Smyrna there are large colonies of Hellenes.
(c) The Jews live chiefly on the Bosporus; and in Smyrna, Rhodes, Brusa and other western towns.
Their strange sculptures and inscriptions have been found at Pteria, Euyuk, Fraktin, Kiz Hissar (Tyana), Ivriz, Bulgar, Muden and other places between Smyrna and the 1 The people, Moslem and Christian, are physically one and appear to be closely related to the modern Armenians.
Anatolia 1 Archipelago, 2 Bigha, 3 Brusa, 4 Aidin (Smyrna) 5 Ismid, 6 Kastamuni, 7 Angora.
That is, Acts was probably current in Antioch and Smyrna not later than c. A.D.
2 In the Homeric epigrams the interest turns sometimes on the characteristics of particular localities - Smyrna and Cyme (Epigr.
we find a blind poet, a native of Aeolian Smyrna, through which flows the water of the sacred Meles.
The epithet Aeolian implies high antiquity, inasmuch as according to Herodotus Smyrna became Ionian about 688 B.C. Naturally the Ionians had their own version of the story - a version which made Homer come out with the first Athenian colonists.
In it Peisistratus is made to say of himself that he "collected Homer, who was formerly sung in fragments, for the golden poet was a citizen of ours, since we Athenians founded Smyrna."
of Smyrna, and 50 m.
From its situation on the route of the caravans between Smyrna and western Asia on the one hand, and Armenia, Georgia, &c., on the other, the city became a place of extensive trade, and its bazaars are well stocked with the merchandise of both Europe and the East.
Afium contains several mosques (one of them a very handsome building), and is the seat of an Armenian bishop. The town is connected by railway with Smyrna, Konia, Angora and Constantinople.
SABBATAI SEBI (1626-1676), Jewish mystic, whose Messianic claims produced an unparalleled sensation throughout the world, was born in Smyrna.
Sabbatai's father (Mordecai) was the Smyrna agent for an English house, and often heard of the expectations of the English Fifth Monarchy men.
Threatened with excommunication by the Rabbis of Jerusalem, Sabbatai returned to Smyrna (autumn of 1665).
Cinna's chief work was a mythological epic poem called Smyrna, the subject of which was the incestuous love of Smyrna (or Myrrha) for her father Cinyras, treated after the manner of the Alexandrian poets.
Most of the literature of the sub-apostolic age is epistolary, and we have a particularly interesting form of epistle in the communications between churches (as distinct from individuals) known as the First Epistle of Clement (Rome to Corinth), the Martyrdom of Polycarp (Smyrna to Philomelium), and the Letters of the Churches of Vienne andLyons (to the congregations of Asia Minor and Phrygia) describing the Gallican martyrdoms of A.D.
The proof of this is found, partly in the fact that he tried to establish relations with Polycarp of Smyrna, from whom he got a sharp rebuff, partly in a legend to the effect that towards the end of his life he sought readmission to the Church.
Ephesus contested stoutly with Smyrna and Pergamum the honour of being called the first city of Asia; each city appealed to Rome, and we still possess rescripts in which the emperors endeavoured to mitigate the bitterness of the rivalry.
MAXIMUS OF SMYRNA, a Greek philosopher of the Neoplatonist school, who lived towards the end of the 4th century A.D.
The exports are olive oil, grain and wood, and a fleet of fishing-boats supplies Constantinople and Smyrna with fish; the exports in 1902 were valued at £987,070, and the imports at £336,693.
Pergamum continued to rank for two centuries as the capital, and subsequently, with Ephesus and Smyrna, as one of the three great cities of the province; and the devotion of its former kings to the Roman cause was continued by its citizens, who erected on the Acropolis a magnificent temple to Augustus.
Administratively, the reserve formations of Smyrna, and both the active (VIII.
Corps and the Damascus and Smyrna reserves and scattered as it was, can hardly be credited with more than 200,000 of its nominal 340,000, of whom no more than 50,000 combatants were in fact ever assembled on one battlefield.
In 146 Galen began the study of medicine, and in about his twentieth year he left Pergamus for Smyrna, in order to place himself under the instruction of the anatomist and physician Pelops, and of the peripatetic philosopher Albinus.
The bags are then sealed up, packed in oblong or circular baskets and sent to Smyrna or other ports on mules.
About three-quarters of the opium prepared in Turkey is produced in Anatolia, and is exported by way of Smyrna, and the remainder is produced in the hilly districts of the provinces near the southern coast of the Black Sea, and finds its way into Constantinople, the commercial varieties bearing the name of the district where they are produced.
The Smyrna varieties include the produce of Afium Karahissar, Uschak, Akhissar, Taoushanli, Isbarta, Konia, Bulvadan, Hamid, Magnesia and Yerli, the last name being applied to opium collected in the immediate neighbour " hood of Sm y rna.
Smaller quantities grown in Teheran, Tabriz and Kermanshah find their way to Smyrna, where it is said to be mixed with the local drug for the European market, the same practice being carried on at Constantinople with the Persian opium that arrives there from Samsun and Trebizond.
A much-frequented "halfsea" route led through it to the Lycus and Maeander valleys, and so to Ephesus and Smyrna.
He was then appointed consul at Algiers and Smyrna (1798), was kept prisoner by the Turks for three years, and subsequently became prefect of the department of Mont-Tonnerre (180t) and commissary-general of the three departments on the left bank of the Rhine.
14.4), he was the son of the Syrian king Theias by his daughter Smyrna (Myrrha), who had been inspired by Aphrodite with unnatural love.
An important element in the story is the connexion of Adonis with the boar, which (according to one version) brings him into the world by splitting with his tusk the bark of the tree into which Smyrna was changed, and finally kills him.
" lord"), ruler of the Greek kingdom of Syria 150-146 B.C., was a native of Smyrna of humble origin, but gave himself out to be the son of Antiochus IV.
In 1853 he went on personal business to Smyrna, where he secured a passport from the American consul;; the Austrian consul, however, caused him to be seized and detained on an Austrian brig-of-war.
Ingraham (1802-1891), in command of a United States sloop-of-war, arrived at Smyrna, and threatened to attack the Austrian vessel unless Koszta were released; and as a compromise Koszta was placed in the custody of the French consul.
Live stock, principally sheep, pass through Gallipoli in transit to Constantinople and Smyrna.
in the Kutaiah sanjak of the Brusa vilayet, situated in a fertile district, on a tributary of the Menderes, and connected with Smyrna and Konia by rail.
They were supposed to have founded many towns, amongst them Smyrna, Ephesus, Sinope, Paphos.
His childhood was spent in Asia Minor, probably at or near Smyrna; for he himself tells us (Adv.
20) that as a child he heard the preaching of Polycarp, the aged bishop of Smyrna (d.
They were cut off from the sea by the Greeks, who were in possession, not only of the Bay of Smyrna, but also of the country north of Sipylus as far as Temnus in the pass (boghaz), through which the Hermus forces its way from the plain of Magnesia into its lower valley.
The preHellenic cities of the coast - Smyrna, Samorna (Ephesus), Myrina, Cyme, Priene and Pitane - were all of Amazonian origin, and the first three of them have the same name as the Amazon Myrina, whose tomb was pointed out in the Troad.
Alyattes, the grandson of Ardys, finally succeeded in extirpating the Cimmerii, as well as in taking Smyrna, and thus providing his kingdom with a port.
SMYRNA (Ismir), in ancient times one of the most important and now by far the greatest of the cities of Asia Minor, has preserved an unbroken continuity of record and identity of name from the first dawn of history to the present time.
The name, which is said to be derived from an Amazon called Smyrna, is indubitably Anatolian, having been applied also to a quarter of Ephesus, and (under the cognate form Myrina) to a city of Aeolis, and to a tumulus in the Troad.
The Aeolic settlers of Lesbos and Cyme, pushing eastwards by Larissa and Neonteichus and over the Hermus, seized the valley of Smyrna.
It is therefore not surprising that the Aeolic element grew weaker; strangers or refugees from the Ionian Colophon settled in the city, and finally Smyrna passed into the hands of the Colophonians and became the thirteenth of the Ionian states.
The change had taken place before 688, when the Ionian Onomastus of Smyrna won the boxing prize at Olympia, but it was probably then a recent event.
The Aeolic form of the name, /piipva, was retained even in the Attic dialect, and the epithet "Aeolian Smyrna" remained long after the conquest.
The situation of Smyrna on the path of comir.erce between Lydia and the west raised it during the 7th century to the height of power and splendour.
long and 2 broad, where Smyrna lies between the mountains and the sea.
Miletus, and later Ephesus, situated at the sea end of the other great trade route across Anatolia, competed for a time successfully with Smyrna, but both cities long ago lost their harbours and Smyrna remains without a rival.
When the Mermnad kings raised the Lydian power and aggressiveness Smyrna was one of the first points of attack.
Gyges (c. 687-652) was, however, defeated on the banks of the Hermus; the situation of the battlefield shows that the power of Smyrna extended far to the E., and probably included the valley of Nymphi (Nif).
A strong fortress, the ruins of whose ancient and massive walls are still imposing, on a hill in the pass between Smyrna and Nymphi, was probably built by the Smyrnaean Ionians to command the valley of Nymphi.
According to Theognis (about Soo B.C.), " pride destroyed Smyrna."
(609-560) conquered the city, and Smyrna for 300 years lost its place in the list of Greek cities.
Alexander the Great conceived the idea of restoring the Greek city; the two Nemeses who were worshipped at Smyrna are said to have suggested the idea to him in a dream.
The "crown of Smyrna" seems to have been an epithet applied to the acropolis with its circle of buildings.
Smyrna is shut in on the W.
Smyrna possessed two harbours - the outer, which was simply the open roadstead of the gulf, and the inner, which was a small basin, with a narrow entrance closed by a rope in case of need, about the place now occupied by bazaars.
Cybele, worshipped under the name of Meter Sipylene, from Mt Sipylus, which bounds the Smyrna valley on the N., was the tutelar goddess of the city.
The river Meles,which flowed by Smyrna, is famous in literature and was worshipped in the valley.
The most common and consistent tradition connects Homer with the valley of Smyrna and the banks of the Meles; his figure was one of the stock types on Smyrnaean coins, one class of which was called Homerian; the epithet "Melesigenes" was applied to him; the cave where he was wont to compose his poems was shown near the source of the river; his temple, the Homereum, stood on its banks.
In the Roman period Smyrna was the seat of a conventus which included S.
Polycarp was bishop of Smyrna and was martyred there A.D.
The bishops of Smyrna were originally subject to the metropolitan of Ephesus; afterwards they became independent (ai ro?
lost in importance, and Smyrna declined apace.
A Turkish freebooter named Tsacha seized Smyrna in '1084, but it was recovered by the generals of Alexius Comnenus.
The Mongol conquest was only temporary, but Smyrna was resumed by the Seljuks of Aidin and has remained till the present day in Mahommedan hands.
From the early 17th century till 1825, Smyrna was the chief provincial factory of the British Turkey Company, as well as of French, Dutch and other trading corporations.
The passages with gates at each end within which most Frank shops in modern Smyrna lie, are a survival of the semi-fortified residences of the European merchants.
Until 1894 the two railways from Smyrna to the interior belonged to British companies; but in 1897 the Smyrna-Alashehr line passed into the hands of a French syndicate, which completed an extension to Afium Kara-hissar and virtually (though not actually) effected a junction with the Anatolian railway system.
Modern Smyrna is in all but government a predominantly Christian town (hence the Turks know it as giaour Is y nir).
Smyrna is a headquarters of missions of all denominations and has good schools, of which the International College is the best.
See general authorities for Asia Minor, especially the travellers, almost all of whom describe Smyrna.
They are most numerous at Constantinople, Angora and Smyrna.
The Turkish-speaking Armenians of the south could scarcely converse with the Armenian-speaking people of the north; and the ignorant mountaineers of the east had nothing in common, except religion, with the highly educated townsmen of Constantinople and Smyrna.
Smyrna, originally an Aeolic colony, was afterwards occupied by Ionians from Colophon, and became an Ionian city, - an event which had taken place before the time of Herodotus.
Of these the most lofty and striking were Mimas and Corycus, in the peninsula which stands out to the west, facing the island of Chios; Sipylus, to the north of Smyrna; Corax, extending to the south-west from the Gulf of Smyrna, and descending to the sea between Lebedus and Teos; and the strongly marked range of Mycale, a continuation of Messogis in the interior, which forms the bold headland of Trogilium or Mycale, opposite Samos.
The district comprised three extremely fertile valleys formed by the outflow of three rivers, among the most considerable in Asia Minor: the Hermus in the north, flowing into the Gulf of Smyrna, though at some distance from the city of that name; the Cayster, which flowed under the walls of Ephesus; and the Maeander, which in ancient times discharged its waters into the deep gulf that once bathed the walls of Miletus, but which has been gradually filled up by this river's deposits.
With the advantage of a peculiarly fine climate, for which this part of Asia Minor has been famous in all ages, Ionia enjoyed the reputation in ancient times of being the most fertile of all the rich provinces of Asia Minor; and even in modern times, though very imperfectly cultivated, it produces abundance of fruit of all kinds, and the raisins and figs of Smyrna supply almost all the markets of Europe.
Ephesus, though it did not send out any colonies of importance, from an early period became a flourishing city and attained to a position corresponding in some measure to that of Smyrna at the present day.
This event may be referred to the middle of the 7th century B.C. About 700 B.C. Gyges, first Mermnad king of Lydia, invaded the territories of Smyrna and Miletus, and is said to have taken Colophon as his son Ardys did Priene.
Theodore refused to attend or recognize the new council, and was banished first to Bithynia and thence to Smyrna, whence he continued to address his appeals to the pope, to the eastern patriarchs and to his dispersed monks.
The town is connected by the lines of the Anatolian railway company with Haidar Pasha, the western terminus, and with Angora, Konia and Smyrna.
Sherard, British consul at Smyrna, containing the preamble and the beginning of the tables down to No.
gummifer, and is collected in Asia Minor, the chief port of shipment being Smyrna.
Smyrna was competed in Oct 1876 and launched as a wool clipper for the Australian trading market.
revelation chapter 2 verse 10, the church at Smyrna: ' Be faithful unto death ' - what a demand!
In historic times it was applied to the inhabitants of (I) Attica, where some believed the Ionians to have originated; (2) parts of Euboea; (3) the Cycladic islands, except Melos and Thera; (4) a section of the west coast of Asia Minor, from the gulf of Smyrna to that of Iasus (see Ionia); (5) colonies from ' any of the foregoing, notably in Thrace, Propontis and Pontus in the west, and in Egypt (Naucratis, Daphnae); some authorities have found traces of an ancient Ionian population in (6) north-eastern Peloponnese.
Many British manufactures are imported by indirect routes, through Smyrna, Constantinople, Beyrout and other places.
When Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, was martyred (A.D.
The general monetary confusion is greatly intensified by the fact that the piastre unit varies for almost every province; thus, while the pound at Constantinople is counted at 108 piastres silver, it is at about 127 piastres for one kind of transaction and 180 for another in Smyrna, 135 piastres at Adrianople, 140 at Jerusalem, and so forth, accounts being kept in " abusive piastres," which exist no longer.
It is enumerated as third, after Ephesus and Smyrna, in the list of cities of the Thracesian thema given by Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the 10th century; but in the actual history of the next four centuries it plays a part very inferior to Magnesia ad Sipylum and Philadelphia (see ALA-Shehe), which have retained their pre-eminence in the district.
Over and above the general criticism, which may now be said to have been completely answered by the investigations of Zahn, Lightfoot and Harnack, one or two special arguments have been brought against the Epistle to Polycarp. Ussher, for instance, while accepting the other six epistles, rejected this on the ground that Jerome says that Ignatius only sent one letter to Smyrna - a mistake due to his misinterpretation of Eusebius.
On the 28th of May 585, during a battle on the Halys between him and Cyaxares, king of Media, an eclipse of the sun took place; hostilities were suspended, peace concluded, and the Halys fixed as the boundary between the two kingdoms. Alyattes drove the Cimmerii (see Scythia) from Asia, subdued the Carians, and took several Ionian cities (Smyrna, Colophon).
He then travelled in France and Italy, and in a voyage from Leghorn to Smyrna gave proofs of great personal bravery during an attack made by an Algerine pirate.
Smyrna was devoted to the Phrygian Meter Sipylene.
With delirious joy the Jews of Smyrna - men, women and children - fell down and worshipped.
Revelation chapter 2 verse 10, the church at Smyrna: ' Be faithful unto death ' - what a demand !
Julia Fiona Roberts was born on October 28, 1967 in Smyrna, Georgia.
The military was now able to place the lost planes over the ocean, east of New Smyrna Beach in Florida (approximately 230 miles North of Ft. Lauderdale).
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.