Smelting sentence example
The smelting and refining of the metal ores is also an important industry.
The mines once produced 3000 tons of metal annually, copper smelting being largely carried on, but have now almost ceased working.
In this part of the township a copper mine was worked between 1705 and 1745, and smelting and refining works were built in 1721.
The principal industry is the smelting and refining of lead, and the smelting works are among the most interesting sights of the city.
In Roman times, and until 1900, however, owing to lack of fuel, the smelting was done on the mainland.Advertisement
Small up to the beginning of the 19th century, Holywell has increasingly prospered, thanks to lime quarries, lead, copper and zinc mines, smelting works, a shot manufactory, copper, brass, iron and zinc works; brewing, tanning and mineral water, flannel and cement works.
Shaft furnace smelting is confined to those parts of the world where charcoal can still be obtained in large quantities at moderate prices.
Copper smelting has been carried on in or near the town since 1584 when the Mines Royal Society set up works at Neath Abbey; the industry attained huge proportions a century later under Sir Humphrey Mackworth, who from 16 9 5 carried on copper and lead smelting at Melincrythan.
The chief industrial establishments are smelting furnaces for cobalt, meat-preserving works at Ouaco, sugar-works and distilleries at Noumea and La Foa, tobacco, oil and soap factories at Noumea.
As ores of zinc are usually shipped before smelting from widely separated places - Sweden, Spain, Algiers, Italy, Greece, Australia and the Rocky Mountains region of North America - it is important that they be separated from their mixtures at the mines.Advertisement
When used for ore smelting, the reduced metal and the accompanying slag were to be caught, after leaving the arc and while still liquid, in a hearth fired with ordinary fuel.
A smelting plant was erected in the vicinity of Cerro de Pasco designed to treat moo tons of ore daily, a railway was built to Oroya to connect with the state line terminating at that point, and a branch line 62 m.
In addition to the smelting works at Cerro de Pasco there are other large works at Casapalca, between Oroya and Lima, which belong to a British company, and smaller plants at Huallanca and Huinac. The production of copper is steadily increasing, the returns for 1903 being 9497 tons and for 1906 13,474 tons, valued respectively at £476,824 and £996,055.
His reports on smelting and assaying were remarkable for their detail and for the comparisons drawn between Swedish and other methods.
The other volumes dealt with (a) iron and steel, (b) copper and brass, their smelting, conversion and assaying, and chemical experiments thereon.Advertisement
Considerable progress has been made in manufacturing industries, and there are a large number of sugar-mills, cotton factories, woollen mills, smelting works and iron and steel works.
It was at one time proposed to treat the concentrated black iron obtained in the Ural gold washings, which consists chiefly of magnetite, as an iron ore, by smelting it with charcoal for auriferous pigiron, the latter metal possessing the property of dissolving gold in considerable quantity.
This is smelted with rich gold ores, notably those containing tellurium, for white metal or regulus; and by a following process of partial reduction analogous to that of selecting in copper smelting, " bottoms " of impure copper are obtained in which practically all the gold is concentrated.
Calcination in reverberatory furnaces and a subsequent smelting in the same type of furnace with the addition of about 3% of coal, lime, soda and fluorspar, has been adopted for treating the Bolivian ores, which generally contain the sulphides of bismuth, copper, iron, antimony, lead and a little silver.
Ores containing the oxide and carbonate are treated either by smelting with carbon or by a wet process.Advertisement
It possesses smelting works and a school of mining.
Other local industries of some importance include smelting, and manufactures of beds, furniture, railway carriages, matches, paper, sweets and woollen and cotton goods.
There are blast furnaces in the neighbouring parish of Asfordby for the smelting of the abundant supply of iron ore in the district.
In Mexico, Colombia and Peru the cutting of friable stone with tough volcanic hammers and chisels, as well as rude metallurgy, obtained, but the evidences of smelting are not convincing.
No evidence of smelting ores with fluxes is offered, but casting from metal melted in open fires is assumed.Advertisement
It is the centre of the mining district of Upper Silesia, and its population is mainly engaged in such operations and in iron and zinc smelting.
With the exception of the smelting and refining of copper, manufacturing is in Montana a decidedly minor industry.
He visited all parts of the country himself, and personally encouraged agriculture; he introduced a more economical mode of mining and smelting silver; he favoured the importation of finer breeds of sheep and cattle; and he brought foreign weavers from abroad to teach the Saxons.
An improvement was shown only in the position of employees in smelting works, otherwise a deterioration is to be observed everywhere, most markedly in the textile industry.
There are ship and boat building yards, engineering works, lead and copper smelting works, cement works and brick and tile works.Advertisement
Bernburg is the seat of considerable industry, manufacturing machinery and boilers, sugar, pottery and chemicals, and has lead and zinc smelting.
These inducements have attracted large sums of foreign capital and have brought into the country large numbers of skilled operatives, especially in the cotton, iron and steel, and smelting industries.
Smelting, brewing and iron-founding are also carried on, as well as the manufacture of portable steam-engines, and iron ore is raised in the vicinity.
Minerals.In 1619 the erection of works for smelting the ores of iron was begun at Falling Creek, near Jamestown, Va., and iron appears to have been made in 1620; but the enterprise was stopped by a general massacre of the settlers in that region.
In 1643 the business of smelting and manufacturing iron was begun at Lynn, Mass., where it was successfully carried on, at least up to 1671, furnishing most of the iron used in the colony.Advertisement
From the middle of the 17th century the smelting of this metal began to be of importance in Massachusetts Bay and vicinity, and by the close of the century there had been a large number of ironworks established in that colony, which, for a century after its settlement, was the chief seat of the iron manufacture in America, bog ores, taken from the bottom of the ponds, being chiefly used.
Until the completion of the Union Pacific in 1869 there was no smelting of such ores except for their silver contents.
The principal industries are the smelting of zinc and the manufacture of cement, rolled zinc, bricks, sulphuric acid and clocks; in 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $3,158,173.
Antofagasta is the seaport for a railway running to Oruro, Bolivia, and is the only available outlet for the trade of the south-western departments of that republic. The smelting works for the neighbouring silver mines are located here, and a thriving trade with the inland mining towns is carried on.
On the plateau of Tarnowitz the working and smelting of metals is the predominant industry, and in the neighbourhood of Beuthen, Konigshiitte and Gleiwitz there is an almost endless succession of iron-works, zincfoundries, machine-shops and the like.Advertisement
That this process did not depend upon electrolysis, but was simply an instance of electrical smelting or the decomposition of an oxide by means of carbon at the temperature of the electric arc, is shown by the fact that the Cowles furnace would work with an alternating current.
In the Carboniferous Limestone series, the purer kinds of limestone are used for the manufacture of lime, bleaching powder and similar products, also as a flux in the smelting of iron; some of the less pure varieties are used in making cement.
The mineral resources of Holland give no encouragement to industrial activity, with the exception of the coal-mining in Limburg, the smelting of iron ore in a few furnaces in Overysel and Gelderland, the use of stone and gravel in the making of dikes and roads, and of clay in brickworks and potteries, the quarrying of stone at St Pietersberg, &c. Nevertheless the industry of the country has developed in a remarkable manner since the separation from Belgium.
Thus, if the use of ores very much poorer than those we now treat, and the need of concentrating them mechanically, were to double the cost of a pound of iron in the concentrated ore ready for smelting, that would increase the cost of rails by only one quarter.
In smelting the rich Lake Superior ores the quantity of slag made was formerly as small as 28% of that of the pig iron, whereas in smelting the Cleveland ores of Great Britain it is usually necessary to make as much.Advertisement
In the neighbouring Medvenik mountains lead-mining and smelting are carried on by an English company; lead and antimony being also worked at Podgora and other places in the same department.
Anthracite and steam-coal from the collieries of the coast and along the Loughor Valley are exported from the extensive docks; and there are also large works for the smelting of copper and the manufacture of tin plates.
In 1905 there were produced 2774 tons of dressed lead ore, of the value of £25,823, yielding 2167 tons of lead in smelting and 11,409 oz.
In 1901 the number of persons engaged in working of the raw material was 23,263, of whom 8258 were employed in steel smelting and founding, 7781 at blast furnaces in the manufacture of pig-iron, and 7224 at puddling furnaces and rolling mills.
The counts of Mansfeld, who, many years before, had started the mining industry, made a practice of building and letting out for hire small furnaces for smelting the ore.Advertisement
The difficulty of smelting the ore was probably one reason for this, as well as the now forgotten skill which enabled bronze to be tempered to a steel-like edge.
The indigenous methods of smelting the ore, which are everywhere the same, and have been handed down unchanged through countless generations, yield a metal of the finest quality in a form well suited to native wants.
The process adopted for the Canadian ores, which are poor in copper and nickel, consists in a preliminary roasting in heaps and smelting in a blast furnace in order to obtain a matte, which is then further smelted with a siliceous flux for a rich matte.
In the neighbourhood are mines of argentiferous copper, and the surrounding district and villages are occupied with smelting and similar works.
The city's industrial establishments include smelting works and a large number of reduction works, among which are some of the largest and most important in the republic. It was here that Bartolome de Medina discovered the "patio" process of reducing silver ores with quicksilver in 1 557, and his old hacienda de beneficio is still to be seen.
Of the total product in 1905 more than four-fifths were represented by the smelting of lead, copper and zinc ores, the manufacture of iron and steel, the production of coke, and the refining of petroleum.
The great South Wales coalfield, one of the largest in the kingdom, covers the greater part of Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire, the south-eastern corner of Carmarthenshire, and a small portion of south Pembrokeshire, and the quality of its coal is especially suitable for smelting purposes and for use in steamships.
The dry method, or ordinary smelting, cannot be profitably practised with ores containing less than 4% of copper, for which and for still poorer ores the wet process is preferred.
The " American process " or " Pyritic smelting " consists in the direct smelting of raw ores to matte in blast furnaces.
The " Welsh process " closely resembles the English method; the main difference consists in the enrichment of the matte by smelting with the rich copper-bearing slags obtained in subsequent operations.
The " AngloGerman Process " is a combination of the two preceding, and consists in smelting the calcined ores in shaft furnaces, concentrating the matte in reverberatory furnaces, and smelting to coarse-metal in either.
The home of cupola smelting was Germany, where it has never ceased to make steady progress.
Lyell smelting works in Tasmania, which are of special interest, will be referred to later.
One of the earliest and most exhaustive series of experiments was made on Rio Tinto ores at the John Brown works by John Hollway, with the aim of both smelting the ore and concentrating the matte in the same furnace, by the heat evolved through the oxidation of their sulphur and iron.
Pyritic smelting is a development of the Russian engineer Semenikov's treatment (proposed in 1866) of copper matte in a Bessemer converter.
Since John Hollway's and other early experiments of Lawrence Austin and Robert Sticht, no serious attempts have been made to utilize the heat escaping from a converting vessel in smelting ore and matte either in the same apparatus or in a separate furnace.
But considerable progress has been made in smelting highly sulphuretted ores by the heat of their own oxidizable constituents.
When, however, a hot blast is used on highly sulphuretted copper ores, a concentration of 8 of ore into i of matte is obtained, with a consumption of less than one-third the fuel which would be consumed in smelting the charge had the ore been previously calcined.
The largest establishment in which advantage is taken of the self-contained fuel is at the smelting works of the Mt.
Pyritic smelting has met with a varying economic success.
Modern methods in copper smelting and refining have effected enormous economy in time, space, and labour, and have consequently increased the world's output.
With pyritic smelting a sulphuretted copper ore, fed into a cupola in the morning, can be passed directly to the converter, blown up to metal, and shipped as 99% bars by evening - an operation which formerly, with heap roasting of the ore and repeated roasting of the mattes in stalls, would have occupied not less than four months.
The population of Chile is largely concentrated in the twelve agricultural provinces between and including Coquimbo and Concepcion, though the next six provinces to the south, of more recent general settlement, have received some foreign immigrants, and are rapidly growing, In the desert provinces the population is limited to the mining communities, and to the ports and supply stations maintained for their support and for the transport, smelting and export of their produce.
Nineteen of the 54 steamers belonged to a subsidized national line whose West Coast service once extended to San Francisco, California, and a large part of the others belongs to a Lota coal-mining and copper-smelting company which employs them in carrying coal to the northern ports and bringing back, metallic ores for smelting.
The development of the coal deposits in the provinces of Concepcion and Arauco has made possible other industries besides those of smelting mineral ores, and numerous small manufacturing establishments have resulted, especially in Santiago, Valparaiso, Copiapo and other places where no permanent water power exists.
The industries include brewing, shipbuilding, copper and iron-founding, carriagebuilding and fellmongery; there are boot factories, engineering works, biscuit factories and smelting works at Cockle Creek.
The modern development of the port dates from about the middle of the 18th century when coal began to be extensively worked at Llansamlet and copper smelting (begun at Swansea in 1717, though at Neath it dated from 1584) assumed large proportions.
Copper smelting, which during most of the 19th century was the chief industry, has not maintained its relative importance, though Swansea is still the chief seat of the trade, but three-fourths of the tinplates manufactured in Great Britain and nineteen-twentieths of the spelter or zinc are made in the Swansea district, and its tube works are also the largest in the kingdom.
Of the total product in 1905 the product of the principal industry, the smelting and refining of copper ($22,761,981), represented 81.1%; it was 9.4% of all the smelting and refining of copper done in the United States in that year.
The surrounding district, to which it gives its name, abounds in ironmines, and iron founding and smelting are the most important branches of industry in and near the town.
Among its manufactories are woollen mills, smelting works, brass and iron foundries, a steel producing plant, sawmills, flour-mills, breweries, and a carriage and wagon factory.
As any given region is opened up by railways, cheapening transportation, milling is apt to give way to smelting.
America and Mexico, while in the United States it has to a considerable extent been replaced by smelting.
The leading single industry in the state in 1905, as determined by the value of its products, was the smelting and refining of copper.
In 1905 there were about 38,000 men engaged in the various mines, besides 33 00 employed in smelting.
The Broken Hill Proprietary Company owns the principal mine, and at Port Pixie in the neighbouring colony of South Australia erected a complete smelting plant; the problem of the recovery of the zinc contents of the ore having been satisfactorily solved, the company made extensive additions to the plant already erected, and in 1906 the manufacture of spelter was undertaken.
In the north of the field, where the limestone crops out and supplies the necessary flux, Merthyr Tydfil has become great through iron-smelting; and in the west Swansea is the chief centre in the world for copper and tin smelting.
However long before it may have been known to a few, the use of coal for smelting iron did not become general till the later part of the 18th century, and down to that time, iron-working was confined to districts where timber was available for the supply of the smelting medium, charcoal.
The smelting of lead and zinc and the manufacture of paper, lumber, sheet metal and bricks are among the city's industries.
The decrease in output and value is largely due to the lower price of lead in the market and the higher smelting rate.
This predominance was largely due to the smelting and refining industry, the smelters being chiefly in the rural districts.
Tin mining and smelting have been largely carried on in the neighbourhood, and several galleries were worked far under the sea.
Lime-kilns and the manufacture of cement, and smelting and iron works are carried on in the environs.
In the Joplin mining region a considerable amount of ores is smelted, but the bulk of the ores is sent into Kansas for smelting.
The chief industries of the town are iron casting, copper and lead smelting, cannon founding, the manufacture of furniture and carriages, liqueur distilling, lithographing and printing.
Lesser manufacturing interests are railway shop construction (value in 1905, $11,521,144); zinc smelting and refining (value in 1905, $10,999,468); the manufacture of cheese, butter and condensed milk (value in 1905, $3,94 6, 349); and of foundry and machine shop products (value in 1905, $3,756,825).
Until 1830 the fur-trade, controlled largely by John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company, continued to be the predominating interest in the Wisconsin region, but then the growing lead mining industry began to overshadow the fur-trade, and in the mining region towns and smelting furnaces were rapidly built.
The principal iron ores are the oxides and carbonates, and these readily yield the metal by smelting with carbon.
Still more difficult is it to make this distinction when we read of the mythical Dactyls of Ida in Crete or the Telchines or Cyclopes being acquainted with the smelting of It is not, however, likely that later Greek writers, who knew bronze in its true sense, and called it XaXK6, would have employed this word without qualification for objects which they had seen unless they had meant it to be taken as bronze.
There are about 50o coke ovens in operation at Fernie, which supply most of the smelting plants in southern British Columbia with fuel.
It is the capital of the Altai mining districts, and besides smelting furnaces possesses glassworks, a bell-foundry and a mint.
The Mount Zeehan and Dundas districts produce almost the whole of the silver at the present time, and most of the ore is sold to agents of the Australian and German smelting works.
Where the operation is simply one of fusion, as in the ironfounder's cupola, in which there is no very great change in volume in the materials on their descent to the tuyeres, the stack is nearly or quite straight-sided; but when, as is the case with the smelting of iron ores with limestone flux, a large proportion of volatile matter has to be removed in the process, a wall of varying inclination is used, so that the body of the furnace is formed of two dissimilar truncated cones, joined by their bases, the lower one passing downwards into a short, nearly cylindrical, position.
Originally the term cupola was used for the reverberatory furnace, but in the course of time it has changed its meaning, and is now given to a small blast furnace such as that used by iron-founders - reverberatory smelting furnaces in the same trade being called air furnaces.
To obtain the rare, pure copper requires smelting, leaching, or electrolysis.
The smelting too would have been handled by small scale crucibles - probably fuelled by charcoal.
In its industrial heyday 90% of Britain's copper smelting capacity was located within a 20 mile radius of Swansea.
Because of the iron smelting, a secondary industry of gunpowder manufacture was also found within this locale.
Methods of raising and smelting ore are of interest.
No person could keep ' first smelting ' tin for more than 14 days unless it had been officially stamped.
The term "cobalt" is met with in the writings of Paracelsus, Agricola and Basil Valentine, being used to denote substances which, although resembling metallic ores, gave no metal on smelting.
So highly developed indeed were the Magyar methods of smelting, that Louis XI.
The reactions are strictly analogous to those which occur in the smelting of galena (see Lead), the carbon reducing any oxide, either present originally in the ore or produced in the calcination, and the iron combining with the sulphur of the bismuthite.
Lead smelting and refining (by one establishment) was the most important industry in 1905; lumber, timber and planing mill products, valued at $3,407,951, were produced in that year, and flour and grist mill products, valued at $2,293,587.
As these richest ores are exhausted, poorer and poorer ones will be used, and the cost of iron will increase progressively if measured either in units of the actual energy used in mining and smelting it, or in its power of purchasing animal and vegetable products, cotton, wool, corn, &c., the supply of which is renewable and indeed capable of very great increase, but probably not if measured in its power of purchasing the various mineral products, e.g.
In the Alps and the Danube valley some of the Celts had dwelt from the Stone Age; there they had developed the working of copper, discovered bronze (an alloy of copper and tin), and the art of smelting iron (see Hallstatt).
The silver is extracted from the gangue with the base metal, usually by smelting, and the two are then separated by special processes (see Lead).
Iron has been worked from time immemorial by the Negroid peoples, and whole tribes are found whose chief industry is the smelting and forging of the metal.
The size of the slag cakes is related to the size of the smelting furnaces, which must have been quite large.
The invention of huge blast furnaces, capable of smelting iron, was the first step toward making of the new weapons of war.
There were two types of hearths found in smelting mills.
Just as with iron, smelting the metal from the ore required a furnace.
The existing power station supplies electricity directly to the metal smelting plant Anglesey Aluminum in Holyhead.
Now, however, we have reason to believe that secondary smelting also took place in the Phorades workshop.
This could produce 20 to 30 times more iron than the previous method of smelting using bloomeries.
The ore was then crushed with stones ready for smelting in granite furnaces fired with wood.
The smelting of the ore had a dramatic effect on the countryside.
The first great impulse given to Birmingham was the substitution of coal for wood in the smelting of iron.
The mining, processing and smelting of metals, has left a legacy of pollution, despoilation and hazards throughout the orefield.
The smelting of copper from the sulfide ore, a bright green and very soft mineral, was demonstrated.
Sir John Gell had been smelting earlier than 1633, when he was sued by a former employe.
Color is added to the powder before smelting or afterward during the cooling process.
The returns from the copper fields in the state are at present a little over half a million sterling per annum, and would be still greater if it were not for the lack of suitable fuel for smelting purposes, which renders the economical treatment of the ore difficult; the development of the mines is also retarded by the want of easy and cheaper communication with the coast.
Elba was famous for its mines in early times, and the smelting furnaces gave it its Greek name of A' OaNia ("soot island").
The bulk of the sulphur mines are in Sicily, while the majority of the lead and zinc mines are in Sardinia; much of the lead smelting is done at Pertusola, near Genoa, the company formed for this purpose having acquired many of the Sardinian mines.
The copper industry has greatly declined since the 18th century; whereas then it kept 20 smelting works employed, now one-tenth of that number can hardly be kept going.
Ironstone is not extensively wrought, but, on account of the abundant supply of coal, large quantities are imported for smelting purposes.
There are smelting furnaces in several districts, as at Alfreton, Chesterfield, Derby, Ilkeston.
It has cotton factories, smelting works, potteries, tanneries, distilleries, and wagon and tobacco factories.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1
The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin, either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is mentioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.).
Here is situated the Dreher brewery, the largest in the monarchy; and there are also important smelting and iron works, cotton-spinning, factories of electrical plant, &c. The meeting at Schwechat of the emperor Leopold I.
In 1888 the Dowlais Iron Company (now Messrs Guest, Keen & Nettlefold, Ltd.) acquired here some ninety acres on which were built four blast furnaces and six Siemens' smelting furnaces.
In smelting at once in the same blast-furnace ores of different character, the old use of separate processes of precipitation, roasting and reduction, and general reduction prevailing in the Harz Mountains, Freiberg and other places, to suit local conditions, has been abandoned.
The smelting zone always has a bosh and a contracted tuyere section.
While the furnace is running the crucible and channel remain filled with lead; all the lead reduced to the metallic state in smelting collects in the crucible, and rising in the channel, overflows into the basin, whence it is removed.
The cost of smelting a ton of ore in Colorado in a single furnace, 42 by 120 in.
The zinc and some lead are oxidized; part of the zinc passes off with the fumes, part is dissolved by the litharge, forming a melted mixture which is skimmed off and reduced in a blast-furnace or a reverberatory smelting furnace.
The Mineral Industry, begun in 1892, annually records the progress made in lead smelting.
The value of the mining (except salt) and smelting production in Hungary amounted in 1900 to £4,500,000, while in 1877 the value was only £I,50o,000.
The number of persons employed in mining and smelting works was (1900 census) 70,476.
There is, however, one (not insuperable) drawback in the use of the electric furnace for the smelting of pure metals.
The manufacture of felt hats (product, 1905, $4,586,040, Newark ranking third in this industry among the cities of the United States), carriages, chairs and jewelry (an industry established about 1830; product, 1905, $9,258,095), developed rapidly early in the 19th century, and there are extensive manufactories of malt liquors (product, 1905, $10,917,003), and of clothing (product, 1905, $3,937,138), foundries and machine shops (product, 1905, $6,254,153), and large establishments for smelting and refining lead and copper, the product of the lead smelters and refining establishments being in 1905 the most valuable in the city.
Smelting for neighbouring mines is still carried on, and some of its former trade remains, but the greater part of it has gone to Tocopilla and Antofagasta.
Remains of these smelting furnaces were found among the slag pieces.