In the extreme eastern corner of the Czechoslovak Republic, there is situated a little autonomous region of Russinia (or Sub-Carpathian Russia), which, together with Slovakia, was part and parcel of the Hungarian Kingdom till the Treaty of St.
No orders were given for the evacuation of Slovakia; in Transylvania an impossible shaped line was drawn, such as left Cluj (Kolozsvar) and many pure Rumanian districts in Magyar hands; while the Rumanians were incensed by the assignment of Temesvar (Temisoara) and the whole Banat to Serbia.
It comprises three great natural regions: (1) Bohemia, (2) Moravia and Silesia, (3) Slovakia and Russinia (Sub-Carpathian Russia = Podkarpatskd Rus).
In Bohemia the highest peak Snezka (Schneekoppe) has an altitude of 5,216 ft., in Slovakia the summits of the Carpathians and of the High Tatra rise to a height of between 7,000 and 8,000 ft.
Bratislava (Pressburg), the capital of Slovakia, with its great Danubian harbour, is the gateway of central European trade to the East and the Balkans.
Other towns of importance in the republic are Brno (Briinn), with 200,000 inhabitants, the capital of Moravia, and the centre of an old established and flourishing textile industry; Plzen (Pilsen) with 10o,000 inhabitants, famous for its beer and as the seat of the Skoda iron works; Kosice (Kaschau), the commercial centre of eastern Slovakia; and UThorod (Ungvar), the capital of Russinia.
Above sea-level) in Slovakia, are noted.
Even after the conquest of Slovakia by the Hungarians, which resulted in Slovak territory being separated from Czech territory till they were reunited in 1918, an intellectual connexion between the two branches of the one family was always maintained, and some of the foremost names in Czech literature are those of writers who were Slovaks by birth.
The difference between the Czech language and the language spoken in Slovakia is merely dialectical and the struggle for independence, culminating in the declaration of the Czechoslovak State, has emphasized and developed the sentiment of Czechoslovak unity.
In Slovakia the Slovaks were subjected to a similar system of Magyarization.
The Hungarian census of 1910 purported to show that in Slovakia there were 1,697,552 Slovaks and 901,793 Hungarians.
Two days after the declaration of the independence of the Czechoslovak State, which had been signed also by the representatives of Slovakia, the Slovak National Council issued a "Declaration of the Slovak nation," wherein it was solemnly set forth that the Slovaks in blood, in language and civilization form part of the Czechoslovak nation.
The Hungarians (Magyars) declined to surrender the territories inhabited by Slovaks, and it was necessary to call in the military help of the Czechs before the last Hungarian troops, who had initiated a reign of terror in Slovakia, could be driven out of the land.
Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Slovakia and Russinia, united to form one State with a single central Government having its seat at Prague.
The Popular party, composed of Catholics and recruited largely from Slovakia and the country districts of Moravia, was represented by 33 deputies and 18 senators.
The Czechoslovak Government, between 1918 and 1921, set up some 2,000 additional elementary and some 40 higher schools in Slovakia and Russinia (including 80 new German schools), so that a vast improvement in the educational status of those countries is only a matter of time.
The Protestants number about one million, the largest body being the Evangelical Church in Slovakia with a membership of over 400,000.
The Greek Church in Slovakia and SubCarpathian Russia has a membership of over 500,000, while the Jews number about 350,000.
Without Slovakia the republic would be mainly an industrial State: with it there is a slight preponderance in favour of agriculture, 41-5% of the entire population being occupied on or in connexion with the land and 38% in industry and commerce.
Naphtha wells are working with favourable results at Gbely in Slovakia, and researches in progress at other points (Russinia) promise results that would make Czechoslovakia independent of foreign sources in respect of petroleum, even if no surplus were produced for export.
In Slovakia the foremost name is that of the poet Hviezdoslay.
In Slovakia, Jo z a eprka and his school have devoted themselves to interpreting peasant life.
Fifteen new nations formed as the Soviet Union dissolved; Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and Sudan into North Sudan and South Sudan.
In Slovakia the situation is different.