They were supported on sleepers by chairs at intervals of 3 ft., and were fish-bellied between the points of support.
In turn fixed to the sleepers by two iron spikes, half-round wooden cross sleepers being employed on embankments and stone blocks 20 in.
Thus it may fairly be said that the railway system of the United States was reconstructed between 1896 and 1905, so far as concerns rails, sleepers, ballast and the general capacity of a given group of lines to perform work.
There was no time for Cynthia to talk to her husband, who was busy serving breakfast to the late sleepers while she showed Maria, by hand communication, the upstairs chores of Bird Song.
The medics have your anti-sleepers ready.
"Lana, get your anti-sleepers and meet me in the commander's quarters," General Greene called, poking his head into the hub.
The planks were of wood, often beech, a few inches wide, and were fastened down, end to end, on logs of wood, or " sleepers," placed crosswise at intervals of two or three feet.
This method, however, was not found satisfactory: the projecting feet were liable to be broken off, and in 1799 or 1800 Jessop abandoned them, using instead separate cast-iron sockets or chairs, which were fastened to the sleepers and in which the rails were supported in an upright position.
First laid on bridges - was supported on continuous longitudinal sleepers and held down by bolts passing through the flanges, and was employed by I.
In subsequent modifications the fishes were, as they continue to be, bolted to and through the rails, the sleepers being placed rather further apart and the joint being generally suspended between them.
From the falling of rails, sleepers, &c., when at work on the line .
The ballast consists of such materials as broken stone, furnace slag, gravel, cinders or earth, the lower layers commonly consisting of coarser materials than the top ones, and its purpose is to provide a firm, well-drained foundation in which the sleepers or crossties may be embedded and held in place, and by which the weight of the track and the trains may be distributed over the road-bed.
Or rather more under the sleepers, and the materials of the surface layers are often chosen so as to be more or less dustless.
The intervals between the sleepers are filled in level with ballast, 12'2' FIG.
Stone blocks were tried as sleepers in the early days of railways, but they proved too rigid, and besides, it was found difficult to keep the line true with them.
Steel sleepers were used experimentally on the London & 'Forth-Western, but were abandoned owing to the shortness of their life.
Numerous forms of ferro-concrete sleepers have also been devised.
In Great Britain, Germany and France, at least 90% of the wooden sleepers are " treated " before they are laid, to ii.crease their resistance to decay, and the same practice is followed to some extent in other European countries.
Typical dimensions for sleepers on important British railways are: - length 9 ft., breadth io in., and depth 5 in.
There are two main ways of attaching the rails to the sleepers, corresponding to two main types of rails - the bull-headed rail A B FIG.
In the first method, which is practically universal in Great Britain and is also employed to 1 See a full account of steel sleepers in a paper read by A.
The chairs on the British system weigh about 45 or 50 lb each on important lines, though they may be less where the traffic is light, and are fixed to the sleepers each by two, three or four fastenings, either screw spikes, or round drift bolts entered in holes previously bored, or fang bolts or wooden trenails.
How many of the anti-sleepers have you been taking?
Doc, I need some meal bars, anti-sleepers, and pain killers.
She carried little else than the lockbox, her micro, and enough meal supps and anti-sleepers for two weeks.
Anti-sleepers and appetite suppressants.
She'd slept only when they were safe inside the emerops facilities and downed anti-sleepers between.
She didn't expect to sleep, not with the amount of anti-sleepers in her system.
Gangaw (Messua ferrea) the Assam iron-wood, is suitable for sleepers; and didu (Bombax insigne) is used for tea-boxes and packing-cases.
Sleepers, called ties or cross-ties in America, are the blocks or slabs on which the rails are carried.
The rails, which for heavy main line traffic may weigh as much as too lb per yard, or even more, are rolled in lengths of from 30 to 60 ft., and sleepers are placed under them at intervals of between 2 and 3 ft.
(centre to centre), 11 sleepers to a 30 ft.
On the London & North-Western railway there are 24 sleepers to each 60 ft.
Occasionally the joints thus formed are " supported " on a sleeper, as was the practice in the early days of railway construction, but they are generally " suspended " between two sleepers, which are set rather more closely together than at other points in the rail.
Flat-bottomed rails are fastened to the sleepers by hookheaded spikes, the heads of which project over the flanges.
In the United States the spikes are simply driven in with a maul, and the rails stand upright, little care being taken to prepare seats for them on the sleepers, on which they soon seat themselves.
10.7 in.); depth of ballast under sleepers, o mo m.
9.5 in.); maximum gradient, I in 50; length of sleepers, 1.70 m.
The simplicity is great; they can be quickly mounted and dismounted; the correct gauge can be perfectly maintained; the sections of rails and sleepers (which are of iron) are very portable, and skilled labour is not required to lay or to take them up; the making of a " turn-out " is easy, by taking out a 15 ft.
A portable line of this kind will have 20 lb steel rails and 2112 steel sleepers-4 ft.
The Seven Sleepers Of Ephesus >>
In addition to teak, which provides the bulk of the revenue, the most valuable woods are sha or cutch, india rubber, pyingado, or ironwood for railway sleepers, and padauk.
The rails used are of flat bottomed or bridge section varying in weight from 15 to 25 lb to the yd.; they are laid upon cross sleepers in a temporary manner, so that they can be easily shifted along the working faces, but are carefully secured along main roads intended to carry traffic continuously for some time.
They are applied on one side of the cage only, forming a complete vertical railway, carried by iron cross sleepers, with proper seats for the rails instead of wooden buntons; the cage is guided by curved shoes of a proper section to cover the heads of the rails.
For railway bridges it commonly consists of cross girders, attached to or resting on the main girders, and longitudinal rail girders or stringers carried by the cross girders and directly supporting the sleepers and rails.
In railway bridges the weight of sleepers, rails, &c., is 0.2 to 0.25 tons per ft.
The thinnings of the larch woods in the Highlands are in demand for railway sleepers, scaffold poles, and mining timber, and are applied to a variety of agricultural purposes.
673) attempted to connect the legend of the Wandering Jew with a whole series of myths relating to never-dying heroes like King Arthur, Frederick Barbarossa, the Seven Sleepers, and Thomas the Rhymer, not to speak of Rip Van Winkle.
The same is true of xviii., which at first sight seems to fall into several pieces; the history of the seven sleepers, the grotesque narrative about Moses, and that about Alexander " the Horned," are all connected together, and the same rhyme through the whole sura.
Under Greek influence he was identified with Pan, and just as there was supposed to be a number of Panisci, so the existence of many Fauni was assumed - misshapen and mischievous goblins of the forest, with pointed ears, tails and goat's feet, who loved to torment sleepers with hideous nightmares.
Musa into Asia Minor to find out all about the Seven Sleepers which he discovered in the neighbourhood of Arabissus,' and Sallam the Interpreter to explore the situation of the famous wall of Gog and Magog, which he reached at the north-west frontier of China.
Gregory also left a life of St Andrew, translated from the Greek, and a history of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, translated from Syriac.
THE SEVEN SLEEPERS OF EPHESUS, according to the most common form of an old legend of Syrian origin, first referred to in Western literature by Gregory of Tours (De glor.
Some forms of the legend give eight sleepers - e.g.
By Sachau, p. 285) certain undecayed corpses of monks were shown in a cave as the sleepers of Ephesus in the 9th century.
The seven sleepers are a favourite subject in early medieval art.
Among the special articles exported may be mentioned railway-sleepers, pitprops, and wood-pulp.
Soaking in lime-water renders it more lasting; great numbers of young pines are annually cut for railway sleepers, mining timber and numerous agricultural applications; large quantities are: consumed for wood-pavement.
In England the cluster-pine has been largely planted on sandy districts near the sea, and has become naturalized in Purbeck and other wild tracts in the southern counties, but the summer heat is too small to permit of its resinous products acquiring any value; the soft coarse wood, though perishable in the natural state, has been used for railway sleepers after saturation with creosote or preservative solutions.
They are remarkably heavy sleepers, and are readily captured by the inhabitants ascending the trees on which they roost, and noosing them before they awaken.
The road-bed with the rails and sleepers not over 100 ft.
If we do not get out sleepers, and forge rails, and devote days and nights to the work, but go to tinkering upon our lives to improve them, who will build railroads?
Did you ever think what those sleepers are that underlie the railroad?
They are sound sleepers, I assure you.