Slaves Sentence Examples
Slaves were treated this way.
They had slaves, but so few as not to alter the social conditions.
Humane regulations as to the treatment of slaves were strictly xir.
Slaves don't think, master.
Slaves were often adopted and if they proved unfilial were reduced to slavery again.Advertisement
The city was far away, and the slaves must walk the whole distance.
On his deathbed remorse seized him; he bestowed his goods on the poor, restored unjust gains, freed his slaves, and every third day till his death listened to the reading of the Koran.
The average lot of the women is that of slaves.
The result of this confusion is that the moderns have no name at all for a distinct thing, and, being mere slaves of abstract terms, constantly speak of mere attributes, such as activity, life, will, actuality, unity of mental operations, as if they were distinct things.
Slaves don't drink the master's water.Advertisement
Some of these estates were worked on the true " villa " system, by which the lord occupied the " great house," and cultivated the land close round it by slaves, while he let the rest to half-free coloni.
In addition to slaves, who in early times seem to have been numerous, we find in Wessex and apparently also in Mercia three classes, described as twelfhynde, sixhynde and twihynde from the amount of their wergilds, viz.
The grinding seems to have been performed chiefly by female slaves, but occasionally we hear also of a donkey-mill (esolcweorn).
At first the chief export trade was probably in slaves.
English slaves were to be obtained in Rome even before the end of the 6th century, as appears from the well-known story of Gregory the Great.Advertisement
Since the standard price of slaves on the continent was in general three or four times as great as it was in England, the trade must have been very profitable.
It is probable, however, that the latter, like the liti or lati of later times, consisted not only of manumitted slaves but also of whole communities which had forfeited their liberty through unsuccessful warfare or other causes.
Arms and ornaments are frequently met with, sometimes also horses and human remains which may be those of slaves, the belief being that the dead would have all that was buried with him at his service in the life beyond.
Contemporary records of sales of slaves from Amurru are known.
His reputation as a lawyer began with his connexion with the famous "Lemmon slave case," in which, as one of the special counsel for the state, he secured a decision from the highest state courts that slaves brought into New York while in transit between two slave states were ipso facto free.Advertisement
He frequently appeared in behalf of fugitive slaves before the Pennsylvania courts, and previously, in the state constitutional convention of 1837, he had refused to sign the constitution limiting the suffrage to white freemen.
In 1876 there was an expedition against Kota Jutan (east coast) and the emancipation of slaves was carried out on the west coast.
Passing one day through the Forum, Gregory saw some handsome slaves offered for sale, and inquired their nation.
What had previously, it seems, been a well-peopled region, with peasant proprietors, kept healthy by careful drainage, became in the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. a district consisting in large measure of huge estates (latifundia) owned by the Roman aristocracy, cultivated by gangs tion, of slaves.
Torrane concluded an agreement with the Ashanti, acknowledging their conquest of Fantiland, and delivering up to them half the fugitives in Anamabo fort (most of the remainder were sold by Torrane and the members of his council as slaves).Advertisement
By the Arabianized emancipated slaves of the Albert Edward district the okapi is known as the kenge, o-a-pi being the Pigmies' name for the creature.
Conquering Pharaohs brought home trains of prisoners and spoil, embassies came thither of strange people in every variety of costume and of every hue of skin, from Ethiopia, Puoni (Punt), Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Libya, and the islands of the Mediterranean, bringing precious stones, rare animals, beautiful slaves, costly garments and vessels of gold and silver, while the ground shook with the movement of colossal architraves, statues and obelisks.
The houses at Pompeii are generally low, rarely exceeding two storeys in height, and it appears certain that the upper storey was generally of a slight construction, and occupied by small rooms, serving as garrets, or sleeping places for slaves, and perhaps for the females of the family.
Many of the Jews were doubtless sold as slaves by Nebuchadrezzar.
Freedom was within sight, but with fatal infatuation the slaves refused to abandon Italy.
In the next battle Spartacus was worsted and retreated towards the straits of Messina, intending to cross into Sicily, where he would have been welcomed by fresh hordes of slaves; but the pirates who had agreed to transport his army proved faithless.
His kindliness extended even to his slaves, one of whom, named Mouse, was a brother in philosophy.
His four slaves, three men and one woman, were left their freedom.
He later introduced a bill regarding slavery in the District of Columbia, which (in accordance with his statement of 1837) was to be submitted to the vote of the District for approval, and which provided for compensated emancipation, forbade the bringing of slaves into the District of Columbia, except by government officials from slave states, and the selling of slaves away from the District, and arranged for the emancipation after a period of apprenticeship of all slave children born after the 1st of January 1850.
Congress in August 1861 passed an act (approved August 6th) confiscating rights of slave-owners to slaves employed in hostile service against the Union.
On the 30th of August General Fremont by military order declared martial law and confiscation against active enemies, with freedom to their slaves, in the State of Missouri.
In April Congress passed and the president approved (6th April) an act emancipating the slaves in the District of Columbia, with compensation to owners - a measure which Lincoln had proposed when in Congress.
Meanwhile slaves of loyal masters were constantly escaping to military camps.
The persons in these three States - Georgia, Florida and South Carolina - heretofore 2 In November 1861 the president drafted a bill providing (i) that all slaves more than thirty-five years old in the state of Delaware should immediately become free; (2) that all children of slave parentage born after the passage of the act should be free; (3) that all others should be free on attaining the age of thirty-five or after the 1st of January 1893, except for terms of apprenticeship; and (4) that the national government should pay to the state of Delaware $23,200 a year for twenty-one years.
As soon as this order, by the slow method of communication by sea, reached the newspapers, Lincoln (May 19) published a proclamation declaring it void; adding further, "Whether it be competent for me as commander-in-chief of the army and navy to declare the slaves of any state or states free, and whether at any time or in any case it shall have become a necessity indispensable to the maintenance of the government to exercise such supposed power, are questions which under my responsibility I reserve to myself, and which I cannot feel justified in leaving to the decision of commanders in the field.
During the month of July his own mind reached the virtual determination to give slavery its coup de grace; on the 17th he approved a new Confiscation Act, much broader than that of the 6th of August 1861 (which freed only those slaves in military service against the Union) and giving to the president power to employ persons of African descent for the suppression of the rebellion; and on the 22nd he submitted to his cabinet the draft of an emancipation proclamation substantially as afterward issued.
If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and, if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that."
I have not decided against a proclamation of liberty to the slaves, but hold the matter under advisement."
With public opinion thus ripened by alternate defeat and victory, President Lincoln, on the 22nd of September 1862, issued his preliminary proclamation of emancipation, giving notice that on the 1st of January 1863, "all persons held as slaves within any state or designated part of a state the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward and for ever free."
On the 1st day of January 1863 the final proclamation of emancipation was duly issued, designating the States of Arkansas, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and certain portions of Louisiana and Virginia, as "this day in rebellion against the United States," and proclaiming that, in virtue of his authority as commander-inchief, and as a necessary war measure for suppressing rebellion, "I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated states and parts of states are and henceforward shall be free," and pledging the executive and military power of the government to maintain such freedom.
As the Federal Government did not, at the time, actually have jurisdiction over the rest of the territory of the Confederate States, that really affected, some writers have questioned whether the proclamation really emancipated any slaves when it was issued.
They were first worked for the government by slaves, which were freed in 1799.
Their lands were given to Locri; their citizens were taken to Syracuse, sometimes as slaves, sometimes as citizens.
The wars of Rome, and the systematic piracy ranean lands with slaves of all nations.
The slaves were most harshly treated, and even encouraged by their masters to rob.
The island has no internal history beyond a very characteristic fact, a third revolt of slaves and bandits, which was quelled with difficulty in the days of Gallienus.
The condition of the Christians varied from that of personal slaves to that of communities left free on the payment of tribute.
After the complete conquest of the island, while the mere slaves had turned Mahommedans, there is nothing more heard of tributary districts.
In 1845, at which time there was a flourishing trade in slaves between Cameroon and America, the Baptist Missionary Society made its first settlement on the mainland of Africa, Alfred Saker (1814-1880) obtaining from the Akwa family the site for a mission station.
A vessel owned in Newburyport having taken a cargo of slaves from Baltimore to New Orleans, he characterized the transaction as an act of "domestic piracy," and avowed his purpose to "cover with thick infamy" those engaged therein.
To this end he made his appeal to the Northern churches and pulpits, beseeching them to bring the power of Christianity to bear against the slave system, and to advocate the rights of the slaves to immediate and unconditional freedom.
The Southern states had greatly enlarged representation in Congress on account of their slaves, and the national government was constitutionally bound to assist in the capture of fugitive slaves, and to suppress every attempt on their part to gain their freedom by force.
Whilst the upper classes in Italy absorbed Greek influences by their education, by the literary and artistic tradition, the lower strata of the population of Rome became largely hellenized by the actual influx on a vast scale of Greeks and hellenized Asiatics, brought in for the most part as slaves, and coalescing as freedmen with the citizen body.
But the principal trade of all Europeans was still in slaves.
The efforts of the administration to better the condition of the natives without undue interference with customary law met with encouraging results, and the submission of the Aros to the government in 1902 brought to an end the system of tribal warfare for the purpose of making slaves, while the enforcement of a proclamation of 1901 prohibiting the buying, pawning or selling of slaves had a salutary effect.
These two potentates raided for slaves to the borders of the rivers and openly threatened the British position on the Niger.
These conditions were that all rights of conquest acquired by the Fulani throughout Northern Nigeria passed to Great Britain, that for the future every sultan and emir and principal officer of state should be appointed by Great Britain, that the emirs and chiefs so appointed should obey the laws of the British government, that they should no longer buy and sell slaves, nor enslave people, that they should import no firearms, except flint-locks, that they should enforce no sentences in their courts of law which were contrary to humanity, and that the British government should in future hold rights in land and taxation.
Slave-dealing and transactions of every kind in slaves were now made illegal.
The traffic in slaves ceased in 1877.
The majority of the slaves are negresses employed in household duties.
The Mamelukes (slaves), imported from the eastern borders of the Black Sea and then trained as soldiers, usurped the government of Egypt, and held it till 1517, when the Ottomans began to rule.
The Nile valley afforded a passage by ship or on foot into Nubia, where, however, little wealth was to be sought, though gold and rarities from the Sudan, such as ivory and ebony, came that way and an armed raid could yield a good spoil in slaves and cattle.
Private ownership of slaves, captured in war and given by the king to their captor or otherwise, is certainly seen at the beginning of the XVIIIth Dynasty.
Sales of slaves occur in the XXVth Dynasty, and contracts of servitude are found in the XXVIth Dynasty and in the reign of Darius, appearing as if the consent of the slave was then required.
The personnel of the temple was completed by various subordinate officials, doorkeepers, attendantsand slaves.
The rebellion broke out repeatedly in the following years, and in 831 the Copts joined with the Arabs against the government; the state of affairs became so serious that the caliph Mamun himself visited Egypt, arriving at Fostat in February 832; his general Afshin fought a decisive battle with the rebels at Bgshard in the IJauf region, at which the Copts were compelled to surrender; the males were massacred and the women and children sold as slaves.
He found a rival in Egypt in the person of Ibn al-Modabbir, the finance minister, who occupied an independent position, and who started the practice of surrounding himself with an army of his own slaves or freedmen; of these Ibn Tulun succeeded in depriving the finance minister, and they formed the nucleus of an army by which he eventually secured his own independence.
He made large purchases of slaves (Mamelukes) for his army, and when the inhabitants of Cairo complained of their lawlessness, he built barracks for them on the island of Roda (Raula), whence they were called Bahri or Nile Mamelukes, which became the name of the first dynasty that originated from them.
Opposed to European ways, Abbas lived in great seclusion, and after a reign of less than six years he was murdered (July 1854) by two of his slaves.
The peasants and slaves at the same time amused themselves with dancing in the meadows.
In 1779-1780 he was a member of the Pennsylvania assembly, where he voted for the abolition of slavery - he freed his own slaves whom he had brought from Maryland.
He was an influential member of the constitutional convention of 1787, advocating the counting of all slaves as a basis of representation and opposing the abolition of the slavetrade.
Generally speaking, the classes of persons who claimed the rights of asylum were slaves who had been maltreated by their masters, soldiers defeated and pursued by the enemy, and criminals who feared a trial or who had escaped before sentence was passed.
By it was the temple of the Palici, twin Sicel gods, the most holy place in Sicily, where an oath taken was especially binding, and an inviolable asylum for fugitive slaves.
Though living in a slave state he was consistently opposed to slavery, but he favoured gradual rather than immediate emancipation, and in 1838 he freed his own slaves.
The Villa de los Martires (Martyrs' Villa), on the summit of Monte Mauror,commemorates by its name the Christian slaves who were employed to build the Alhambra, and confined here in subterranean cells.
They were deposited in the heart of Athens, and henceforth escaped slaves and all persons in peril sought and found sanctuary at the grave of him who in his life had been a champion of the oppressed.
There were slaves in many islands, either persons conquered in war, or those who had Lecn condemned to lose their personal liberty on account of evil conduct.
It is derived from the adjective rab (in Aramaic, and frequently also in Hebrew, "great"), which acquired in modern Hebrew the signification of "lord," in relation to servants or slaves, and of "teacher," "master," in relation to the disciple.
The rowers in each vessel, though among the northern folk these were free men and warriors, not slaves as in the Roman and Carthaginian galleys, would yet need to be supplemented by a contingent of fighting men, marines, in addition to their crew.
He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and on the 29th of May presented the "Virginia plan" (sometimes called the "Randolph plan").1 In the Convention Randolph advocated a strongly centralized government, the prohibition of the importation of slaves, and a plural executive, suggesting that there should be three executives from different parts of the country, and refused to sign the constitution because too much power over commerce was granted to a mere majority in Congress, and because no provision was made for a second convention to act after the present instrument had been referred to the states.
Slaves had been brought into the Illinois country by the French, and Governor Arthur St Clair (1734-1818) interpreted the article of the Ordinance of 1787, which forbade slavery in the North-West Territory, as a prohibition of the introduction of slaves into the Territory, not an interference with existing conditions.
Although a majority of the public men of the state, indeed probably a majority of the entire population, was either born in the Southern states or descended from Southern people, the resolution of the legislature was rejected, the leader of the opposition being Governor Edward Coles (1786-1868), a Virginia slave-holder, who had freed his slaves on coming to Illinois, and at least one half the votes against the proposed amendment of the constitution were cast by men of Southern birth.
The opposition to slavery continued to be political and economic rather than philanthropic. The constitution of 1848, which abolished slavery, also forbade the immigration of slaves.
The ruin of the dynasty came, however, from those Turkish slaves who were constituted as a royal bodyguard by Moqtasim (833-842).
In 1772 it was decided by the English courts that a slave as soon as he set foot on the soil of the British Isles became free; the slave trade, however, continued actively until 1807, when an Act was passed to prevent British subjects dealing in slaves; in 1811 the traffic in slaves was declared to be felony; in 1833 the status of slavery was abolished throughout the British Dominions.
In subsequent years over 700 slaves were rescued at sea and more than 2,000 otherwise released; the traffic was by 1920 virtually dead in the Gulf, but slavery as an institution seemed likely to continue for many decades to come to flourish inland in Muscat, in Central Arabia, and in a modified form in part of Persia.
This public sale of slaves was prohibited in the coast towns, c. 1850, under pressure from European powers, but means are found to evade the prohibition.
John is said to have owed his education in philosophy, mathematics and theology to an Italian monk named Cosmas, whom Sergius had redeemed from a band of captive slaves.
Each year the number of anti-slavery petitions received and presented by him increased; perhaps the climax was in 1837, when Adams presented a petition from twenty-two slaves, and, when threatened by his opponents with censure, defended himself with remarkable keenness and ability.
The Babylonian code is essentially class-legislation, and from the point of view of the idealism of the Old Testament prophets, which raises the rights of humanity above everything else, the steps which the code takes to safeguard the rights of property (slaves included therein) would naturally seem harsh.
These pagan tribes were repeatedly raided by the Bagirmese for slaves.
Later it became a halting-place for the caravans of slaves brought from Darfur to Egypt.
At this time Jefferson championed the natural right of expatriation, and gradual emancipation of the slaves.
His earliest legislative effort, in the five-day session of 1769, had been marked by an effort to secure to masters freedom to manumit their slaves without removing them from the state.
It was unsuccessful, and the more radical measure he now favoured was even more impossible of attainment; but a bill he introduced to prohibit the importation of slaves was passed in 1778 - the only important change effected in the slave system of the state during the War of Independence.
The cultivators, including landowners, tenants, hired labourers and slaves, represent the working population of the country, and as industrious and successful agriculturists they are unsurpassed in Asia.
Even below these there were low tribes and trades, aboriginal tribes and slaves.
Slaves did the greater part of the purchasing, though even the noblest citizens of Athens did not scruple to buy and sell there.
But though the Dutch built a fort at Grand Port and introduced a number of slaves and convicts, they made no permanent settlement in Mauritius, finally abandoning the island in 17r0.
He also put down the maroons or runaway slaves who had long been the pest of the island.
Of more importance than the constitutional changes were the economic results which followed the freeing of the slaves (1834-1839) - for the loss of whose labour the planters received over £2,000,000 compensation.
The physical characteristics of these nomadic armies were very variable, since they continually increased their numbers by slaves, women and soldiers of fortune drawn from all the surrounding races.
Penal codes depended rather upon shorter and more cruel methods; the scaffold was in constant use, with all manner of physical pain, torture before and after sentence, shameful exposure, hideous mutilation, exile, selling into bondage as slaves.
He brought 2000 Turkish archers with him to Basra, the first Turkish slaves to enter the Moslem empire.
Zobair, who complained in a somewhat truculent letter that Moawiya's slaves had been guilty of trespassing.
Moawiya, disregarding his son Yazid's advice that he should exact condign punishment for Zobair's disrespect, replied in flattering terms, regretting the trespass and resigning both slaves and estate to Zobair.
Thence he went to Mecca, where on the promise of freedom many slaves flocked to him, and many pilgrims also acknowledged him.
Every year he had bought Turkish slaves, and had with him in the last expedition of Mamun a bodyguard of 3 000.
Immediately after his coming to Bagdad, he bought all the Turkish slaves living there who had distinguished themselves.
Villeins are opposed to socmen and freemen on one hand, to bordarii, cottagers and slaves on the other.
On the 30th of August 1861 he issued a proclamation in which he declared the property of Missourians in rebellion confiscated and their slaves emancipated.
In 1781 he favoured an amendment 'of the Articles of Confederation giving Congress power to enforce its requisitions, and in 1783, in spite of the open opposition of the Virginia legislature, which considered the Virginian delegates wholly subject to its instructions, he advocated that the states should grant to Congress for twenty-five years authority to levy an import duty, and suggested a scheme to provide for the interest on the debt not raised by the import duty - apportioning it among the states on the basis of population, counting three-fifths of the slaves, a ratio suggested by Madison himself.
His wealth was acquired by traffic in slaves, the working of silver mines, and judicious purchases of lands and houses, especially those of proscribed citizens.
In1861-1863he was a member of the national House of Representatives, where, while advocating the prosecution of the war, he opposed such radical measures as the division of Virginia, the enlistment of slaves and the Conscription Acts.
The rocky promontory on which the temple stands was fortified by a wall with towers, in 413 B.C., as a protection against the Spartans in Decelea; but it was soon after seized by a body of fugitive slaves from the Laurium mines.
The cult taken by slaves to America is the Vodu (Vaudoo or Vaudoux) worship of Haiti (Ellis, 29 seq.).
As a punishment for the treacherous murder of some Roman merchants and one of Caesar's commissariat officers at Cenabum, the town was burnt and the inhabitants put to the sword or sold as slaves.
Under the empire various special functions were assigned to certain praetors, such as the two treasury praetors (praetores aerarii),3 appointed by Augustus in 23; the spear praetor (praetor haslarius), who presided over the court of the Hundred Men, which dealt especially with cases of inheritance; the two trust praetors (praetores fideicommissarii), appointed by Claudius to look after cases of trust estates, but reduced by Titus to one; the ward praetor (praetor tutelaris), appointed by Marcus Aurelius to deal with the affairs of minors; and the liberation praetor (praetor de liberalibus causis), who tried cases turning on the liberation of slaves.'
The master of slaves set the fashion.
Handsome houses were built along the banks of the sluggish rivers, and numerous slaves were employed.
Schofield was put in charge, and under his authority a constitutional Convention was summoned which bestowed the suffrage upon the former slaves, who, led by a small group of whites, who had come into the state with the invading armies, ratified the 14th and 15th amendments to the Federal Constitution and governed the community until 1869.
The Sicilians honoured his august aspect as he moved amongst them with purple robes and golden girdle, with long hair bound by a Delphic garland, and brazen sandals on his feet, and with a retinue of slaves behind him.
In the previous year (39) his mother had been banished by order of her brother Caligula (Gains) on a charge of treasonable conspiracy, and Nero, thus early deprived of both parents, found shelter in the house of his aunt Domitia, where two slaves, a barber and a dancer, began his training.
In his treatment of slaves he was exacting, but not harsh, and was averse to selling them save in case of necessity.
At Mount Vernon, which had suffered from neglect during his absence, he resumed the plantation life which he loved, the society of his family, and the care of his slaves.
To his slaves he was just and kind.
Although at various times he had helped to strengthen the law for the recovery of fugitive slaves, declining as secretary of state to aid Great Britain in the further suppression of the slave trade, and demanding the return of fugitives from Canada, yet he heartily supported the colonizing of the slaves in Africa, because slavery was the "deepest stain upon the character of the country," opposition to which could not be repressed except by "blowing out the moral lights around," and "eradicating from the human soul the light of reason and the law of liberty."
Land, cattle and slaves are the principal kinds of wealth, and they are all constituents of the king's revenue; enforced work contributed by members of the community, and the furnishing commodities on requisition, further aid in the maintenance of the primitive state.
A special levy on the class of resident aliens (µEToiKtov), probably paralleled by a duty on slaves, was in force.
Viewed broadly, the financial resources of the earlier Empire were obtained from (1) the public land alike of the state and the Princeps; (2) the monopolies, principally of minerals; (3) the land tax; (4) the customs; (5) the taxes on inheritances, on sales and on the purchase of slaves (vectigalia).
Mines were also taken over for public use and worked by slaves or, in later times, by convict labour.
The higher charge of 4% on the purchase of slaves, and the still heavier 5% on successions after death, were likewise established at the beginning of the Empire and specially applied to the full citizens.
Only a few African slaves were ever brought into the Territory, and these were usually the property of civil and military officers.
There were two classes of the population, however, whose status was practically that of slaves; namely, Indian captives and peons.
And from the social side the development of law, the influence of city life, the formation of priesthoods, the connexion of particular deities with the fortunes of dynasties or the vicissitudes of nations, the processes of migration, of conquest and political fusion, the deportations of vanquished peoples, even the sale of slaves to distant lands and the growth of trade and travel, all contribute to the processes which expand and modify different pantheons, and determine the importance of particular deities.
For instance, a testator having left a fund to be divided into four parts - one-fourth to be used for "the redemption of British slaves in Turkey and 2 Barbary," and the other three-fourths for various local charities - it was found that there were no British slaves in Turkey or Barbary, and as to that part of the gift therefore the testator's purpose failed.
The Grand Mosque (in rue Philippe) was erected at the end of the 18th century to commemorate the expulsion of the Spaniards, and with money paid as ransom for Christian slaves.
Laos and F ra (Davus, Geta) were common as names of slaves in Attic comedy and in the adaptations of Plautus and Terence.
The Indians within the limits of the Spanish colony were treated like slaves, and horribly mutilated to prevent their escape; but at the same time a gradual fusion of races was taking place, and the Chilean peasant (peon) of to-day is as much of Indian as of Spanish descent.
He opposed the Mexican War and slavery, and in 1847 was arrested on the charge of instigating a riot, which resulted in the rescue of several fugitive slaves; his trial, in which he was acquitted, attracted wide attention.
Until then the gipsies had been treated as slaves and owned by the Church or by private landowners; they had been bought and sold in the open market.
Black slaves and men-nurses or lallahs are much respected; the dayah or wet nurse is looked on as a second mother and usually provided for for life.
The slaves in Persia have a good time; well fed, well clothed, treated as spoiled children, given the lightest work, and often given in marriage to a favorite son or taken ar segah or concubine by the master himself, slaves have the certainty of a well-cared-for old age.
The prices of slaves in Shira are, a good Habashi girl of twelve to fourteen iso, a good Somal same age, half as much; while a Bombassi is to be got for 14, being chosen merely for physical strength.
On the other hand, every magnate put into the field as many mounted warriors as possible, chiefly servants and bought slaves, who, like the Janissaries and Mamelukes, were trained exclusively for war.
Their authority over their own officers was so precarious that they preferred to entrust the command to Turkish slaves.
Before closing the reign of Mahommed Shah note should be taken of a prohibition to import African slaves into Persia, and a commercial treaty with Englandrecorded by Watson as gratifying achievements of the period by British diplomatists.
It became the entrepot for the commerce of the lower Congo and a wellknown mart for slaves.
The slave trade having in the same year been declared illegal by the British parliament, slaves captured by British vessels in the neighbouring seas were brought to Freetown, and thus the population of the colony grew.
From that port the Arabs traded for ivory, slaves and (principally) gold with Bantu peoples of the far interior - the Rhodesia of to-day.
They possessed numerous slaves, grew wheat in sufficient quantity to make it an article of export, and were famed for the good quality of their wines.
His charges greatly embittered the Boers, who were further aggrieved by the emancipation of the slaves.
The Cape governments - both Dutch and British - had been consistently averse from the importation of slaves in large numbers, and the great majority of the slaves were therefore Hottentots.
The year which witnessed the emancipation of the slaves and the creation of the first treaty state also saw the beginning of another disastrous Kaffir war.
The colonists had lost their slaves, the eastern frontier was in a state of insecurity, native interests appeared to be preferred to those of the whites.
We complain of the severe losses which we have been forced to sustain by the emancipation of our slaves, and the vexatious laws which have been enacted respecting them.
OfficialPapers Relative to the Condition and Treatment of the Native Tribes of South Africa, parts I to 5 (1649-1809), edited by Donald Moodie, late Protector of Slaves (Cape Town, 1838), the same writer's The Evidence of the Motives and Objects of the Bushman Wars, 1769-77, &c. (Cape Town, 1841); also Treaties with Native Chiefs.
In 1788 he was a member of the state convention which ratified the Federal constitution for Maryland, in1788-1792and in 1795 of the House of Delegates (where in 1788 and 1789 he defended the right of slave-owners to manumit their slaves), and in1792-1795of the state executive council.
They were drawn from all classes of society, - patricians, knights, freedmen, slaves, philosophers, literary men, and, above all, lawyers.
Sertorius was in league with the pirates in the Mediterranean, was negotiating with the formidable Mithradates, and was in communication with the insurgent slaves in Italy.
For the Stoics attached but slight importance to external circumstances, since only the wise man is really free, and all the unwise are slaves.
Yet, while they accepted slavery as a permanent institution, philosophers as wide apart as Chrysippus and Seneca sought to mitigate its evils in practice, and urged upon masters humanity in the treatment of their slaves.
After 1450 yet another ethnical element was introduced into the nation, through the importation of African slaves in vast numbers.
By sea Prince Henry's captains continued their exploration of Africa and the Atlantic. In 1433 Cape Bojador was doubled; in 1 434 the first consignment of slaves was brought to Lisbon; and slave trading soon became one of the most profitable branches of Portuguese commerce.
As early as 1505 one of Almeida's ships contained a crew of rustics unable to distinguish between port and starboard; soon afterwards it became necessary to recruit convicts and slaves, and in 1538 a royal pardon was granted to all prisoners who would serve in India, except criminals under sentence for treason and canonical offences.
The Portuguese intermarried freely with their slaves, and this infusion of alien blood profoundly modified the character and physique of the nation.
Under his rule the experiment was fairly successful, but the married colonists afterwards became a privileged caste, subsisting upon the labour of their slaves, and often disloyal to their rulers.
While the country was being drained of its best citizens, hordes of slaves were imported to fill the vacancies, especially into the southern provinces.'
Sometimes personal names are chosen, and they range from the gods and demigods to the slaves, from Hercules to Marcipor.
After a time, however, the colonists, attributing the shortage of slaves and the consequent diminution in their profits to the Jesuits, began actively to oppose Vieira, and they were joined by members of the secular clergy and the other Orders who were jealous of the monopoly enjoyed by the Company in the government of the Indians.
Arms and money were collected, soldiers were enlisted, and the assistance of the slaves was sought.
The native name "Bauchi," which is of great antiquity, signifies the "Land of Slaves," and from the earliest times the uplands which now form the principal portion of the province have been the hunting ground of the slave-raider, while the hill fastnesses have offered defensible refuge to the population.
So entirely was slavery a habit of the people, that as late as 1905, after the slave-trade had been abolished for three years, it was found that, in consequence of a famine which rendered food difficult to obtain, a whole tribe (the Tangali) were selling themselves as slaves to their neighbours.
His residence in Louisiana, his ownership of a large plantation with its slaves, and his family connexion with Jefferson Davis (who had married his daughter), rendered him more acceptable to many of the Southern Democrats than their party candidate, Lewis Cass, an advocate of " squatter sovereignty " and the representative of the democracy of the free North-west.
It depended for its prosperity upon the export of wheat, fish and slaves, and this commerce supported a class whose wealth and vulgarity are exemplified by the contents of the numerous tombs to which reference has been made.
In July 1854 he was murdered in Benha Palace by two of his slaves, and was succeeded by his uncle, Said Pasha.
It was stormed and taken by the Athenians in 415 B.C., and the inhabitants, among them the famous courtesan Lais, sold as slaves.
When praetor he forbade the carrying of arms by slaves, and with his.
With the exception of laying an import duty no legislative effort was made - nor is it likely that any would have been allowed by the crown - to restrict the importation of slaves during the colonial period.
In addition to African and Indian slaves there was the class known as " redemptioners," or term slaves, consisting of indented servants, who bound themselves to their masters before leaving the mother country, and " free willers," who allowed themselves to be sold after reaching America, in order to reimburse the ship captain for the cost of their passage.
In 1846 an act was passed designating slaves as apprentices bound to service until discharged by their owners, and providing that children of 1 The election to the U.S. Senate in 1865 of John Potter Stockton (1826-1900), a great-grandson of Richard Stockton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, created hardly less excitement than the Broad Seal War.
Largely through LeMoyne s influence Washington became an important point on the "underground railway" for assisting runaway slaves to Canada.
The old is for slaves.
The holding of slaves, and slave-raiding by one tribe upon another, is also.
Another comprised the orang-utans of Sumatra, who were said to take men captive and set them to work as slaves.
As praetor (136) and consul (133) Piso fought against the slaves in Sicily.
In Corinth there were more than a thousand of these iep030vXot (" temple slaves "), and wealthy men made it a point of honour to dedicate their most beautiful slaves to the service of the goddess.
This mitigated form of appropriation of human beings by their conquerors may be brought about as well by the paucity or comparative weakness of the victors as by the difficulty for them to draw income from pure slaves.
Pollux in his account of the Helots places them distinctly in an intermediate position between free men and slaves.
Even downright slaves belonging to the state or to some great temple corporation were treated better and carefully distinguished from private slaves by the Greeks.
In any case these peasants (y€ opyoL) were certainly not slaves, while, on the other hand, their condition was closely bound up with the cultivation of the estates where they lived.
Prices are reckoned out in numbers of such slaves and there must have been a constant call for them both as concubines and as household servants.
As Tacitus tells us, the ancient Germans made use of their slaves in a different way from the Romans.
These slaves had their separate households, while the masters exacted tribute from them in the shape of corn, cattle or clothes, and the serfs had to obey to the extent of rendering such tribute (Tacitus, Germania, 21).
But in process of time this group was merged with freedmen, settled slaves (servi casati) and small freedmen into the numerous class of serfs (servi, rustici, villani) which appears under different names in all western European countries.
The native population having been cleared off by the Dutch, the plantations were worked by slaves and convicts till the emancipation of 1860.
The total population of the islands is about 9500, of which some 7000 are descendants of the natives introduced as slaves from neighbouring islands, and are Christians or Mahommedans.
Numerous sepulchral insciptions of Imperial slaves and freedmen have been found at Surrentum.
In 1834 the abolition of slavery led to a decline in the prosperity of the islands, but as many of the slaves captured by British cruisers off the east coast of Africa were landed at Seychelles economic conditions were gradually ameliorated.
Under the Turks, gold-washing was carried on by gipsy slaves, but it has long been abandoned as unprofitable.
Under the constitution of 1820 the General Assembly had power to emancipate the slaves with the consent of their masters.
Benton and others prepared a plan for educating the slaves and gradually emancipating them under state law; and undoubtedly a considerable party would have supported such a project, for the Whigs and Democrats were not then divided along party lines on the slavery issue; but nothing took organized form in 1849, when Senator Benton repudiated certain ultra pro-slavery instructions, breathing a secession spirit, passed by the General Assembly for the guidance of the representatives of the state in Congress.
Several bands of slaves whom they met were liberated, and after seeing the missionary party settled in the highlands to the south of Lake Chilwa (Shirwa) Livingstone spent from August to November in exploring Lake Nyasa.
Besides the black and white races there is a large colony of Malays in Cape Town and district, originally introduced by the Dutch as slaves.
An ordinance passed in 1827, abolishing the old Dutch courts of landroost and heemraden (resident magistrates being substituted) and decreeing that henceforth all legal proceedings should be conducted in English; the granting in 1828, as a result of the representations of the missionaries, of equal rights with whites to the Hottentots and other free coloured people; the imposition (1830) of heavy penalties for harsh treatment of slaves, and finally the emancipation of the slaves in 1834,3 - all these things increased the dislike of the farmers to the government.
The unspeakable vices of Mecca are a scandal to all Islam, and a constant source of wonder to pious pilgrims.8 The slave trade has connexions with the pilgrimage which are not thoroughly clear; but under cover of the pilgrimage a great deal of importation and exportation of slaves goes on.
This tradition, together with the advice of Alcibiades, led the Spartans to fortify Decelea as a basis for permanent occupation in Attica during the later years of the Peloponnesian War, from 413-404 B.C. Its position enabled them to harass the Athenians constantly, and to form a centre for fugitive slaves and other deserters.
In 43, the year of the triumvirate of Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus, he was proscribed along with the murderers of Caesar, and, not daring to show himself in Italy, he put himself at the head of a fleet manned chiefly by slaves or proscribed persons, with which he made himself master of Sicily, and from thence ravaged the coasts of Italy.
No crusade ever had a truer laureate than the author of " The Virginia Slave Mother," " The Pastoral Letter " - one of his stinging ballads against a time-serving Church- " A Sabbath Scene," and " The Slaves of Martinique."
If the contract was broken, they became prisoners and might be fettered or made to work as slaves until the obligation was satisfied.
According to the census of 1800 there were 175 slaves in the Territory.
In 1810, by which year the number of slaves had increased to 237, the anti-slavery party was strong enough to secure the repeal of the indenture law, which had received the unwilling acquiescence of Governor Harrison.
The liberation of most of the slaves in the eastern counties followed; and some slave-holders removed to Kentucky.
In 1830 there were only three slaves in the state, and the danger of the establishment of slavery as an institution on a large scale was long past.
Altars were always places of refuge, and even criminals and slaves were there safe, violence offered to them being insults to the gods whose suppliants the refugees were for the time being.
But Missouri did not move her slaves; while her vicinity encouraged border partisans to seek such establishment even without residence - by intimidation, election frauds and outrage.
If the latter should be adopted, slavery should cease " except " that the right to property in slaves in the Territory should not be interfered with.
The free-state men regarded this as including the right to property in offspring of slaves, and therefore as pure fraud.
The Danes hailed his son Canute, a lad of eighteen, as king, but many of the English, though they had submitted to a hard-handed conqueror like Sweyn, were not prepared to be handed over like slaves to his untried successor.
In every direction English influence penetrated, and Englishmen before 1603 might be found in every quarter of the globe, following Drakes lead into the Pacific, painfully breaking the ice in search of a north-east or a north-west passage, hunting for slaves in the wilds of Africa, journeying in caravans across the steppes of Russia into central Asia, bargaining with the Turks on the shores of the Golden Horn, or with the Greeks in the Levant, laying the foundations of the East India Company, or of the colonies of Virginia and Newfoundland.
Its great work was the act emancipating the slaves in the British colonies (August 30).
The total population of the Brazilian portion of the Amazon basin in 1850 was perhaps 300,000, of whom about two-thirds were white and slaves, the latter numbering about 25,000.
The principal commercial city, Path, had from 10,000 to 12,000 inhabitants, including slaves.
A thousand slaves were taken from its population in 1553.
I assert nothing beyond their language when I call them Hindus, Greeks, Romans, Germans, Celts and Slaves; and in that sense, and in that sense only, do I say that even the blackest Hindus represent an earlier stage of Aryan speech and thought than the fairest Scandinavians.
It was long the centre of an important trade, especially in slaves to Brazil and Cuba, but has now greatly declined.
Flamininus's last act before returning home was characteristic. Of the Achaeans, who vied with one another in showering upon him honours and rewards, he asked but one personal favour, the redemption of the Italian captives who had been sold as slaves in Greece during the Hannibalic War.
The other representatives of Aryan race in Turkestan are a few (8000) Persians, mostly liberated slaves; Indians (300), who carry on trade and usury in the cities; a few Gipsies (Soo), and the Russians.
Benin was discovered by the Portuguese about the year 1485, and they carried on a brisk trade in slaves, who were taken to Elmina and sold to the natives of the Gold Coast.
He also formed a large library at Athens, and engaged a staff of slaves to make copies of valuable works.
The slave-trade is still alive in this district, and an overland route for slaves is believed to have been established through eastern Bassa to the Benue.
Meanwhile, from 1849 to 1852, he was governor of Virginia, in which position he recommended to the legislature the enactment of a law laying an import tax on the products of such states as refused to surrender fugitive slaves owned by Virginia masters.
It became nevertheless an important commercial and industrial city, being noted for its brass ware, its trade in ivory, gold and slaves.
In 1441 exploration began again in earnest with the venture of Antam Goncalvez, who brought to Portugal the first slaves and gold-dust from the Guinea coasts beyond Bojador; while Nuno Tristam in the same year pushed on to Cape Blanco.
In 1823 Alexander Hare, an English adventurer, settled on the southernmost island with a number of slaves.
Ross, who had commanded a brig during the English occupation of Java, settled with his family (who continued in the ownership) on Direction Island, and his little colony was soon strengthened by Hare's runaway slaves.
In 1788, however, a serious illness compelled him to retire for some months from public life, and the introduction of the subject in parliament therefore devolved on Pitt, whose representations were so far successful that an act was passed providing that the number of slaves carried in ships should be in proportion to the tonnage.
Many of the Indians of these tribes brought slaves with them from the Southern states and during the Civil War they supported the Confederacy, but when that war was over the Federal government demanded not only the liberation of the slaves but new treaties, partly on the ground that the tribal lands must be divided with the freedmen.
On a chief's death wives and slaves were buried alive with him.
These are (r) chiefs, greater and lesser; (2) priests; (3) Mata ni Vanua (lit., eyes of the land), employes, messengers or counsellors; (4) distinguished warriors of low birth; (5) common people; (6) slaves.
By his preaching at Bristol Wulfstan is said to have put an end to the kidnapping of English men and women and selling them as slaves.
Athens must never again seek "empire" in the sense which became odious under the influence of Cleon and Hyperbolus, - when, to use the image of Aristophanes, the allies were as Babylonian slaves grinding in the Athenian mill.
Many of the early settlers were well-to-do and brought their slaves with them, and for many years the settlement was reputed the richest in the colony.
The religious sept or family consisted in the first instance not only of the ecclesiastical persons to whom the gift was made, but of all the celi or vassals, tenants and slaves, connected with the land bestowed.
When he possessed ancestral land he was a flaith or lord, and was entitled to let his lands for grazing, to have a hamlet in which lived labourers and to keep slaves.
Among the miscellaneous body of attendants about the house of a king or noble were many Saxon slaves, in whom there was a regular trade until it was abolished by the action of the church in 1171.
The slaves slept on the ground in the kitchen or in cabins outside the fort.
On the former lived a motley population of slaves, horse-boys, and mercenaries composed of broken men of other clans, many of whom were fugitives from justice, possessing no rights either in the sept or tribe and entirely dependent on the bounty of the lord, and consequently living about his fortified residence.
Mozambiques or African slaves, who had been brought from the African coast by Arab dhows, were in 1877 formally set free by an agreement with the British government.
He saw that it was necessary for his people to be educated and civilized if the country was to progress; and making a treaty with the governor of Mauritius to abolish the export of slaves, he received every year in compensation a subsidy of arms, ammunition, and uniforms, as well as English training for his troops.
Formerly the principal exports, besides slaves, were gold-dust, wax and hides, the gold being obtained from the Futa Jallon district farther inland.
Embassies were sent from the Portuguese stations inland to Melle to open up trade with the interior, but about the middle of the century this trade - apparently mostly in gold and slaves - declined.
Similar tribes are found along the coast to the Bissagos Islands, though the introduction in Sierra Leone and Liberia of settlements of repatriated slaves from the American plantations has in those places modified the original ethnic distribution.
The Hova, during the 19th century, embraced Christianity, but retain, nevertheless, many of their old animistic beliefs; their original social organization in three classes, andriana or nobles, Nova or freemen, and andevo or slaves, has been modified by the French, who have abolished kingship and slavery.
Reid; and his wife and children were by inheritance the owners of slaves, though he himself never was.
In the same year he was despatched to Sicily, where he suppressed the revolt of the slaves under Eunus.
Force was met with force; the Circumcelliones, bands of fugitive slaves and vagrant (circum cellas) peasants, attached themselves to the Donatists, and their violence reached such a height as to threaten civil war.
The renewed excesses of the Circumcelliones, among whom were ranged fugitive slaves, debtors and political malcontents of all kinds, had given to the Donatist schism a revolutionary aspect; and its forcible suppression may therefore have seemed to Constans even more necessary for the preservation of the empire than for the vindication of orthodoxy.
When in 428 Gaiseric, king of the Vandals (q.v.), accepted the invitation of Bonifacius, the count of Africa, and passed cut of Spain to found the Vandal kingdom of Carthage, his whole horde numbered only 80,000 persons, including old men, women and children, and runaway slaves who had joined him.
They lived surrounded by multitudes of semi-servile coloni, or farmers, bound to the soil, of actual slaves, and of buccelarei, who were free swordsmen to whom they gave rations (buccelatwm, soldiers bread, or buccella, a portion).
There was the same king possessing theoretically almost absolute power, both administrative and legislative; the same nobles who limited his effective power by rebellion, their constant effort to keep the crown elective, and his no less steady, and by the 10th century victorious, effort to make it hereditary; the same distinction between the few free, who are also the rich owners of land, and the many serfs, who are partial bondsmen, or the slaves pure and simple.
The Cantonalists, who were largely galley slaves and deserters, seized the important harbour of Carthagena and the ships in.
He also agreed to respect the freedom of the maroons who had fled from their masters to join the Cubans during the ten years war, and this led to Spains very soon granting gradual emancipation to the remainder of the slaves who had stood by their owners.
The emancipation of the slaves took place in 1837, and by 1877 it was found necessary to introduce East Indian labour.
He also saw that the revenue of Egypt was falling through the diversion, since about 1800, of the caravan routes from the Nile to the Red Sea ports, and may have wished to recapture the trade, as well as to secure a country whence thousands of slaves could be brought annually.
On Ismail's return to Shendi, October 1822, he demanded of the mek r000 slaves to be supplied in two days.
The Sudan at this time (c. 1862) is described by Sir Samuel Baker as utterly ruined by Egyptian methods of government and the retention of the country only to be accounted for by the traffic in slaves.
There were slaves within its borders from the beginning, and anti-slavery ideas were embodied in several legislative bills, until a territorial law of 1861 excluded slavery.
Lane spent considerable time in the south-eastern counties, and across these an " underground railroad " ran, by which slaves were conducted from Kansas to Iowa and freedom.
We also note the same generous inclusion of the household slaves and of the resident alien as well as the fatherless and widow that characterizes the autumnal festival of "Booths."
Their general character is that of wild, lawless and inhospitable beings, the slaves of their animal passions, with the exception of Pholus and Chiron.
In Barth's time American merchants were established on the Niger, bartering goods in exchange for slaves.
The over-seas traffic in slaves did not continue long after the date (1851) to which Barth referred, but slave-raiding by the Fula went on unchecked up to the moment of the British occupation of the country.
In 904 the Saracens from the Cyrenaica took the place by storm; the public buildings were grievously injured, and the inhabitants to the number of 22,000 were carried off and sold as slaves throughout the countries of the Mediterranean.
When the Gauls made their way into eastern Europe, they came into collision with the Getae, whom they defeated and sold in large numbers to the Athenians as slaves.
Here he took up the slavery question, and proposed to issue regulations making the registration of slaves compulsory, but his proposals were not approved by the Cairo government.
In 1828 he confided to a few companions that a voice from heaven had announced that "the last shall be first," which was interpreted to mean that the slaves should control.
There were few large plantations and fewer slaves in that mountainous region, while the middle and western sections were more in harmony with the sentiment in Mississippi and Alabama.
Mother is long dead, most likely one of the blood slaves.
My slaves occupy an inn marked with the symbol of a rearing horse.
With the support of Gerrit Smith and other prominent abolitionists, Brown moved to Virginia where he established a refuge for runaway slaves.
The settlement's chaplain reported " instances, many instances, of horrible barbarity " against the slaves.
As they are dragged through the rift caves to Quentaris some of the slaves undergo a change that awakens some dormant psychic abilities.
The people who had been slaves in Egypt have wandered for 40 years in a very circuitous route.
The island was settled by French colonists, who brought with them slaves to work the land, in 1776.
Hunter also issued a statement that all slaves owned by confederates in the area were free.
Small islands cannot no more than slaves could convince their slave masters of the moral depravity of slavery.
This area is now inhabited by the descendants of European settlers and African slaves who arrived just 500 years ago.
The direct importation of slaves was prohibited by the Georgia Constitution in 1798.
Slaves to detail must not win urban battle We have wound ourselves into a Gordian knot.
Most child laborers can be considered to be wage slaves.
Slaves, who occupied the bottom rung of the social ladder, wore loincloths.
Evidence of an expectation of the eschaton is also the advice to slaves to remain obedient to their masters.
These Roman ladies and their slaves have been making a sacrifice to the god Oceanus.
We are fortunate to have a papyrus from the Middle Kingdom that deals with slaves.
There is discontent from people who feel powerless, like slaves, with their skills rendered pointless as machines replace the need for them.
Droughts, competition for land, and the loss of their slaves have made the nomadic existence increasingly precarious.
The first million selling record for this vocal quintet was a traditional song which originated from slaves in Georgia, Alabama.
Link The underground railroad Curious about how slaves escaped?
The exodus of the Hebrew slaves from Egypt is not a victory or triumph of the same order as the resurrection.
The point I stressed in my book is that Peter ended this sort of slavery by making former slaves subject to the poll tax.
What an idiot I would be to make chattel slaves of them.
On the plantations slaves lasted on average four years.
The author appears to have a sincere belief that woman are naturally submissive to men and would be far happier as slaves.
Theotokion Lady, do thou receive the supplications of thy slaves, and deliver us from every affliction and necessity.
Among the works of benevolence with which his name is associated are the establishment of a hospital for galley slaves at Marseilles, the institution of two establishments for foundlings at Paris, and the organization of the "Filles de la Charite," to supplement the work of the confreries, whose members were mainly married women with domestic duties.
Besides travelling through many states of the United States to deliver anti-slavery lectures, Lundy visited Haiti twice - in 1825 and 1829, the Wilberforce colony of freedmen and refugee slaves in Canada in 1830-1831, and in 1832 and again in 1833 Texas, all these visits being made, in part, to find a suitable place outside the United States to which emancipated slaves might be sent.
Marcus accordingly brought her before Appius, and asserted that she was the daughter of one of his female slaves, who had been stolen and passed off by the wife of Virginius as her own child.
When the storm had passed Avicenna returned with the amir to Hamadan, and carried on his literary labours; but at length, accompanied by his brother, a favourite pupil, and two slaves, made his escape out of the city in the dress of a Sufite ascetic. After a perilous journey they reached Isfahan, and received an honourable welcome from the prince.
The Reformed Presbytery of North America was reconstituted by two ministers from Ireland in 1798; it became a synod of three presbyteries in 1809 and a general synod in 1823; in the first decade of the century the presbytery required all members to free their slaves.
For the nethinim ("` given") and "children of the slaves of Solomon" (whose hereditary service would give them a pre-eminence over the temple slaves), see art.
The levy of ship money and customs by Charles sinks into insignificance beside Cromwell's wholesale taxation by ordinances; the inquisitional methods of the major-generals and the unjust and exceptional taxation of royalists outdid the scandals of the extra-legal courts of the Stuarts; the shipment of British subjects by Cromwell as slaves to Barbados has no parallel in the Stuart administration; while the prying into morals, the encouragement of informers, the attempt to make the people religious by force, were the counterpart of the Laudian system, and Cromwell's drastic treatment of the Irish exceeded anything dreamed of by Strafford.
In the convention he supported the large-state party, favoured a strong executive, advocated the suppression of the slave trade, and opposed the counting of slaves in determining the apportionment of representatives.
In the Missouri Compromise debates he supported the anti-slavery programme in the main, but for constitutional reasons voted against the second clause of the Tallmadge Amendment providing that all slaves born in the state after its admission into the Union should be free at the age of twenty-five years.
But the new state was weakened by factions, and after a brief and precarious existence it was forced into submission to North Carolina by which in 1790 the territory was again ceded to the national government with the proviso that no regulation made or to be made by Congress should tend to the emancipation of slaves (see Tennessee).
Out of a citizen body of over 50,000 freemen, reinforced by mercenaries and slaves, a superb fleet exceeding 300 sail and an army of 30,000 drilled soldiers could be mustered.
Again we find the cult in Sicily, introduced, no doubt, by slaves and mercenary troops, who carried it even to the farthest northern limits of the Roman empire.
These deplorable results were, of course, not universally produced; there were admirable exceptions both among masters and among slaves - instances of benevolent protection on the one side and of unselfish devotion on the other; but the evil effects without doubt greatly preponderated.
The slave was introduced with certain customary rites into his position in the family; he was in practice, though not by law, permitted to accumulate a private fund of his own; his marriage was also recognized by custom; though in general excluded from sacred ceremonies and public sacrifices, slaves were admissible to religious associations of a private kind; there were some popular festivals in which they were allowed to participate; they had even special ones for themselves both at Athens and in other Greek centres.
Securities were taken against the revolt of slaves by not associating those of the same nationality and language; they were sometimes fettered to prevent flight, and, after a first attempt at escape, branded to facilitate their recovery.
The evidence of slaves - women as well as men - was often, with the consent of their masters, taken by torture; and that method is generally commended by the orators as a sure means of arriving at the truth.
There were, besides, the slaves who accompanied the master and mistress out of doors, and were chosen for their beauty and grace as guards of honour, for their strength as chairmen or porters, or for their readiness and address in remembering names, delivering messages of courtesy and the like.
The slaves of Pedanius Secundus, who, in spite of a threatened outbreak of the indignant populace, were all put to death because they had been under their master's roof when he was murdered, were four hundred in number.