Although older, his own name was present under Damian's, as if it had been erased during the long years of his slavery and newly added.
Then war can become obsolete, as foreign to us as slavery and public hangings.
Slavery was forbidden by the sixth article of the ordinance; and the third article read: "Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall for ever be encouraged."
Owing to the prohibition of slavery the vast majority of the early immigrants to Ohio came from the North, but, until the Mexican War forced the slavery question into the foreground, the Democrats usually controlled the state, because the principles of that party were more in harmony with frontier ideas of equality.
Bassett, Constitutional Beginnings of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1894); The Regulators of North Carolina (Washington, 1894); and Slavery in the State of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1899), are all trustworthy.
Slaves were often adopted and if they proved unfilial were reduced to slavery again.
The antebellum era is often associated with slavery, conflict, and sprawling Southern plantations.
Slavery and head-hunting are universal, despite the efforts of Dutch and German missionary societies.
Although slavery still exists and the low price of slaves speaks to the low value of a human life, the legal institution of slavery is gone.
He greatly weakened the position of the Confederacy by a speech delivered at Savannah (March 21, 1861) in which he declared that slavery was its corner-stone.
But the only true America is that country where you are at liberty to pursue such a mode of life as may enable you to do without these, and where the state does not endeavor to compel you to sustain the slavery and war and other superfluous expenses which directly or indirectly result from the use of such things.
Application for admission to the Union was now made to Congress, and on the 31st of December 186 2 an enabling act was approved by President Lincoln admitting the state on the condition that a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery be inserted in the Constitution.
Slavery being against their principles, the younger members of the society waited on the elder.
Oldham wrote other satires, notably one "addressed to a friend about to leave the university," which contains a well-known description of the state of slavery of the private chaplain, and another "dissuading from poetry," describing the ingratitude shown to Edmund Spenser, whose ghost is the speaker, to Samuel Butler and to Abraham Cowley.
If he had been lenient for their sakes or in the hope of damaging Antipater, he was disappointed; for Cassius sold four cities into slavery and Hyrcanus made up the deficit.
One of the claims of the "free republic" was "the absolute and unconditional slavery of all Hottentots and Bushmen."
Slave raiding has ceased, but domestic slavery in a mild form continues.
He was one of the earliest political opponents of slavery, as distinguished from the radical Abolitionists, or the followers of William Lloyd Garrison, who eschewed politics and devoted themselves to a moral agitation.
At the beginning of the quarrel of the North and the South over the organization of the territory acquired from Mexico, Calhoun contended that the Constitution of the United States extended over this territory and carried slavery with it, but Webster denied this on the ground that the territory was the property of, not part of, the United States, and Webster's view prevailed.
in the laws respecting slavery and war)' that subdues or even removes the harshness of earlier laws or usages.
It was a noble effort to secure a lasting settlement of the slavery question, but he was bitterly denounced throughout the north as a renegade.
One tablet records that in 1631 two Algerine pirate crews landed in Ireland, sacked Baltimore, and carried off its inhabitants to slavery; another recalls the romantic escape of Ida M'Donnell, daughter of Admiral Ulric, consulgeneral of Denmark, and wife of the British consul.
The rugged nature of the country made slavery unprofitable, and time only increased the social, political and economic differences between the two sections of the state.
To the Theological Seminary, opened in 1835, there came in the same year forty students from Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, after the discussion of slavery there had been forbidden by its board of trustees.
One important variation, however, was a clause in the bill of rights providing for the abolition of slavery, Vermont being the first state in America to take such action.
He was essentially humane; and it is worthy of notice that he was in favour of the abolition of slavery, while humane men like his friend Lord Sheffield, Dr Johnson and Boswell were opposed to the antislavery movement.
For a short time he assisted Charles Osborne in editing the Philanthropist; in 1819 he went to St Louis, Missouri, and there in 1819-1820 took an active part in the slavery controversy; and in 1821 he founded at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, an anti-slavery paper, the Genius of Universal Emancipation.
Weeks deals with the religious history in his Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1892), Church and State in North Carolina (Baltimore, 1893) and Southern Quakers and Slavery (Baltimore, 1896); he is anti-Anglican, but judicial.
The abolition of slavery in 1888 caused much discontent among the planters and in the following year Minas Geraes promptly adhered to the declaration of the republic in Rio de Janeiro.
Its open advocacy of force attracts warlike races, and the intensity of its influence is increased by the fusion of secular and religious power, so that the Moslem Church is a Moslem state characterized by slavery, polygamy, and, subject to the autocracy of the ruler, by the theoretical.
When the majority shall at length vote for the abolition of slavery, it will be because they are indifferent to slavery, or because there is but little slavery left to be abolished by their vote.
In 1865 President Johnson appointed as provisional governor William Lewis Sharkey (1797-1873), who had been chief justice of the state in 1832-1850, and a convention which assembled on the 14th of August recognized the "destruction" of slavery and declared the ordinance of secession null and void.
After the abolition of slavery, farms greatly decreased in size and increased in number; the number grew from 68,023 in 1870 to 220,803 in 1900; the average size fell from 369.7 acres in 1860 to 82.6 acres in 1900.
The fundamental points of difference between North Carolina and South Carolina were exemplified in the slavery conflict.
But while the province in many parts presents a landscape of luxuriant beauty, it is a prey to the ravages of disease, principally malarial fevers due to the extensive swamps formed by waters stagnating in the forests, and to the frequent incursions of the Goklan and Yomut Turkomans, who have their camping-grounds in the northern part of the province, and until about 1890 plundered caravans sometimes at the very gates of Astarabad city, and carried people off into slavery and bondage.
It was the period of the agitation for the abolition of slavery in England, where Philip's charges against the colonists and the colonial government found powerful support.
Hawthorne called him a "fat-brained, good-hearted, sensible old man"; and in politics he was a typical Virginian of the old school, a state's rights Democrat, upholding slavery and hating abolitionism.
Mrs Stowe passed eighteen years in Cincinnati under conditions which constantly thrust the problem of human slavery upon her attention.
The view of slavery given in Frances A.
Many people fought to abolish slavery during the Civil War.
Slavery, however, still flourishes in that empire.
Domestic slavery lingers but is moribund.
The 13th amendment is the part of the United States Consitution that formally abolishes slavery.
He did good service, however, in opposing the extension of slavery.
The decline of the free population, the spread of slavery (vi.
The slavery of the Mahommedan East is usually not the slavery of the field but of the household.
Since the reconquest of the eastern Sudan by an Anglo-Egyptian force in 1898 effective measures have been taken to suppress slave raiding and as far as possible slavery itself.
Slavery itself has been abolished in the Zanzibar, British, German and Portuguese dominions, and had ceased in Madagascar even before its conquest by the French.
- On the several branches of the subject of slavery and serfdom information may be obtained from the following works :- On Ancient Slavery: H.
Cornewall Lewis (1828; 2nd ed., 1842); William Blair, Inquiry into the State of Slavery among the Romans, from the Earliest Period to the Establishment of the Lombards in Italy (1833); Dureau de la Malle, Economie politique des Romains (2 vols., 1840); M.
Leave aside the socialist future and the abolition of wage slavery.
The sources of slavery were there, as elsewhere, capture in war, voluntary sale by poor freemen of themselves, sale of insolvent debtors, and the action of the law in certain criminal cases.
He'd lost her as soon as he finally won her, all because he couldn't control the spells he still suffered from his years in slavery.
Year after year the raids went on under a succession of leaders - Heriold, Roruk, Rolf, Godfrey - and far and wide there was pillaging, burning, murder and slavery.
Fitch and others, of Freeman, of Wyatt and of Van Zandt - the last-named bringing him especially the goodwill of opponents of slavery.
In early times the son who denied his father had his front hair shorn, a slave-mark put on him, and could be sold as a slave; while if he denied his mother he had his front hair shorn, was driven round the city as an example and expelled his home, but not degraded to slavery.
The more conservative members strongly opposed them as premature, whereupon Henry supported them in a speech familiar to the American school-boy for several generations following, closing with the words, "Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery ?
Nehemiah was faced with old abuses, and vehemently contrasted the harshness of the nobles with the generosity of the exiles who would redeem their poor countrymen from slavery.
interpreted as an effort to restore slavery.
The slavery of the working classes was not directly changed into the system of personal freedom.
The question of the legal existence of slavery in Great Britain and Ireland was raised in consequence of an opinion given in 1729 by Yorke and Talbot, attorney-general and solicitor-general at the time, to the effect that a slave by coming into those countries from the West Indies did not become free, and might be compelled by his master to return to the plantations.
A " Societe des Amis des Noirs " was formed in Paris in 1788 for the abolition, not only of the slave trade, but of slavery itself.
In Congress he was one of the ablest opponents of slavery, contending particularly against the Compromise Measures of 1850,1850, but he was never technically an Abolitionist and he disapproved of the Radicalism of Garrison and his followers.
Siebert, The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom (New York, 1898).
The arrests of Sims and of Shadrach in Boston in 1851; of "Jerry" M`Henry, in Syracuse, New York, in the same year; of Anthony Burns in 1854, in Boston; and of the two Garner families in 1856, in Cincinnati, with other cases arising under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, probably had as much to do with bringing on the Civil War as did the controversy over slavery in the Territories.
By 1863 two parties had arisen among the loyal classes: one of radicals, who demanded the calling of a constitutional convention and the abolition of slavery; the other of conservatives.
The former prevailed, and by a convention that assembled in April 1864 a constitution was framed closely following that of 1852 but repudiating the debt incurred by Louisiana as one of the Confederate states and abolishing slavery.
The "Unionists" were successful in the elections of 1851 and 1852, but the feeling of uncertainty engendered in the south by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and the course of the slavery agitation after 1852 led the State Democratic convention of 1856 to revive the "Alabama Platform"; and when the "Alabama Platform" failed to secure the formal approval of the Democratic National convention at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1860, the Alabama delegates, followed by those of the other cotton "states," withdrew.
According to the presidential plan of reorganization, a provisional governor for Alabama was appointed in June 1865; a state convention met in September of the same year, and declared the ordinance of secession null and void and slavery abolished; a legislature and a governor were elected in November, the legislature was at once recognized by the National government, and the inauguration of the governor-elect was permitted after the legislature had, in December, ratified the thirteenth amendment.
But the contract system for convicts and the peonage system (under which immigrants were held in practical slavery while they " worked out " advances made for passage-money, &c.) were still sources of much injustice.
The activity of Georgia in the slavery controversy was important.
The aim, not expressed, was the legalization of slavery.
He became well known, also, as an eloquent advocate of slavery restriction.
He said in 1856, "I think we must get rid of slavery, or we must get rid of freedom."
Seward, Salmon P. Chase, and Abraham Lincoln, that slavery was to be overthrown under the constitution and in the Union, by forbidding its growth and trusting to an awakened conscience, enforced by an enlightened self-interest.
Toward the end of the 19th century, after a decline in production due to the abolition of slavery and to civil wars, increased interest was shown abroad in Colombian mining operations.
Subsequently racism, prejudice and xenophobia today are to some extent part of the broader legacy of slavery.
They say, together with their political leaders: There will be no return to the yoke of slavery.
Abolishment of slavery was a huge milestone in America's history.
The free states of the Union fought to banish slavery from the American South.
The abolishment of slavery marked the beginning of a new era in American history.
In 1688 the German Friends of Germantown, Philadelphia, raised the first official protest uttered by any religious body against slavery.
By the end of the 18th century slavery was practically extinct among Friends, and the Society as a whole laboured for its abolition, which came about in 1865, the poet 'Whittier being one of the chief writers and workers in the cause.
In nothing has this been more conspicuous than in the matter of slavery.
On the attitude of Friends in America to slavery, see the section " Quakerism in America " (above).
In 1783 the first petition to the House of Commons for the abolition of the slave trade and slavery went up from the Quakers; and in the long agitation which ensued the Society took a prominent part.
It appears to be true that, in the words of Dunoyer, the economic regime of every society which has recently become sedentary is founded on the slavery of the industrial professions.
Of this stage in the social movement slavery seems to have been, as we have said, a universal and inevitable accompaniment.
But wherever theocratic organizations established themselves slavery in the ordinary sense did not become a vital element in the social system.
It is in the communities in which the military order obtained an ascendancy over the sacerdotal, and which were directly organized for war, that slavery (as the word is commonly understood) had its natural and appropriate place.
It is not merely that in its first establishment slavery was an immense advance by substituting for the immolation of captives, often accompanied by cannibalism, their occupation in labour for the benefit of the victor.
But it is not so well understood that slavery discharged important offices in the later social evolution - first, by enabling military action to prevail with the degree of intensity and continuity requisite for the system of incorporation by conquest which was its final destination; and, secondly, by forcing the captives, who with their descendants came to form the majority of the population in the conquering community, to an industrial life, in spite of the antipathy to regular and sustained labour which is deeply rooted in human nature.
In modern slavery, on the other hand, where the occupations of both parties were industrial, the existence of a servile class only guaranteed for some of them the possibility of self-indulgent ease, whilst it imposed on others the necessity of indigent idleness.
Hence at Rome slavery also most properly found its place, so long as that mission was in progress of accomplishment.
As soon as the march of conquest had reached its natural limit, slavery began to be modified; and when the empire was divided into the several states which had grown up under it, and the system of defence characteristic of the middle ages was substituted for the aggressive system of antiquity, slavery gradually disappeared, and was replaced by serfdom.
We have so far dealt with the political results of ancient slavery, and have found it to have been in certain respects not only useful but indispensable.
We find slavery fully established in the Homeric period.
The sources of slavery in Greece were: (I) Birth, the condition being hereditary.
Not only Asiatics and Thracians thus became slaves, but in the many wars between Grecian states, continental or colonial, Greeks were reduced to slavery by men of their own race.
He was thus in an intermediate condition between slavery and complete freedom.
If the freedman violated his duties to his patron he was subject to an action at law, and if the decision were against him he was again reduced to slavery.
The Stoic regarded the condition of freedom or slavery as an external accident, indifferent in the eye of wisdom; to him it was irrational to see in liberty a ground of pride or in slavery a subject of complaint; from intolerable indignity suicide was an ever-open means of escape.
But slavery, as Hume has shown, is unfavourable to population.
There were other sources from which slavery was alimented, though of course in a much less degree.
Certain offences reduced the guilty persons to slavery (servi poenae), and they were employed in public work in the quarries or the mines.
The worst form of such praedial slavery existed in Sicily, whither Mommsen supposes that its peculiarly harsh features had been brought by the Carthaginians.
Blair, in comparing the Greek and Roman systems of slavery, points with justice to the greater facility and frequency of emancipation as the great superiority of the latter.
In the 2nd century of the Christian era we find a marked change with respect to the institution of slavery, both in the region of thought and in that of law.
Dio Chrysostom, the adviser of Trajan, is the first Greek writer who has pronounced the principle of slavery to be contrary to the law of nature " (Mark Pattison).
The military vocation of Rome was now felt to have reached its normal limits; and the emperors, understanding that, in the future, industrial activity must prevail, prepared the abolition of slavery as far as was then possible, by honouring the freedmen, by protecting the slave against his master, and by facilitating manumissions.
It is sometimes objected that the Christian church did not denounce slavery as a social crime and insist on its abolition.
We have seen that slavery was a fundamental element of the old Roman constitution.
But in the meantime much might be done towards further mitigating the evils of slavery, especially by impressing on master and slave their relative duties and controlling their behaviour towards one another by the exercise of an independent moral authority.
Whilst the fathers agree with the Stoics of the 2nd century in representing slavery as an indifferent circumstance in the eye of religion and morality, the contempt for the class which the Stoics too often exhibited is in them replaced by a genuine sympathy.
There was an intermediate stage which has not always been sufficiently discriminated from slavery.
The influence of the Northern invasions on the change from slavery to serfdom was, in all probability, of little account.
Not very long after the disappearance of serfdom in the most advanced communities comes into sight the new system of colonial slavery, which, instead of being the spontaneous outgrowth of social necessities and subserving a temporary need of human development, was politically as well as morally a monstrous aberration.
Slavery had disappeared; the blacks were employed as hired servants, receiving for their remuneration the third part of the crops they raised; and the population was rapidly rising in civilization and comfort.
There can be no doubt that the government of the Restoration, in seeking to obtain possession of the island, had the intention of reestablishing slavery, and even of reopening the slave trade for the purpose of recruiting the diminished population.
Meantime another and more radical reform had been in preparation and was already in progress, namely, the abolition of slavery itself in the foreign possessions of the several states of Europe.
When the English slave trade had Anti" been closed, it was found that the evils of the traffic, slavery > as still continued by several other nations, were greatly aggravated.
It became more and more evident that the evil could be stopped only by abolishing slavery altogether.
Buxton moved on the 5th of May 1823 that the House should take into consideration the state of slavery in the British colonies.
It was becoming plain that the planters would take no steps tending to the future liberation of the slaves, and the leaders of the movement determined to urge the entire abolition of slavery at the earliest practicable period.
This law came into operation on the 29th of April 1878, and the status of slavery was thenceforth illegal throughout the Portuguese possessions.
Several of the Spanish American states, on declaring their independence, had adopted measures for the discontinuance of slavery within their limits.
Slavery was far from being approved in principle by the most eminent of the fathers of the American Union.
Washington in his will provided for the emancipation of his own his first wishes to see some plan adopted by which slavery in his country might be abolished by law," and again he wrote that to this subject his own suffrage should never be wanting.
John Adams declared his abhorrence of the practice of slaveholding, and said that " every measure of prudence ought to be assumed for the eventual total extirpation of slavery from the United States."
Jefferson declared in regard to slavery, " I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just."
8 of the United States north-west of the Ohio river, which was introduced by Nathan Dane and probably drafted by Manasseh Cutler, slavery was forbidden in the Territory.
The words " slave" and " slavery " were, however, excluded from the constitution, " because," as Madison says," they did not choose to admit the right of property in man " in direct terms; and it was at the same time provided that Congress might interdict the foreign slave trade after the expiration of twenty years.
It must not be forgotten that either before or soon after the formation of the Union the Northern States - beginning with Vermont in 1777, and ending with New Jersey in 1804 - either abolished slavery or adopted measures to effect its gradual abolition within their boundaries.
The South, and its partisans in the North, made desperate efforts to prevent the free expression of opinion respecting the institution, and even the Christian churches in the slave states used their influence in favour of the maintenance of slavery.
The North at first took arms simply to maintain the Union; but the farsighted politicians from the first, and soon the whole nation, saw that the real issue was the continued existence or the total abolition of slavery.
But notwithstanding this slaves; he said to Jefferson that it was " among mildness of the code, its provisions were habitually and glaringly violated in the colonies of Spain, and in Cuba particularly the conditions of slavery were very bad.
Mr Crowe, consul-general in the island, in 1885, stated that " the institution was rapidly dying, - that in a year, or at most two, slavery, even in its then mild form, would be extinct."
The closing of the traffic made the labour of the slaves more severe, and led to the employment on the plantations of many who before had been engaged in domestic work; but the slavery of Brazil had always been lighter than that of the United States.
On 28th September 1871 the Brazilian chambers decreed that slavery should be abolished throughout the empire.
Finally, in 1888 the chambers decreed the total abolition of slavery, some 700,000 persons being accordingly freed.
We have seen that the last vestiges of the monstrous anomaly of modern colonial slavery are disappearing from all civilized states and their foreign possessions.
It now remains to consider the slavery of primitive origin which has .existed within recent times, or continues to exist, outside of the Western world.
In Russia, a country which had not the same historical antecedents with the Western nations, properly so called, and which is in fact more correctly classed as Eastern, whilst slavery had disappeared, serfdom was in force down to our own days.
Buckland, The Roman Law of Slavery (Cambridge, 1909); A.
On Medieval Slavery and Serfdom: G.
On the Colonial Slave Trade and Slavery: Washington Irving, Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828), several times reprinted; Arthur Helps, Life of Las Casas (1868); Bryan Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial, of the British West Indies (1793; 5th ed.
On North American Slavery: G.
Stroud, Laws relating to Slavery in America (2nd ed., 1856); H.
Munford, Virginia's Attitude toward Slavery (London, 1909), and A.
For the African slave trade, and Egyptian and Turkish slavery, the Ismailia of Sir S.
Tourmagne, entitled respectively Histoire de l'esclavage ancien et moderne (1880) and Histoire du servage ancien et moderne (1879), which bring together many facts relating to slavery and serfdom; but they are somewhat loose and uncritical; the author, too, repeats himself much, and dwells on many topics scarcely if at all connected with his main themes; see also H.
Nieboer, Slavery as an Industrial System (The Hague, 1900); W.
Smith, Political History of Slavery (London, 1903).
A comparatively low cost of labour, the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop, have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to compete with the bounty-fed beet.
Even in the time of slavery tobacco was generally a white-man's crop; for it requires intelligent labour and intensive care.
Various censuses were taken in Cuba beginning in 1774; but the results of those preceding the abolition of slavery, at least, are probably without exception extremely untrustworthy.
Despite the long period of slavery they are decidedly below the whites in number.
Since the abolition of slavery the status of the black has been made more definite, and his rights naturally much greater.
The reformists demanded, besides the correction of the above evils, action against slavery, assimilation of rights between peninsulars and creoles and the practical recognition of equality, e.g.
Intervention by the United States seemed probable, but did not come, and after alternations in the fortunes of war, Martinez Campos in January 1878 secured the acceptance by the rebels of the convention (pacto) of Zanjon, which promised amnesty for the war, liberty to slaves in the rebel ranks, the abolition of slavery, reforms in government, and colonial autonomy.
Gradual abolition of slavery was declared by a law of the 13th of February 1880; definitive abolition in 1886; and in 1893 the equal civil status of blacks and whites in all respects was proclaimed by General Calleja.
Madden, The Island of Cuba (London, 1853) - two very important books regarding slavery; J.
Aimes, History of Slavery in Cuba, 1511-1868 (New York, 1907); F.
was not followed, the greater part of the inhabitants being massacred or sold into slavery, and the principal churches converted into mosques.
The Moroccan system was visited, and in some instances crossed, by various European travellers carried into slavery by the Salli rovers, and was traversed by Rene Caille in 1828 on his journey home from Timbuktu, but the first detailed exploration was made by Gerhard Rohlfs in 1861-1862.
Siberia, which took place in the 5th century, drove them farther N., and probably reduced most of them to slavery.
Others had been carried off into slavery, and a deputation of clergy which Patrick had sent to ask for their release had been subjected to ridicule.
His men were actively employed in burning the Greek villages, and reducing the inhabitants to slavery.
On the other hand the severe measures taken by the government prevented the growth of anything like legalized slavery on Siberian soil; but the people, ruined as they were both by the intrusion of agricultural colonists and by the exactions of government officials, fell into what was practically a kind of slavery to the merchants.
His attitude towards slavery at the moment was shown by his vote, in January 1820, for a resolution opposing the admission of Missouri as a slave state.
He expressed himself plainly during the canvass on the questions of slavery and the bank, at the same time voting, perhaps with a touch of bravado, for a bill offered in 1836 to subject abolition literature in the mails to the laws of the several states.
C. Smith's Parties and Slavery (the last three in the "American Nation Series") give much attention to Van Buren's public career.
Having in 1834 gone to the South for the benefit of his health, he was led by what he witnessed of the evils of slavery (chiefly in Florida) to write the anti-slavery novel The Slave: or Memoir of Archy Moore (1836; enlarged edition, 1852, The White Slave).
Slavery was not abolished until the 13th of May 1888, but a number of successful colonies had already been founded in these states.
Since the abolition of slavery immigration has poured a large number of labourers into the coffee-producing states, and with beneficial results.
At first the Portuguese outnumbered all other nationalities in the immigration returns, but since the abolition of slavery the Italians have passed all competitors and number more than one-half the total arrivals.
C. Tavares Bastos, whose Cartas do Solitario were highly instrumental in causing the Amazon to be thrown open to the world's commerce and also in preparing the way for the abolition of slavery; and in that of Joaquin].
They had reduced to slavery numerous tribes of the natives.
When Dom Pedro left Brazil for the purpose of making a tour through Europe and the United States he appointed Princess Isabella to act as regent, and she showed herself so swayed in political questions by Church influence that Liberal feeling became more and more anti-dynastic. Another incident which gave strength to the opposition was the sudden abolition of slavery without any compensation to slave-owners.
But although still holding to the theory expounded in his July speech of 1848, he was now ready with the proposal that slavery might be prohibited north of latitude 36° 30' N.
To his insistence in 1860 that the Democratic party should support his claim to the protection of slavery in the territories by the Federal government, the disruption of that party was in large measure due.
Kenner as special commissioner to the courts of England and France to obtain recognition of the Confederacy on condition of the abolition of slavery.
The chief events of his administration, which has been called the " era of good feeling," were the Seminole War (1817-18); the acquisition of the Floridas from Spain (1819-21); the "Missouri Compromise " (1820), by which the first conflict over slavery under the constitution was peacefully adjusted; the veto of the Cumberland Road Bill (1822) 1 on constitutional grounds; and - most 1 The Cumberland (or National) Road from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, West Virginia, was projected in 1806, by an appropriation of 1819 was extended to the Ohio River, by an act of 1825 (signed by Monroe on the last day of his term of office) was continued to Zanesville, and by an act of 1829 was extended westward from Zanesville.
But after the conflict became inevitable his sympathies were wholly with the North, because the South was fighting for slavery.
On the other hand, his example in manumitting most of his slaves, together with the precepts of the church, practically put an end to slavery in the course of the 13th century, the slaves becoming for the most part serfs, who differed from the free peasants only in the fact that they were attached to the soil (adscripti glebae).
But the remaining 93 stood firm and were condemned to death, a punishment commuted to slavery in the Neapolitan galleys.
It is true that laws prohibiting slavery were in existence, but the Boer who periodically took up arms against his own appointed government was not likely to be, nor was he, restrained by laws.
He had found their idea of liberty to be anarchy, their native policy to be slavery, and their republic to be a sham.
You have ill-treated the natives, you have shot them down, you have sold them into slavery, and now you have to pay the penalty..
The chief political incident of his rule was a decree abolishing slavery in 1854.
His Schiavitic e servaggio (Milan, 1868-1869) gave an account of the development and abolition of slavery and serfdom.
The failure of the government in Ireland (where the only success was Mr Birrell's introduction of the Universities Bill in April 1908), their internal divisions as regards socialistic legislation, their variance from the views of the selfgoverning colonies on Imperial administration, the admission after the general election that the alleged "slavery" of the Chinese in the Transvaal was, in Mr Winston Churchill's phrase, a "terminological inexactitude," and the introduction of extreme measures such as the Licensing Bill of 1908, offered excellent opportunities of electioneering attack.
Recognizing that slavery was a state institution, with which the Federal government had no authority to interfere, he contended that slavery could only exist by a specific state enactment, that therefore slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories was unlawful and should be abolished, that the coastwise slave-trade in vessels flying the national flag, like the international slave-trade, should be rigidly suppressed, and that Congress had no power to pass any act which in any way could be construed as a recognition of slavery as a national institution.
The abolition of slavery in 1834 was attended by no ill results, the slaves continuing to work for their masters as hired servants, and a.
All the heavy labour in the coast provinces was performed by them down to 1855, when African slavery was abolished.
The business of the new system will be to bring back the Intellect into a condition, not of slavery, but of willing ministry to the Feelings.
Dr Cutler was selected to negotiate with Congress, and seems to have helped to secure the incorporation in the Ordinance for the government of the North-West Territory of the paragraphs which prohibited slavery and provided for public education and for the support of the ministry.
He opposed the removal of Jewish disabilities, arguing, we are told by a contemporary, " on the part of the Evangelicals," and pleaded for the gradual extinction, in preference to the immediate abolition, of slavery.
He regarded slavery as sanctioned by Holy Scripture, but the slaves ought to be educated and gradually emancipated.
a series of resolutions in favour of the extinction of slavery in the British colonies.
Though his brother John Sherman was a leader in the party which had elected Lincoln, William Sherman was very conservative on the slavery question, and his distress at what he thought an unnecessary rupture between the states was extreme.
He was ardently opposed to the extension of slavery and supported Martin Van Buren, the Free Soil candidate for the presidency in 1848.
Most of the settlers came from the southern section of the Union and of course brought their slaves with them, but there is no evidence to show that their object was the territorial extension of slavery, or that the revolt against Mexico was the result of dissatisfaction with that country's anti-slavery policy.
After a long conflict over the slavery question, the state was admitted into the Union under a joint resolution of Congress adopted on the 1st of March 1845, 1 on condition that the United States should settle all questions of boundary with foreign governments, that Texas should retain all of its vacant and unappropriated public lands, and that new states, not exceeding four in number, might be formed within its limits.
Adams in maintaining the right of offering anti-slavery petitions, advocated the prohibition by Congress of the slave trade between the states, and favoured the exclusion of slavery from the District of Columbia.
The term "slavery" is often applied to the aboriginal American tribes.
If it means the capture of men, and especially of women, and adoption into the tribe, this existed everywhere; but if subjection to a personal owner, who may compel service, sell or put to death the individual, slavery was far from universal.
Nieboer, Slavery as an Industrial System (The Hague, 1900); G.
In 1817 an act was passed which ten years later ended for ever slavery in New York state; in the same year De Witt Clinton was elected governor and, largely through his efforts, the Erie Canal was begun.
But it is as an anti-slavery leader, and as perhaps the chief agency in educating the mass of the Northern people to that opposition through legal forms to the extension of slavery which culminated in the election of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War, that Greeley's main work was done.
What I do about slavery and the coloured race, I do because I believe it helps to save this Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union ...
In 1774 he published The Chains of Slavery, which was intended to influence constituencies to return popular members, and reject the king's friends.
Slavery, once common, has been gradually abolished by a series of laws, the last of which came into force in 1905.
They reformed the judicature, introduced elementary education for the natives, and abolished slavery in Java as from the 1st of January 1860.
Lane Theological Seminary is situated in Walnut Hills, in the north-eastern part of the city; it was endowed by Ebenezer Lane and the Kemper family; was founded in 1829 for the training of Presbyterian ministers; had for its first president (1832-1852) Lyman Beecher; and in 1834 was the scene of a bitter contest between abolitionists in the faculty and among the students, led by Theodore Dwight Weld, and the board of trustees, who forbade the discussion of slavery in the seminary and so caused about four-fifths of the students to leave, most of them going to Oberlin College.
For more than ten years preceding the Civil War the city was much disturbed by slavery dissension - the industrial interests were largely with the South, but abolitionists were numerous and active, and the city was an important station on the "Underground Railroad," of which Dr Norton S.
In 1834 came the Lane Seminary controversies over slavery previously referred to.
So, when during the Civil War Maryland was largely under Federal control and the demand arose for the abolition of slavery by the state, another constitutional convention was called, in 1864, which framed a constitution providing that those who had given aid to the Rebellion should be disfranchised and that only those qualified for suffrage in accordance with the new document could vote on its adoption.
iv.), His choice of Israel, and the love and faithfulness which He had shown towards it, by redeeming it from slavery in Egypt, and planting it in a free and fertile land; from which are deduced the great practical duties of loyal and loving devotion to Him, an uncompromising repudiation of all false gods, the rejection of all heathen practices, a cheerful and ready obedience to His will, and a warm-hearted and generous attitude towards man.
Women occupy a low position in the social scale, though slavery has been abolished at the instance of Russia.
When the Whigs were destroyed by the slavery issue some of them immediately became Democrats, but the majority became Americans, or KnowNothings.
In 1860 the people of Kentucky were drawn toward the South by their interest in slavery and by their social relations, and toward the North by business ties and by a national sentiment which was fostered by the Clay traditions.
Finally, the Aduatuci (near Namur) were compelled to submit, and were punished for their subsequent treachery by being sold wholesale into slavery.
As a punishment for their treachery, Caesar put to death the senate of the Veneti and sold their people into slavery.
land grant given by the Spanish viceroy to Stephen Q Austin in 1820, and had been estranged from Mexico partly by the abolition of slavery under a decree of President Guerrero, and partly by the prospect of the Centralist constitution of 1836.
It is generally admitted that Mexico was provoked into aggression in order that additional territory might be available for the extension of slavery.
(1832); A Life of Washington (1835), ably and gracefully written; Slavery in the United States (1836), in which he defends slavery as an institution; The Book of Saint Nicholas (1837), a series of stories of the old Dutch settlers; American Comedies (1847), the joint production of himself and his son William J.
The testimony of Livingstone confirms them, and even a Dutch clergyman, writing in 1869, described the system of apprenticeship of natives which obtained among the Boers " as slavery in the fullest sense of the word."
Pierce had no scruples against slavery, and opposed anti-slavery agitation as tending to disrupt the Union.
When the Democratic national convention met at Cincinnati in June 1856, Pierce was an avowed candidate for renomination, but as his attitude on the slavery question, and especially his subserviency to the South in supporting the pro-slavery party in the Territory of Kansas, had lost him the support of the Northern wing of his party, the nomination went to James Buchanan.
His uncompromising opposition to the institution of slavery furnished the keynote of his earlier senatorial career, and he soon took rank as one of the ablest and most effective anti-slavery orators in the United States.
MISSOURI COMPROMISE, an agreement (1820) between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the public territories.
Taylor (1784-1854) of New York making the admission of the state conditional upon its adoption of a constitution prohibiting slavery.
Thomas (1777-1850) of Illinois, excluding slavery from the "Louisiana Purchase" north of 36° 30' (the southern boundary of Missouri), except within the limits of the proposed state of Missouri.
on the slavery issue, but also on the parliamentary question of the inclusion of Maine and Missouri within the same bill.
The committee recommended the enactment of two laws, one for the admission of Maine, the other an enabling act for Missouri without any restrictions on slavery but including the Thomas amendment.
The condition of the Indians on the plantations is often akin to slavery, owing to the system adopted by some planters of making payments in advance; for the Indians soon spend their earnings, and thus contract debts which can only be repaid by long service.
and xv.) make any treaty or alliance; coin money or make anything, save gold and silver coin, a legal tender; pass any bill of attainder or ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; have any but a republican form of government; grant any title of nobility; maintain slavery; abridge the privileges of any citizen of the United States, or deny to him the right of voting on account of race, colour or previous condition of servitude; deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; deny to any person the equal protection of the laws.
The king's second wife, Isabella of Portugal, was offended at the immense influence of the constable, and urged her husband to free himself from slavery to his favourite.
This caused a disagreement between Alabama and the United States authorities; although it was amicably settled, it engendered a feeling that the pulicy of the national government might not be in harmony wD.h the interests of the state - a feeling which, intensified by the slavery agitation, did much to cause secession in 1861.
During the agitation over the introduction of slavery into the territory acquired from Mexico, Yancey induced the Democratic State Convention of 1848 to adopt what is known as the "Alabama Platform," which declared in substance that neither Congress nor the government of a territory had the right to interfere with slavery in a territory, that those who held opposite views were not Democrats, and that the Democrats of Alabama would not support a candidate for the presidency if he did not agree with them on these questions.
As early as 1835 the legislature adopted a resolution which asserted the legality of slavery in the Territories, a principle adopted by Congress in the Kansas Bill in 1854, and in 1847 ex-Governor Wilson Lumpkin (1783-1870) advocated the organization of the Southern states to resist the aggression of the North.
Although Governor Brown represented the poorer class of white citizens he had taken a course in law at Yale College, had practised law, and at the time of his election was judge of a superior court; although he had never held slaves he believed that the abolition of slavery would soon result in the ruin of the South, and he was a man of strong convictions.
In accord with President Andrew Johnson's plan for reorganizing the Southern States, a provisional governor, James Johnson, was appointed on the 17th of June 1865, and a state convention reformed the constitution to meet the new conditions, rescinding the ordinance of secession, abolishing slavery and formally repudiating the state debt incurred in the prosecution of the war.
He favoured the annexation of Texas, supported the Polk administration on the issues of the Mexican War and the Oregon boundary controversy, and though voting for the admission of free California demanded national protection for slavery.
Though opposed to a monopoly of political power in the South by the great slaveholders, he deprecated anti-slavery agitation (even favouring denial of the right of petition on that subject) as threatening abolition or the dissolution of the Union, and went with his sectional leaders so far as to demand freedom of choice for the Territories, and protection for slavery where it existed - this even so late as 1860.
He supported in 1860 the ultra-Democratic ticket of Breckinridge and Lane, but he did not identify the election of Lincoln with the ruin of the South, though he thought the North should give renewed guarantees to slavery.
In the Senate Wade was from the first an uncompromising opponent of slavery, his bitter denunciations of that institution and of the slaveholders receiving added force from his rugged honesty and sincerity.
During 1861-1862 he was chairman of the important joint-committee on the conduct of the war, and in 1862, as chairman of the Senate Committee on Territories, was instrumental in abolishing slavery in the Federal Territories.
Wade of Ohio, who had piloted the bill through the Senate, in issuing the so-called "WadeDavis Manifesto," which violently denounced President Lincoln for encroaching on the domain of Congress and insinuated that the presidential policy would leave slavery unimpaired in the reconstructed states.
They were the first society in the world to condemn slavery both in theory and practice; they enforced and practised the most complete community of goods.
At death it is released from its bonds, as from long slavery, and joyously soars aloft.
The leading men of Harran emigrated into Syria, the rest were carried into slavery, and the ancient town was laid in ruins.
With the aid of some officers he drew up, in April 1783, a plan for the settlement of the north-west territory, which provided for the exclusion of slavery.
Birney's father was among those who advocated a "free state" constitution for Kentucky, and the home environment of the boy had thus fostered a questioning attitude towards slavery, though later he was himself a slave-holder.
The assaults of the South in defence of slavery upon free speech, free press, the right of petition and trial by jury, he pronounced "exorbitant claims. ..
Seward characterized as an "irrepressible conflict" the antagonism between freedom and slavery, Birney proclaimed: "There will be no cessation of conflict until slavery shall be exterminated or liberty destroyed" - "liberty and slavery cannot both live in juxtaposition" (1835).
Letter on Colonization (1834), Vindication of Abolitionists (1835), American Churches the Bulwark of American Slavery (1840, 3rd ed.
He sought to incorporate in a new code for the District of Columbia, in 1832, a prohibition of the slave trade in the district, at the same time opposing the abolition of slavery there without the consent of Maryland and Virginia, which had originally ceded the district to the United States.
About 1831 both she and her husband began to identify themselves with the anti-slavery cause, and in 1833 she published An Appeal for that Class of Americans called Africans, a stirring portrayal of the evils of slavery, and an argument for immediate abolition, which had a powerful influence in winning recruits to the anti-slavery cause.
But the zeal of the Portuguese took too often a one-sided direction, repressing the Syrian Christians on the Malabar coast, and interfering with the Abyssinian Church,3 while the fanatic temper of the Spaniard consigned, in Mexico and Peru, multitudes who would not renounce their heathen errors to indiscriminate massacre or abject slavery.'
FREE SOIL PARTY, a political party in the United States, which was organized in 1847-1848 to oppose the extension of slavery into the Territories.
Julian of Indiana, were nominated for the presidency and the vice-presidency respectively, on a platform which declared slavery "a sin against God and a crime against man," denounced the Compromise Measures of 1850,1850, the fugitive slave law in particular, and again opposed the extension of slavery in the Territories.
But as the North grew stronger and the South in comparison grew weaker, as slavery came to be more and more the dominant political issue, and as the South made demands concerning that "peculiar institution" to which the North was unwilling to accede, less was heard of secession in the North and more in the South.
Peloponnesus and captured its most famous cities, Corinth, Argos and Sparta, selling many of their inhabitants into slavery.
He also continued his pleadings for the annexation of Texas, as extending "the area of freedom," and though a Democrat, took high moral ground as to slavery; he likewise made himself the authority on the North-Western Boundary question.
Here he was conspicuous as an ardent free-trader and an uncompromising advocate of "States Rights," opposed the protectionist tariff bills of 1824 and 1828, and consistently upheld the doctrine that slavery was a domestic institution and should be dealt with only by the individual states.
He later introduced a bill regarding slavery in the District of Columbia, which (in accordance with his statement of 1837) was to be submitted to the vote of the District for approval, and which provided for compensated emancipation, forbade the bringing of slaves into the District of Columbia, except by government officials from slave states, and the selling of slaves away from the District, and arranged for the emancipation after a period of apprenticeship of all slave children born after the 1st of January 1850.
The slavery question, in one form or another, had become the great overshadowing issue in national, and even in state politics; the abolition movement, begun in earnest by W.
Garrison in 1831, had stirred the conscience of the North, and had had its influence even upon many who strongly deprecated its extreme radicalism; the Compromise of 1850 had failed to silence sectional controversy, and the Fugitive Slave Law, which was one of the compromise measures, had throughout the North been bitterly assailed and to a considerable extent had been nullified by state legislation; and finally in 1854 the slavery agitation was fomented by the passage of the KansasNebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and gave legislative sanction to the principle of "popular sovereignty" - the principle that the inhabitants of each Territory as well as of each state were to be left free to decide for themselves whether or not slavery was to be permitted therein.
Lincoln had early put himself on record as opposed to slavery, but he was never technically an abolitionist; he allied himself rather with those who believed that slavery should be fought within the Constitution, that, though it could not be constitutionally interfered with in individual states, it should be excluded from territory over which the national government had jurisdiction.
Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates willipush it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the states, old as well as new - North as well as South."
At Freeport, on the Wisconsin boundary, on the 27th of August, Lincoln answered questions put to him by Douglas, and by his questions forced Douglas to "betray the South" by his enunciation of the "Freeport heresy," that, no matter what the character of Congressional legislation or the Supreme Court's decision "slavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere unless it is supported by local police regulations."
On the 27th of February 1860 in Cooper Union, New York City, he made a speech (much the same as that delivered in Elwood, Kansas, on the 1st of December) which made him known favourably to the leaders of the Republican party in the East and which was a careful historical study criticising the statement of Douglas in one of his speeches in Ohio that "our fathers when they framed the government under which we live understood this question [slavery] just as well and even better than we do now," and Douglas's contention that "the fathers" made the country (and intended that it should remain) part slave.
Lincoln pointed out that the majority of the members of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 opposed slavery and that they did not think that Congress had no power to control slavery in the Territories.
The Republican national convention, which made "No Extension of Slavery" the essential part of the party platform, met at Chicago on the 16th of May 1860.
Seward was the most conspicuous Republican in national politics, and Salmon P. Chase had long been in the fore-front of the political contest against slavery.
The slavery question presented vexatious difficulties in conducting the war.
On the 6th of March 1862, he sent a special message to Congress recommending the passage of a resolution offering pecuniary aid from the general government to induce states to adopt gradual abolishment of slavery.
On the 9th of May 1862 General David Hunter, commanding in the limited areas gained along the southern coast, issued a short order declaring his department under martial law, and adding - "Slavery and martial law in a free country are altogether incompatible.
Congress by express act (approved on the 19th of June) prohibited the existence of slavery in all territories outside of states.
During the month of July his own mind reached the virtual determination to give slavery its coup de grace; on the 17th he approved a new Confiscation Act, much broader than that of the 6th of August 1861 (which freed only those slaves in military service against the Union) and giving to the president power to employ persons of African descent for the suppression of the rebellion; and on the 22nd he submitted to his cabinet the draft of an emancipation proclamation substantially as afterward issued.
Congress now acted promptly: on the 31st of January 1865, that body by joint resolution proposed to the states the 13th amendment of the Federal Constitution, providing that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
Before the end of that year twenty-seven out of the thirty-six states of the Union (being the required three-fourths) had ratified the 1 It is to be noted that slavery in the border slave states was not affected by the proclamation.
The president thereupon sent them, and made public, the following standing offer: "To whom it may concern:" Any proposition which embraces the restoration of peace, the integrity of the whole Union, and the abandonment of slavery, and which comes by and with an authority that can control the armies now at war against the United States, will be received and considered by the Executive Government of the United States, and will be met by liberal terms on substantial and collateral points, and the bearer or bearers thereof shall have safe conduct both ways.
"There have been men base enough," he said, "to propose to me to return to slavery our black warriors of Port Hudson and Olustee, and thus win the respect of the masters they fought.
Arnold, History of Abraham Lincoln and the Overthrow of Slavery (Chicago, 1867), revised and enlarged as Life of Abraham Lincoln (Chicago, 1885), valuable for personal reminiscences; Gideon Welles, Lincoln and Seward (New York, 1874), the reply of Lincoln's secretary of the navy to Charles Francis Adams's eulogy (delivered in Albany in April 1873) on Lincoln's secretary of state, W.
From the very beginning of his service in Congress he was prominent as an opponent of the extension of slavery; he was a conspicuous supporter of the Wilmot Proviso, spoke against the Compromise Measures of 1850,1850, and in 1856, chiefly because of the passage in 1854 of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, which repealed the Missouri Compromise, and his party's endorsement of that repeal at the Cincinnati Convention two years later, he withdrew from the Democrats and joined the newly organized Republican party.
John Lowell graduated at Harvard in 1760, was admitted to the bar in 1763, represented Newburyport (1776) and Boston (1778) in the Massachusetts Assembly, was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of1779-1780and, as a member of the committee appointed to draft a constitution, secured the insertion of the clause, "all men are born free and equal," which was interpreted by the supreme court of the state in 1783 as abolishing slavery in the state.
In brief he contended that slavery was "local, not national," that it could exist only by virtue of positive State Law, that the Federal government was not empowered by the Constitution to create slavery anywhere, and that "when a slave leaves the jurisdiction of a state he ceases to be a slave, because he continues to be a man and leaves behind him the law which made him a slave."
His object, however, was not to establish a permanent new party organization, but to bring pressure to bear upon Northern Democrats to force them to adopt a policy opposed to the further extension of slavery.
The Kansas-Nebraska legislation, and the subsequent troubles in Kansas, having convinced him of the futility of trying to influence the Democrats, he assumed the leadership in the North-west of the movement to form a new party to Oppose the extension of slavery.
Although, with the exception of Seward, he was the most prominent Republican in the country, and had done more against slavery than any other Republican, he failed to secure the nomination for the presidency in 1860, partly because his views on the question of protection were not orthodox from a Republican point of view, and partly because the old line Whig element could not forgive his coalition with the Democrats in the senatorial campaign of 1849; his uncompromising and conspicuous anti-slavery record, too, was against him from the point of view of "availability."
Since both held the same views regarding the slavery of marriage, and since they only married at all for the sake of possible offspring, the marriage was concealed for some time, and the happiness of the avowed married life was very brief; his wife's death on the 10th of September left Godwin prostrated by affliction, and with a charge for which he was wholly unfit - his infant daughter Mary, and her stepsister, Fanny Imlay, who from that time bore the name of Godwin.
The story of Acragas ended in plunder, slaughter and slavery; three years later, the story of Agrigentum began.
In Boston he had met Benjamin Lundy, who had for years been preaching the abolition of slavery.
Garrison had been deeply moved by Lundy's appeals, and after going to Vermont he showed the deepest interest in the slavery question.
Garrison was deeply impressed by the good Quaker's zeal and devotion, and he resolved to join him and devote himself thereafter to the work of abolishing slavery.
The sinfulness of slavery being admitted, the duty of immediate emancipation to his clear ethical instinct was perfectly manifest.
He saw that it would be idle to expose and denounce the evils of slavery, while responsibility for the system was placed upon former generations, and the duty of abolishing it transferred to an indefinite future.
For general talk about the evils of slavery they cared little, but this assertion that every slave was entitled to instant freedom filled them with alarm and roused them to anger, for they saw that, if the conscience of the nation were to respond to the proposition, the system must inevitably fall.
He was sure, after his experiences at Baltimore, that a movement against slavery resting upon any less radical foundation than this would be ineffectual.
He first proposed to establish his paper at Washington, in the midst of slavery, but on returning to New England and observing the state of public opinion there, he came to the conclusion that little could be done at the South while the non-slaveholding North was lending her influence, through political, commercial, religious and social channels, for the sustenance of slavery.
He visited privately many of the leading citizens of the city, statesmen, divines and merchants, and besought them to take the lead in a national movement against slavery; but they all with one consent made excuse, some of them listening to his plea with manifest impatience.
His conviction of the righteousness of his cause, of the evils and dangers of slavery, and of the absolute necessity of the contemplated movement, was intensified by opposition, and he resolved to go forward, trusting in God for success.
But the paper founded under such inauspicious circumstances exerted a mighty influence, and lived to record not only President Lincoln's proclamation of emancipation, but the adoption of an amendment to the constitution of the United States for ever prohibiting slavery.
Other newspapers were afterwards established upon the same principles; anti-slavery societies, founded upon the doctrine of immediate emancipation, sprang up on every hand; the agitation was carried into political parties, into the press, and into legislative and ecclesiastical assemblies; until in 1861 the Southern states, taking alarm from the election of a president known to be at heart opposed to slavery though pledged to enforce all the constitutional safeguards of the system, seceded from the Union and set up a separate government.
Garrison sought the abolition of slavery by moral means alone.
He was a man of peace, hating war not less than he did slavery; but he warned his countrymen that if they refused to abolish slavery by moral power a retributive war must sooner or later ensue.
Slavery must be overthrown, if not by peaceful means, then in blood.
In the spring of this year Garrison issued his Thoughts on African Colonization, in which he showed by ample citations from official documents that the American Colonization Society was organized in the interest of slavery, and that in offering itself to the people of the North as a practical remedy for that system it was guilty of deception.
He went in the spring of 1833, when he was but twenty-seven years of age, and was received with great cordiality by British Abolitionists, some of whom had heard of his bold assaults upon American slavery, and had seen a few numbers of the Liberator.
He also received assurances of the cordial sympathy of British Abolitionists with him in his efforts to abolish American slavery.
Garrison's visit to England enraged the pro-slavery people and press of the United States at the outset, and when he returned home in September with the "protest" against the Colonization Society, and announced that he had engaged the services of George Thompson as a lecturer against American slavery, there were fresh outbursts of rage on every hand.
This added fresh fuel to the public excitement, and when Thompson came over in the next spring, the hostility to the cause began to manifest itself in mobs organized to suppress the discussion of the slavery question.
The discussions of the next few years served to make clearer than before the practical workings of the constitution of the United States as a shield and support of slavery; and Garrison, after a long and painful reflection, came to the conclusion that its pro-slavery clauses were immoral, and that it was therefore wrong to take an oath for its support.
On the other hand, he always had the highest respect for every earnest and faithful opponent of slavery, however far their special views might differ.
When in 1861 the Southern states seceded from the Union and took up arms against it, he saw clearly that slavery would perish in the struggle, that the constitution would be purged of its pro-slavery clauses, and that the Union henceforth would rest upon the sure foundations of libert y, justice and equality to all men.
In 1865 at the close of the war, he declared that, slavery being abolished, his career as an abolitionist was ended.
Trial by ordeal and domestic slavery are still among the recog nized institutions.
*One, which by force of circumstances remained inoperative, was the abolition of the legal status of slavery, proclaimed in the year of Queen Victoria's jubilee (1897).
Seventeen legislative proclamations were enacted in the first year dealing with the immediate necessities of the position, and providing for the establishment of a supreme and provincial court of justice, for the legalization of native courts of justice, and dealing with questions of slavery, importation of liquor and firearms, land titles, &c. In the autumn of 1901 the emir of Yola, the extreme eastern corner of the territories bordering upon the Benue, was, in consequence of the aggressions upon a trading station established by the Niger Company, dealt with in the same manner as the emirs of Nupe and Kontagora, and a new emir was appointed under British rule.
Practical effect was given to the abolition of the legal status of slavery, in so far as all British courts were concerned.
Civil questions arising from the institution of domestic slavery remained justiciable by the native courts; which in this matter were very carefully supervised by the British administration.
Slavery is traceable from an early date.
The institution of slavery is virtually defunct.
Slavery remains in the interior.
In 1779-1780 he was a member of the Pennsylvania assembly, where he voted for the abolition of slavery - he freed his own slaves whom he had brought from Maryland.
If civilization were more advanced, I would abolish this slavery, if it cost me my head."
Up to this time Buchanan's attitude on the slavery question had been that held by the conservative element among Northern Democrats.
Though living in a slave state he was consistently opposed to slavery, but he favoured gradual rather than immediate emancipation, and in 1838 he freed his own slaves.
An ardent opponent of slavery, he became a Free Soiler, was a delegate to the National Convention which nominated John P. Hale for the presidency in 1852, and subsequently served as chairman of the State Committee, having at the same time editorial control of the Charter Oak, the party organ.
Before the Civil War Stanton was a Democrat, opposed to slavery, but a firm defender of the constitutional rights of the slaveholders, and was a bitter opponent of Lincoln, whose party he then hated and distrusted.
His aversion from the ordinary radicalism led to an article upon slavery in 1849, to which Mill replied, and which caused their final alienation.
Of the prisoners an unknown number died of hunger in Durham cathedral, others were sold to slavery in the colonies.
Between 680 and 670 the Cimmerians in their destructive progress over Asia Minor overran Phrygia; the king Midas in despair put an end to his own life; and from henceforth the history of Phrygia is a story of slavery, degradation and decay, which contrasts strangely with the earlier legends.
They are subjected to incredible abuses under Spanish colonial rule, their numbers being reduced to a fraction of the former population, and even yet they are subjected to a kind of debt-bondage which is slavery in all but the name.
The slavery question, however, was the problem of lasting political importance.
Slaves had been brought into the Illinois country by the French, and Governor Arthur St Clair (1734-1818) interpreted the article of the Ordinance of 1787, which forbade slavery in the North-West Territory, as a prohibition of the introduction of slaves into the Territory, not an interference with existing conditions.
In 1842 the moral issue had become political, and the Liberty Party was organized, which in 1848 united with the Free Soil Party; but as the Whig Party approved the policy of non-extension of slavery, these parties did not succeed so well united as under separate existence.
The opposition to slavery continued to be political and economic rather than philanthropic. The constitution of 1848, which abolished slavery, also forbade the immigration of slaves.
part of the state, where there was a strong feeling against national interference with slavery, the majority of the people had no sympathy with the pro-slavery men in their efforts to dissolve the Union.
Among its acts was the assumption of the right of ratifying a proposed amendment to the constitution of the United States which prohibited Congress from interfering with the institution of slavery within a state, although the right of ratification belonged to the legislature.
z In the slavery issue of 2848 the sentiment for abolition centred in the northern counties, the opposition in the southern.
Unlike most men of the ruling classes in England, he warmly championed the cause of the North, and his pamphlets, especially one entitled Does the Bible sanction American Slavery?
In 1772 it was decided by the English courts that a slave as soon as he set foot on the soil of the British Isles became free; the slave trade, however, continued actively until 1807, when an Act was passed to prevent British subjects dealing in slaves; in 1811 the traffic in slaves was declared to be felony; in 1833 the status of slavery was abolished throughout the British Dominions.
In subsequent years over 700 slaves were rescued at sea and more than 2,000 otherwise released; the traffic was by 1920 virtually dead in the Gulf, but slavery as an institution seemed likely to continue for many decades to come to flourish inland in Muscat, in Central Arabia, and in a modified form in part of Persia.
The position of women is little better than a pampered slavery.
Slavery flourishes, and slave auctions, conducted like those of cows and mules, take place on the afternoons of stated days, affording a lounge for the rich Moors, who discuss the "goods" offered and seek for bargains.
Five of the seven judges in 1837 were his appointees, and the majority of them were Southerners who had been educated under Democratic influences at a time when the slavery controversy was forcing the party to return to its original strict construction views.
In consequence, although the high judicial character of the men appointed and the lawyers' regard for precedent served to keep the court in the path marked out by Marshall and Story, the state sovereignty influence was occasionally manifest, as, for example, in the opinion (written by Taney) in the Dred Scott case (18 57, 19 Howard, 393)393) that Congress had no power to abolish slavery in territory acquired after the formation of the national government.
Slavery is recognized as a lawful institution, but little is said of it.
One of his phrases went home, when he described the majority as " begotten by Chinese slavery out of Passive Resistance."
Throughout he was conspicuous as an opponent of the extension of slavery, though he was never technically an abolitionist, and in particular he was the champion in the House of Representatives of the right of petition at a time when, through the influence of the Southern members, this right was, in practice, denied by that body.
The agitation for the abolition of slavery, which really.
began in earnest with the establishment of the Liberator by William Lloyd Garrison in 1831, soon led to the sending of innumerable petitions to congress for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, over which the Federal government had jurisdiction, and for other action by congress with respect to that institution.
It provided that all petitions relating to slavery should be laid on the table without being referred to committee or printed; and, in substance, this resolution was re-adopted at the beginning of each of the immediately succeeding sessions of congress, the Patton Resolution being adopted in 1837, the Atherton Resolution, or "Atherton Gag," in 1838, and the Twenty-first Rule in 1840 and subsequently until repealed.
Besides pamphlets on the Catholic and slavery questions, as well as several fugitive jeux d'esprit, and a number of unsigned articles in the Analytical Review, Geddes also published a free metrical version of Select Satires of Horace (1779), and a verbal rendering of the First Book of the Iliad of Homer (1792).
In 403 B.C. it was taken by Dionysius of Syracuse, who plundered the city, sold the inhabitants into slavery and replaced them with Campanian mercenaries.
This provision was defeated in 1784, but was adopted in 1787 for the north-western territory - a step which is very often said to have saved the Union in the Civil War; the south-western territory (out of which were later formed Mississippi, Alabama, &c.) being given over to slavery.
Thus the anti-slavery clause of the ordinance of 1784 was not adopted; and it was preceded by unofficial proposals to the same end; yet to it belongs rightly some special honour as blazoning the way for federal control of slavery in the territories, which later proved of such enormous consequence.
The Greek ambassador observed with admiration the absence of slavery in India, the chastity of the women, and the courage of the men.
in the movements directed against the evils of intemperance and slavery.
He contributed poems to the daily press, called out by the Slavery question; he was, early in 1846, a correspondent of the London Daily News, and in the spring of 1848 he formed a connexion with the National Anti-Slavery Standard of New York, by which he agreed to furnish weekly either a poem or a prose article.
Although the southern Italians had long been ruled by foreigners, it was the Angevin domination which thoroughly denationalized them, and initiated that long period of corruption, decadence and foreign slavery which only ended in the 19th century.
In 1840, however, when it began to advocate measures which he deemed too radical, he withdrew his membership, but with his pen he continued his labours on behalf of the slave, urging emancipation in the district of Columbia and the exclusion of slavery from the Territories, though deprecating any attempt to interfere with slavery in the states.
See Bayard Tuckerman, William Jay and the Constitutional Movement for the Abolition of Slavery (New York, 1893).
Slavery and the slave trade continued to flourish in the interior in the early years of the 10th century, despite the prohibitions of the Portuguese government.
Nevinson, A Modern Slavery (London, 1906), an examination of the system of indentured labour and its recruitment; Ornithologie d'Angola, by J.
He was a supporter of the Church Missionary and the British and Foreign Bible societies, and laboured for the abolition of slavery.
Slavery is common among them.
After he left Washington, Jackson fell into discord with his most intimate old friends, and turned his interest to the cause of slavery, which he thought to be attacked and in danger.
VILLENAGE (VILLAINAGE, VILLANAGE, VILLEINAGE), a medieval term (from villa, villanus), pointing to serfdom, a condition of men intermediate between freedom and slavery.
The contrast between this exceptionally situated class and the rest of the population shows that personal slavery was rapidly disappearing in England about the time of the Conquest.
As the historical and practical position was developing on these lines the lawyers who fashioned English common law in the r 2th and r3th centuries did not hesitate to apply to it the teaching of Roman law on slavery.
As is shown by the Hundred Rolls, the Domesday of St Paul, the Surveys of St Peter, Glouc., Glastonbury Abbey, Ramsey Abbey and countless other records of the same kind, the customary conditions of villenage did not tally by any means with the identification between villenage and slavery suggested by the jurists.
His opposition to slavery, however, together with his popularity - won by the successes, hardships and dangers of his exploring expeditions, and by his part in the conquest of California - led to his nomination, largely on the ground of "availability," for the presidency in 1856 by the Republicans (this being their first presidential campaign), and by the National Americans or "Know-Nothings."
Madison, always an opponent of slavery, disapproved of the compromise (in Art.
The distinction between patrician and plebeian, domestic slavery, and beating and slicing to death were abolished.
At the close of 565 Justinian died, and a deputation of Romans waited upon his successor Justin II., representing that they found "the Greeks" harder taskmasters than the Goths, that Narses the eunuch was determined to reduce them all to slavery, and that unless he were removed they would transfer their allegiance to the barbarians.
The plan was endorsed of holding a convention of all the states to settle the slavery question, and delegates were chosen to the proposed Border State Convention that was to meet at Frankfort, Kentucky, on the 27th of May.
But meanwhile, a convention of delegates chosen mainly at polls opened at the army posts, assembled in January 1864, abolished slavery, repudiated secession and the secession war debt, and revised in minor details the constitution of 1836, restricting the suffrage to whites.
The discussion as to what the United should be done with it began in Congress in 1846, immediately involving the question of slavery.
This was one of the bargains in the " Compromise Measures of 1850 " that were intended to dispose of the question of slavery in the Territories.
The slavery question was not settled for California in 1850.
Until the Civil War the division between the Whig and Democratic parties, whose organization in California preceded statehood, was essentially based on slavery.
Broderick's undoing was resolved upon by the slavery party, and he was killed in a duel.
The Gwin party hoped to divide California into two states and hand the southern over to slavery; on the eve of the Civil War it considered the scheme of a Pacific coast republic. The decade 1850-1860 was also marked by the activity of filibusters against Sonora and Central America.
In 1853 he was elected to the National House of Representatives as an independent, and issued an address declaring that all men have an equal right to the soil; that wars are brutal and unnecessary; that slavery could be sanctioned by no constitution, state or federal; that free trade is essential to human brotherhood; that women should have full political rights; that the Federal government and the states should prohibit the liquor traffic within their respective jurisdictions; and that government officers, so far as practicable, should be elected by direct vote of the people.
He favoured a vigorous prosecution of the Civil War, but at its close advocated a mild policy toward the late Confederate states, declaring that part of the guilt of slavery lay upon the North.
Among his writings are: Introduction to the Study of Federal Government (1890), Formation of the Union (1892, in the Epochs of American History series), Practical Essays on American Government (1893), Studies in American Education (1895), Guide to the Study of American History (with Edward Channing, 1897), Salmon Portland Chase (1899, in the American Statesman series), Foundations of American Foreign Policy (1901), Actual Government (1903), Slavery and Abolition (1906, the volume in the American Nation series dealing with the period 1831-1841), National Ideals Historically Traced (1907), the 26th volume of the American Nation series, and many historical pamphlets and articles.
The system which was adopted allowed the older counties, which must be conciliated, a large majority of the representatives in the new Assembly, on the theory that the preponderance of property (slavery) in that section required this as security against the rising democracy.
Thus the eastern men, who had reluctantly supported the War of Independence, now became the sponsors for the national government, and Washington was compelled to rely on the party of slavery, not only in Virginia but in the whole South, in order to administer the affairs of the nation.
But the steady growth of slavery in the East and of a virile democracy in the West neutralized this influence and compelled the assembling of the constitutional convention of 1829, whose purpose was to revise the fundamental law in such a way as to give the more populous counties of the West their legitimate weight in the legislature.
The result was failure, for the democracy of small farmers which would have taxed slavery out of existence was denied proportionate representation.
The failure of these popular movements led to a sharp reaction in Virginia, as in the whole South, in favour of slavery.
From 1835 to 1861 many leading Virginians defended slavery as a blessing and as part of a divinely established order.
In 1850 a third Convention undertook to amend the Constitution, and now that the West yielded its bitter hostility to slavery, representation was so arranged that the more populous section was enabled to control the House while the East still held the Senate; the election of judges was confided to the people; and the suffrage was broadened.
Dew, Review of the Debate in the Virginia Legislature, 1831-32 (Richmond, 1832), important for a comprehension of the slavery issue; J.
C. Ballagh, A History of Slavery in Virginia (Baltimore, 1902); B.
Munford, Virginia's Attitude toward Slavery (New York, 1909); and the Debates of the Virginia Conventions, 1776, 1829, 1850, which are very important, especially for 1829.
He sided with President Jackson on the question of nullification; was an efficient supporter of President Polk's administration during the Mexican War; and was an ardent advocate of slavery extension into the Territories, but when the Compromise of 1850 had been agreed upon he became its staunch supporter as a Union Democrat, and on that issue was elected governor of Georgia by a large majority.
His attitude towards slavery has been much discussed, but it does not seem to have been different from that of many other planters of that day: he did not think highly of the system, but had no invincible repugnance to it, and saw no way of getting rid of it.
He had resolved some time before never to obtain another slave, and "wished from his soul" that Virginia could be persuaded to abolish slavery; "it might prevent much future mischief"; but the unprecedented profitableness of the cotton industry, under the impetus of the recently invented cotton gin, had already begun to change public sentiment regarding slavery, and Washington was too old to attempt further innovations.
He believed that the South would share in the general industrial development, not having perceived as yet that slavery was an insuperable obstacle.
The Northern Abolitionists, to whom no contract or agreement was sacred that involved the continuance of slavery, regarded the clauses in the Federal Constitution which maintained the property rights of the slave-owners as treaties with evil, binding on no one, and bitterly attacked the slave-holders and the South generally.
The purport of these resolutions was to deny to Congress the power to prohibit slavery in the territories and to declare all previous enactments to this effect unconstitutional.
California was applying for admission to the Union as a state under a constitution which did not permit slavery.
Polk was an ardent expansionist, but the old idea that his policy was determined entirely by a desire to advance the interests of slavery is no longer accepted.
As a matter of fact, he was personally in favour of insisting upon 54 40' as the boundary in Oregon, and threw upon Congress the responsibility for accepting 49° as the boundary, and he approved the acquisition of California, Utah and New Mexico, territory from which slavery was excluded by geographical and climatic conditions.
1859) of Indiana, in the Senate, to retain the whole of Mexico, territory in which slavery might have thrived.
The most important of the national questions with which Clay was associated, however, were the various phases of slavery politics and protection to home industries.
He was only twenty-two, when, as an opponent of slavery, he vainly urged an emancipation clause for the new constitution of Kentucky, and he never ceased regretting that its failure put his state, in improvements and progress, behind its free neighbours.
In 1820 he congratulated the new South American republics on having abolished slavery, but the same year the threats of the Southern states to destroy the Union led him to advocate the "Missouri Compromise," which, while keeping slavery out of all the rest of the territory acquired by the "Louisiana Purchase" north of Missouri's southern boundary line, permitted it in that state.
Although at various times he had helped to strengthen the law for the recovery of fugitive slaves, declining as secretary of state to aid Great Britain in the further suppression of the slave trade, and demanding the return of fugitives from Canada, yet he heartily supported the colonizing of the slaves in Africa, because slavery was the "deepest stain upon the character of the country," opposition to which could not be repressed except by "blowing out the moral lights around," and "eradicating from the human soul the light of reason and the law of liberty."
When the slave power became more aggressive, in and after the year 1831, Clay defended the right of petition for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, and opposed Calhoun's bill forbidding the use of the mails to "abolition" newspapers and documents.
He was lukewarm toward recognizing the independence of Texas, lest it should aid the increase of slave territory, and generally favoured the freedom of speech and press as regards the question of slavery; yet his various concessions and compromises resulted, as he himself declared, in the abolitionists denouncing him as a slaveholder, and the slaveholders as an abolitionist.
While affirming that he was "no friend of slavery" he held abolition and the abolitionists responsible for the hatred, strife, disruption and carnage that menaced the nation.
In 1847, after the conquest of Mexico, he made a speech against the annexation of that country or the acquiring of any foreign territory for the spread of slavery.
It admitted California as a free state, organized Utah and New Mexico as Territories without reference to slavery, and enacted a more efficient fugitive slave law.
In 1850 a convention met in Santa Fe and drafted a state constitution prohibiting slavery; this constitution was ratified, and state officials were chosen to act under it.
By the Compromise of 1850 the question whether New Mexico should have slavery was left to the decision of the inhabitants.
Before slavery was prohibited in the Territory by Act of Congress in 1862, Indian captives were regularly bought and sold, a traffic sanctioned by custom and not prohibited by law.