The slave had honor.
The slave had honor.
To do this, he had to take them to a large city where there was a slave market.
If I hadn't tried to kill you in the first place, you wouldn't be a blood slave to the Dark One.
It is by a mathematical point only that we are wise, as the sailor or the fugitive slave keeps the polestar in his eye; but that is sufficient guidance for all our life.
Vara, the man who'd freed him from the underground and defied his father to place the foreign-born slave in an honored scout position, who'd bought his weapons, fed and clothed him when he was too poor to do so for himself.
The members accidentally discovered that the fear of it had a great influence over the lawless but superstitious blacks, and soon the club expanded into a great federation of regulators, absorbing numerous local bodies that had been formed in the absence of civil law and partaking of the nature of the old English neighbourhood police and the ante-bellum slave patrol.
But I warn you, if you don't tell me that this means war, if you still try to defend the infamies and horrors perpetrated by that Antichrist--I really believe he is Antichrist--I will have nothing more to do with you and you are no longer my friend, no longer my 'faithful slave,' as you call yourself!
He is said to have been a slave and to have been appointed king at the command of St Cuthbert, who appeared to Eadred the abbot of Carlisle in a dream.
He is said to have been a slave and to have been appointed king at the command of St Cuthbert, who appeared to Eadred the abbot of Carlisle in a dream.
Heartbroken by his return to the slave he was, Sofia was stopped from comforting him by Dustin's grip on her arm.
French spy, slave of Buonaparte, spy, get out of my house!
Hey, slave driver boss man.
He doubted it to be true - -a queen intent on mating with her equal would say what she needed to in order to convince a slave not to wed her.
She's a slave driver.
A slave often ran away; if caught, the captor was bound to restore him to his master, and the Code fixes a reward of two shekels which the owner must pay the captor.
I've been a slave to Memon for too long.
I've been a slave to Memon for too long.
One real runaway slave, among the rest, whom I helped to forward toward the north star.
That he was troubled was no secret, though Rhyn didn.t understand why, aside from being a slave to Death.
"Come, slave," she said, and started for the door.
At home Natasha placed herself in the position of a slave to her husband, and the whole household went on tiptoe when he was occupied--that is, was reading or writing in his study.
This is awarded by the Code for corporal injuries to a muskinu or slave (paid to his master); for damages done to property, for breach of contract.
This is awarded by the Code for corporal injuries to a muskinu or slave (paid to his master); for damages done to property, for breach of contract.
The words were familiar, the same words he'd spoken to Dusty thousands of years ago, when he'd discovered the youth who was not yet a man on a slave trader's block, bloodied and weeping for the family he'd just lost.
Me as your personal slave? she hedged.
Watson continued to exert his pen with vigour, and in general to good purpose, denouncing the slave trade, advocating the union with Ireland, and offering financial suggestions to Pitt, who seems to have frequently consulted him.
A long time ago there lived a poor slave whose name was Aesop. He was a small man with a large head and long arms.
I also recited "Laus Deo," and as I spoke the concluding verses, he placed in my hands a statue of a slave from whose crouching figure the fetters were falling, even as they fell from Peter's limbs when the angel led him forth out of prison.
Tell him, he will honor me by meeting me first outside his walls and kneeling as any good slave should.
His refusal soon after his inauguration to honour the requisition of the governor of Virginia for three persons charged with assisting a slave to escape from Norfolk, provoked retaliatory measures by the Virginia legislature, in which Mississippi and South Carolina soon joined.
Slave, what does she look like?
East of my bean-field, across the road, lived Cato Ingraham, slave of Duncan Ingraham, Esquire, gentleman, of Concord village, who built his slave a house, and gave him permission to live in Walden Woods;--Cato, not Uticensis, but Concordiensis.
"I've claimed you as my blood slave," he said, as if reading her mind.
"I've claimed you as my blood slave," he said, as if reading her mind.
His tone made her want to crawl back into the tub and remain Talon's slave forever.
In Samos the little slave soon became known for his wisdom and courage.
While his treaty with Lord Lyons in 1862 for the suppression of the slave trade conceded to England the right of search to a limited extent in African and Cuban waters, he secured a similar concession for American war vessels from the British government, and by his course in the Trent Affair he virtually committed Great Britain to the American attitude with regard to this right.
The antagonism between free labour and slave labour became the theme of many of his speeches.
The antagonism between free labour and slave labour became the theme of many of his speeches.
It wasn.t hard to figure out why he did it after so long refusing to become Death.s slave, Darkyn answered.
A slave bore an identification mark, which could only be removed by a surgical operation and which later consisted of his owner's name tattoed or branded on the arm.
In early times the son who denied his father had his front hair shorn, a slave-mark put on him, and could be sold as a slave; while if he denied his mother he had his front hair shorn, was driven round the city as an example and expelled his home, but not degraded to slavery.
Virginius presented himself with his daughter before the tribunal of Appius, who, refusing to listen to any argument, declared Virginia to be a slave and the property of Marcus.
It forms part of the territory formerly distinguished as the Slave Coast and was annexed by Germany in 1884.
After his dismissal from headquarters Zherkov had not remained in the regiment, saying he was not such a fool as to slave at the front when he could get more rewards by doing nothing on the staff, and had succeeded in attaching himself as an orderly officer to Prince Bagration.
(or received on deposit) from a minor or a slave without power of attorney, he would be executed as a thief.
The last representative of the line, Idris IV., "El Wathik," was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269.
A man who bought a slave abroad, might find that he had been stolen or captured from Babylonia, and he had to restore him to his former owner without profit.
He could repudiate the purchase of a slave attacked by the bennu sickness within the month (later, a hundred days), and had a female slave three days on approval.
The slave, who struck a freeman or denied his master, lost an ear, the organ of hearing and symbol of obedience.
England and France, Spain and Portugal, Gold Coast and Slave Coast, all front on this private sea; but no bark from them has ventured out of sight of land, though it is without doubt the direct way to India.
As soon as I saw him I felt he was my master and I his slave, and that I could not help loving him.
Slave raiding has ceased, but domestic slavery in a mild form continues.
Still, a life of betrayal with Aaron was nothing compared to a life as Talon's slave!
How sick was the man who kept his former enemy as a slave?
Tomorrow, when you awake, you will no longer be a slave.
Darkyn had no intention of going easy on her, even if it was her first lesson in the proper behavior expected of a demon's blood slave.
Gabriel had always been a free man; now the human- turned Immortal was a slave.
Once a god then a slave, he was just starting to figure out who he was now.
I told you - -I'm a slave.
You have a great deal of freedom for a mere slave.
Tonight she's yours, slave.
Vara, take my new mate to the slave's chamber and have her bathed.
Voyaging from Toulouse to Narbonne, he was captured by Barbary pirates, who took him to Tunis and sold him as a slave.
Her beauty attracted the notice of the decemvir Appius Claudius, who instructed Marcus Claudius, one of his clients, to claim her as his slave.
The debtor being seized for debt could nominate as mancipium or hostage to work off the debt, his wife, a child, or slave.
If the mancipium died a natural death while in the creditor's possession no claim could lie against the latter; but if he was the cause of death by cruelty, he had to give son for son, or pay for a slave.
The bride-price varied much, according to the position of the parties, but was in excess of that paid for a slave.
The children were free, and at the slave's death the wife took her dowry and half what she and her husband had acquired in wedlock for self and children; the master taking the other half as his slave's heir.
The loss of the surgeon's hand that caused loss of life or limb; or the brander's hand that obliterated a slave's identification mark, are very similar.
The death penalty was freely awarded for theft and other crimes regarded as coming under that head; for theft involving entrance of palace or temple treasury, for illegal purchase from minor or slave, for selling stolen goods or receiving the same, for common theft in the open (in default of multiple restoration) or receiving the same, for false claim to goods, for kidnapping, for assisting or harbouring fugitive slaves, for detaining or appropriating same, for brigandage, for fraudulent sale of drink, for disorderly conduct of tavern, for delegation of personal service, for misappropriating the levy, for oppression of feudal holders, for causing death of a householder by bad building.
A brander, induced to remove a slave's identification mark, could swear to his ignorance and was free.
The plaintiff could swear to his loss by brigands, as to goods claimed, the price paid for a slave purchased abroad or the sum due to him.
In the quiet of a country town, far removed from actual contact with painful scenes, but on the edge of the whirlwind raised by the Fugitive Slave Bill, memory and imagination had full scope, and she wrote for serial publication in The National Era, an anti-slavery paper of Washington, D.C., the story of "Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life among the Lowly."
This tree, the "liard" of the Canadian voyageur, abounds on many of the river sides of the northwestern plains; it occurs in the neighbourhood of the Great Slave Lake and along the Mackenzie River, and forms much of the driftwood of the Arctic coast.
To meet the pressing need in Colossae, Paul writes a letter and entrusts it to Tychichus, who is on his way to Colossae with Onesimus, Philemon's slave (iv.
His name, in which the Greek Avbpovucos is combined with the gentile name of one of the great Roman houses, while indicative of his own position as a manumitted slave, is also significant of the influences by which Roman literature was fostered, viz.
He is supposed to have been a native of Tarentum, and to have been brought, while still a boy, after the capture of that town in 272, as a slave to Rome.
By the aid of Apollo, who served him as a slave - either as a punishment for having slain the Cyclopes, or out of affection for his mortal master - he won the hand of Alcestis, the most beautiful of the daughters of Pelias, king of Iolcus.
He was the first to foretell with clearness the return of his people from captivity foreshadowed by Jeremiah, and he set himself the task even in 1 Thus in comparison with the " book of the covenant," Deuteronomy adds the stipulation in reference to the release of the slave; that his master was to provide him liberally from his flocks, his corn and his wine (Deut.
" Servant," " Slave," p. 464, where other examples may be found.
By the euhemeristic Hellespontine Greeks Herodotus was told that Zalmoxis was really a man, formerly a slave of Pythagoras at Samos, who, having obtained his freedom and amassed great wealth, returned to Thrace, and instructed his fellow-tribesmen in the doctrines of Pythagoras and the arts of civilization.
That admiration for an empire of more than two hundred millions of men, where not one had the right to call himself free; that effeminate philosophy which has more praise for luxury and pleasures than for all the virtues; that style always elegant and never energetic, reveal at the most the elector of Hanover's slave."
Some of the rebels intercepted a slave of the emperor on the high-road near the city and robbed him of his possessions.
Several species of ants are found in association with another species which stands to them in the relation of slave to master.
125), who comes as a voluntary slave to the court of Astyages, and finds favour with the king.
He was a Free Soil candidate for Congress (1850), but was defeated; was indicted with Wendell Phillips and Theodore Parker for participation in the attempt to release the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston (18J3); was engaged in the effort to make Kansas a free state after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854; and during the Civil War was captain in the 51st Massachusetts Volunteers, and from November 1862 to October 1864, when he was retired because of a wound received in the preceding August, was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment recruited from former slaves for the Federal service.
Here also was the slave market.
In the closing years of the century, Kano became the centre of resistance to British influence, and the emir, Alieu, was the most inveterate of Fula slave raiders.
The question of the suppression of the African slave trade, with which was connected the right of search, was settled by an agreement that each nation should keep in service off the coast of Africa a squadron carrying not fewer than eighty guns, and that the two squadrons should act in concert when necessary.
Agrippa being one day overheard by Eutyches, a slave whom he had made free, to express a wish for Tiberius' death and the advancement of Gaius, was betrayed to the emperor and cast into prison.
Engaged from the earliest times in the slave trade, they were among the first, as they were certainly the most fervent, supporters of the mandi when he rose in revolt against the Egyptians (1882).
A slave, having detected her in the act of embracing it and supposing it to be a lover, informed her father, who ordered her to burn the image; whereupon she threw herself with it into the flames.
a Turkish slave, Alptagin, had been entrusted with the government of Bokhara, but, showing himself hostile to Mansur I., he was compelled to fly and to take refuge in the mountainous regions of Ghazni, where he soon established a semi-independent rule, to which, after his death in 977 (367 A.H.), his son-in-law Sabuktagin, likewise a former Turkish slave, succeeded.
He ultimately sank into a condition of mental stupor, and became the obedient slave of the upstart Struensee (q.v.).
Slave labour disappeared, and under new and more promising auspices a fresh career of progress began.
Here the slave trade was longer maintained than anywhere else on the Nest African seaboard; since its extirpation, palm oil and india-rubber have been the main objects of commerce.
26 enforced; the master was forbidden to put his slave to death, but was obliged to bring him before a court of justice; if he ill-treated him it was a penal offence.
hamba tuan, the master's slave, i.e.
According to another story, she fell to the lot of Odysseus, as a slave, and in despair threw herself into the Hellespont; or, she used such insulting language towards her captors that they put her to death (Dictys Cretensis v.
Finney carried ' A runaway slave, Littlejohn, was taken at Oberlin in September 1858 by a United States marshal, but was rescued at Wellington.
This was a famous fugitive slave case.
On both sides of the passage were numerous statues, among them that of Athena Hygeia, set up by Pericles to commemorate the recovery of a favourite slave who was injured during the building of the Parthenon, a colossal bronze image of the wooden horse of Troy, and Myron's group of Marsyas with Athena throwing away her flute.
From 1868 to 1870 he commanded the "Dryad," and was engaged in the suppression of the slave trade.
Underlying all of these issues was of course the great moral and political problem as to whether slavery was to be confined to the south-eastern section of the country or be permitted to spread to the Pacific. The two questions not growing out of the Mexican War were in regard to the abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia, and the passage of a new fugitive slave law.
California was admitted as a free state, and the slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia; these were concessions to the North.
New Mexico (then including the present Arizona) and Utah were organized without any prohibition of slavery (each being left free to decide for or against, on admission to statehood), and a rigid fugitive slave law was enacted; these were concessions to the South.
Fourthly, the enforcement of the fugitive slave law aroused a feeling of bitterness in the North which helped eventually to bring on the war, and helped to make it, when it came, quite as much an anti-slavery crusade as a struggle for the preservation of the Union.
ARCHELAUS, king of Macedonia (413-399 B.C.), was the son of Perdiccas and a slave mother.
According to one account he was the son of the household genius (Lar) and a slave named Ocrisia, of the household of Tarquinius Priscus.
Thomas Clarkson (Portraiture of Quakerism) has given an elaborate and sympathetic account of the Quakers as he knew them when he travelled amongst them from house to house on his crusade against the slave trade.
The chief point of interest in the history of Friends in America during the 18th century is their effort to clear themselves of complicity in slavery and the slave trade.
In 1783 the first petition to the House of Commons for the abolition of the slave trade and slavery went up from the Quakers; and in the long agitation which ensued the Society took a prominent part.
His services as an abolitionist pioneer are recorded in Clarkson's History of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade.
The united river carrying down the waters of the Athabasca slope is called the Slave river, which, passing through Great Slave Lake, emerges as the great Mackenzie river, which falls into the Arctic Sea.
It may be here mentioned that slave was originally a national name; it meant a man of Slavonic race captured and made a bondman to the Germans.
From the former point of view the freeman, then essentially a warrior, and the slave were mutual auxiliaries, simultaneously exercising different and complementary functions - each necessary to the community.
In its action on the slave it marred in a great measure the happy effects of habitual industry by preventing the development of the sense of human dignity which lies at the foundation of morals.
It was in general cheaper to buy a slave than to rear one to the age of labour.
Freemen, through indigence, sometimes sold themselves, and at Athens, up to the time of Solon, an insolvent debtor became the slave of his creditor.
If ransomed, the victim became by Athenian law the slave of his redeemer till he paid in money or labour the price which had been given for him.
Besides the sale of slaves which took place as a result of the capture of cities or other military operations, there was a systematic slave trade.
Athens was an important slave market, and the state profited by a tax on the sales; but the principal marts were those of Cyprus, Samos, Ephesus and especially Chios.
Nor did Athenian law leave the slave without protection.
Even when the slave had killed his master, the relatives of the house could not themselves inflict punishment; they were obliged to hand him over to the magistrate to be dealt with by legal process.
The slave who had just grounds of complaint against his master could demand to be sold; when he alleged his right to liberty, the law granted him a defender and the sanctuaries offered him an asylum till judgment should be given.
The slave could purchase his liberty with his peculium by agreement with his master.
He could be liberated by will, or, during his Emanci- master's life, by proclamation in the theatre, the law courts, or other public places, or by having his name inscribed in the public registers, or, in the later age of Greece, by sale or donation to certain temples - an act which did not make the slave a hierodulus but a freeman.
By manumission the Athenian slave became in relation to the state a metic, in relation to his master a client.
There ought, he says, to be held out to the slave the hope of liberty as the reward of his service.
The poets - especially the authors of the New Comedy - strongly inculcate humanity, and insist on the fundamental equality of the slave.
A fragment of Philemon declares, as if in reply to Aristotle, that not nature, but fortune, makes the slave.
But the extension of properties in the hands of the patricians, and the continued absences of citizens required by the expanding system of conquest, necessarily brought with them a demand for slave labour, which was increasingly supplied by captives taken in war.
A creditor could hold his insolvent debtor as a slave, or sell him out of the city (trans Tiberim).
At the head of the familia rustica was the villicus, himself a slave, with the wife who was given him at once to aid him and to bind him to his duties.
A slave prison (ergastulum) was part of such an establishment, and there were slaves whose office it was to punish the offences of their fellows.
By the original Roman law the master was clothed with absolute dominion over the slave, extending to the power of life and death, which is not surprising when we consider the nature of the patria.
The slave could not possess property of any kind; Laws whatever he acquired was legally his master's.
A master could not enter into a contract with his slave, nor could he accuse him of theft before the law; for, if the slave took anything, this was not a subtraction, but only a displacement, of property.
The union of a male and female slave had not the legal character of a marriage; it was a cohabitation (contubernium) merely, which was tolerated, and might be terminated at will, by the master; a slave was, therefore, not capable of the crime of adultery.
For entering the military service or taking on him any state office a slave -, was punished with death.
A slave could not accuse his master, except of adultery or incest (under the latter name being included the violation of sacred things or places); the case of high treason was afterwards added to these.
An accused slave could not invoke the aid of the tribunes.
Cato, Varro and Columella all agree that slave labour was to be preferred to free except in unhealthy regions and for large occasional operations, which probably transcended the capacity of the permanent familia rustica.
No Roman slave, he says, "needed to despair of becoming both a freeman and a citizen."
In the last method the master turned the slave round, with the words " Tiber esto," in the presence of the praetor, that officer or his lictor at the same time striking the slave with his rod.
19), which assimilated the position of those so liberated to that of the Latin colonists, under the name of Latini juniores, the person remained in the eye of the law a slave till his death and could not dispose of his peculium.
Thus, the slave element tended to merge itself in the general popular body.
It was often a pecuniary advantage to the master to liberate his slave; he obtained a payment which enabled him to buy a substitute, a^ .d at the same time gained a client.
This of course presupposes the recognition of the right of the slave to his peculium; and the same is implied in Cicero's statement that a diligent slave could in six years purchase his freedom.
The military vocation of Rome was now felt to have reached its normal limits; and the emperors, understanding that, in the future, industrial activity must prevail, prepared the abolition of slavery as far as was then possible, by honouring the freedmen, by protecting the slave against his master, and by facilitating manumissions.
While the slave trade was permitted, the mutilation of boys and young men, too often practised, was punished with exile and even with death.
In redhibitory actions (for the annulment of sales), if a slave were returned to the seller, so must also be his parents, brothers and personae contubernio conjunctae.
Antoninus Pius punished him who killed his own slave as if he had killed another's.
Already in the time of Nero the magistrates had been ordered to receive the slave's complaint of ill-treatment; and the lex Petronia, belonging to the same or an earlier period, forbade masters to hand over their slaves to combats with wild beasts.
Antoninus directed that slaves treated with excessive cruelty, who had taken refuge at an altar or imperial image, should be sold; and this provision was extended to cases in which the master had employed a slave in a way degrading to him or beneath his character.
For certain alleged offences of the master the slave could bring an action, being represented for the purpose by an adsertor.
The emperor could confer liberty by presenting a gold ring to a slave with the consent of the master, and the legal process called restitutio natalium made him a full citizen.
The rise of Christianity in the Roman world still further improved the condition of the slave.
The latter would, indeed, be gradually affected; and accordingly we have observed a change in the policy of the law, indicating a change in sentiment with respect to the slave class, which does not appear to have been at all due to Christian teaching.
The results must have been disastrous, most of all to the slave population itself.
But in the meantime much might be done towards further mitigating the evils of slavery, especially by impressing on master and slave their relative duties and controlling their behaviour towards one another by the exercise of an independent moral authority.
As witness, the slave was still subject to the question; as criminal, he was punished with greater rigour than the freeman.
Already the master who killed his slave had been punished as for homicide, except in the case of his unintended death under correction; Constantine treated as homicide a number of specially-enumerated acts of cruelty.
This improved the condition of the slave by rendering his existence an object of greater value to his master.
Hence the abolition of the external slave trade tended, in fact, to put an end to internal sales, and the slaves became attached to the households or lands of their masters.
In the factories or workshops kept by wealthy persons slave labour was mainly employed; but free artisans sometimes offered their services to these establishments or formed associations to compete with them.
This system, by diminishing the freeman's mastery over himself and his power to determine his occupation, reduced the interval between him and the slave; and the latter on the one hand, the free domestic servant and workshop labourer on the other, both passed insensibly into the common condition of serfdom.
But the point which is important is that there was a certain approximation between the condition of the colonus and the slave which tended towards the fusion of both in a single class.
The legal distinction between the coloni and the slave tenants continued to exist after the invasions; but the practical difference was greatly attenuated.
The colonus often occupied a servile mansus, and the slave a mansus originally appropriated to a colonus.
" The favourite sold his patent to some Genoese merchants for 25,000 ducats "; these merchants obtained the slaves from the Portuguese; and thus was first systematized the slave trade between Africa and America.
The English slave traders were at first altogether occupied in supplying the Spanish settlements.
The British slave trade reached its utmost extension shortly before the War of American Independence.
When the nature of the slave trade began to be understood by the public, all that was best in England was adverse to it.
The question of the legal existence of slavery in Great Britain and Ireland was raised in consequence of an opinion given in 1729 by Yorke and Talbot, attorney-general and solicitor-general at the time, to the effect that a slave by coming into those countries from the West Indies did not become free, and might be compelled by his master to return to the plantations.
It was decided by Lord Mansfield, in the name of the whole bench, on the 22nd of June 1772, that as soon as a slave set his foot on the soil of the British islands he became free.
In 1776 it was moved in the House of Commons by David Hartley, son of the author of Observations on Man, that " the slave trade was contrary to the laws of God and the rights of men "; but this motion - the first which was made on the subject - failed.
The first persons in England who took united practical action against the slave trade were the Quakers, following the expression of sentiment which had emanated so early as 1671 from their founder George Fox.
The Pennsylvanian Quakers advised their members against the trade in 1696; in 1754 they issued to their brethren a strong dissuasive against encouraging it in any manner; in 1774 all persons concerned in the traffic, and in 1776 all slave holders who would not emancipate their slaves, were excluded from membership. The Quakers in the other American provinces followed the lead of their brethren in Pennsylvania.
Dr Peckard, vice-chancellor of the university of Cambridge, who entertained strong convictions against the slave trade, proposed in 1785 as subject for a Latin prize dissertation the question, " An liceat invitos in servitutem dare."
A committee was formed on the 22nd of May 1787 for the abolition of the slave trade, under the presidency of Granville Sharp. It is unquestionable that the principal motive power which originated and sustained their efforts was Christian principle and feeling.
In consequence of the numerous petitions presented to parliament, a committee of privy council was appointed by the crown in 1788 to inquire concerning the slave trade; and Pitt moved that the House of Commons should early in the next session take the subject into consideration.
Legislative sanction was, however, given to the establishment of the Sierra Leone Company, for the colonization of a district on the west coast of Africa and the discouragement of the slave trade there.
But in 1806, Lord Grenville and Fox having come into power, a bill was passed in both Houses to put an end to the British slave trade for foreign supply, and to forbid the importation of slaves into the colonies won by the British arms in the course of the war.
On the 10th of June of the same year Fox brought forward a resolution " that effectual measures should be taken for the abolition of the African slave trade in such a manner and at such a period as should be deemed advisable," which was carried by a large majority.
The bill enacted that no vessel should clear out for slaves from any port within the British dominions after the 1st of May 1807, and that no slave should be landed in the colonies after the 1st of March 1808.
In 1807 the African Institution was formed, with the primary objects of keeping a vigilant watch on the slave traders and procuring, if possible, the abolition of the slave trade by the other European nations.
The law of 1811 proved effectual and brought the slave trade to an end so far as the British dominions were concerned.
The abolition of the French slave trade was preceded by struggles and excesses.
A " Societe des Amis des Noirs " was formed in Paris in 1788 for the abolition, not only of the slave trade, but of slavery itself.
There can be no doubt that the government of the Restoration, in seeking to obtain possession of the island, had the intention of reestablishing slavery, and even of reopening the slave trade for the purpose of recruiting the diminished population.
The United State s h a d in 1 forbidden any a 794 Y m par ticipation by American subjects in the slave trade to foreign countries; they now prohibited the importation of slaves from Africa into their own dominions.
At the congress of Vienna (November 1814) the principle was acknowledged that the slave trade should be abolished as soon as possible; but the determination of the limit of time was reserved for separate negotiation between the powers.
Bonaparte, as we have seen, abolished the French slave trade during his brief restoration, and this abolition was confirmed at the second peace of Paris on the 10th of November, 1815, but it was not effectually carried out by French legislation until March 1818.
It was agreed that the Spanish slave trade should come to an end in 18 20, England paying to Spain an indemnification of £400,000.
By all these measures the slave trade, so far as it was carried on under the flags of European nations or for the supply of their colonies, ceased to exist.
When the English slave trade had Anti" been closed, it was found that the evils of the traffic, slavery > as still continued by several other nations, were greatly aggravated.
In 1858 it was enacted that every slave belonging to a Portuguese subject should be free in twenty years from that date, a system of tutelage being established in the meantime.
Three of the most important slave systems still remained in which no steps towards emancipation had been taken - those of the Southern United States, of Cuba and of Brazil.
The words " slave" and " slavery " were, however, excluded from the constitution, " because," as Madison says," they did not choose to admit the right of property in man " in direct terms; and it was at the same time provided that Congress might interdict the foreign slave trade after the expiration of twenty years.
We cannot follow in detail the several steps by which the slave power for a long time persistently increased its influence in the Union.
The acquisition of Louisiana in 1803, which gave a new field for the growth of the slave power, though not made in its interest, the Missouri Compromise (1820), the annexation of Texas (1845), the Fugitive Slave Law (1850), the Kansas-Nebraska bill (1854), the Dred Scott decision (1857), the attempts to acquire Cuba (especially in 1854) and to reopen the foreign slave trade (1859-1860), were the principal steps - only some of them successful - in its career of aggression.
The South, and its partisans in the North, made desperate efforts to prevent the free expression of opinion respecting the institution, and even the Christian churches in the slave states used their influence in favour of the maintenance of slavery.
The Spanish slave code, promulgated in 1789, is admitted on all hands to have been very humane in its character; and, in consequence of this, after Trinidad had become an English possession, the anti-slavery party resisted - and success fully - the attempt of the planters (1811) to have the Spanish law in that island replaced by the British.
The slave population of the island was estimated in 1792 at 84,000; in 1817 at 179,000; in 1827 at 286,000; and in 1843 at 436,000.
An act was passed by the Spanish legislature in 1870, providing that every slave who had then passed, or should thereafter pass, the age of sixty should be at once free, and that all yet unborn children of slaves should also be free.
There was a convention between Great Britain and Brazil in 1826 for the abolition of the slave trade, but it was habitually violated in spite of the English cruisers.
The slave is a member of the family, and is treated with tenderness and affection.
The child of a slave girl by her master is born free, and the mother is usually raised to be a free wife.
Captives were brought thence to the slave market of Kuka in Bornu, where, after being bought by dealers, they were, to the number of about 10,000 annually, marched across the Sahara to Murzuk in Fezzan, from which place they were distributed to the northern and eastern Mediterranean coasts.
(2) The basin of the Upper Nile, extending to the great lakes, was another region infested by the slave trade; the slaves were either smuggled into Egypt or sent by the Red Sea to Turkey.
The khedive Ismail in 1869 appointed Sir Samuel Baker to the command of a large force with which he was " to strike a direct blow at the slave trade in its distant nest."
Gordon (1874 to 1879), but under the Mandi and the Khalifa the slave trade was revived.
Since the reconquest of the eastern Sudan by an Anglo-Egyptian force in 1898 effective measures have been taken to suppress slave raiding and as far as possible slavery itself.
(3) There was for long a slave trade from the Portuguese possessions on the East African coast.
The mission of Sir Bartle Frere to the sultan of Zanzibar in 1873 brought about a treaty for the suppression of the slave trade.
With the establishment of a British protectorate at Zanzibar, and of British and German protectorates on the mainland of East Africa and in the region of the head-waters of the Nile, the East African slave trade received its death-blow.
Though the history of the Congo Free State affords a painful contrast to the philanthropic professions of its founder, in other parts of the continent the establishment of protectorates by Great Britain, France and Germany was followed by strenuous, and largely successful, efforts to put down slave raiding.
At the close of the first decade of the 10th century it might be said that over the greater part of Africa slave raiding was a thing of the past.
When Buxton published in 1840 his book entitled The Slave Trade and its Remedy, this was the remedy he contemplated.
On the Colonial Slave Trade and Slavery: Washington Irving, Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828), several times reprinted; Arthur Helps, Life of Las Casas (1868); Bryan Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial, of the British West Indies (1793; 5th ed.
in 5 vols., 1819); Thomas Clarkson, History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade by the British Parliament (2 vols., 1808); T.
Fowell Buxton, African Slave Trade (2nd ed., 1838), and The Remedy, a Sequel (1840); Memoirs of Sir T.
Cairnes, The Slave Power, its Character, Career, and Probable Designs (1862; 2nd ed., 1863); H.
For the African slave trade, and Egyptian and Turkish slavery, the Ismailia of Sir S.
Cairnes's Slave Power, chap. 2.
He preached his last sermon in Mr Belson's house at Leatherhead on Wednesday, the 23rd of February 1791; wrote next day his last letter to Wilberforce, urging him to carry on his crusade against the slave trade; and died in his house at City Road on the 2nd of March 1791, in his eighty-eighth year.
A fugitive slave clause was inserted in the Articles of Confederation of the New England Confederation of 1643, providing for the return of the fugitive upon the certificate of one magistrate in the jurisdiction out of which the said servant fled - no trial by jury being provided for.
The first specific legislation on the subject was enacted on the 12th of February 1793, and like the Ordinance for the Northwest Territory and the section of the Constitution quoted above, did not contain the word "slave"; by its provisions any Federal district or circuit judge or any state magistrate was authorized to decide finally and without a jury trial the status of an alleged fugitive.
Pennsylvania in 1842 (16 Peters 539), that state authorities could not be forced to act in fugitive slave cases, but that national authorities must carry out the national law, was followed by legislation in Massachusetts (1843), Vermont (1843), Pennsylvania (1847) and Rhode Island (1848), forbidding state officials to help enforce the law and refusing the use of state gaols for fugitive slaves.
The demand from the South for more effective Federal legislation was voiced in the second fugitive slave law, drafted by Senator J.
The Quakers of Pennsylvania possibly began the work of the mysterious Underground Railroad; the best known of them was Thomas Garrett (1789-1871), a native of Pennsylvania, who, in 1822, removed to Wilmington, Delaware, where he was convicted in 1848 on four counts under the Fugitive Slave Law and was fined $800o; he is said to have helped 2700 slaves to freedom.
The arrests of Sims and of Shadrach in Boston in 1851; of "Jerry" M`Henry, in Syracuse, New York, in the same year; of Anthony Burns in 1854, in Boston; and of the two Garner families in 1856, in Cincinnati, with other cases arising under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, probably had as much to do with bringing on the Civil War as did the controversy over slavery in the Territories.
With the beginning of the Civil War the legal status of the slave was changed by his master's being in arms. General B.
A confiscation bill was passed in August 1861 discharging from his service or labour any slave employed in aiding or promoting any insurrection against the government of the United States.
By an act of the 17th of July 1862 any slave of a disloyal master who was in territory occupied by northern troops was declared ipso facto free.
But for some time the Fugitive Slave Law was considered still to hold in the case of fugitives from masters in the border states who were loyal to the Union government, and it was not until the 28th of June 1864 that the Act of 1850 was repealed.
The Spanish slave laws (although in practice often frightfully abused) were always comparatively generous to the slave, making relatively easy, among other things, the purchase of his freedom, the number of free blacks being always great.
At least as early as 1523 the African slave trade was begun.
The British opened the port to commerce and the slave trade and revealed its possibilities.
Various colonial products and the slave trade were favoured in this way.
numbers, bringing with them wealth and also slave labour..
In an endeavour to stop the slave trade and piracy, the islands were garrisoned (1812-1813) by British troops, but the unhealthiness of the climate led to their withdrawal.
His attitude towards slavery at the moment was shown by his vote, in January 1820, for a resolution opposing the admission of Missouri as a slave state.
Having in 1834 gone to the South for the benefit of his health, he was led by what he witnessed of the evils of slavery (chiefly in Florida) to write the anti-slavery novel The Slave: or Memoir of Archy Moore (1836; enlarged edition, 1852, The White Slave).
These were recent events in the time of Joash, and in like manner the Phoenician slave trade in Jewish children is carried back to an early date by the reference in Amos i.
As regards the Philistines, it is impossible to lay much weight on the statement of Chronicles, unsupported as it is by the older history, and in Joel the Philistines plainly stand in one category with the Phoenicians, as slave dealers, not as armed foes.
68, Egypt is still the chief goal of the maritime slave trade, and in Ezek.
did much to suppress infanticide, suttee and the slave trade in his state.
It was held that although generally speaking every sovereign may decide to whom he will accord the right to fly his flag, yet in this case such right was limited by the general act of the Brussels conference of July 1890 relative to the African slave trade, an act which was ratified by France on the 2nd of June 1892; that accordingly the owners and master of dhows who had been authorized by France to fly the French flag before the last-named date retained this authorization TABLE II.
Its democracy obliterated the distinctions between rich and poor; slave and senator became subject to the same rule, eligible for the same honours, partook of the same communion, and were interred in the same type of sepulchre, to await the same resurrection.
The excess of whites over the coloured races in the southern states is due to their smaller slave population and to the large number of immigrants attracted to them.
Other colonies were founded in Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro during the same period, but they were unsuccessful, partly because of the competition of slave labour.
A grand social reform was effected in the law passed in September 1871, which enacted that from that date every child born of slave parents should be free, and also declared all the slaves belonging to the state or to the imperial household free from that time.
The Scottish dead in the American Civil War are commemorated in a monument bearing a life-sized figure of Abraham Lincoln and a freed slave.
In his famous speech in the Senate on the 12th of July 1848, on the question of establishing a government for Oregon Territory, he held that a slave should be treated by the Federal government on the same basis as any other property, and therefore that it was the duty of Congress to protect the owner's right to his slave in whatever state or territory of the Union that slave might be.
A slave of theirs had denounced them to the Holy Office, and though the details of the accusation against them seem trivial and even contradictory, Antonio was condemned to death.
These apprentices, mostly bought from slave traders when little children, formed, however, a very small proportion of the native population, and after some fifteen years' servitude were usually allowed their freedom.
He is said to have been born in Carthage, and brought to Rome as a slave.
He did not make himself a slave to his visitors, but reserved much time for work and for his immense correspondence, which had for a long time once more included Frederick, the two getting on very well when they were not in contact.
Having been ordered to make laws for themselves, they commissioned one Zaleucus, a shepherd and slave (in later tradition, a man of distinguished family) to draw up a code.
in 190 B.C. they were included among the provinces annexed by the Romans to the dominions of Eumenes of Pergamum; but somewhat rater they joined with the Pisidians and Cilicians in piratical ravages, and Side became the chief centre and slave mart of these freebooters.
Onesimus, a slave, had robbed (vv.
The efforts to destroy the slave trade in the Ghazal province led (1879-1881) to the further exploration of the river and its tributaries by Gessi Pasha, the Italian governor under General C. G.
He became known as Ram Das, which means God's slave; and on account of his piety and devotion Amar Das gave him his daughter in marriage and made him his successor.
The slave market was closed about 1874.
He was on friendly terms with many who were not Jews, and was so warmly devoted to his slave Tabi that when the latter died he mourned for him as for a beloved member of his own family.
In general Edwards was a supporter of the slave trade, and was described by William Wilberforce as a powerful opponent.
The pure Turks and the Kuluglis (sons of Turkish fathers by Moorish women or slave girls) are no longer numerous.
The first Chinese coolies were introduced in 1849 to supply labourers on the sugar estates, which had begun to feel the effects of the suppression of the African slave traffic. At first the coolies were treated with cruelty.
Under the Catholic system the supremacy of Feeling was abused, and the Intellect was made its slave.
Commercial interests have been almost entirely destroyed, partly because of the abolition of the slave trade and partly because of the embargo and the war of 1812, but mainly because the cities of the state are unfavourably situated to be the termini of interstate railway systems. Providence, owing to its superior water-power facilities, has therefore become one of the leading manufacturing centres of New England, whereas Newport is now known only as a fashionable summer resort.
In all ways he was the ardent advocate of what have in later times been known as "Liberal causes," the removal of all religious disabilities and tests, the suppression of private interests which hampered the public good, the abolition of the slave trade, and the emancipation of all classes and races of men from the strict control of authority.
He was always in favour of the abolition of the slave trade (which he actually effected during his short tenure of office in 1806), of the repeal of the Test Acts, and of concessions to the Roman Catholics, both in Great Britain and in Ireland.
In domestic politics Fox had no time to do more than insist on the abolition of the slave trade.
After carrying his motion for the abolition of the slave trade on the 10th of June, he was forced to give up attendance in parliament, and he died in the house of the duke of Devonshire, at Chiswick, on the 13th of September 1806.
On his way thither, he fell into the hands of pirates at Dhofar and was sent to Sanaa, capital of the Yemen, where he was detained for seven years by the pasha as a slave.
It was generally distributed in wooded districts throughout the greater part of North America, as far north as Great Slave Lake, lat.
It is said, for instance, that an adult slave used to be valued at from $800 to $1000, so that every adult immigrant may be looked upon as worth that sum to the country.
He had been taken prisoner by Dragut, who made him row for a year as a galley slave till ransomed.
But he was an active supporter of many popular movements - particularly of that which ended in the abolition of the slave trade; and he was throughout his entire life sincerely and profoundly attached to the political principles of the Whigs, both in their popular and in their aristocratic aspect.
QUINTUS ROSCIUS GALLUS (c. 126-62 B.C.), Roman actor, was born, a slave, at Solonium, near Lanuvium.
The king and his brother the duke of York (James II.), who were largely interested in the slave-trading Guinea Company, were eager to remove the Dutch ports from the slave coast.
Although it was a slave state, the majority of the people of Delaware opposed secession in 1861, and the legislature promptly answered President Lincoln's call to arms; yet, while 14,000 of the 40,000 males between the ages of fourteen and sixty served in the Union army, there were many sympathizers with the Confederacy in the southern part of the state.
MAMELUKE (anglicized through the French, from the Arabic mamluk, a slave), the name given to a series of Egyptian sultans, originating (1250) in the usurpation of supreme power by the bodyguard of Turkish slaves first formed in Egypt under the successors of Saladin.
Among the later productions of his pen were, besides the Plan of a Reform in the Election of the House of Commons, pamphlets entitled Proceedings in the House of Commons on the Slave Trade (1796), Reflections on the Abundance of Paper in Circulation and the Scarcity of Specie (1810), Historical Questions Exhibited (1818), and a Letter to Earl Grey on the Policy of Great Britain and the Allies towards Norway (1814).
The slave trade has been abolished, and though domestic slavery is allowed, all children of slaves born after the 31st of December 1905 are free.
Formerly a rendezvous for slave caravans Lindi now has a more legitimate trade in white ivory.
Still farther west, in Riebeek Square, is the old slave market, now used as a church and school for coloured people.
The annexations of Emin on Albert Nyanza, the visit of Thomson to the closed door of Busoga, the opposition of the Europeans to the slave trade, and, lastly, the identification of the missionaries with political embassies and their letters of introduction from secular authorities, added to Mwanga's.
According to the heading of the chief MS. he was a slave and was freed by Augustus.
Our nation, once so famous, is a slave now, who must pay tribute, and has lain in the dust these many years bemoaning her fate."
Some industries which have since become dead or of relatively slight magnitude were once of much greater significance, economically or socially: such as the rum-distilling connected with the colonial slave trade, and various interests concerned with shipbuilding and navigation.
In Congress he opposed the annexation of Texas as slave territory, was an advocate of internal improvements and a protective tariff, supported J.
Adams in maintaining the right of offering anti-slavery petitions, advocated the prohibition by Congress of the slave trade between the states, and favoured the exclusion of slavery from the District of Columbia.
Unlike Taylor, Fillmore favoured the " Compromise Measures," and his signing one of them, the Fugitive Slave Law, in spite of the vigorous protests of anti-slavery men, lost him much of his popularity in the North.
European plants and animals were introduced into Hispaniola and Cuba, and sugar plantations were set up. But the main object of the Spaniards, who could not labour in the tropics even if they had wished to do so, was always gold, to be won by slave labour.
However, before the conquest, in no other part of the globe did language tally so nearly with kinship. Marriage was exogamic among clans in a tribe, but practically, though not wholly, endogamic as between tribes, wife and slave capture being common in places.
The truth of this depends upon the definition of the word "slave."
The suk el-Birka was formerly the slave market.
In order to appease the wrath of Apollo, who had visited the camp with a pestilence, Agamemnon had restored Chryseis, his prize of war, to her father, a priest of the god, but as a compensation deprived Achilles, who had openly demanded this restoration, of his favourite slave Briseis.
THRALL, a slave, a captive or bondman, a term especially applied to the serfs.
dregil, trigil, trikil, a slave, and would therefore be derived from the root meaning "to run," seen in O.
The peninsula enclosed by two arms of the Lake is known as Slave Island, having been the site of a slave's prison under the Dutch.
About six ironclads and twenty smaller vessels of the royal navy are stationed in colonial waters; the vessels of the colonial marine number about twenty-four, and undertake police supervision, prevention of slave trading, &c.
The use of slave labour, and the application of the corvee system to natives who were nominally free, enabled the company to lower the cost of production, while the absence of competition enabled it to raise prices.
Among other important conferences in which Lambermont took a leading part were those of Brussels (1874) on the usages of war, Berlin (1884-1885) on Africa and the Congo region, and Brussels (1890) on Central African Affairs and the Slave Trade.
The sacrifices and offerings were acknowledgments of divine bounty and means used to insure its continuance; the Arab was the " slave " of his god and paid him tribute, as slaves used to do to their masters, or subjects to their lords; and the free Bedouin, trained in the solitude of the desert to habits of absolute self-reliance, knew no master except his god, and acknowledged no other will before which his own should bend.
One of his clients, Marcus Claudius, swore that she was the child of a slave belonging to him, and had been stolen by the childless, wife of the centurion.
With this carte blanche in his pocket, Repnin proceeded to treat the diet as if it were already the slave of the Russian empress.
Castlereagh brought with him decided views, which however were not altogether those of his cabinet, and his position was weakened by the fact that Great Britain was still at war with the United States, and that public opinion at home cared for little but the abolition of the slave trade.
Castlereagh's great efforts were rewarded by a declaration that the slave trade was to be abolished, though each power was left free to fix such a date as was most convenient to itself.
and later became famous as the dividing line between the free states and the slave states.
They were Apostles, I am a convict; they were free, but I am a slave to this very hour " (Rom.
He was not, however, destined to compass the downfall of the Sullan regime; the crisis of the Slave War placed the Senate at the mercy of Pompey and Crassus, who in 70 B.C. swept away the safeguards of senatorial ascendancy, restored the initiative in legislation to the tribunes, and replaced the Equestrian order, i.e.
Sabuktagin, a Turki slave of Alptagin, governor of Khorasan under Abdalmalik I.
Bion, when a young man, was sold as a slave to a rhetorician, who gave him his freedom and made him his heir.
He published, besides many orations, a History of the Anti-Slavery Measures of the Thirty-Seventh and Thirty-Eighth United States Congresses (1865); Military Measures of the United States Congress (1868); a History of the Reconstruction Measures of the Thirty-Ninth and Fortieth Congresses (1868) and a History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (3 vols., 1872-1875), his most important work.
An amendment offered by James Tallmadge (1778-1853) of New York, which provided that the further introduction of slaves into Missouri should be forbidden, and that all children of slave parents born in the state after its admission should be free at the age of twenty-five, was adopted by the committee and incorporated in the Bill as finally passed (Feb.
In the meantime the question had been complicated by the admission in December of Alabama, a slave state (the number of slave and free states now becoming equal), and by the passage through the house (Jan.
In 1850 there were 56 persons (excluding the slave population) in an average American family; fifty years later there were only 4.7a decline, which was constant, of 16I %.
The strong anti-slavery sentiment here manifested, itself in 1851 in the famous " Jerry rescue," one of the most significant episodes following the enactment of the Fugitive .Slave Law of 1850; Samuel May, pastor of the Unitarian church, and seventeen others, arrested for assisting in the rescue, were never brought to trial, although May and two others publicly admitted that they had taken part in the rescue, and announced that they would contest the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Law, if they were tried.
The northern part of Alberta and Saskatchewan and much of northern British Columbia are drained through the Athabasca and Peace rivers, first north-eastwards towards Athabasca Lake, then north through Slave river to Great Slave Lake, and finally north-west through Mackenzie river to the Arctic Ocean.
Under the system of slave labour which existed before 1860, the average size of the plantations tended to increase, but since 1860 the reverse has been true, the average plantation in 1860 being 346 acres, and in 1900 92.7 acres.
This was accompanied by an extensive employment of slave labour, and from 1820 until 1860 the rate of increase of the blacks was greater than that of the whites.
Seaboard Slave States (New York, 1856).
The petty sultans who exercised authority were notorious slave traders.
In East Tennessee most of the people were small farmers, while West Tennessee was a land of great slave plantations.
During the period of the slave trade it was a leading mart for slaves in the West Indies.
Early becoming imbued with strong anti-slavery views, though by inheritance he was himself a slave holder, he began political life as a Whig, but when the Whig party disintegrated, he became an "American" or "Know-Nothing," and as such served in the national House of Representatives from 1855 to 1861.
Finally, after President Lincoln's election, he became a Republican, and as such was re-elected in 1862 to the national House of Representatives, in which he at once became one of the most radical and aggressive members, his views commanding especial attention owing to his being one of the few representatives from a slave state.
Holiness is dangerous and may even involve degradation, as in the case of the Burmese para-gyoon or servitor of the pagoda who is by heredity for ever a slave and outcast, unclean of the unclean, with whom none may eat or intermarry, yet ever tending and keeping clean the shrine.
So a Hindu paints his caste emblem on his forehead, and a fugitive slave in ancient Egypt, once marked with sacred stigmata in a temple, could not be reclaimed by the master.
One pound was the normal price of a slave and half a pound that of a horse.
The son of a slave of the third Seljuk sultan, Zangi, governor of `Irak, made himself gradually (Mosul, Sinjar, Jezira, Harran) master of Mesopotamia (1128), capturing Edessa in 1144.
39° 43' 26.3" N.), called the Mason and Dixon line in honour of the surveyors; it acquired considerable importance later as separating the free and the slave states.
He sought to incorporate in a new code for the District of Columbia, in 1832, a prohibition of the slave trade in the district, at the same time opposing the abolition of slavery there without the consent of Maryland and Virginia, which had originally ceded the district to the United States.
Till the suppression of the slave trade Suakin was an important slave port and it has always been the place of embarcation for Sudan pilgrims to Mecca.
Eastwards of the Ivory coast are the Gold and Slave coasts.
In its own age, chivalry rested practically, like the highest civilization of ancient Greece and Rome, on slave labour; 9 and if many of its 8 Dallaway's Heraldry, p. 303.
We possess little trustworthy information concerning his life, except that he was the slave of Iadmon of Samos and met with a violent death at the hands of the inhabitants of Delphi.
ABU UBAIDA [Ma`mar ibn ul-Muthanna] (728-825), Arabian scholar, was born a slave of Jewish Persian parents in Basra, and in his youth was a pupil of Abu`Amr ibn ul-`Ala.
At this time ivory and slave traders, nominally Egyptian subjects, penetrated as far south as Unyoro, and a few years later (1870-74) Baker, as governorgeneral of the Equatorial Provinces, extended Egyptian influence over the country and placed a garrison at Foweira on the Victoria Nile.
His reputation as a lawyer began with his connexion with the famous "Lemmon slave case," in which, as one of the special counsel for the state, he secured a decision from the highest state courts that slaves brought into New York while in transit between two slave states were ipso facto free.
The outstanding problem of African missions at least north of the Equator (south there is the Ethiopian question) is not the degradation of the black races, nor the demoralizing influences of heathen Christians, nor even the slave dealer, though all these obstacles are present and powerful.
It had therefore been specially garrisoned by Justinian under first Peter, a Persian slave, and subsequently Johannes Tzibos, who built Petra on the coast as the Roman Headquarters.
He was a Whig representative in Congress in 1849-1853, and was leader of the radical Whigs and Free-Soilers, strongly opposing the Compromise Measures of 1850,1850, and being especially bitter in his denunciations of the Fugitive Slave Law.
Julian of Indiana, were nominated for the presidency and the vice-presidency respectively, on a platform which declared slavery "a sin against God and a crime against man," denounced the Compromise Measures of 1850,1850, the fugitive slave law in particular, and again opposed the extension of slavery in the Territories.
In 1849 he was made commander of the " Perry," and engaged for two years in suppressing the slave trade on the African coast.
Formerly one of the great slave and ivory marts of West Africa, it is now a centre of the kola-nut commerce and a depot for government stores.
The Baggara are great hunters, and formerly were noted slave raiders.
For instance, the tariff on animals exposed for sale includes a charge of 5% ad valorem on slave girls, besides a charge of I rupee per head.
From Suetonius (De grammaticis, 23) we learn that he was originally a slave who obtained his freedom and taught grammar at Rome.
SPARTACUS, leader in the Slave or Gladiatorial War against Rome (73-7171 B.C.), a Thracian by birth.
He served in the Roman army, but seems to have deserted, for we are told that he was taken prisoner and sold as a slave.
and action, he fancied that he was a slave.
A pension he had defined as pay given to a state hireling to betray his country; a pensioner as a slave of state hired by a stipend to obey a master.
He later introduced a bill regarding slavery in the District of Columbia, which (in accordance with his statement of 1837) was to be submitted to the vote of the District for approval, and which provided for compensated emancipation, forbade the bringing of slaves into the District of Columbia, except by government officials from slave states, and the selling of slaves away from the District, and arranged for the emancipation after a period of apprenticeship of all slave children born after the 1st of January 1850.
Garrison in 1831, had stirred the conscience of the North, and had had its influence even upon many who strongly deprecated its extreme radicalism; the Compromise of 1850 had failed to silence sectional controversy, and the Fugitive Slave Law, which was one of the compromise measures, had throughout the North been bitterly assailed and to a considerable extent had been nullified by state legislation; and finally in 1854 the slavery agitation was fomented by the passage of the KansasNebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and gave legislative sanction to the principle of "popular sovereignty" - the principle that the inhabitants of each Territory as well as of each state were to be left free to decide for themselves whether or not slavery was to be permitted therein.
I believe this Government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.
On the 27th of February 1860 in Cooper Union, New York City, he made a speech (much the same as that delivered in Elwood, Kansas, on the 1st of December) which made him known favourably to the leaders of the Republican party in the East and which was a careful historical study criticising the statement of Douglas in one of his speeches in Ohio that "our fathers when they framed the government under which we live understood this question [slavery] just as well and even better than we do now," and Douglas's contention that "the fathers" made the country (and intended that it should remain) part slave.
The Unionists of the border slave states were greatly alarmed, but Lincoln by his moderate conservatism held them to the military support of the government.
The persons in these three States - Georgia, Florida and South Carolina - heretofore 2 In November 1861 the president drafted a bill providing (i) that all slaves more than thirty-five years old in the state of Delaware should immediately become free; (2) that all children of slave parentage born after the passage of the act should be free; (3) that all others should be free on attaining the age of thirty-five or after the 1st of January 1893, except for terms of apprenticeship; and (4) that the national government should pay to the state of Delaware $23,200 a year for twenty-one years.
On July the r 2th the president called the representatives of the border slave states to the executive mansion, and once more urged upon them his proposal of compensated emancipation.
If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and, if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that."
Such dissatisfaction as they caused in the border slave states died out in the stress of war.
Before the end of that year twenty-seven out of the thirty-six states of the Union (being the required three-fourths) had ratified the 1 It is to be noted that slavery in the border slave states was not affected by the proclamation.
GREAT SLAVE LAKE (ATHAPUSCOw), a lake of Mackenzie district, Canada.
in length), and Slave rivers empty into Great Slave Lake.
Ten girls, aged nine to seventeen years, two of them house servants, met during the winter of1691-1692in the home of Samuel Parris, pastor of the Salem Village church, and after learning palmistry and various "magic" tricks from Parris's West Indian slave, Tituba, and influenced doubtless by current talk about witches, accused Tituba and two old women of bewitching them.
In brief he contended that slavery was "local, not national," that it could exist only by virtue of positive State Law, that the Federal government was not empowered by the Constitution to create slavery anywhere, and that "when a slave leaves the jurisdiction of a state he ceases to be a slave, because he continues to be a man and leaves behind him the law which made him a slave."
The town was a great slave market.
The slave wars were not the only scourge that fell on Sicily.
The slave wars had not directly touched the great cities; Verres plundered and impoverished everywhere, removing anything of value, especially works of art, that took his fancy, and there is hardly a city that had not to complain of what it suffered at his hands.
Into the Cameroon country Saker and his colleagues introduced the elements of civilization, and with the help of British men-of-war the oversea slave trade was finally stopped (c. 1875).
For general talk about the evils of slavery they cared little, but this assertion that every slave was entitled to instant freedom filled them with alarm and roused them to anger, for they saw that, if the conscience of the nation were to respond to the proposition, the system must inevitably fall.
Baltimore was then one of the centres of the domestic slave trade, and upon this traffic Garrison heaped the strongest denunciations.
To this end he made his appeal to the Northern churches and pulpits, beseeching them to bring the power of Christianity to bear against the slave system, and to advocate the rights of the slaves to immediate and unconditional freedom.
We are told that he warned his fellow-citizens against Phalaris, whom they had chosen as their general, by relating to them the well-known fable of the horse, which, in its eagerness to punish the stag for intruding upon its pastures, became the slave of man (Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii.
Possession was also taken, in 1861, of Lagos island, with the object of checking the slave trade still being carried on in that region.
In that year both provinces were subdued, their emirs deposed, and letters of appointment given to new emirs, who undertook to rule in accordance with the requirements of humanity, to abolish slave-raiding and slave dealing, and to acknowledge the sovereignty of Great Britain.
Every slave could thereby assert his freedom if he desired to do so, but it was not made illegal for a native to own a slave, and no penalty attached to mere possession in such a case.
Sales of slaves occur in the XXVth Dynasty, and contracts of servitude are found in the XXVIth Dynasty and in the reign of Darius, appearing as if the consent of the slave was then required.
This personage was himself the son of a Turk who, originally sent as a slave to Bagdad, had risen to high rank in the service of the caliphs.
He had originally been a slave of Malik al-Salib, had distinguished himself at the battle after which Louis IX.
Unlike the other Mameluke sovereigns, who were Turks or Circassians, this man had originally been a Greek slave.
His endeavour, for instance, to put a stop to the slave raiding which devastated the Sudan provinces was wholly ineffectual.
In the same year Darfur and Harrar were annexed, and in 1877 Gordon became governor-general of the Sudan, where, with the valuable assistance of Gessi Pasha, he labored to destroy the slave trade and to establish just government.
Misrule and oppression in every form now again prevailed throughout the Sudan, while the slave traders, exasperated by Gordons stern measures, were ready to revolt.
On the Red Sea littoral Osman Digria, a slave dealer of Suakin, appointed amir of the Eastern Sudan, raised the local tribes and invested fi3J(er.
For the vengeance of VOlundr there is a very close counterpart in the medieval versions of the vengeance of the Moorish slave on his master.
1503), is different, for the Moorish slave casts himself down from a high tower.
For example, a dispute between master and slave may be found by the cadi to turn on the general question, "Has Zaid, the master of `Amr, S the absolute right to dispose of his slave's earnings ?"
Though living in a slave state he was consistently opposed to slavery, but he favoured gradual rather than immediate emancipation, and in 1838 he freed his own slaves.
In the state campaign of 1859 he made a speech attacking the Fugitive Slave Law and arguing for state's rights and thus injured his political standing in Wisconsin; and in April he delivered in Faneuil Hall, Boston, an oration on "True Americanism," which coming from an alien was intended to clear the Republican party of the charge of "nativism."
The Nigerian emirs acquired, however, an evil reputation during the 19th century as slave raiders.
Roca, who next attained to power, effected a temporary settlement with Colombia, concluded a convention with England against the slave trade, and made a commercial treaty with Belgium.
Henceforward the bulk of the trade was in British hands, but piracy was rife, the slave trade flourished, and the coast towns and islands of the Persian Gulf had fallen from their ancient prosperity to a lower level than they had experienced for some centuries.
In 1772 it was decided by the English courts that a slave as soon as he set foot on the soil of the British Isles became free; the slave trade, however, continued actively until 1807, when an Act was passed to prevent British subjects dealing in slaves; in 1811 the traffic in slaves was declared to be felony; in 1833 the status of slavery was abolished throughout the British Dominions.
Slavery flourishes, and slave auctions, conducted like those of cows and mules, take place on the afternoons of stated days, affording a lounge for the rich Moors, who discuss the "goods" offered and seek for bargains.
The mines, which were the property of the state, were usually farmed out for a certain fixed sum and a percentage on the working; slave labour was exclusively employed.
There is no suggestion of moral training of the slave; he is to be taught not by words (xxix.
Though a strict adherent of the creed of Rome, he was a Liberal, nay a Radical, as regards measures for the vindication of human liberty, and he sincerely advocated the rights of conscience, the emancipation of the slave and freedom of trade.
15 seq., subsequently confined to the slave from outside).
him fled from Egypt an Albanian slave named EI Ahmed, who (from the expertness with which he had been wont to carry out his master's orders to get rid of inconvenient rivals) bore the surname el-Jazzar, " the butcher."
It was unsuccessful, and the more radical measure he now favoured was even more impossible of attainment; but a bill he introduced to prohibit the importation of slaves was passed in 1778 - the only important change effected in the slave system of the state during the War of Independence.
Mahmud was the eldest son of Sabuktagin, surnamed Nasr-ud-din, in origin a Turkish slave, who had established his rule over the greater part of modern Afghanistan and Khorassan, with Ghazni as his capital.
His favourite residence is said to have been the old capital of Ghazni, while he governed his Indian conquests through the agency of a favourite slave, Kutb-ud-din.
He was the founder of what is known as the slave dynasty, which lasted for nearly a century (1206-1288).
Ala who had himself supplanted the last of the slave dynasty.
These were - (1) the Adil Shahi dynasty, with its capital at Bijapur, founded in 1490 by a Turk; (2) the Kutb Shahi dynasty, with its capital at Golconda, founded in 1512 by a Turkoman adventurer; (3) the Nizam Shahi dynasty, with its capital at Ahmednagar, founded in 1490 by a Brahman renegade; (4) the Imad Shahi dynasty of Berar, with its capital at Ellichpur, founded in 1484 also by a Hindu from Vijayanagar; (5) the Barid Shahi dynasty, with its capital at Bidar, founded about 1492 by one who is variously described as a Turk and a Georgian slave.
By birth a Brahman, and brought up as a slave in Persia, he united the administrative ability of a Hindu to the fanaticism of a renegade.
In 1840, however, when it began to advocate measures which he deemed too radical, he withdrew his membership, but with his pen he continued his labours on behalf of the slave, urging emancipation in the district of Columbia and the exclusion of slavery from the Territories, though deprecating any attempt to interfere with slavery in the states.
Whilst the economic development of the country was not entirely neglected and many useful food products were introduced, the prosperity of the province was very largely dependent on the slave trade with Brazil, which was not legally abolished until 1830 and in fact continued for many years subsequently.
The abolition of the external slave trade proved very injurious to the trade of the seaports, but from 1860 onward the agricultural resources of the country were developed with increasing energy, a work in which Brazilian merchants took the lead.
Slavery and the slave trade continued to flourish in the interior in the early years of the 10th century, despite the prohibitions of the Portuguese government.
As a boy he was a slave in the house of Epaphroditus, a freedman and courtier of the emperor Nero.
But he frequently describes an ideal character of a missionary sage, the perfect Stoic - or, as he calls him, the Cynic. This missionary has neither country nor home nor land nor slave; his bed is the ground; he is without wife or child; his only mansion is the earth and sky and a shabby cloak.
One of the most distinguished of the British governors was Sir Robert Farquhar (1810-1823), who did much to abolish the Malagasy slave trade and to establish friendly relations with the rising power of the Hova sovereign of Madagascar.
One result of the introduction of free labour has been to reduce the descendants of the slave population to a small and unimportant class - Mauritius in this respect offering a striking contrast to the British colonies in the West Indies.
His marriage with Pomponia was very unhappy, and he was much under the influence of his slave Statius.
P. trepida, or tremuloides, is closely allied to the European aspen, being chiefly distinguished by its more pointed leaves; it is a native of most parts of Canada and the United States, extending northwards as far as Great Slave Lake.
Ward) of Henry Ward Beecher, mounted on a granite pedestal with a figure at each side to commemorate Beecher's sympathy for the slave.
The economic evolution of the state since Reconstruction has been in the main that common to all the old slave states developing from the plantation system of ante-bellum days, somewhat diversified and complicated by the special features of a young and border community.
By act of the 15th of June 1836 it was admitted into the Union as a slave state.
Economic life centred in the slave plantation, and there was remarkable development up to the Civil War.
Many of the coast peoples show, however, distinct traces of white blood, the result chiefly of the former presence of European slave traders.
In consequence, largely, of the dangers attending its navigation, it was not visited by the European traders of the 16th-18th centuries so frequently as other regions north and east, but in the Rio Pongo, at Matakong (a diminutive island near the mouth of the Forekaria), and elsewhere, slave traders established themselves, and ruins of the strongholds they built, and defended with cannon, still exist.
With reference to their objects, treaties may perhaps be conveniently classified as (r) political, including treaties of peace, of alliance, of cession, of boundary, for creation of international servitudes, of neutralization, of guarantee, for the submission of a controversy to arbitration; (2) commercial, including consular and fishery conventions, and slave trade and navigation treaties; (3) confederations for special social objects, such as the Zollverein, the Latin monetary union, and the still wider unions with reference to posts, telegraphs, submarine cables and weights and measures; (4) relating to criminal justice, e.g.
Hertslet, librarian of the foreign office, continued by his son, Sir Edward Hertslet, and later holders of the same office, entitled A Complete Collection of the Treaties and Conventions and Reciprocal Regulations at present subsisting between Great Britain and Foreign Powers, and of the Laws and Orders in Council concerning the same, so far as they relate to Commerce and Navigation, the Slave Trade, Post Office, &c., and to the Privileges and Interests of the Subjects of the Contracting Parties (24 vols., 1820-1907).
For the innumerable conventions, to which Great Britain is a party, as to commerce, consular jurisdiction, fisheries and the slave trade, it must suffice to refer to the exhaustive and skilfully devised index to vols.
Peterboro became a station on the "underground railroad"; and after 1850 Smith furnished money for the legal expenses of persons charged with infractions of the Fugitive Slave Law.
With John Brown, to whom he gave a farm in Essex county, New York, he became very intimate, and from time to time supplied him with funds, though it seems without knowing that any of the money would be employed in an attempt to incite a slave insurrection.
Ellis, The Ewe-Speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa (1890), pp. 47 seq.
He strenuously supported the abolition of the slave trade, and in 1789 wrote a paper on the subject.
The slave insurrection under Nat Turner in 1831 led to a second abortive effort, this time by the legislature, to do away with the fateful institution.
Of the other measures of reform promoted by Abd-ul-Mejid the more important were - the reorganization of the army (1843-1844), the institution of a council of public instruction (1846), the abolition of an odious and unfairly imposed capitation tax, the repression of slave trading, and various provisions for the better administration of the public service and for the advancement of commerce.
He had resolved some time before never to obtain another slave, and "wished from his soul" that Virginia could be persuaded to abolish slavery; "it might prevent much future mischief"; but the unprecedented profitableness of the cotton industry, under the impetus of the recently invented cotton gin, had already begun to change public sentiment regarding slavery, and Washington was too old to attempt further innovations.
Southern leaders generally were now beginning to perceive, as Calhoun had already seen, that there was a permanent conflict between the North and the South, not only a divergence of interests between manufacturing and agricultural sections, but an inevitable struggle between free and slave labour.
plagiarius meant a kidnapper, stealer or abductor of a slave or child, though it is also used in the modern sense of a literary pilferer or purloiner by Martial (I.
Although at various times he had helped to strengthen the law for the recovery of fugitive slaves, declining as secretary of state to aid Great Britain in the further suppression of the slave trade, and demanding the return of fugitives from Canada, yet he heartily supported the colonizing of the slaves in Africa, because slavery was the "deepest stain upon the character of the country," opposition to which could not be repressed except by "blowing out the moral lights around," and "eradicating from the human soul the light of reason and the law of liberty."
When the slave power became more aggressive, in and after the year 1831, Clay defended the right of petition for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, and opposed Calhoun's bill forbidding the use of the mails to "abolition" newspapers and documents.
He was lukewarm toward recognizing the independence of Texas, lest it should aid the increase of slave territory, and generally favoured the freedom of speech and press as regards the question of slavery; yet his various concessions and compromises resulted, as he himself declared, in the abolitionists denouncing him as a slaveholder, and the slaveholders as an abolitionist.
While a candidate for president in 1844, he opposed in the "Raleigh letter" the annexation of Texas on many grounds except that of its increasing the slave power, thus displeasing both the men of anti-slavery and those of pro-slavery sentiments.
It admitted California as a free state, organized Utah and New Mexico as Territories without reference to slavery, and enacted a more efficient fugitive slave law.
A specially valuable property of Athens was the possession of the silver mines at Laurium, which were worked on lease by slave labour.
In 1842, when the Quintuple Treaty was negotiated by representatives of England, France, Prussia, Russia and Austria for the suppression of the slave trade by the exercise of the right of search, Cass attacked it in a pamphlet entitled" An Examination of the Questions now in Discussion between the American and British Government Concerning the Right of Search," and presented to the French government a formal memorial which was probably instrumental in preventing the ratification of the treaty by France.
1897); The Ewe-Speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast (Lond.
1890); The Yoruba-Speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast (Lond.
The Yoruba-speaking peoples generalized the spirits of mountain and hill into Oke, god of heights; and the multitude of local sea-gods on the western half of the slave coast was fused into one god of the Ocean, Olokun.
At first the social distinctions of this life are simply continued hereafter: the chief remains a chief, the slave a slave; and the conditions of the future only prolong those of the present.
(1) in individual cases of retribution, when (as among the Kaupuis) crime within the tribe was punished, and a murderer becomes in the next life his victim's slave;
It was founded in 1610, under the name of Fatchnagar, by Malik Ambar, an Abyssinian, who had risen from the condition of a slave to great influence.
Slave, which drains the lake of that name, and Clearwater.
It discharges its waters northward by Slave river and the Mackenzie system to the Arctic Ocean.
Shallowdraught steamers navigate the lake and river, and Lesser Slave lake and river, with one interruption - at Grand Rapids near the mouth of the Clearwater river.
The city rapidly acquired importance as the Sudan was opened up by travellers and traders, becoming, besides the seat of much legitimate commerce, a great slave mart.
Hence arms were not borne in times of peace but stored away under charge of a slave, and Tacitus suggests in explanation that the royal policy did not commit this trust to noble, freeman or freedman.
Sweden became completely a slave to the periwigs of literature, to the unities and graces of classical France.
The greatest punishment to an untrustworthy slave is tc give him his liberty and let him earn his living.
The first of the house was Aiptagin, a Turkish slave of the Samanid Mansur I., who, having quarrelled with his master, took refuge in Afghanistan and founded a semi-independent authority.
After his death three unimportant governors of his house held sway, but in 977 the power fell to another former slave, Sabuktagin, who was recognized by the Samanid Nith II.
These rulers were descended from Anushtajin, a Turkish slave of Ghazni, who became cupbearer to the Seijuk M alik Shah, and afterwards governor of Khwarizm (Khiva) in 1077.
His mother, who had escaped the numerous mas~ sacres by disguising herself as a slave and performing the most degrading offices, now came forth and threw herself into his arms. Nadir did not give his enemies time to recover from their defeat.
The stipulations regarding Herat were much as before; but there were to be apologies made to the mission for past insolence and rudeness, and the slave trade was to be suppressed in the Persian Gulf.
cihgr bafldaka (slave) bandak bandah spda (army).
Consular vigilance has also killed the once considerable slave trade.
On reaching Ipoto on the Ituri he came within the region of the Arab slave raiders and ivory hunters, in whose company he at times travelled.
English traders were established on Bance and the Banana islands as long as the slave trade was legal.
In 1791 Alexander Falconbridge (formerly a surgeon on board slave ships) collected the surviving fugitives and laid out a new settlement (Granville's Town); and the promoters of the enterprise - Granville Sharp, William Wilberforce, Sir Richard Carr Glyn, &c. - hitherto known as the St George's Bay Company, obtained a charter of incorporation as the Sierra Leone Company, with Henry Thornton as chairman.
The slave trade having in the same year been declared illegal by the British parliament, slaves captured by British vessels in the neighbouring seas were brought to Freetown, and thus the population of the colony grew.
Whilst the governors found great difficulty in building up an industrious and agricultural community out of the medley of Africans brought to Sierra Leone, they had also to contend with the illicit slave trade which flourished in places close to the colony.
The abolition of the slave trade followed; and with the introduction of the protectorate ordinance in 1897 a house tax of 5s.
The disturbances would appear to have arisen not so much from dislike of the house tax per se as irritation at the arbitrary manner in which it was collected, and from a desire on the part of the paramount chiefs (who chafed at the suppression of slave trading and slave raiding, and who disseminated a powerful fetish "swear," called "Poro," to compel the people to join) to cast off British rule.
the first and fourth points of Retief's manifesto combined); (2) The Slave Question; (3) The Kaffir Question.
Enough has already been said as to the relations between the missionaries, the Boer farmers and the Hottentots; this grievance, however, " proved quite secondary to the intensity of feeling with which the colonists saw the steps taken by the government to deprive them of that labour (slave labour) over which they claimed an unquestionable right of property."
In metaphysics and in natural history Aristotle was a law to him, and in medicine Galen, but he was not a slave to the text or the details of either.
Equally scattered through the whole country, and almost everywhere recognizable, is the underlying Persian population (Tajik), which is sometimes represented by a locally dominant tribe, but more frequently by the agricultural slave and bondsman of the general community.
The beautiful character which rose superior to weakness, poverty and slave's estate is also presented to us in the Discourses of his disciple Arrian as a model of religious resignation, of forbearance and love towards our brethren, that is, towards all men, since God is our common father.
By sea Prince Henry's captains continued their exploration of Africa and the Atlantic. In 1433 Cape Bojador was doubled; in 1 434 the first consignment of slaves was brought to Lisbon; and slave trading soon became one of the most profitable branches of Portuguese commerce.
The Menippus whom Varro imitated lived in the first half of the 3rd century B.C., and was born a Phoenician slave.
He fell under the influence of two of his wife's maids of honour in succession, Nelidov and Lapuknin, and of his barber, a Turkish slave named Koroissov.
The strong anti-slavery sentiment of the city led in 1854 to a serious riot, owing to an apparent attempt to enforce the Fugitive Slave Law.
Of Svatopluk Cech's many poems, which are all inspired by national enthusiasm, Vaclav z Michalovic, Lesetinsky Kovar (the smith of Lesetin) and Basne otroka (the songs of a slave) are the most notable.
The province of Bauchi was conquered by the Fula at the beginning of the 19th century, and furnished them with a valuable slave preserve.
Delhi became henceforth the capital of the Mahommedan Indian empire, Kutb-ud-din (the general and slave of Mahommed of Ghor) being left in command.
His dynasty is known as that of the slave kings, and it is to them that old Delhi owes its grandest remains, among them Kutb Mosque and the Kutb Minar.
The slave dynasty retained the throne till 1290, when it was subverted by Jalal-ud-din Khilji.
As a result Taylor carried eight slave states while his opponent secured seven, but in the free states the conditions were exactly reversed.
His great learning is evident everywhere, but he is often its slave rather than its master.
An interesting and very rare example of a Roman law deed sealed with gem impressions in clay is in the British Museum, recording the sale of a slave boy in A.D.
East Jersey had a fugitive slave law as early as 1675.
An attempt at abolition had previously been made in 1804 by an act declaring that every child born of a slave should be free, but should remain the servant of its mother's owner until twenty-five years of age if a male or twenty-one years of age if a female.
Great Slave Lake >>
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