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slav

slav

slav Sentence Examples

  • As early as the 8th century, and probably still earlier, a stream of Slav colonization, advancing E.

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  • The earliest inhabitants of Lauenburg were a Slav tribe, the Polabes, who were gradually replaced by colonists from Saxony.

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  • The earliest inhabitants of Lauenburg were a Slav tribe, the Polabes, who were gradually replaced by colonists from Saxony.

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  • Anklam, formerly Tanglim, was originally a Slav fortress; it obtained civic rights in 1244 and joined the Hanseatic league.

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  • Dresden (Old Slav Drezga, forest, Drezgajan, forestdwellers), which is known to have existed in 1206, is of Slavonic origin, and was originally founded on the right bank of the Elbe, on the site of the present Neustadt, which is thus actually the old town.

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  • Within the empire a very great diversity of nationalities is comprised, due to the amalgamation or absorption by the Slav race of a variety of Ural-Altaic stocks, of Turko-Tatars, Turko-Mongols and various Caucasian races.

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  • Ethnologically the Bulgarians ought perhaps to come here; but, as a large admixture of Slav blood flows in their veins and they speak a distinctly Slav language, they have in this table been grouped with the Slays.

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  • the Turkish-Mongol races of the Pechenegs, Polovtsi, Uzes, &c., while in the S., along the Black Sea, was the empire of the Khazars, who had under their rule several Slav tribes, and perhaps also some of Finnish origin.

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  • Still, craniological researches show that, notwithstanding this fact, the Slav type has been maintained with remarkable persistency: Slav skulls ten and thirteen centuries old exhibit the same anthropological features as those which characterize the Sla y s of our own day.

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  • Nestor, an old monkish chronicler Origin of Kiev, relates that in the middle of the 9th century of the the Slav and Finnish tribes inhabiting the forest region around Lake Ilmen, between Lake Ladoga and the upper waters of the Dnieper, paid tribute to military adventurers from the land of Ras, which is commonly supposed to have been a part of Sweden.

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  • In May 1908 a deputation of Russian the Slav members of the Austrian Reichsrat paid a moveens.

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  • The archives of the cathedral were plundered by Magyars and Moslems, but several inscriptions, Greek, Slav and Ruman, are left.

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  • Nestor mentions that the Bujanes and Dulebes occupied the Bug, while the Tivertsi and Ugliches, apparently all four Slav tribes, were settled on the Dniester.

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  • This government was inhabited in the 10th century by the Slav tribes of the Krivichi and Radimichi.

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  • The son was sent in 1812 to the Protestant gymnasium at Pressburg, where he came in contact with the philologist S afafik and became a zealous student of the Slav languages.

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  • Here he found a warm friend in Dobrovsky, whose good relations with the Austrian authorities shielded him from the hostility shown by the government to students of Slav subjects.

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  • He was deputed to the Reichstag which sat at Kromefice (Kremsier) in the autumn of that year, and was a member of the Slav congress at Prague.

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  • He was at this time in favour of a strong Austrian empire, which should consist of a federation of the southern German and the Slav states, allowing of the retention of their individual rights.

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  • Next to the Slav races in importance are the Rumanians (Vlachs), who are in an immense majority in ten of the eastern and south-eastern counties (90.2% in Fogaras), in eight others form from 30 to 60% of the population, and in two (Maramaros and Torontal) a respectable minority.'

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  • The inevitable consequence of this rupture was the Teutonizing of the western branch of the great Slav family, which, no longer able to stand alone, and cut off from both Rome and Constantinople, was forced, in self-defence, to take Christianity, and civilization along with it, from Germany.

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  • That the encouragement of the Slav aspirations was soon deliberately adopted as a weapon against the Hungarian government was due, partly to the speedy predominance at Pest of Kossuth and the extreme party of which he was the mouthpiece, but mainly to the calculated policy of Baron Jellachich, who on the 14th of April was appointed ban of Croatia.

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  • Jellachich, who as a soldier was devoted to the interests of the imperial house, realized that the best way to break the revolutionary power of the Magyars and Germans would be to encourage the Slav national ideas, which were equally hostile to both; to set up against the Dualism in favour at Pest and Vienna the federal system advocated by the Sla y s, and so to restore the traditional Habsburg principle of Divide et impera.

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  • One more attempt at compromise was made, General Count Lamberg l being sent to take command of all the troops, Slav or Magyar, in Hungary, with a view to arranging an armistice.

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  • Seton-Watson (Scotus Viator), Racial Problems in Hungary (London, 1908), a strong criticism of the Magyar attitude towards the Slav subject races, especially the Slovaks, with documents and a full bibliography.

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  • Amongst his numerous works may be mentioned A jó paloczok (" The Good Paloczok," Slav peasants); Egy vdlasztds Magyarorszdgon (" An Election in Hungary "); Pipacsok a buzdban (" ` Wild Poppies in the Wheatfield "); A tekintetes vdrmegye (" The Worshipful County "); Ne okoskodj Pista (" Don't reason, Pista "); Szent Peter esernysje (" St Peter's Umbrella," translated from the original into English by Miss B.

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  • Ivan Gundulic and the brilliant group of poets that gathered round him at Ragusa in the early 17th century, reflected in their writings the little Slav Republic's intimate connexion with its kinsmen of Serbia and Bosnia.

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  • He saw in the Magyars the chief obstacle to the realization of his dream, and openly warned them that they were " an island in the Slav ocean," which one day might easily engulf them.

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  • But its place was taken more and more by Yugoslavia, which, it should be remarked, was then still used to denote all the territories inhabited by any southern Slav tribe, and so to include the Bulgars no less than the Serbo-Croats and Slovenes.

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  • On the intellectual side the new movement found its champion and its Maecenas in Bishop Strassmayer, who for over 50 years devoted the surplus revenues of the wealthy see of Dya Kovo (Djakovo) to national purposes, and was mainly instrumental in founding at Zagreb the southern Slav Academy (1867), the first Croat university (1874) and a modern gallery and school of arts.

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  • After the turn of the century, however, a new generation arose both among Croats and Serbs, which had received its education abroad, and especially in Prague, where the ethical and political teachings of Prof. Masaryk exercised a remarkable influence over the progressive youth of all Slav countries.

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  • The Cuvaj Dictatorship. - The triumphant vindication of Mr. Supilo and his colleagues of the Serbo-Croat coalition gave a fresh incentive to the idea of unity throughout the southern Slav provinces of Austria-Hungary.

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  • On all sides Serbia was now regarded as the southern Slav Piedmont: and the Dual Monarchy's consistently hostile policy toward Belgrade, and its only too successful efforts to set Serbia and Bulgaria by the ears, intensified the excitement and resentment among its Yugoslav subjects.

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  • Lansing in the name of America (May 31) was a fresh encouragement: and Korosec, after constituting a Yugoslav National Council for the furtherance of unity, convoked a new Slav congress at Lyublyana (Ljubljana) on Aug.

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  • During the late summer the authorities in Vienna and Budapest keenly debated rival plans for solving the southern Slav question - in every case, however, in accordance with Austrian or Hungarian rather than Yugoslav interests.

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  • Seton-Watson, The Southern Slav Question (1911; much enlarged German ed., 1913); V.

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  • Barac, Croats and Slovenes Friends of the Entente (1919, contains important original documents); The Southern Slav Library (8 pamphlets published by the Yugoslav Committee 1915-8).

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  • In its lower course, whatever is worthy of record clusters round the historical vicissitudes of Hamburg - its early prominence as a missionary centre (Ansgar) and as a bulwark against Slav and marauding Northman, its commercial prosperity as a leading member of the Hanseatic League, and its sufferings during the Napoleonic wars, especially at the hands of the ruthless Davotit.

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  • This steady and increasing influx of Czechs is gradually infusing a large proportion of Slav blood in what Bismarck (in 1864)1864) described as the German capital of a Slav empire.

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  • They judged, further, that should their attempt by any chance miscarry, the Great Powers, more particularly Russia, protector of the Slav peoples, would not allow them to be crushed, or their present territories to be diminished.

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  • The House now consisted of 516 members, of whom 221 were of Slav nationality, 177 of German nationality, and 87 Social Democrats, so that in every national controversy t he latter could carry a decision in accordance with their principles.

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  • It was not till the Taaffe Government that it became a frequent thing for individual Slav deputies to speak in their own language.

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  • It is true that this mostly happened at the expense of the German industrial communities, since the Slav labourers as immigrants acquired schools in their own language.

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  • The German National Union (Nationalverband) agreed to extend temporary hospitality to the Italian university in Vienna, but the Southern Slav Hochschule Club demanded a guarantee that a later transfer to the coast provinces should not be contemplated, together with the simultaneous foundation of Slovene professorial chairs in Prague and Cracow, and preliminary steps towards the foundation of a Southern Slav university in Laibach.

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  • These proclamations on the part of all the Slav peoples of Austria proved that imperial sentiment was more deeply rooted than Austria's enemies had believed.

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  • But the political programme, on the other hand, let loose a violent attack of the Slav nationalities on the state.

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  • Kleinwachter, Untergang der oesterreich-ungarischen Monarchie (1920); Seton-Watson, The Future of Austria (1907); The Southern Slav Question; Absolutism in Croatia; Zd.

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  • The prevailing element is that of the Czechs (7 millions), with whom the Slovaks (22 millions) form one people; indeed as long ago as the 9th century the kingdom of Great Moravia, with frontiers roughly identical with the present boundaries of the Czechoslovak Republic, was the creation of the Slav people, who occupied in common a territory stretching from W.

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  • The Czechs and the Slovaks, or, to give them their united name, the Czechoslovaks, are a branch of the great Slav family of which the Russians are the most numerous and the most important member and to which the Serbo-Croats with the Slovenes, the Poles, the Bulgarians and the Wends of Germany also belong.

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  • Seton-Watson, German Slav and Magyar (1916), The Czechoslovak Republic (1921); E.

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  • Greiz (formerly Grewcz) is apparently a town of Slav origin.

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  • Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).

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  • The town stands on a rocky height commanding views of Pindus and Olympus; the approaching slopes are richly wooded, and traversed by picturesque waterfalls, from which the name of Vodena (Slav.

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  • The name is taken from the Lusitzi, a Slav tribe, who inhabited Lower Lusatia in the 9th and 10th centuries.

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  • The district now known as Upper Lusatia was occupied by a Slav tribe, the Milzeni, who like the Lusitzi, were subdued by Henry the Fowler early in the 10th century.

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  • The Hungarian government is regarded by the Slav, Ruman and German inhabitants of the monarchy as an oppressor for endeavouring to force everybody within the realm to learn the.

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  • He was more or less effectively the supreme temporal chief of the kingdom of Sicily and Naples, Sardinia, the states of the Iberian peninsula (Castile, Leon, Navarre and Portugal), Aragon (which, under Peter II., was the type of vassal and tributary kingdom of the Roman power), the Scandinavian states, the kingdom of Hungary, the Slav states of Bohemia, Poland, Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, and the Christian states founded in Syria by the crusaders of the 12th century.

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  • As ban, Jellachich's policy was directed to preserving the Slav kingdoms for the Habsburg monarchy by identifying himself with the nationalist opposition to Magyar ascendancy, while at the same time discouraging the extreme "Illyrism" advocated by Lodovik Gaj (1809-1872).

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  • He entered into relations with the eastern empire, and swore a "perpetual peace" with the emperor Heraclius; and it is probable that the two sovereigns took common measures against the Slav and Bulgarian tribes, which ravaged in turn the Byzantine state and the German territories subject to the Franks.

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  • The very name of Poland is derived from it - Wielkopolska and Wielkopolane being the Slav terms for the great plain and its inhabitants.

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  • In these countries the Slav language has been steadily superseding the German.

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  • Standing sentinel over the valley of the middle Danube, and barring the advance of the Slav; on Germany, Austria, whether mark, duchy or empire, has always been the meeting-place of the Teuton and the Sla y.

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  • Of more importance to Austria itself was the war with Sweden (1657-60) which resulted in the peace of Oliva, by which the independence of Poland was secured and the frontier of Hungary safeguarded, and the campaigns against the Turks (1662-64 and 1683-99), by which the Ottoman power was driven from Hungary, and the Austrian attitude towards Turkey and the Slav peoples of the Balkans determined for a century to come.

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  • A further fact of great prospective importance was the immigration, after an abortive rising against the Turks, of some 30,000 Slav and Albanian families into Slavonia and southern Hungary, where they were granted by the emperor Leopold a certain autonomy and the recognition of the Orthodox religion.

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  • For everywhere the Slav populations were growing restive under the German-Magyar domination.

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  • The natural result was to drive the Slav nationalities to the side of the imperial government, since, whether at Vienna or at Budapest, the radicals were their worst enemies.

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  • Writs were issued in Bohemia for the election to the Austrian Reichsrath; and when, on the 10th of July, this assembled, the Slav deputies were found to be in a majority.

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  • Meanwhile the alliance between the Slav nationalities and the conservative elements within the empire had found a powerful representative in Jellachich, the ban of Croatia.

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  • Jellachich, who had gone to Innsbruck to lay the Slav view before the emperor, was allowed to return to Agram, though not as yet formally reinstated.

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  • Meanwhile, renewed trouble had broken out in Vienna, where the radical populace was in conflict alike with the government and with the Slav majority of the Reichsrath.

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  • On the 7th of October the emperor Ferdinand had fled from Schonbrunn to Olmiitz, a Slav district, whence he issued a proclamation inviting whoever loved "Austria and freedom" to rally round the throne.

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  • Meanwhile, of the Reichsrath, the members of the Right and the Slav majority had left Vienna and announced a meeting of the diet at Briinn for the 10th of October; all that remained in the capital was a rump of German radicals, impotent in the hands of the proletariat and the students.

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  • The Germans, however, could at least hope that in the future the financial arrangements might be revised; the complaints of the Slav races were political, and within the constitution there was no means of remedy, for, while the settlement gave to the Hungarians all that they demanded, it deprived the Bohemians or Galicians of any hope that they would be able to obtain similar independence.

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  • Politically, the principle underlying the agreement was that the empire should be divided into two portions; in one of these the Magyars were to rule, in the other the Germans; in either section the Slav races - the Serbs and Croatians, the Czechs, Poles and Slovenes - were to be placed in a position of political inferiority.

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  • The sympathy of the Slav inhabitants of the empire made it impossible for the government of Vienna to regard with indifference the sufferings of Christians in Turkey.

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  • It was a cardinal principle of Austrian policy that she could not allow the erection of new Slav states on her southern frontier.

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  • Parliamentary life in Austria was paralysed by the feud between Germans and Czechs that resulted directly from the Badeni language ordinances of 1897 and indirectly from the development of Slav influence, particularly that of Czechs and Poles during the Taaffe era (1879-1893).

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  • The Poles of Galicia stood apart from the other Slav races.

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  • The Italian-speaking population on the coast of Dalmatia only asked that the government should uphold them against the pressure of the Slav races in the interior, and for this reason were ready to support the German constitutionalists.

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  • Had the example of the Czechs been followed by the other Slav races it would still have been difficult to get together a Reichsrath to pass the Ausgleich.

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  • In Bohemia the Czechs were very active; while the Poles were parading their hostility to Russia in such a manner as to cause the emperor to avoid visiting Galicia, some of the Czech leaders attended a Slav demonstration at Moscow, and in 1868 they drew up and presented to the diet at Prague a " declaration " which has since been regarded as the official statement of their claims. They asked for the full restoration of the Bohemian kingdom; they contended that no foreign assembly was qualified to impose taxes in Bohemia; that the diet was not qualified to elect representatives to go to Vienna, and that a separate settlement must be made with Bohemia similar to that with Hungary.

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  • Before the combination of Clericals and Federalists the ministry broke down; they were divided among themselves; Counts Taaffe and Alfred Potocki, the minister of agriculture, wished to conciliate the Slav races - a policy recommended 1 The documents are printed in Baron de Worms, op. cit.

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  • The law of 1867 required that the education in the elementary schools in the Slav districts should be given in Czech or Slovenian, as the case might be.

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  • The Sla y s, however, required that, even when a small minority of Slav race settled in any town, they should not be compelled to go to the German schools, but should have their own school provided for them; and this demand was granted by Prazak, minister of education under Count Taaffe.

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  • Since 1882 there has been a Slav majority in the diet, and Italian has been disused in the proceedings of that body.

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  • In this case the concessions to the Servo-Croatians lrad been made by the Liberal ministry; they required the parliamentary support of the Dalmatian representatives, who were more numerous than the Italian, and it was also necessary to cultivate the loyalty of the Slav races in this part so as to gain a support for Austria against the Russian party, which was very active in the Balkan Peninsula.

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  • Slav races was, however, not merely the result of government assistance; it had begun long before Taaffe assumed office; it was to be seen in the census returns and in the results of elections.

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  • The influence of the Church is also favourable to the Slav races, not so much from principle as owing to the fact that they supply more candidates for ordination than the Germans.

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  • This " Los von Rom " movement, which was caused by the continued alliance of the Clerical party with the Slav parties, is more of the nature of a political demonstration than of a religious movement.

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  • They spoke much of Germanentum and Unverfcilschtes Deutschtu y n, and they advocated a political union with the German empire, and were strongly anti-Hungarian and wished to resign all control over Galicia, if by a closer union with Germany they could secure German supremacy in Bohemia and the south Slav countries.

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  • The Young Czechs could not take their place; their Radical and anti-clerical tendencies alarmed the Feudalists and Clericalists who formed so large a part of the Right; they attacked the alliance with Germany; they made public demonstration of their French sympathies; they entered into communication with other Slav races, especially the Serbs of Hungary and Bosnia; they demanded universal suffrage, and occasionally supported the German Radicals in their opposition to the Clerical parties, especially in educational matters; under their influence disorder increased in Bohemia, a secret society called the Umladina (an imitation of the Servian society of that name) was discovered, and stringent measures had to be taken to preserve order.

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  • The chief feature of the allotment was, however, the formal overthrow of the fiction that Austria is preponderatingly a German country and not a country preponderatingly Slav with a German dynasty and a German façade.

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  • The German constituencies, though allotted in a proportion unduly favourable, left the Germans, with 233 seats, in a permanent minority as compared with the 259 Slav seats.

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  • Southern Slav Club Croats .

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  • The Fatimite general Jauhar (variously represented as of Greek, Slav and Sicilian origin), who enjoyed the complete confidence of the Fatimite sovereign, was placed at the head of an army of 100,000 menif Oriental numbers are to be trustedand started from Rakkada at the beginning of March 969 with the view of seizing Egypt.

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  • He was at first under the tutelage of the Slav Burjuwn, whose policy it was to favor the Turkish element in the army as against the Maghribine, on which the strength of the Fatimites had till then rested; his conduct of affairs was vigorous and successful, and he concluded a peace with the Greek emperor.

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  • People of Slav origin being considered unfree, all intermarriage with them tainted the blood; hence nearly all surnames point to Saxon, especially Westphalian, and even Flemish descent.

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  • Nizhniy-Novgorod had at one time two academies, Greek and Slav, and took some part in the literary movement of the end of the 18th century; its theatre also was of some importance in the history of the Russian stage.

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  • A Slav origin for the word has been suggested (Hatzfeld and Darmesteter, Dic. gen.

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  • The liturgical language of the Uniat Slav Churches is Old Slavonic, and, so far as their rite is concerned, they differ from the Orthodox Slav Churches only in using the Glagolitic instead of the Cyrillic alphabet.

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  • The Sla y s, driven perhaps to the west, had only the Volkhov and the Dnieper, while the (Mahommedan) Bulgarian empire, at the confluence of the Volga with the Kama, was so powerful that for some time it was an open question whether Islam or Christianity would gain the upper hand among the Slav idolaters.

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  • He was succeeded by his brother Emund the Old, who Emund the had been previously passed over because his mother old, 1050 was unfree, the daughter of a Slav prince and 1060.

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  • All hope of establishing an independent Slav dynasty in Bohemia thus came to an end.

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  • The Oecumenical Patriarch is, of course, officially the superior; but the Russian Church is numerically by far the greatest, and the tendency to regard Russia as the head, not only of the Slav races, but of all orthodox nations, inevitably reacts upon the church in the form of what has been called pan-Orthodoxy.

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  • At the time of his appointment the attitude of the Russian government towards the Slav nationalities had been for several years one of extreme reserve, and he had seemed as ambassador to sympathize with this attitude.

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  • Schleiz was originally a Slav settlement, but received civic privileges in 1359.

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  • In the 10th century Cothen was a Slav settlement, which was captured and destroyed by the German king Henry I.

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  • It appears very probable that at the dawn of history East Turkestan was inhabited by an Aryan population, the ancestors of the present Slav and Teutonic races, and that a civilization not inferior to that of Bactria had already developed at that time in the region of the Tarim.'

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  • It ranks with Bulgarian as one of the two principal Slav languages of the Balkan Peninsula; the Macedonian dialects are intermediate between these two.

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  • He drove the Vandals out of Dacia, compelled the allegiance of the neighbouring tribes of West Goths, procured the submission of the Herules, of many Slav and Finnish tribes, and even of the Esthonians on the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia.

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  • Leipzig owes its origin to a Slav settlement between the Elster and the Pleisse, which was in existence before the year 1000, and its name to the Slav word lipa, a lime tree.

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  • They had seen the success of the Slav committees in treating disturbances in the Balkans, and became the moving spirit in the attempts to produce similar troubles in Armenia.

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  • Professor Arnold rightly notes Thietmar's professional interest in condemning the pagan superstitions of his Slav neighbors.

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  • He visited Russia in order to collect documents on the political and economic organization of the Slav nations, and on his return published in the Revue des deux mondes (1882-1889) a series of articles, which appeared shortly afterwards in book form under the title L'Empire des tsars et les Russes (4th ed., revised in 3 vols., 1897-1898).

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  • This plateau formation - the oldest geological continent of Asia - being unfit for agriculture and for the most part unsuited for permanent settlement, while its oceanic slopes have from the dawn of history been occupied by a relatively dense population, long prevented Slav colonization from reaching the Pacific. The Russians chanced to cross it in the 17th century at its narrowest and most N.

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  • Within the empire a very great diversity of nationalities is comprised, due to the amalgamation or absorption by the Slav race of a variety of Ural-Altaic stocks, of Turko-Tatars, Turko-Mongols and various Caucasian races.

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  • Ethnologically the Bulgarians ought perhaps to come here; but, as a large admixture of Slav blood flows in their veins and they speak a distinctly Slav language, they have in this table been grouped with the Slays.

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  • As early as the 8th century, and probably still earlier, a stream of Slav colonization, advancing E.

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  • the Turkish-Mongol races of the Pechenegs, Polovtsi, Uzes, &c., while in the S., along the Black Sea, was the empire of the Khazars, who had under their rule several Slav tribes, and perhaps also some of Finnish origin.

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  • Still, craniological researches show that, notwithstanding this fact, the Slav type has been maintained with remarkable persistency: Slav skulls ten and thirteen centuries old exhibit the same anthropological features as those which characterize the Sla y s of our own day.

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  • Nestor, an old monkish chronicler Origin of Kiev, relates that in the middle of the 9th century of the the Slav and Finnish tribes inhabiting the forest region around Lake Ilmen, between Lake Ladoga and the upper waters of the Dnieper, paid tribute to military adventurers from the land of Ras, which is commonly supposed to have been a part of Sweden.

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  • the recovery of what had been lost by the Crimean War, the gradual weakening of the Sultan's authority, and the increase of Russian influence among the minor Slav nationalities; in Asia, the gradual but cautious expansion of Russian domination.

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  • Alexander III., indignant at what he considered the ingratitude of the Slav nationalities, remained coldly aloof, as far as possible, from all intervention in their affairs.

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  • About three months after his death, de Giers, who thoroughly approved of this attitude, died (26th January 1895), and his successor, Prince Lobanov, minister of foreign affairs from 19th March 1895 to 30th August 1896, endeavoured to recover what he considered Russia's legitimate influence in the Slav world.

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  • In May 1908 a deputation of Russian the Slav members of the Austrian Reichsrat paid a moveens.

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  • The archives of the cathedral were plundered by Magyars and Moslems, but several inscriptions, Greek, Slav and Ruman, are left.

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  • the use of lrcoOac to mean "policemen" at Athens, and still more closely the German, French and English word "slave" derived from "Slav"), than that the tribe when living in territory it could call its own should have adopted an opprobrious name taken from the language of hostile neighbours (see Strabo vi.

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  • Nestor mentions that the Bujanes and Dulebes occupied the Bug, while the Tivertsi and Ugliches, apparently all four Slav tribes, were settled on the Dniester.

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  • This government was inhabited in the 10th century by the Slav tribes of the Krivichi and Radimichi.

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  • The son was sent in 1812 to the Protestant gymnasium at Pressburg, where he came in contact with the philologist S afafik and became a zealous student of the Slav languages.

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  • Here he found a warm friend in Dobrovsky, whose good relations with the Austrian authorities shielded him from the hostility shown by the government to students of Slav subjects.

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  • He was deputed to the Reichstag which sat at Kromefice (Kremsier) in the autumn of that year, and was a member of the Slav congress at Prague.

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  • He was at this time in favour of a strong Austrian empire, which should consist of a federation of the southern German and the Slav states, allowing of the retention of their individual rights.

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  • Next to the Slav races in importance are the Rumanians (Vlachs), who are in an immense majority in ten of the eastern and south-eastern counties (90.2% in Fogaras), in eight others form from 30 to 60% of the population, and in two (Maramaros and Torontal) a respectable minority.'

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  • The inevitable consequence of this rupture was the Teutonizing of the western branch of the great Slav family, which, no longer able to stand alone, and cut off from both Rome and Constantinople, was forced, in self-defence, to take Christianity, and civilization along with it, from Germany.

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  • That the encouragement of the Slav aspirations was soon deliberately adopted as a weapon against the Hungarian government was due, partly to the speedy predominance at Pest of Kossuth and the extreme party of which he was the mouthpiece, but mainly to the calculated policy of Baron Jellachich, who on the 14th of April was appointed ban of Croatia.

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  • Jellachich, who as a soldier was devoted to the interests of the imperial house, realized that the best way to break the revolutionary power of the Magyars and Germans would be to encourage the Slav national ideas, which were equally hostile to both; to set up against the Dualism in favour at Pest and Vienna the federal system advocated by the Sla y s, and so to restore the traditional Habsburg principle of Divide et impera.

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  • One more attempt at compromise was made, General Count Lamberg l being sent to take command of all the troops, Slav or Magyar, in Hungary, with a view to arranging an armistice.

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  • Seton-Watson (Scotus Viator), Racial Problems in Hungary (London, 1908), a strong criticism of the Magyar attitude towards the Slav subject races, especially the Slovaks, with documents and a full bibliography.

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  • Amongst his numerous works may be mentioned A jó paloczok (" The Good Paloczok," Slav peasants); Egy vdlasztds Magyarorszdgon (" An Election in Hungary "); Pipacsok a buzdban (" ` Wild Poppies in the Wheatfield "); A tekintetes vdrmegye (" The Worshipful County "); Ne okoskodj Pista (" Don't reason, Pista "); Szent Peter esernysje (" St Peter's Umbrella," translated from the original into English by Miss B.

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  • Ivan Gundulic and the brilliant group of poets that gathered round him at Ragusa in the early 17th century, reflected in their writings the little Slav Republic's intimate connexion with its kinsmen of Serbia and Bosnia.

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  • He saw in the Magyars the chief obstacle to the realization of his dream, and openly warned them that they were " an island in the Slav ocean," which one day might easily engulf them.

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  • But its place was taken more and more by Yugoslavia, which, it should be remarked, was then still used to denote all the territories inhabited by any southern Slav tribe, and so to include the Bulgars no less than the Serbo-Croats and Slovenes.

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  • On the intellectual side the new movement found its champion and its Maecenas in Bishop Strassmayer, who for over 50 years devoted the surplus revenues of the wealthy see of Dya Kovo (Djakovo) to national purposes, and was mainly instrumental in founding at Zagreb the southern Slav Academy (1867), the first Croat university (1874) and a modern gallery and school of arts.

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  • After the turn of the century, however, a new generation arose both among Croats and Serbs, which had received its education abroad, and especially in Prague, where the ethical and political teachings of Prof. Masaryk exercised a remarkable influence over the progressive youth of all Slav countries.

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  • The Cuvaj Dictatorship. - The triumphant vindication of Mr. Supilo and his colleagues of the Serbo-Croat coalition gave a fresh incentive to the idea of unity throughout the southern Slav provinces of Austria-Hungary.

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  • On all sides Serbia was now regarded as the southern Slav Piedmont: and the Dual Monarchy's consistently hostile policy toward Belgrade, and its only too successful efforts to set Serbia and Bulgaria by the ears, intensified the excitement and resentment among its Yugoslav subjects.

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  • With every year of war the number of confiscations of property increased in the Yugoslav provinces, as in Bohemia and Transylvania - vengeance upon the families at home being widely used in order to deter Slav, Italian or Rumanian prisoners from enlisting in the various volunteer corps in process of formation on the Russian, Balkan and Italian fronts.

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  • Lansing in the name of America (May 31) was a fresh encouragement: and Korosec, after constituting a Yugoslav National Council for the furtherance of unity, convoked a new Slav congress at Lyublyana (Ljubljana) on Aug.

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  • During the late summer the authorities in Vienna and Budapest keenly debated rival plans for solving the southern Slav question - in every case, however, in accordance with Austrian or Hungarian rather than Yugoslav interests.

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  • Seton-Watson, The Southern Slav Question (1911; much enlarged German ed., 1913); V.

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  • Barac, Croats and Slovenes Friends of the Entente (1919, contains important original documents); The Southern Slav Library (8 pamphlets published by the Yugoslav Committee 1915-8).

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  • In its lower course, whatever is worthy of record clusters round the historical vicissitudes of Hamburg - its early prominence as a missionary centre (Ansgar) and as a bulwark against Slav and marauding Northman, its commercial prosperity as a leading member of the Hanseatic League, and its sufferings during the Napoleonic wars, especially at the hands of the ruthless Davotit.

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  • This steady and increasing influx of Czechs is gradually infusing a large proportion of Slav blood in what Bismarck (in 1864)1864) described as the German capital of a Slav empire.

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  • The Hungarians, severed from their kindred and their rulers, migrated to the Carpathians, whilst Oleg, the Russ prince of Kiev, passed through the Slav tribes of the Dnieper basin with the cry "Pay nothing to the Khazars" (884).

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  • They judged, further, that should their attempt by any chance miscarry, the Great Powers, more particularly Russia, protector of the Slav peoples, would not allow them to be crushed, or their present territories to be diminished.

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  • The House now consisted of 516 members, of whom 221 were of Slav nationality, 177 of German nationality, and 87 Social Democrats, so that in every national controversy t he latter could carry a decision in accordance with their principles.

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  • It was not till the Taaffe Government that it became a frequent thing for individual Slav deputies to speak in their own language.

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  • It is true that this mostly happened at the expense of the German industrial communities, since the Slav labourers as immigrants acquired schools in their own language.

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  • The German National Union (Nationalverband) agreed to extend temporary hospitality to the Italian university in Vienna, but the Southern Slav Hochschule Club demanded a guarantee that a later transfer to the coast provinces should not be contemplated, together with the simultaneous foundation of Slovene professorial chairs in Prague and Cracow, and preliminary steps towards the foundation of a Southern Slav university in Laibach.

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  • These proclamations on the part of all the Slav peoples of Austria proved that imperial sentiment was more deeply rooted than Austria's enemies had believed.

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  • But the political programme, on the other hand, let loose a violent attack of the Slav nationalities on the state.

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  • Kleinwachter, Untergang der oesterreich-ungarischen Monarchie (1920); Seton-Watson, The Future of Austria (1907); The Southern Slav Question; Absolutism in Croatia; Zd.

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  • Anklam, formerly Tanglim, was originally a Slav fortress; it obtained civic rights in 1244 and joined the Hanseatic league.

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  • The prevailing element is that of the Czechs (7 millions), with whom the Slovaks (22 millions) form one people; indeed as long ago as the 9th century the kingdom of Great Moravia, with frontiers roughly identical with the present boundaries of the Czechoslovak Republic, was the creation of the Slav people, who occupied in common a territory stretching from W.

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  • The Czechs and the Slovaks, or, to give them their united name, the Czechoslovaks, are a branch of the great Slav family of which the Russians are the most numerous and the most important member and to which the Serbo-Croats with the Slovenes, the Poles, the Bulgarians and the Wends of Germany also belong.

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  • Seton-Watson, German Slav and Magyar (1916), The Czechoslovak Republic (1921); E.

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  • Greiz (formerly Grewcz) is apparently a town of Slav origin.

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  • Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).

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  • The town stands on a rocky height commanding views of Pindus and Olympus; the approaching slopes are richly wooded, and traversed by picturesque waterfalls, from which the name of Vodena (Slav.

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  • The name is taken from the Lusitzi, a Slav tribe, who inhabited Lower Lusatia in the 9th and 10th centuries.

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  • The district now known as Upper Lusatia was occupied by a Slav tribe, the Milzeni, who like the Lusitzi, were subdued by Henry the Fowler early in the 10th century.

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  • As autocratic ruler of the nation which had long considered itself the defender of the Eastern Orthodox faith and the protector of the Slav nationalities, he could not remain inactive at such a crisis, and he gradually allowed himself to drift into a position from which he could not retreat without obtaining some tangible result.

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  • Dresden (Old Slav Drezga, forest, Drezgajan, forestdwellers), which is known to have existed in 1206, is of Slavonic origin, and was originally founded on the right bank of the Elbe, on the site of the present Neustadt, which is thus actually the old town.

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  • The Hungarian government is regarded by the Slav, Ruman and German inhabitants of the monarchy as an oppressor for endeavouring to force everybody within the realm to learn the.

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  • He was more or less effectively the supreme temporal chief of the kingdom of Sicily and Naples, Sardinia, the states of the Iberian peninsula (Castile, Leon, Navarre and Portugal), Aragon (which, under Peter II., was the type of vassal and tributary kingdom of the Roman power), the Scandinavian states, the kingdom of Hungary, the Slav states of Bohemia, Poland, Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, and the Christian states founded in Syria by the crusaders of the 12th century.

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  • As ban, Jellachich's policy was directed to preserving the Slav kingdoms for the Habsburg monarchy by identifying himself with the nationalist opposition to Magyar ascendancy, while at the same time discouraging the extreme "Illyrism" advocated by Lodovik Gaj (1809-1872).

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  • He entered into relations with the eastern empire, and swore a "perpetual peace" with the emperor Heraclius; and it is probable that the two sovereigns took common measures against the Slav and Bulgarian tribes, which ravaged in turn the Byzantine state and the German territories subject to the Franks.

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  • The very name of Poland is derived from it - Wielkopolska and Wielkopolane being the Slav terms for the great plain and its inhabitants.

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  • In these countries the Slav language has been steadily superseding the German.

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  • Standing sentinel over the valley of the middle Danube, and barring the advance of the Slav; on Germany, Austria, whether mark, duchy or empire, has always been the meeting-place of the Teuton and the Sla y.

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  • Of more importance to Austria itself was the war with Sweden (1657-60) which resulted in the peace of Oliva, by which the independence of Poland was secured and the frontier of Hungary safeguarded, and the campaigns against the Turks (1662-64 and 1683-99), by which the Ottoman power was driven from Hungary, and the Austrian attitude towards Turkey and the Slav peoples of the Balkans determined for a century to come.

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  • A further fact of great prospective importance was the immigration, after an abortive rising against the Turks, of some 30,000 Slav and Albanian families into Slavonia and southern Hungary, where they were granted by the emperor Leopold a certain autonomy and the recognition of the Orthodox religion.

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  • The earliest symptoms of political agitation were in Hungary, where the diet began to show signs of vigorous life, and the growing Slav separatist movements, especially in the south of the kingdom, were rousing the old spirit of Magyar ascendancy (see Hungary: History).

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  • For everywhere the Slav populations were growing restive under the German-Magyar domination.

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  • The natural result was to drive the Slav nationalities to the side of the imperial government, since, whether at Vienna or at Budapest, the radicals were their worst enemies.

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  • Writs were issued in Bohemia for the election to the Austrian Reichsrath; and when, on the 10th of July, this assembled, the Slav deputies were found to be in a majority.

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  • Meanwhile the alliance between the Slav nationalities and the conservative elements within the empire had found a powerful representative in Jellachich, the ban of Croatia.

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  • Jellachich, who had gone to Innsbruck to lay the Slav view before the emperor, was allowed to return to Agram, though not as yet formally reinstated.

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  • Thus was proclaimed the identity of the Slav and the conservative points of view; the radical "Illyrian " assembly had done its work, and on the 9th of July Jellachich, while declaring it " permanent," prorogued it indefinitely " with a paternal greeting," on the ground that the safety of the Fatherland depended now " more upon physical than upon moral force."

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  • Meanwhile, renewed trouble had broken out in Vienna, where the radical populace was in conflict alike with the government and with the Slav majority of the Reichsrath.

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  • On the 7th of October the emperor Ferdinand had fled from Schonbrunn to Olmiitz, a Slav district, whence he issued a proclamation inviting whoever loved "Austria and freedom" to rally round the throne.

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  • Meanwhile, of the Reichsrath, the members of the Right and the Slav majority had left Vienna and announced a meeting of the diet at Briinn for the 10th of October; all that remained in the capital was a rump of German radicals, impotent in the hands of the proletariat and the students.

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  • The Germans, however, could at least hope that in the future the financial arrangements might be revised; the complaints of the Slav races were political, and within the constitution there was no means of remedy, for, while the settlement gave to the Hungarians all that they demanded, it deprived the Bohemians or Galicians of any hope that they would be able to obtain similar independence.

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  • Politically, the principle underlying the agreement was that the empire should be divided into two portions; in one of these the Magyars were to rule, in the other the Germans; in either section the Slav races - the Serbs and Croatians, the Czechs, Poles and Slovenes - were to be placed in a position of political inferiority.

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  • The sympathy of the Slav inhabitants of the empire made it impossible for the government of Vienna to regard with indifference the sufferings of Christians in Turkey.

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  • It was a cardinal principle of Austrian policy that she could not allow the erection of new Slav states on her southern frontier.

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  • Parliamentary life in Austria was paralysed by the feud between Germans and Czechs that resulted directly from the Badeni language ordinances of 1897 and indirectly from the development of Slav influence, particularly that of Czechs and Poles during the Taaffe era (1879-1893).

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  • The Poles of Galicia stood apart from the other Slav races.

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  • The Italian-speaking population on the coast of Dalmatia only asked that the government should uphold them against the pressure of the Slav races in the interior, and for this reason were ready to support the German constitutionalists.

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  • Had the example of the Czechs been followed by the other Slav races it would still have been difficult to get together a Reichsrath to pass the Ausgleich.

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  • In Bohemia the Czechs were very active; while the Poles were parading their hostility to Russia in such a manner as to cause the emperor to avoid visiting Galicia, some of the Czech leaders attended a Slav demonstration at Moscow, and in 1868 they drew up and presented to the diet at Prague a " declaration " which has since been regarded as the official statement of their claims. They asked for the full restoration of the Bohemian kingdom; they contended that no foreign assembly was qualified to impose taxes in Bohemia; that the diet was not qualified to elect representatives to go to Vienna, and that a separate settlement must be made with Bohemia similar to that with Hungary.

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  • Before the combination of Clericals and Federalists the ministry broke down; they were divided among themselves; Counts Taaffe and Alfred Potocki, the minister of agriculture, wished to conciliate the Slav races - a policy recommended 1 The documents are printed in Baron de Worms, op. cit.

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  • Forty-two Czechs who had won seats did not attend; forty-three Poles stood aloof from all party combination, giving their votes on each occasion as the interest of their country seemed to require; the real opposition was limited to forty Clericals and representatives of the other Slav races, who were collected on the Right under the leadership of Hohenwart.

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  • The law of 1867 required that the education in the elementary schools in the Slav districts should be given in Czech or Slovenian, as the case might be.

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  • The Sla y s, however, required that, even when a small minority of Slav race settled in any town, they should not be compelled to go to the German schools, but should have their own school provided for them; and this demand was granted by Prazak, minister of education under Count Taaffe.

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  • Since 1882 there has been a Slav majority in the diet, and Italian has been disused in the proceedings of that body.

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  • In this case the concessions to the Servo-Croatians lrad been made by the Liberal ministry; they required the parliamentary support of the Dalmatian representatives, who were more numerous than the Italian, and it was also necessary to cultivate the loyalty of the Slav races in this part so as to gain a support for Austria against the Russian party, which was very active in the Balkan Peninsula.

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  • Slav races was, however, not merely the result of government assistance; it had begun long before Taaffe assumed office; it was to be seen in the census returns and in the results of elections.

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  • The influence of the Church is also favourable to the Slav races, not so much from principle as owing to the fact that they supply more candidates for ordination than the Germans.

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  • This " Los von Rom " movement, which was caused by the continued alliance of the Clerical party with the Slav parties, is more of the nature of a political demonstration than of a religious movement.

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  • They spoke much of Germanentum and Unverfcilschtes Deutschtu y n, and they advocated a political union with the German empire, and were strongly anti-Hungarian and wished to resign all control over Galicia, if by a closer union with Germany they could secure German supremacy in Bohemia and the south Slav countries.

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  • The Young Czechs could not take their place; their Radical and anti-clerical tendencies alarmed the Feudalists and Clericalists who formed so large a part of the Right; they attacked the alliance with Germany; they made public demonstration of their French sympathies; they entered into communication with other Slav races, especially the Serbs of Hungary and Bosnia; they demanded universal suffrage, and occasionally supported the German Radicals in their opposition to the Clerical parties, especially in educational matters; under their influence disorder increased in Bohemia, a secret society called the Umladina (an imitation of the Servian society of that name) was discovered, and stringent measures had to be taken to preserve order.

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  • The chief feature of the allotment was, however, the formal overthrow of the fiction that Austria is preponderatingly a German country and not a country preponderatingly Slav with a German dynasty and a German façade.

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  • The German constituencies, though allotted in a proportion unduly favourable, left the Germans, with 233 seats, in a permanent minority as compared with the 259 Slav seats.

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  • Southern Slav Club Croats .

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  • The Fatimite general Jauhar (variously represented as of Greek, Slav and Sicilian origin), who enjoyed the complete confidence of the Fatimite sovereign, was placed at the head of an army of 100,000 menif Oriental numbers are to be trustedand started from Rakkada at the beginning of March 969 with the view of seizing Egypt.

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  • He was at first under the tutelage of the Slav Burjuwn, whose policy it was to favor the Turkish element in the army as against the Maghribine, on which the strength of the Fatimites had till then rested; his conduct of affairs was vigorous and successful, and he concluded a peace with the Greek emperor.

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  • People of Slav origin being considered unfree, all intermarriage with them tainted the blood; hence nearly all surnames point to Saxon, especially Westphalian, and even Flemish descent.

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  • Nizhniy-Novgorod had at one time two academies, Greek and Slav, and took some part in the literary movement of the end of the 18th century; its theatre also was of some importance in the history of the Russian stage.

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  • A Slav origin for the word has been suggested (Hatzfeld and Darmesteter, Dic. gen.

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  • The liturgical language of the Uniat Slav Churches is Old Slavonic, and, so far as their rite is concerned, they differ from the Orthodox Slav Churches only in using the Glagolitic instead of the Cyrillic alphabet.

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  • The Sla y s, driven perhaps to the west, had only the Volkhov and the Dnieper, while the (Mahommedan) Bulgarian empire, at the confluence of the Volga with the Kama, was so powerful that for some time it was an open question whether Islam or Christianity would gain the upper hand among the Slav idolaters.

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  • He was succeeded by his brother Emund the Old, who Emund the had been previously passed over because his mother old, 1050 was unfree, the daughter of a Slav prince and 1060.

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  • All hope of establishing an independent Slav dynasty in Bohemia thus came to an end.

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  • The Oecumenical Patriarch is, of course, officially the superior; but the Russian Church is numerically by far the greatest, and the tendency to regard Russia as the head, not only of the Slav races, but of all orthodox nations, inevitably reacts upon the church in the form of what has been called pan-Orthodoxy.

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  • At the time of his appointment the attitude of the Russian government towards the Slav nationalities had been for several years one of extreme reserve, and he had seemed as ambassador to sympathize with this attitude.

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  • Schleiz was originally a Slav settlement, but received civic privileges in 1359.

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  • In the 10th century Cothen was a Slav settlement, which was captured and destroyed by the German king Henry I.

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  • It appears very probable that at the dawn of history East Turkestan was inhabited by an Aryan population, the ancestors of the present Slav and Teutonic races, and that a civilization not inferior to that of Bactria had already developed at that time in the region of the Tarim.'

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  • It ranks with Bulgarian as one of the two principal Slav languages of the Balkan Peninsula; the Macedonian dialects are intermediate between these two.

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  • He drove the Vandals out of Dacia, compelled the allegiance of the neighbouring tribes of West Goths, procured the submission of the Herules, of many Slav and Finnish tribes, and even of the Esthonians on the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia.

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  • Leipzig owes its origin to a Slav settlement between the Elster and the Pleisse, which was in existence before the year 1000, and its name to the Slav word lipa, a lime tree.

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  • They had seen the success of the Slav committees in treating disturbances in the Balkans, and became the moving spirit in the attempts to produce similar troubles in Armenia.

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  • "Lord God of might, God of our salvation!" began the priest in that voice, clear, not grandiloquent but mild, in which only the Slav clergy read and which acts so irresistibly on a Russian heart.

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  • Professor Arnold rightly notes Thietmar 's professional interest in condemning the pagan superstitions of his Slav neighbors.

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