Sla Sentence Examples
It must be added that the pages on the Slavonic peoples and their relations to the empire are conspicuously insufficient; but it must be taken into account that it was not till many years after Gibbon's death that Slavonic history began to receive due attention, in consequence of the rise of competent scholars among the Sla y s themselves.
The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which is not inhabited by Sla y s, but by Finnish races and by Germans.
The overwhelming numerical superiority of the Sla y s, and the very great differences in ethnical type, belief and mythology between the IndoEuropean and the Ural-Altaic races, may have contributed to the same end.
In the following year, however, the situation was completely altered, a result due to the growing anti-Polish feeling in the Duma and, more especially, to the support given by the Austrian Sla y s to the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The success of the Hussite raids in Germany gave fresh confidence to the Sla y s of Poland.Advertisement
Of the total population 71.36% were Sla y s, who were scarcely distinguishable from their Bohemian neighbours.
The name of Czech, however, is usually reserved for the Bohemians, while the Sla y s of Moravia and West Hungary are called Moravians and Slovacs.
At this period there seemed a strong probability of the junction of the north-western and southeastern Sla y s, and the formation of a great Slavonic power to east of the German empire.
Its central bureau, with departments of the interior, religion and education, finance and justice, was established at Serajevo; and its members were largely recruited among the Austrian Sla y s, who were better able than the Germans to comprehend the local customs and language.
Hamburg probably had its origin in a fortress erected in 808 by Charlemagne, on an elevation between the Elbe and Alster, as a defence against the Sla y s, and called Hammaburg because of the surrounding forest (Hamme).Advertisement
The town, rebuilt after this disaster, was again more than once devastated by invading Danes and Sla y s.
The mark of Meissen was originally a district centring round the castle of Meissen or Misnia on the Middle Elbe, which was built about 920 by the German king Henry I., the Fowler, as a defence against the Sla y s.
As Meissen was relieved from the attacks of the Sla y s by the movement of the German boundary to the east, its prosperity increased.
Throughout the middle ages it was the scene of vigorous struggles between Sla y s, Byzantines, Franks, Turks and Venetians, the chief memorials of which are the ruined strongholds of Mistra near Sparta, Gerald (anc. Geronthrae) and Monemvasia, "the Gibraltar of Greece," on the east coast, and Passava near Gythium.
This forcible intrusion of a nonAryan race altered the whole history of Europe; but its peculiar significance lay in the fact that it permanently divided the northern from the southern and the eastern from the western Sla y s.Advertisement
Jellachich, who as a soldier was devoted to the interests of the imperial house, realized that the best way to break the revolutionary power of the Magyars and Germans would be to encourage the Slav national ideas, which were equally hostile to both; to set up against the Dualism in favour at Pest and Vienna the federal system advocated by the Sla y s, and so to restore the traditional Habsburg principle of Divide et impera.
All hope of crushing revolutionary Vienna with Magyar aid was thus at an end, and Jellachich, who on the 10th issued a proclamation to the Croat regiments in Italy to remain with their colours and fight for the common fatherland, was free to carry out his policy of identifying the cause of the southern Sla y s with that of the imperial army.
In the Hungarian diet, which met on the 2nd of July, the influence of the conservative cabinet was wholly overshadowed by that of Kossuth, whose inflammatory orations - directed against the disruptive designs of the Sla y s and the treachery of the Austrian government - precipitated the crisis.
A close observer of the multifarious low life of Hungary, Mikszath has, in his short stories, given a delightful yet instructive picture of all the minor varied phases of the peasant life of the Sla y s, the Palocok, the Saxons, the town artisan.
The period between 1883 and 1903 is the most humiliating in the modern history of the southern Sla y s.Advertisement
The growing self-confidence of the Austrian Sla y s was shown by the bluntness of their refusal to cooperate with the new Premier, Doctor von Seidler, whose offer of portfolios to their leaders drew from Count Tisza a strong protest in the Hungarian Parliament.
He is also found confirming his old rival Arnulf in the see of Reims; summoning Adalbero or Azelmus of Laon to Rome to answer for his crimes; judging between the archbishop of Mainz and the bishop of Hildesheim; besieging the revolted town of Cesena; flinging the count of Angouleme into prison for an offence against a bishop; confirming the privileges of Fulda abbey; granting charters to bishoprics far away on the Spanish mark; and, on the eastern borders of the empire, erecting Prague as the seat of an archbishopric for the Sla y s.
The attacks of the Sla y s and Avars upon Thessalonica were heroically repulsed by the inhabitants.
Plauen was probably founded by the Sla y s.
The agricultural Sla y s of the Dnieper and the Oka were reduced to tribute, and before the end of the 7th century the Khazars had annexed the Crimea, had won complete command of the Sea of Azov, and, seizing upon the narrow neck which separates the Volga from the Don, had organized the portage which has continued since an important link in the traffic between Asia and Europe.Advertisement
The arrival of the Varangians amidst the scattered Sla y s (862) had united them into a nation.
Although the Finns are not Sla y s, on topographical grounds mention may here be made of Wainamoinen, the great magician and hero of the Finnish epic Kalevala (" land of heroes ").
Otto marched against them, and in a battle fought on the Lechfeld on the 10th of August 955 the king's troops gained a brilliant victory which completely freed Germany from these invaders; while in the same year Otto also defeated the Sla y s who had been ravaging the Saxon frontier.
In 822 and 823 two great diets were held in the palace, and at the former there were present deputies from the eastern Sla y s, the Avars and the Normans.
Two-thirds of the inhabitants are Germans; the remainder, chiefly found in the valleys of the Drave and Save, are Sla y s (Slovenes).
Towards the end of the 6th century the last-named began to give way to the Sla y s, who ultimately made themselves masters of the entire district.
Styria was included in the conquests of Charlemagne, and was henceforth comprised in the German marks erected against the Avar and the Sla y.
I,151,210 II 1 Czechs, Magyars, Sla y s Bohemia 77,247 01 Hungary 256,347 2.5 Poland 141,908 Rumania 10,377 0.1 Russia 500,797 0 I Total Europe 9,197,014 88.9 3.6 Grand Total 10,339,539 Total Swiss-Switzerland Greeks-Greece Turks-Turkey Europe, not specified 135,736 7,325 3,411 294 North America All other countries 77 6, 071 7.5 366,454 100 0 1'4 4.8 9.5 A very important transformation has taken place in the proportionate number coming from different countries during the last half of the 19th century.
Subsequently the Sla y s were cut off from relations with Taurida by the Mongols, and only made occasional raids, such as that of the Lithuanian prince Olgierd.
On his father's death in 912 he became duke of Saxony, which he ruled with considerable success, defending it from the attacks of the Sla y s and resisting the claims of the German king Conrad I.
Charlemagne's wars in Italy, Spain and Saxony formed part of the common epic material, and there are references to his wars against the Sla y s; but especially he remained in the popular mind as the great champion of Christianity against the creed of Mahomet, and even his Norman and Saxon enemies became Saracens in current legend.
The people of Saxony are chiefly of pure Teutonic stock; a proportion are Germanized Sla y s, and to the south of Bautzen there is a large settlement of above 50,000 Wends, who retain their peculiar customs and language.
By the treaty of Verdun in 843 Saxony fell to Louis the German, but he paid little attention to the northern part of his kingdom which was harassed by the Normans and the Sla y s.
Liudolf, who is sometimes called " duke of the East Saxons," carried on a vigorous warfare against the Sla y s and extended his influence over other parts of Saxony.
These proceedings aroused suspicion and discontent, which were increased when the emperor assembled an army, ostensibly to attack the Sla y s.
Lothair quickly made himself independent, defeated Henry at Welfesholz in 1115, and prosecuted the war against the Sla y s with vigour.
It was the liberal-minded Germans who were instrumental in the first place in getting them passed; while the Sla y s from the beginning took up - to their own disadvantage - a hostile or at least passive attitude towards the establishment of these laws."
Vienna had for long been the hope of the Southern Sla y s, and many of them had dreamed of a union under the Crown of Austria (" trialism ").
The claim set up by the Italians to a university of their own within the territory inhabited by them led to various controversies with the Germans and Southern Sla y s.
The Italians demanded Trieste; but the Government was afraid to let this Adriatic port become the centre of an irredenta; moreover the Southern Sla y s of the city wished it kept free from an Italian educational establishment.
The Sla y s, on the other hand, demanded the " unconditional " summoning of Parliament.
Since the Northern and Southern Sla y s had absented themselves and the Poles were in opposition, the Reichsrat was adjourned (May 3), and the Germans now again demanded the grant of a revised constitution, with German as the language of State, a special status for Galicia and Dalmatia, access for the Germans to the Adriatic, and the partition of Bohemia.
This programme met with a cool reception; the Poles by now were expecting a new organization from the Peace Congress; the Southern Sla y s desired union with those of their race in Hungary also; the Czechs opposed the division of the administrative commission into two parts; they did not want autonomy for their nation, but incorporation of the German Bohemians in their State, and refused all negotiations.
About 804 Charlemagne, in order to defend the line of the Saale against the Sla y s, founded the Thuringian mark, which soon became practically coextensive with the former duchy.
Originally planted on the Baltic shore for the express purpose of christianizing their savage neighbours, these crusading monks had freely exploited the wealth and the valour of the West, ostensibly in the cause of religion, really for the purpose of founding a dominion of their own which, as time went on, lost more and more of its religious character, and was now little more than a German military forepost, extending from Pomerania to the Niemen, which deliberately excluded the Sla y s from the sea and thrived 'Archbishop of Gnesen 1219-1220.
During his long reign of forty-nine years Poland had gradually risen to the rank of a great power, a result due in no small measure to the insight and sagacity of the first Jagiello, who sacrificed every other consideration to the vital necessity of welding the central Sla y s into a compact and homogeneous state.
In philosophy the Poles (as the Sla y s generally) have produced but few remarkable names.
For a brief period, in the 7th and 8th centuries, the conquering Sla y s made it one of their Zupanates, or governments; but in the 10th century it was sacked by the Magyars, and in 1092 its territories were bestowed upon the cathedral chapter of Agram by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary.
In the 7th century Sla y s and Bulgarians entered the country and founded the modern kingdoms of Servia and Bulgaria.
The failure of legitimate male issue of the later Carolingians gave Arnulf a more important position than otherwise he would have occupied; but he did homage to the emperor Charles the Fat in 882, and spent the next few years in constant warfare with the Sla y s and the Northmen.
The Germans formed 44.69% of the population, 33.21% were Poles and 22.05% Czechs and Sla y s.
Twothirds of the population were Sla y s and the remainder Italians, while nearly the whole of the inhabitants (99.6%) were Roman Catholics, under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of three bishops.
Greek monks played a considerable part in the evangelization of the Sla y s, and the first Russian monastery was founded;at Kiev (c. 1050) by a monk from Mount Athos.
The position assigned to their district appears to be about the head waters of the Dniester and Bug (Bugh) and the central course of the Dnieper just the region which, on general grounds, place-names, recorded migra tions and modern distribution, appears to be the original location of the Sla y s (q.v.).
Rostov was founded by Sla y s in or before 862, and played so prominent a role in the history of that part of Russia that it used to be known as Rostov the Great.
In the 12th century it was the residence of the kings of Servia, and the sanjak of Prizren forms part of the region still called Old Servia (Stara Srbiya) by the Sla y s.
Pop. (1905) about I i,000, including Albanians, Turks, Greeks and Sla y s.
Two stately convents of the 14th century stand at the ends of the city; for the Franciscans were set to guard the western gate, or Porta Pile, against the hostile Sla y s, while the Dominicans kept the eastern gate, or Porta Ploce.
In the last years of his short life he engaged actively in politics, and made speeches in Paris and in Moscow in the beginning of 1882 in favour of a militant Panslavism, predicting a desperate strife between Teuton and Sla y.
Magyars and Sla y s never willingly recognized a style which ignored their national rights and implied the superiority of the German elements of the monarchy; to the Germans it was a poor substitute for a title which had represented the political unity of the German race under the Holy Empire.
Standing sentinel over the valley of the middle Danube, and barring the advance of the Slav; on Germany, Austria, whether mark, duchy or empire, has always been the meeting-place of the Teuton and the Sla y.
Apart from the perennial discontents of Magyars and Sla y s, the confusion and corruption of the administration, and the misery caused by the ruin of the finances, had made the Habsburg dynasty unpopular even in its German states, and in Vienna itself a large section of public opinion was loudly in favour of the claims of Charles of Bavaria.
In Bohemia, where the attempt to hold elections for the Frankfort parliament had broken down on the opposition of the Czechs and the conservative German aristocracy, a separate constitution had been proclaimed on the 8th of April; on March the 23rd the election by the diet of Agram of Baron Joseph Jellachich as ban of Croatia was confirmed, as a concession to the agitation among the southern Sla y s; on the 18th of March Count Stadion had proclaimed a new con stitution for Galicia.
Vienna again became the centre g of a despotic government the objects of which were to Germanize the Magyars and Sla y s, to check all agitation for a constitution, and to suppress all attempts to secure a free press.
The alliance was naturally very popular among the German Austrians; some of them went so far as to attempt to use it to influence internal policy, and suggested that fidelity to this alliance required that there should be a ministry at Vienna which supported the Germans in their internal struggle with the Sla y s; they represented it as a national alliance of the Teutonic races, and there were some Germans in the empire who supported them in this view.
The southern Sla y s had neither the unity, nor the organization, nor the historical traditions of the Czechs and Poles; but the Slovenes, who formed a large majority of the population in Carniola, and a considerable minority in the adjoining territory of Carinthia and the south of Styria, demanded that their language should be used for purposes of government and education.
Their political ideal was an " Illyrian " kingdom, including Croatia and all the southern Sla y s in the coast district, and a not very successful movement had been started to establish a so-called Illyrian language, which should be accepted by both 'Croats and Slovenes.
They looked on the German schoolmaster as the apostle of German culture, and they looked forward to the time when the feeling of a common Austrian nationality should obscure the national feeling of the Sla y s, and the Slavonic idioms should survive merely as the local dialects of the peasantry, the territories becoming merely the provinces of a united and centralized state.
It must be a parliament in which the Germans had a majority, for the system of dualism was directly opposed to the ambitions of the Sla y s and the Federalists.
The wording of the decree implied that the February constitution did not exist as of law; the Germans and Liberals, strenuously objecting to a "feudalfederal" constitution which would give the Sla y s a preponderance in the empire, maintained that theFebruaryconsti tution was still in force, and that changes could only be ?
The only thing to do was to attempt a reconciliation with the Sla y s.
Government, however, had to be carried on; the war between Germany and France broke out in July, and Austria might be drawn into it; the emperor could not at such a crisis alienate either the Germans or the Sla y s.
Meanwhile it was necessary for the government to do something for the Czechs and the other Sla y s, on whose support they depended for their majority.
What Taaffe's Administration did was to interpret this law in a sense more favourable to the Sla y s than had hitherto been the case.
The Sla y s, however, required that, even when a small minority of Slav race settled in any town, they should not be compelled to go to the German schools, but should have their own school provided for them; and this demand was granted by Prazak, minister of education under Count Taaffe.
Owing to economic causes the Sla y s, who increase more rapidly than the Germans, tend to move westwards, and large numbers settle in the towns and manufacturing districts.
This " block " no longer exists in practice, as the Italians now tend to co-operate rather with the Sla y s than with the Germans.
In 1860 he was summoned to the remodelled Reichsrat by the emperor, who next year nominated him a life member of the Austrian upper house (Herrenhaus), where, while remaining a keen upholder of the German centralized empire, as against the federalism of Sla y s and Magyars, he greatly distinguished himself as one of the most intrepid and influential supporters of the cause of liberalism, in both political and religious matters, until his death at Graz on the 12th of September 1876.
The resources of the state, which might better have been spent in defending the northern frontier against Sla y s and Huns and the eastern frontier against Persians, were consumed in the conquest of two countries which had suffered too much to be of any substantial value, and which, separated by language as well as by intervening seas, could not be permanently retained.
In the 6th century the Sla y s penetrated to the Morea, where a Slavonic dialect was spoken down to the middle of the 15th century.
Racially the population in the East Prussian region numbers 428,000 Germans, 95,000 Poles and 172,000 Masurians, who are Sla y s but of the Protestant faith.
The original Germanic inhabitants of Rugen were dispossessed by Sla y s; and there are still various relics of the long reign of paganism that ensued.
According to Professor Leskien (Grammatik der altbulgarischen (altkirchenslavischen) Sprache, Heidelberg, 1909, p. xxi.), Cyril had probably made a prolonged and careful study of Slavonic before proceeding on his missionary journey, and probably in the first instance with a view to preaching the Gospel to the Sla y s of Macedonia and Bulgaria, who were much nearer his own home, Thessalonica, than were those of Moravia.
The new synthesis reveals a universal decline from the 5th to the 10th centuries, while the Germanic races were learning the rudiments of culture, a decline that was deepened by each succeeding wave of migration, each tribal war of Franks or Saxons, and reached its climax in the disorders of the 9th and 10th centuries when the half-formed civilization of Christendom was forced to face the migration of the Northmen by sea, the raids of the Saracen upon the south and the onslaught of Hungarians and Sla y s upon the east.
Henry the Fowler beats back the Sla y s and places the outposts of Christendom along the Elbe and the Oder.
According to him, the Rha is a tributary of an interior sea, formed from the confluence of two great rivers, the sources of which are separated by twenty degrees of longitude, but it is scarcely possible to judge from his statements how far the Sla y s had by that time succeeded in penetrating into the basin of the Volga.
The Sla y s, driven perhaps to the west, had only the Volkhov and the Dnieper, while the (Mahommedan) Bulgarian empire, at the confluence of the Volga with the Kama, was so powerful that for some time it was an open question whether Islam or Christianity would gain the upper hand among the Slav idolaters.
But, while the Russians were driven from the Black Sea by the Khazars, and later on by a tide of Ugrian migration from the north-east, a stream of Sla y s moved slowly towards the north-east, down the upper Oka, into the borderland between the Finnish and Turkish regions.
Volhynia has been inhabited by Sla y s from a remote antiquity.
Their old enemies the Franks on the west, and the Sla y s or Huns, ever ready to break in on the north-east, and sometimes called in by mutinous and traitorous dukes of Friuli and Trent, were constant and serious dangers.
In consequence of the general national movement which is so characteristic of the year 1848, it was decided to hold at Prague a " Slavic congress " to which Sla y s of all parts of the Austrian empire, as well as those belonging to other countries, were invited.
His Starozitnosti Slovanske (Slavic antiquities), an attempt to record the then almost unknown history and literature of the early Sla y s, has still considerable value.
Greek Christianity became the religion of the Sla y s as Latin Christianity became that of the.
The Hindus, Medes,Persians, Greeks, Romans, Germans, Celts and Sla y s make their appearance at more or less remote dates as nations separate in language as in history.
The colonization of the eastern provinces and the struggle against the Sla y s necessitated a stronger concentration of aristocratic power, and the reception of Roman law during the 5th and 16th centuries hardened the forms of subjection originated by customary conditions.
From the 6th to the 12th century, wave after wave of barbarian conquerors, Goths, Tatars, Sla y s and others, passed over the country, and, according to one school of historians, almost obliterated its original Daco-Roman population; the modern Vlachs, on this theory, representing a later body of immigrants from Transdanubian territory.
Towards the close of the 13th century, Walachia and Moldavia were occupied by a mixed population, composed partly of Vlachs, but mainly of Sla y s and Tatars; in Great Walachia,1 also called Muntenia, the Petchenegs and Cumanians The predominated.
Poland and Muscovy competed for his alliance, and in his more exalted moods he meditated an Orthodox crusade against the Turk at the head of the northern Sla y s.
Only Russia, as the traditional protectress of the Southern Sla y s, was in the secret.
The Croats occupied most of the region now known as Croatia-Slavonia, Dalmatia, and north-western Bosnia, displacing or absorbing the earlier inhabitants everywhere except along the Dalmatian littoral, where the Italian city-states usually maintained their independence, and in certain districts of Slavonia, where, out of a mixed population of Slavonic immigrants, Avars and Pannonians, the Sla y s, and especially the Serbo-Croats, gradually became predominant.
Strossmayer (q.v.) to combat Hungarian influence and promote the union of the "Illyrian" Sla y s, i.e.
But failure only increased the agitation among the southern Sla y s; all attempts at mediation proved unsuccessful, and on the 31st of August the Croats claimed to have convinced the king that justice was on their side.
He showed great sagacity in receiving the fugitive Adalbert, bishop of Prague, and when the saint suffered martyrdom at the hands of the pagan Sla y s (April 2 3, 997), Boleslaus purchased his relics and solemnly laid them in the church of Gnesen, founded by his father, which now became the metropolitan see of Poland.
Pop. (1900) 38,955; including 17,354 Italians, 14,885 Sla y s (Croats, Serbs and Slovenes), 2482 Hungarians and 1945 Germans.
Pop. (1905), about io,000, one-third of whom are Greeks, one-third Sla y s, and the remainder Albanians or Turks.
After Otto the Great died, the Sla y s regained much of their territory, Brandenburg fell again into their hands, and a succession of feeble margraves ruled only the district west of the Elbe, together with a small district east of that river.
Aided by Albert the Bear, count of the Ballenstadt, he renewed the attack on the Sla y s, and Albert Bear.
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Of the other races the Sla y s (Serbs and Bulgars) are the most numerous, possibly numbering 250,000.
Of the Christian population (about 600,000), some 110,000 are Roman Catholic Ghegs, some 90,000 are Orthodox Tosks, and some 400,000 are Orthodox Sla y s, Greeks and Vlachs.
But they are separated by so many generations from the earliest historic times that sure conclusions regarding them are impossible; at all events, as yet Russian archaeologists are not agreed as to whether the ancestors of the Sla y s were Sarmatians only or Scythians also, whose skulls have nothing in common with those of the Mongol race.
All these causes, and especially the first-mentioned, have enabled the Sla y s to maintain their ethnical purity in a relatively high degree, whereby they have been enabled to assimilate foreign elements and make them intensify or improve the ethnical type, without giving rise to half-breed races.
The particular danger from the Sla y s of the north-east arose from the conversion of Lithuania, and the union of converted Lithuania to Poland.
The old Illyrian population was rapidly absorbed or expelled, its Latin institutions being replaced by the autonomous tribal divisions, or Zupanates, of the Sla y s.
Sigismond of Hungary profited by the disorder that of ensued to regain Croatia and Dalmatia; and in 1398 Bosnian the Turks, aided by renegade Sla y s, 2 overran Bosnia.
In spite of the endeavours of their rulers, the Sla y s of Poland and Lithuania did not wish to attack the kindred Bohemians; the Germans were prevented by internal discord from taking joint action against the Hussites; and the king of Denmark, who had landed in Germany with a large force intending to take part in the crusade, soon returned to his own country.
The name of Cathari (see CATHAxs), taken by the adherents of this new teaching, sufficiently shows the Oriental origin of their opinions, which spread from Bulgaria amongst the Sla y s, and followed the routes of commerce into central Europe.
These speeches were generally not recorded by the stenographer; the Sla y s protected themselves against this by gradually getting it accepted that polyglot stenographers should be appointed, that their speeches should be translated, and that they should be added as appendices to the parliamentary reports in the correct national language; finally it was resolved (June 1917) that all speeches should be reported verbatim in the parliamentary reports, in the language in which they were delivered.
Supposing that the Porte would yield to diplomatic pressure and menace so far as to make some reasonable concessions, he delivered his famous Moscow speech, in which he declared that if Europe would not secure a better position for the oppressed Sla y s he would act alone.
The wolf story again recalls the tales of werewolves so common among Slavonic peoples, and there is much probability in Schafarik's conjecture that the Neuri are nothing but the ancestors of the Sla y s.
A colony of Sla y s soon joined the Latin settlers at Ragusa, and thus, from an early date, the city formed a link between two great civilizations (see Vlachs).
Among the southern Sla y s the " Illyrian " movement, voiced from 1836 onward in the Illyrian National Gazette of Ljudevit Gaj, was directed in the first instance to a somewhat shadowy Pan-Slav union, which, on the interference of the Austrian government in 1844, was exchanged for the more definite object of a revival of " the Triune Kingdom " (Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia) independent of the Hungarian crown (see Croatia, &c.).
The national dances and music closely resemble those of the Southern Sla y s (see Montenegro and Bulgaria).
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The Sla y s were driven back, the domestic policy of Henry the Fowler was continued, the Saxon court became a centre of learning visited by Italian scholars, and in 968 an archbishopric was founded at Magdeburg for the lands east of the Elbe.