Analogy also produces equally remarkable internal or skeletal transformations.
10) superficially resemble each other, but if the outer form be removed this resemblance proves to be a mere veneer of adaptation, because their internal skeletal parts are as radically different as are their genetic relations, founded on heredity.
Rhythmic contraction is also characteristic of certain groups of skeletal muscles, e.g.
In the ordinary striped muscles of the skeletal musculature, e.g.
The dorsal skeletal elements of the thorax and of the anterior six abdominal segments unite with the wing-cases to form a large respiratory chamber, containing five pairs of tracheal gills, with lateral slits for the inflow and a posterior orifice for the outflow of water.
The whole wing is a unique modification, deeply affecting the skeletal, muscular and tegumentary structures, but fluttering, skimming, sailing, soaring are motions much more akin to one another than climbing and grasping, running, scratching, paddling and wading.
not covered by secretion of skeletal or other investment, retains its ciliation throughout life.
are stretched out from the theca on jointed skeletal processes (brachioles).
In several places there are traces of shells; and sometimes skeletal remains of whales and walruses, as well as ancient driftwood, have been discovered at tolerable distances from the present coast.
Sutures are stated to mark off some of these pieces, but in the proper sense of that term as applied to the skeletal structures of the Vertebrata, no sutures exist in the chitinous cuticle of Arthropods.
It is propagated along the muscle fibres of the skeletal muscles at a rate of about 3 metres per second.
A prominent and practically important illustration of neural tonus is given by the skeletal muscles.
by synthesis at a summation of "beats" or of simple contras tions in the compound, or "tetanic," or summed contraction of the skeletal muscles.
Similarly, such a single stimulus elicits from a skeletal muscle a single "beat," or, as it is termed, a "twitch."
34, and in the constitution of its digestive, vascular, respiratory (branchial), excretory, skeletal, nervous and muscular systems it exhibits what appears to be a primordial condition of vertebrate organization, a condition which is, in fact, partly recapitulated in the course of the embryonic stages of craniate vertebrates.
As the proboscis-gut appears to have undoubtedly skeletal properties, and as it also has topographical relations with the mouth, it has been designated in English by the non-committal term stomochord.
With certain of these it stands associated most closely, namely, with the vestibular, representing the sense organs which furnish data for appreciation of positions and movements of the head, and with the channels, conveying centripetal impressions from the apparatus of skeletal movement.
Between ectoderm and endoderm is a supporting layer of structureless gelatinous substance termed mesogloea, secreted by the cell-layers of the body-wall; the mesogloea may be a very thin layer, or may reach a fair thickness, and then sometimes contains skeletal elements formed by cells which have migrated into it from the ectoderm.
apical plates by a stretch of dorsal integument containing skeletal elements; the opening of the water-vascular system (madreporite) is not connected with a definite apical plate or system of plates.
Skeletal appendages are spines (radioles), pedicellariae, and, in some forms, minute sense-organs called sphaeridia.
Some of these cells produced muscles and connective tissue; others absorbed and removed waste products, iron salts, calcium carbonate and the like, and so were ready to be utilized for the deposition of pigment or of skeletal substance.
The vestibule of the mouth is the space bounded by the oral hood; this arises by secondary downgrowth of lid-like folds over the true oral aperture, and is provided with a fringe of tentacular cirri, each of which is supported by a solid skeletal axis.
The receptive organs of the muscular sense and of the semicircular canals are to be regarded as the sites of origin of this reflex tonus of the skeletal muscles.
The main musculature can be seen through the thin skin to be divided into about sixty pairs of muscle-segments (myotomes) by means of comma-shaped dissepiments, the myocommas, which stretch between the skin and the central skeletal axis of the body.
The base camp housed the emergency response helicopters for Tucson and neighboring sectors and was manned with a skeletal crew of Guardians and one on-duty pilot, a Natural who'd been trained to fly.
In accordance with this manner of feeding, the mouth is kept permanently open and prevented from collapsing by a pair of skeletal cornua belonging to a sustentacular apparatus (the nuchal skeleton), the body of which lies within the narrow neck of the proboscis; the latter is inserted into the collar and surrounded by the anterior free flap of this segment of the body.
They are figured and their importance for the first time recognized in the memoir on the muscular and skeletal systems of Limulus and Scorpio by Lankester, Beck and Bourne (4).
The external similarity in the fore paddle and back fin of these three marine animals is absolute, although they are totally unrelated to each other, and have a totally different internal or skeletal structure.
The concepts on which the peoples of the Old World have been classified, such as stature, colour, skeletal measurements, nationality, and so on, cannot as yet be used in America with Classifica- success.
But in the ordinary skeletal muscles the amount of the muscular contraction is for a short range of quantities of stimulus (of above threshold value) proportioned to the intensity of the stimulus and increases with it.
In Anodonta, besides being thickened, the skeletal substance of the filament develops a specially dense, rod-like body on each side of each filament.
The duration of this period is about ---o / r of a second in skeletal muscle.
Sci., 1891) and others into the wandering cells of the body-cavity, and the study of the deposition of the skeletal substance ("stereom") by Theel (in Festskrift for Lilljeborg, 1896).
This notochord represents the persistent primordial skeletal axis which, in the higher Craniata (though not so in the lower), gives way by substitution to the segmented vertebral column.
- Pelmatozoa in which the theca is composed of an indefinite number of irregular plates, some of which are variously differentiated in different genera; with no subvective skeletal appendages, but with central mouth, from which there radiate through the theca five unbranched ambulacra, composed of a double series of alternating plates (covering-plates), sometimes supported by an outer series of larger alternating plates (sideplates or flooring-plates).
The bodywall is greatly simplified in the Gymnolaemata, in correlation with the functional importance of the skeletal part of the wall.
That the excited state spreads only to previously unexcited portions of the muscle fibre shows that even in the skeletal variety of muscle there exists, though only for a very brief time, a period of inexcitability.
Either we must regard Merycodus as a deer which parallels the antelopes and the prongbuck in every detail of skeletal structure, or else, like the prongbuck, an antelope separated from the main stock at a date sufficiently early to have permitted the development of a distinct type of cranial appendages, namely, antlers in place of true horns.
GRAPTOLITES, an assemblage of extinct zoophytes whose skeletal remains are found in the Palaeozoic rocks, occasionally in great abundance.
Chitin is not exclusively an ectodermal product, but occurs also in cartilaginous skeletal plates of mesoblastic origin (connective tissue).
A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.
An internal skeletal plate, the so-called " entosternite " of fibrocartilaginous tissue, to which many muscles are attached, is placed between the nerve-cords and the alimentary tract in the prosoma of the larger forms (Limulus, Scorpio, Mygale).
- Section through a portion of the lateral eye of Limulus, showing three ommatidia - A, B and C. hyp, The epidermic cell-layer (so-called hypodermis), the cells of which increase in volume below each lens, 1, and become nerve-end cells or retinula-cells, rt; in A, the letters rh point to a rhabdomere secreted by the cell rt; c, the peculiar central spherical cell; n, nerve fibres; mes, mesoblastic skeletal tissue; ch, chitinous cuticle.
But in the skeletal, voluntary or striped muscles a second stimulus succeeding a previous so quickly as to fall even during the continuance of the contraction excited by a first, elicits a second contraction.
In 1883-1886 Bateson showed by his embryological researches that the Enteropneusta exhibit chordate (vertebrate) affinities in respect of the coelomic, skeletal and nervous systems as well as in regard to the respiratory system, and, further, that the gill-slits are formed upon a plan similar to that of the gillslits of Amphioxus, being subdivided by tongue-bars which depend from the dorsal borders of the slits.
phioxus; (c) the skeletal rods in the tongue-bars of Balanoglossus are double; (d) the tongue-bar in Balanoglossus does not fuse with the ventral border of the cleft, but ends freely below, thus producing a continuous U-shaped cleft.
Internal, skeletal characters, useless for ordinary practical purposes, are the various apophyses on the ventral side of the vertebrae and the penial armaments fancied by Cope.
abbreviated structural formulae and skeletal formulae.
The skeletal arms hugging her chest, her body covered in a ragged woolen blanket.
butchery marks could be found on a number of the skeletal remains.
During activation of contraction in skeletal muscle, sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium -release channels open.
Skeletal pathology Numerous pathological conditions, especially chronic, long lasting disease, affect the human skeleton.
Each section includes a cladogram, and what I like best, skeletal artwork for each family.
No joint contractures or skeletal muscle involvement are observed in these patients.
In addition to encouraging unwanted algae growth, phosphates slow the skeletal growth of stony corals.
There is good evidence that too high calcium intake may results in skeletal developmental problems, which may include hip dysplasia.
Neither treatment with placebo nor with RSG changed exercise tolerance and skeletal muscle energetics.
The listing should include records of skeletal material uncovered by excavation and subsequently re-buried on the site.
filiform papillae, glands, and skeletal muscle.
So have Japan and India, where fluoride occurs naturally and skeletal fluorosis (thickening of bones) is prevalent.
During intense training, the signal for muscle breakdown (which is a bad thing) may be the release of skeletal muscle glutamine.
Skeletal growth factors (e.g. insulin growth factor 1, IGF1) also play a role.
hyaline degeneration of skeletal muscle has also been reported.
Leucine regulates translation initiation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after exercise.
innervate the skeletal muscles.
innervates the skeletal muscle fibers.
The rest of the Homo sapiens ' skeletal bones are all intermixed with the other animal bones.
This makes it possible to observe the skeletal manifestations of such anomalies.
It is thought to follow a slowly progressive course and to stabilize after skeletal maturity.
These so called spinal motoneurons project long protrusions that contact all skeletal muscles.
Effect of swimming on reinnervation of rat skeletal muscle.
Baclofen is a skeletal muscle relaxant used for the relief of chronic muscle relaxant used for the relief of chronic muscle spasm or spasticity.
The signs of botulism are a flaccid paralysis of the skeletal musculature, especially the neck and tongue.
In contrast to adult dogs, juvenile dogs appeared to be more sensitive to peripheral nerve lesions as compared to skeletal myopathy.
Not skeletal muscle myosin, but informative (we think!
Among the established methods of systematic nomenclature of organic chemistry, skeletal replacement (" a ") nomenclature of organic chemistry, skeletal replacement (" a ") nomenclature (refs.
Lewis Simon's Gyroscope is a skeletal octahedron with a small hole in the center.
No hands on physical therapy is given to people with chronic muscular skeletal pain, this is policy.
Can you identify the fungiform and filiform papillae, glands, and skeletal muscle.
Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis.
phosphorylase activity was detected in skeletal muscle by histochemistry.
quadriceps femoris muscle angle: normal values and relationships with gender and selected skeletal measures.
Myosin II, the form found in skeletal muscle, is sometimes referred to a conventional myosin.
Baclofen is a skeletal muscle relaxant used for the relief of chronic muscle spasm or spasticity.
reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle.
Thus skeletal elements which have been transported distances along river beds or streams will appear similar to those from heavily reworked deposits.
The ' take-home ' message is always to look at renal activity on a skeletal scintigram.
Abstract A range of macroporous inorganic solids, with unique, sponge-like structures were synthesized by templating sea urchin skeletal plates.
If an x-ray shows an independent ossicle behind the main body of the tendon then surgical removal may be helpful after skeletal maturation.
transaminase increases were likely to be related to the skeletal muscle effects.
The resistance may be lowered temporarily by trauma or infectious disease such as measles, and skeletal tuberculosis or miliary tuberculosis may supervene.
creatine supplementation: A comparison of loading and maintenance protocols on creatine uptake by human skeletal muscle.
blastic skeletal tissue).
Its reaction preponderantly helps to secure coordinate innervation of the skeletal musculature, both for maintenance of attitude and for execution of movements.
a, Cavity surrounding fin ray; a', fin ray; b, muscular tissue of myotome; c, nervecord; d, notochord; c, left aorta; f, thickened ridges of epithelium of praeoral chamber (Rader organ); g, coiled tube lying in a coelomic space on right side of praeoral hood, apparently an artery; h, cuticle of notochord; i, connective-tissue sheath of notochord; k, median ridge of skeletal canal of nerve-cord; 1, skeletal canal protecting nerve-cord; m, inter-segmental skeletal septum of myotome; n, subcutaneous skeletal connective tissue; o, ditto of metapleur (this should be relatively thicker than it is); q, subcutaneous connective tissue of ventral surface of atrial wall (not a canal, as supposed by Stieda and others); r, epiblastic epithelium; s, gonad-sac containing ova; t, pharyngeal bar in section, one of the "tongue" bars alternating with the main bars and devoid of pharyngo-pleural fold and coelom; v, atrio-coelomic funnel; w, socalled "dorsal" coelom; x, lymphatic space or canal of metapleur; y, sub-pharyngeal vascular trunk; z, blood-vessel (portal vein) on wall of hepatic caecum; aa, space of atrial or branchial chamber; bb, ventral groove of pharynx (anteriorly this takes the form of a ridge); cc, hyperbranchial groove of pharynx; dd, lumen or space of hepatic caecum; ee, narrow coelomic space surrounding hepatic caecum; $, lining cell-layer of hepatic caecum; gg, inner face of a pharyngeal bar clothed with hypoblast, the outer face covered with epiblast (represented black); hh, a main pharyngeal bar with projecting pharyngeal fold (on which the reference line rests) in section, showing coelomic space beneath the black epiblast; ii, transverse ventral muscle of epipleura; kk, raphe or plane of fusion of two down-grown epipleura; 11, space and nucleated cells on dorsal face of notochord; mm, similar space and cells on its ventral face.
The Pentactaea again suggested a search for some primitive type in which quinqueradiate symmetry was exhibited in circumoral appendages, but had not affected the nervous, water-vascular, muscular or skeletal systems to any great extent, and the generative organs not at all.
Quadriceps femoris muscle angle: normal values and relationships with gender and selected skeletal measures.
Effects of boldine on mouse diaphragm and sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle.
The collections comprise wet preparations of human tissues and organs, skeletal material and some animal taxidermy specimens.
These transaminase increases were likely to be related to the skeletal muscle effects.
Ulster journal of archeology Volume 20 (1957) - Table of Contents Scott, J H Analysis of Pre-Christian Irish Skeletal Material.
Creatine supplementation: A comparison of loading and maintenance protocols on creatine uptake by human skeletal muscle.
The spinal neurons that regulate skeletal muscles in the cat's upper body and legs die off and cause muscular atrophy.
Tara often has Skeletal Support or Paralysis Plus and Pain Relief in her water bowl to help an old knee injury.
A cake clothed in soft waves of light blue buttercream or tiers of smooth, pastel green fondant highlight their relatively bare-bones, skeletal looks and make for a magnificent presentation.
The final act featured the pair dressed in skeletal masks and black robes.
Scientists believe that the 15th and 16th century skeletal remains reveal a significant grinding down of the teeth due to eating foodstuffs made from stone-ground flour.
Once the minerals are in your body, they help it to assimilate the vitamins as well as support a wide range of bodily functions from circulation to healthy joints and skeletal system.
Skeletal Teeth lenses are definitely not for the weak of heart.
You can upgrade your weapons and earn more through orbs that you acquire defeating the horde of skeletal warriors and other such mythical foes.
Skeletal deformities, such as a twisted spine (scoliosis), curved spine (humpback), or bowed legs.
Disorders in which skeletal muscle is the primary target of the mitochondrial dysfunction are called mitochondrial myopathies.
MELAS is a progressive mitochondrial disease that involves multiple organ systems including the central nervous system, cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and gastrointestinal system.
Research has shown that cells of the brain, nerves, skeletal muscles, liver, heart, kidneys, ears, eyes, and pancreas seem to be particularly affected because of their high energy requirements.
Poor muscle tone and problems with the skeletal joints become evident as a child with Williams syndrome moves into adolescence.
Marfan syndrome: an inherited disorder of connective tissue (tissue that adds strength to the body's structures), affecting the skeletal system, cardiovascular system, eyes, and skin.
Peters. Skeletal Muscle: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Management of Disease, 3rd ed. Edited by Kenneth J.
The most obvious effect of hGH is on linear skeletal growth (height), but metabolic effects of hGH (the results of hGH activity in the body) on muscle, the liver, and fat cells are a critical part of its function.
Gigantism is the result of hGH overproduction in early childhood leading to a skeletal height up to 8 feet (2.5 m) or more.
These conditions are called skeletal dysplasia.
Over 500 specific skeletal dysplasias have been identified.
When untreated, skeletal growth is extremely slow, and puberty may or may not occur.
Possible causes that center on the fetus rather than the mother include chromosomal abnormalities, genetic and other syndromes that impair skeletal growth, and defects of the placenta or umbilical cord.
In Menkes disease, which is usually first noticed in infancy, impaired transport of copper from the digestive tract results in low levels of copper in the blood, while copper accumulates in the kidney, pancreas, and skeletal muscle.
Voluntary movement (for example, walking, grasping, chewing) is primarily accomplished using skeletal muscles (muscles attached to bones).
Control of the skeletal muscles originates in the cerebral cortex, the largest portion of the brain.
Individuals with MPS IV appear healthy at birth but show skeletal deformities and growth retardation by age three.
Spina bifida is a birth abnormality in which the spine is malformed and lacks its usual protective skeletal and soft tissue coverings.
Alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD) describes the physical defects linked to prenatal alcohol exposure, including heart, skeletal, kidney, ear, and eye malformations.
Skeletal malocclusions occur when the upper and lower jaws are not properly aligned with each other and with the skull.
Myopathies are diseases of skeletal muscle that are not caused by nerve disorders.
These diseases cause the skeletal or voluntary muscles to become weak or shrunken (atrophied).
There is great variety among myopathies, but what they all share are effects on the skeletal muscles.
Matkovic, V., et al. "Nutrition influences skeletal development from childhood to adulthood: a study of hip, spine, and forearm in adolescent females."
Less common medical findings include defects of the upper lip, the roof of the mouth, and unusual skeletal abnormalities.
Skeletal abnormalities may include poorly developed shoulder blades (scapulae), sideways bent fingers (clinodactyly), clubfoot, scoliosis, and unusual neck bones.
There may also be some hip bone anomaly or other skeletal symptoms, for example, clubfoot.
Acetylcholine-A chemical called a neurotransmitter that functions primarily to mediate activity of the nervous system and skeletal muscles.
That is why radiographs, or x rays, of a child's bones have been taken and read by osteologists (doctors who special in the skeletal system) and radiologists.
Idell Pyle's atlas of skeletal development and Tanner and White's method are the two major assessment tools for wrist radiography.
Standardized growth charts and wrist radiographs can assess normal skeletal growth and determine whether there are problems concerning growth that is too fast or too slow.
Osteologist-A doctor who specializes in the skeletal system.
Endocrine Control of Skeletal Maturation.
Flores-Mir, C., et al. "Use of Skeletal Maturation Based on Hand-Wrist Radiographic Analysis as a Predictor of Facial Growth: A Systematic Review."
These techniques affect the muscular, skeletal, circulatory, lymphatic, nervous, and other systems of the body.
Chest x rays may be taken to look for skeletal and cardiac abnormalities.
Skeletal development refers to the development of the human skeletal system from the early days of pregnancy until the bones have reached full development in late puberty.
The age at appearance of individual ossification centers then becomes a useful measure of skeletal development and especially in the form of "bone age" assessments of the hand, foot, or knee.
The normal variability of skeletal age is about 10 percent of attained chronological age.
Thus, some chronological 12-year-olds may be assessed as 14 years of age in terms of skeletal development, while others may be assessed as ten.
There are also major population differences in skeletal proportions and bone sizes and ratios.
In some cases, abnormalities in skeletal development are caused by nutritional deficiencies that may or may not be reversible.
For this reason there is much interest in the proposition that a calcium intake over 1,500 mg per day may build a greater skeletal mass.
Bone growth, bone remodeling, and the timing of skeletal maturation are all profoundly affected by nutritional status throughout the growing period.
In some cases, skeletal abnormalities are inherited from one or both parents or occur as a result of genetic mutation.
Hypopituitarism: Caused by insufficient production of growth hormone, this condition leads to growth failure and delayed skeletal maturation.
By encouraging the development of the three key elements of self esteem-acceptance, competence, and purpose-parents can help a child with skeletal abnormalities develop positive body image and confidence in his or her abilities.
A healthcare provider should be contacted if a child exhibits symptoms of skeletal or growth abnormalities, such as abnormally short or tall height for age, frequent bone fractures, bony growths, or bone or joint pain.
The skeletal system of the body is made up of different types of the strong, fibrous tissue known as connective tissue.
Electromyography (EMG) is a technique that records the electrical activity of skeletal muscles.
Individuals with MEN 2B show a variety of additional conditions: a characteristic facial appearance with swollen lips; tumors of the mucous membranes of the eye, mouth, tongue, and nasal cavity; enlarged colon; and skeletal abnormalities.
Such signs include skeletal pain, bowed limbs, and impaired growth.
Non-articular osteochondrosis occurs at any other skeletal location.
Diagnose and treat muscular, nervous, and skeletal issues, especially those related to the spine, from a holistic approach that takes into account a patient's overall health.
The mesoderm cells then make the circulatory, skeletal, and muscular systems.
The blood test given during the first trimester screening is for chromosomal abnormalities in the baby, including Down's Syndrome (trisomy 21), Edwards Syndrome (trisomy 18), skeletal defects, or heart defects.
If you don't feed your body enough calcium, your body will borrow from the skeletal stores.
Vitamin D helps your body to absorb calcium, which in turns helps to improve bone density and keep your skeletal system strong.
In addition to aiding the formation of your skeletal system, it is involved with energy transfer within the body.
In addition to strengthening your skeletal system, vitamin D provides an additional benefit.
Both male and female reproductive organs use vitamin A, as does the skeletal system.
Another complication of celiac disease involves your skeletal system.
Skeleton Floor Puzzle (ages 5 and up) - A fun way for kids to learn about the body's skeletal system.
Preadolescents and adolescents should avoid competitive weight lifting, power lifting, body building, and maximal lifts until they reach physical and skeletal maturity.
The interval training sessions created metabolic adaptations in the skeletal muscles, which enabled subjects to increase their aerobic endurance from 26 to 51 minutes, while elevating the intensity of their entire workout.
Unlike your legs, the muscles of your arm have few attachments to your skeletal system, therefore they tend to tire more easily.
Your skeletal system becomes stronger in response to the demands that exercise places on your body.
Made mostly of fat, this area of the body is a type a shock absorber, protecting our organs and skeletal system from damage during falls.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.