Analogy also produces equally remarkable internal or skeletal transformations.
10) superficially resemble each other, but if the outer form be removed this resemblance proves to be a mere veneer of adaptation, because their internal skeletal parts are as radically different as are their genetic relations, founded on heredity.
A prominent and practically important illustration of neural tonus is given by the skeletal muscles.
The dorsal skeletal elements of the thorax and of the anterior six abdominal segments unite with the wing-cases to form a large respiratory chamber, containing five pairs of tracheal gills, with lateral slits for the inflow and a posterior orifice for the outflow of water.
By synthesis at a summation of "beats" or of simple contras tions in the compound, or "tetanic," or summed contraction of the skeletal muscles.
With certain of these it stands associated most closely, namely, with the vestibular, representing the sense organs which furnish data for appreciation of positions and movements of the head, and with the channels, conveying centripetal impressions from the apparatus of skeletal movement.
The concepts on which the peoples of the Old World have been classified, such as stature, colour, skeletal measurements, nationality, and so on, cannot as yet be used in America with Classifica- success.
But in the ordinary skeletal muscles the amount of the muscular contraction is for a short range of quantities of stimulus (of above threshold value) proportioned to the intensity of the stimulus and increases with it.
It is propagated along the muscle fibres of the skeletal muscles at a rate of about 3 metres per second.
The vestibule of the mouth is the space bounded by the oral hood; this arises by secondary downgrowth of lid-like folds over the true oral aperture, and is provided with a fringe of tentacular cirri, each of which is supported by a solid skeletal axis.
This notochord represents the persistent primordial skeletal axis which, in the higher Craniata (though not so in the lower), gives way by substitution to the segmented vertebral column.
Between ectoderm and endoderm is a supporting layer of structureless gelatinous substance termed mesogloea, secreted by the cell-layers of the body-wall; the mesogloea may be a very thin layer, or may reach a fair thickness, and then sometimes contains skeletal elements formed by cells which have migrated into it from the ectoderm.
- Pelmatozoa in which the theca is composed of an indefinite number of irregular plates, some of which are variously differentiated in different genera; with no subvective skeletal appendages, but with central mouth, from which there radiate through the theca five unbranched ambulacra, composed of a double series of alternating plates (covering-plates), sometimes supported by an outer series of larger alternating plates (sideplates or flooring-plates).
Apical plates by a stretch of dorsal integument containing skeletal elements; the opening of the water-vascular system (madreporite) is not connected with a definite apical plate or system of plates.
Abruptly from the disk and contain neither genital glands nor digestive caeca; no anus; respiration may be through clefts at the bases of the rays, but not by papulae; skeletal appendages confined to spines, usually of simple structure.
Skeletal appendages are spines (radioles), pedicellariae, and, in some forms, minute sense-organs called sphaeridia.
In several places there are traces of shells; and sometimes skeletal remains of whales and walruses, as well as ancient driftwood, have been discovered at tolerable distances from the present coast.
Sutures are stated to mark off some of these pieces, but in the proper sense of that term as applied to the skeletal structures of the Vertebrata, no sutures exist in the chitinous cuticle of Arthropods.
The bodywall is greatly simplified in the Gymnolaemata, in correlation with the functional importance of the skeletal part of the wall.
Not covered by secretion of skeletal or other investment, retains its ciliation throughout life.
In Anodonta, besides being thickened, the skeletal substance of the filament develops a specially dense, rod-like body on each side of each filament.
In the ordinary striped muscles of the skeletal musculature, e.g.
Rhythmic contraction is also characteristic of certain groups of skeletal muscles, e.g.
The whole wing is a unique modification, deeply affecting the skeletal, muscular and tegumentary structures, but fluttering, skimming, sailing, soaring are motions much more akin to one another than climbing and grasping, running, scratching, paddling and wading.
The receptive organs of the muscular sense and of the semicircular canals are to be regarded as the sites of origin of this reflex tonus of the skeletal muscles.
Similarly, such a single stimulus elicits from a skeletal muscle a single "beat," or, as it is termed, a "twitch."
But in the skeletal, voluntary or striped muscles a second stimulus succeeding a previous so quickly as to fall even during the continuance of the contraction excited by a first, elicits a second contraction.
That the excited state spreads only to previously unexcited portions of the muscle fibre shows that even in the skeletal variety of muscle there exists, though only for a very brief time, a period of inexcitability.
The duration of this period is about ---o / r of a second in skeletal muscle.
Either we must regard Merycodus as a deer which parallels the antelopes and the prongbuck in every detail of skeletal structure, or else, like the prongbuck, an antelope separated from the main stock at a date sufficiently early to have permitted the development of a distinct type of cranial appendages, namely, antlers in place of true horns.
34, and in the constitution of its digestive, vascular, respiratory (branchial), excretory, skeletal, nervous and muscular systems it exhibits what appears to be a primordial condition of vertebrate organization, a condition which is, in fact, partly recapitulated in the course of the embryonic stages of craniate vertebrates.
The main musculature can be seen through the thin skin to be divided into about sixty pairs of muscle-segments (myotomes) by means of comma-shaped dissepiments, the myocommas, which stretch between the skin and the central skeletal axis of the body.
GRAPTOLITES, an assemblage of extinct zoophytes whose skeletal remains are found in the Palaeozoic rocks, occasionally in great abundance.
Sci., 1891) and others into the wandering cells of the body-cavity, and the study of the deposition of the skeletal substance ("stereom") by Theel (in Festskrift for Lilljeborg, 1896).
Some of these cells produced muscles and connective tissue; others absorbed and removed waste products, iron salts, calcium carbonate and the like, and so were ready to be utilized for the deposition of pigment or of skeletal substance.
Are stretched out from the theca on jointed skeletal processes (brachioles).
12, B); the rays as a rule pass gradually into the disk, and contain both genital glands and caecal extensions of the digestive system; an anus usually present; respiration is by tubular extensions from the body-cavity (papulae); skeletal appendages, in addition to small spines, are either small grasping organs (pedicellariae), or clumped spines (paxillae), or branched spines bearing a membrane.
Chitin is not exclusively an ectodermal product, but occurs also in cartilaginous skeletal plates of mesoblastic origin (connective tissue).
The last is remarkable for an extraordinary endoand exo-skeletal carapace, Dissorhophus being described by Cope (13) as a "batrachian armadillo."
The base camp housed the emergency response helicopters for Tucson and neighboring sectors and was manned with a skeletal crew of Guardians and one on-duty pilot, a Natural who'd been trained to fly.
In accordance with this manner of feeding, the mouth is kept permanently open and prevented from collapsing by a pair of skeletal cornua belonging to a sustentacular apparatus (the nuchal skeleton), the body of which lies within the narrow neck of the proboscis; the latter is inserted into the collar and surrounded by the anterior free flap of this segment of the body.
In 1883-1886 Bateson showed by his embryological researches that the Enteropneusta exhibit chordate (vertebrate) affinities in respect of the coelomic, skeletal and nervous systems as well as in regard to the respiratory system, and, further, that the gill-slits are formed upon a plan similar to that of the gillslits of Amphioxus, being subdivided by tongue-bars which depend from the dorsal borders of the slits.
As the proboscis-gut appears to have undoubtedly skeletal properties, and as it also has topographical relations with the mouth, it has been designated in English by the non-committal term stomochord.
Phioxus; (c) the skeletal rods in the tongue-bars of Balanoglossus are double; (d) the tongue-bar in Balanoglossus does not fuse with the ventral border of the cleft, but ends freely below, thus producing a continuous U-shaped cleft.
A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.
They are figured and their importance for the first time recognized in the memoir on the muscular and skeletal systems of Limulus and Scorpio by Lankester, Beck and Bourne (4).
An internal skeletal plate, the so-called " entosternite " of fibrocartilaginous tissue, to which many muscles are attached, is placed between the nerve-cords and the alimentary tract in the prosoma of the larger forms (Limulus, Scorpio, Mygale).
Internal, skeletal characters, useless for ordinary practical purposes, are the various apophyses on the ventral side of the vertebrae and the penial armaments fancied by Cope.
The external similarity in the fore paddle and back fin of these three marine animals is absolute, although they are totally unrelated to each other, and have a totally different internal or skeletal structure.
- Section through a portion of the lateral eye of Limulus, showing three ommatidia - A, B and C. hyp, The epidermic cell-layer (so-called hypodermis), the cells of which increase in volume below each lens, 1, and become nerve-end cells or retinula-cells, rt; in A, the letters rh point to a rhabdomere secreted by the cell rt; c, the peculiar central spherical cell; n, nerve fibres; mes, mesoblastic skeletal tissue; ch, chitinous cuticle.