RANJIT SINGH, MAHARAJA (1780-1839), native Indian ruler, was born on the 2nd of November 1780, the son of Sirdar Mahan Singh, whom he succeeded in 1792 as head of the Sukarchakia branch of the Sikh confederacy.
Known as "The Lion of the Punjab," Ranjit Singh died of paralysis on the 27th of June 1839.
In his private life Ranjit Singh was selfish, avaricious, drunken and immoral, but he had a genius for command and was the only man the Sikhs ever produced strong enough to bind them together.
The observatory of Raja Jai Singh is a notable building of the year 1693.
The subsequent history of Benares contains two important events, the rebellion of Chait Singh in 1781, occasioned by the demands of Warren Hastings for money and troops to carry on the Mahratta War, and the Mutiny of 1857, when the energy and coolness of the European officials, chiefly of General Neill, carried the district successfully through the storm.
In the reign of Akbar the chiefs of Bikanir were esteemed among the most loyal adherents of the Delhi empire, and in 1570 Akbar married a daughter of Kalyan Singh.
In 1815 Surat Singh's tyranny led to a general rising of his thakurs, and in 1816 the maharaja again applied for British protection.
Sardar Singh had no son, and on his death in 1872 his widow and principal ministers selected Dungar Singh as his successor, with the approval of the British government.
Dhuleep Singh >>
He was succeeded by his infant son Kishen Singh.
This doctrine of philosophic quietism was common to his successors, until in the time of the sixth guru, Har Govind, it was found necessary to support the separate existence of Sikhism by force of arms, and this led to the militant and political development of the tenth and most powerful of the gurus, Govind Singh.
The Sikhs of to-day, though they all derive primarily from Nanak, are only recognized as Singhs or real Sikhs when they accept the doctrines and practices of Guru Govind Singh.
Teg Bahadur religious nature, and had become a military society Go Singh.
For some years after his father's execution Govind Singh, then known as Gobind Rai, lived in retirement, brooding over the wrongs of his people and the persecutions of the fanatical Aurangzeb.
The Mahommedans promptly responded to the challenge, for the danger was too serious to be neglected; the Sikh army was dispersed and two of Guru Govind Singh's sons were murdered at Sirhind by the governor of that fortress, and his mother died of grief at the cruel death of her grandchildren.
No formal alteration has been made in the Sikh religion since Guru Govind Singh gave it his military organization, but certain modifications have taken place as the result of time and contact with Hinduism.
Sikhism attained its zenith under the military genius of Ranjit Singh.
It was Ranjit Singh's ambition to weld the whole of the Punjab into a single Sikh empire, while the British claimed the territory south of the Sutlej by right of conquest from the Mahrattas.
He was succeeded in 1873 by his grandson Nihal Singh, who received the C.B.
He died in 1901, and was succeeded by his eldest son Ram Singh (b.
Sir Charles Metcalfe was the envoy to the court of Ranjit Singh at Lahore; Mountstuart Elphinstone met the shah of Afghanistan at Peshawar; and Sir John Malcolm was despatched to Persia.
g P Sikh kingdom of Ranjit Singh effectually dispelled any such alarms for the future.
(For the origin of the Sikh power see Punjab.) Ranjit Singh, the founder of the Sikh kingdom in the Punjab, had faithfully fulfilled all his obligations towards the British.
By the terms of peace then dictated the infant son of Ranjit, Dhuleep Singh, was recognized as raja; the Jullundur Doab, or tract between the Sutlej and the Ravi, was annexed; the Sikh army was limited to a specified number; Major Henry Lawrence was appointed to be resident at Lahore; and a British force was detailed to garrison the Punjab for a period of eight years.
Raja Dhuleep Singh received an allowance of £50,000 a year, on which he retired as a country gentleman to Norfolk in England.
DHULEEP SINGH (1837-1893), maharaja of Lahore, was born in February 1837, and was proclaimed maharaja on the 18th of September 1843, under the regency of his mother the rani Jindan, a woman of great capacity and strong will, but extremely inimical to the British.
He was acknowledged by Ranjit Singh and recognized by the British government.
Dhuleep Singh retained his territory, but it was administered to a great extent by the British government in his name.
In spite of the valour of the Sikhs, they were utterly routed at Gujarat, and in March 1849 Dhuleep Singh was deposed, a pension of £40,000 a year being granted to him and his dependants.
The maharaja's eldest son, Prince Victor Albert Jay Dhuleep Singh (b.
In 1832 that portion of the province denominated Upper Assam was formed into an independent native state, and conferred upon Purandhar Singh, the ex-rajah of the country; but the administration of this chief proved unsatisfactory, and in 1838 his principality was reunited with the British dominions.
The Persian tribes were welded by Cyrus into a singh nation, and now became the foremost people in the world (se PERSIS and CYRUS).
The maharaja Jai Singh, who succeeded in 1892 at the age of ten, was educated at the Mayo college, where he excelled both in sports and in knowledge of English.
The state was founded by Pratap Singh (1740-1791), a Rajput of ancient lineage, and increased by his adopted son Bakhtawar Singh.
In 1857 the raja Binni Singh sent a force of Mussulmans and Rajputs to relieve the British garrison in Agra; the Mussulmans, however, deserted, and the rest were defeated by the mutineers.
From the commencement of his reign he found himself involved in disputes with Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler of the Punjab, who used the dethroned Saduzai prince, Shuja-ul-Mulk, as his instrument.
He was defeated by Dost Mahommed under the walls of Kandahar, but Ranjit Singh seized.
In return he was only promised protection from Ranjit Singh, of 1 "Die Vorfahren der Schollen," Biol.
The state takes its name from the chief town, Bijawar (pop. in 1901, 5220), which was founded by Bijai Singh, one of the Gond chiefs of Garha Mandla, in the 17th century.
It was confirmed to Ratan Singh in 1811 by the British government for the usual deed of allegiance.
In 1857 Bhan Pratap Singh rendered signal services to the British during the Mutiny, being rewarded with certain privileges and a hereditary salute of eleven guns.
Bhan Pratap was succeeded on his death in 1899 by his adopted son, Sanwant Singh, a son of the maharaja of Orchha.
1618), his brother Jagat Singh, and other powerful princes; and it appears to be certain that his great fame and influence as a religious leader, which remain pre-eminent to this day, were fully established during his lifetime.
Simon Singh hosts a madcap half hour, mostly intellectual puzzles, a few involving props, and the occasional anagram.
dowry father, Mr. Singh, has already provided dowries for four other daughters.
The only time he attempts to attack the nub of Mr Singh's argument, Mr Batt falls flat.
fossa pain (99kb) I Singh, REC Collins British Journal of Hospital Medicine, Vol.
The Sikhs thus inaugurated the Singh Sabha to recover a distinctive Sikhism.
Earlier, the jury was shown CCTV images of both Singh and the alleged victim entering the secluded subway alone.
Finally the city and surrounding district fell under the sway of Ranjit Singh at Lahore, and passed with the rest of the Punjab into the possession of the British after the second Sikh war.
The temple was considerably enriched by the spoils taken by Ranjit Singh in his conquests.
The dynasty attained the height of its power under Rudra Singh, who is said to have ascended the throne in 1695.
Late in January 1846 it was held by Ranjur Singh, who had crossed the river in force and threatened Ludhiana.
In southern Tibet the trans-Himalayan explorations of the native surveyors attached to the Indian survey, notably Pundits Nain Singh and Krishna, added largely to our knowledge of the great plateau.
Nain Singh explored the sources of the Indus and of the Upper Brahmaputra in the years 1865-1867; and in 1874-1875 he followed a line from the eastern frontiers of Kashmir to the Tengri Nor lake and thence to Lhasa, in which city he remained for some months.
Kalyan's son, Rai Singh, who succeeded him in 1571, was one of Akbar's most distinguished generals and the first raja of Bikanir; his daughter married Selim, afterwards the emperor Jahangir.
Two other distinguished chiefs of the house were Karan Singh (1631-1669), who in the struggle of the sons of Shah Jahan for the throne threw in his lot with Aurangzeb, and his eldest son, Anup Singh (1669-1698), who fought with distinction in the Deccan, was conspicuous in the capture of Golconda, and earned the title of maharaja.
In 1802, during one of these wars, Elphinstone passed through Bikanir on his way to Kabul; and the maharaja, Surat Singh (1788-1828), applied to him for British protection, which was, however, refused.
Ratan Singh, who succeeded his father in 1828, applied in vain in 1830 to the British government for aid against a fresh outbreak of his thakurs; but during the next five years dacoity became so rife on the borders that the government raised a special force to deal with it (the Shakhawati Brigade), and of this for seven years Bikanir contributed part of the cost.
In 1842 Ratan Singh supplied camels for the Afghan expedition; in 1844 he reduced the dues on goods passing through his country, and he gave assistance in both Sikh campaigns.
His son, Sardar Singh (1851-1872), was rewarded for help given during the Mutiny by an increase of territory.
Dungar Singh died in 1887 without a son; but he had adopted his brother, Ganga Singh (b.
The maharaja Ram Singh, who succeeded his father in 1893, was deprived of power of government in 1895 on the ground of intemperate conduct; and in 1900 was finally deposed for the murder of one of his personal attendants.
He gave them outward signs of their faith in the five K's - which will subsequently be explained - he signified the military nature of their calling by the title of "singh" or "lion" and by the wearing of steel, and he strictly prohibited the use of tobacco.
The religious creed of Guru Govind Singh was the same as that of Guru Nanak: the God, the guru and the Granth remained unchanged.
But while Nanak had substituted holiness of life for vain ceremonial, Guru Govind Singh demanded in addition brave deeds and zealous devotion to the Sikh cause as proof of faith; and while he retained his predecessors' attitude towards the Hindu gods and worship he preached undying hatred to the persecutors of his religion.
During the spiritual reign of Guru Govind Singh the religious was partially eclipsed by the military spirit.
The chief ceremony initiated by Guru Govind Singh was the Khanda ka Pahul or baptism by the sword.
He must from that date wear the five K's and add the word singh to his original name.
Teg Bahadur was succeeded by the tenth and most powerful guru, his son Govind Singh; and it was under him that what had sprung into existence as a quietist sect of a purely parshad is then distributed equally to all the faithful present, no matter to what caste they belong.
There may first be mentioned the zealots such as the Akalis, who, though generally quite illiterate, aim at observing the injunctions of Sikhism Guru Govind Singh; secondly, the true Sikhs or Singhs who observe his ordinances, such as the prohibi tions of cutting the hair and the use of tobacco; and, thirdly, those Sikhs who while professing devotion to the tenets of the gurus are almost indistinguishable from ordinary Hindus.
The establishment of Singh Sabhas, of Sikh newspapers, and the spread of education have largely tended in the same direction, but the strict ethical code of Sikhism and the number of its obligatory divine services have caused many to fall away from the faith: nor does the austere Sikh ritual appeal to women, who generally prefer Hinduism with its picturesque material worship and the brightness of its innumerable festivals.
For authorities see Cunningham, History of the Sikhs; Sir Lepel Griffin, Maharaja Ranjit Singh (" Rulers of India" series, 1892); Falcon, Handbook on Sikhs; and specially M.
These jagirs were afterwards confiscated on the ground of the begum's complicity in the rising of Chai Singh, which was attested by documentary evidence.
In the 17th century their power was curtailed by the division of Haraoti into the two states of Kotah and Bundi; but they continued to play a prominent part in Indian history, and the title of maharao raja was conferred on Budh Singh for the part played by him in securing the imperial throne for Bahadur Shah I.
In 1804 the maharao raja Bishan Singh gave valuable assistance to Colonel Monson in his disastrous retreat before Holkar, in revenge for which the Mahratas and Pindaris continually ravaged his state up to 1817.
On the 10th of February 1818, by a treaty concluded with Bishan Singh, Bundi was taken under British protection.
In 1821 Bishan Singh was succeeded by his son Ram Singh, who ruled till 1889.
He was succeeded by his son Raghubir Singh, who was made a K.C.S.I.
Shuja was defeated by Dara's son, but the imperial forces under Jaswant Singh were completely routed by the united armies of Aurangzeb and Murad.
In 1857 Raja Ratan Singh received a hereditary salute of 11 guns, a khilat and a perpetual jagir of 1300 a year in recognition of his services during the Mutiny.
Jajhar Singh, the third Bundela chief, unsuccessfully revolted against the court of Delhi, and his country became incorporated for a short time with the empire.
In 1586 the town was invested by Raja Singh, but without success.
In 1808 he was selected by Lord Minto for the responsible post of envoy to the court of Ranjit Singh at Lahore; here, on the 25th of April 1809, he concluded the important treaty securing the independence of the Sikh states between the Sutlej and the Jumna.
It is surrounded by a stone wall, enclosing handsome palaces, with gardens; the palace of Bir Singh Deo, of the 17th century, is "one of the finest examples of Hindu domestic architecture in India" (Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1908).
Both obey the general injunctions of the Sikh gurus, but the Sahijdhari Sikhs have not accepted the pahul or baptism of Guru Govind Singh, and do not wear the distinguishing habiliments of the Kesadhari, who are the baptized Sikhs, also called Singhs or lions.
A man is not born a Singh, but becomes so by baptism, the water of which is called amrit or nectar.
One of the finest buildings is the modern Jain temple of Hathi Singh outside the Delhi gate, which was built only in 1848, and is a standing monument to the endurance of Jain architectural art The external porch, between two circular towers, is of great magnificence, most elaborately ornamented, and leads to an outer court, with sixteen cells on either side.
The raja, Sir Drigbijai Singh K.C.S.I., was conspicuously loyal during the Mutiny, and was rewarded with accessions of territory and hereditary privileges.
Maharaja Lachhmeswar Singh Bahadur, who succeeded to the raj in 1860 and died in 1898, was distinguished for his public services, and especially as one of the most munificent of living philanthropists.
He was succeeded by his brother, Maharaja Rameshwar Singh Bahadur, who was born on the 16th of January 1860, and on attaining his majority in 1878 was appointed to the Indian Civil Service, serving as assistant magistrate successively at Darbhanga, Chhapra and Bhagalpur.
The state was guaranteed to Kunwar Suni Singh Ponwar in 1806.
From his death to the rise of Ranjit Singh, the frontier districts remained an appendage of the Durani empire.
The palace built by Man Singh (1486-1516) forms the most interesting example of early Hindu work of its class in India.
The best known of these men were Pundit Nain Singh, Pundit Krishna, originally known as A.-K.
Nain Singh reached Lhasa in the course of two remarkable journeys.
Nain Singh gave an account of his journeys, and of his residence there, which, though brief, is full of intelligence and interest.
After a short reign Shah Shuja was compelled to abdicate from his inability to repress the rising power of Fateh Khan, a Barakzai chief, and he took refuge first with Ranjit Singh, who then ruled the Punjab, and finally secured the protection of British power.
In 1857 two zemindars, Umar Singh and Kumar Singh, rebelled against the British government, and for some months held the ruinous fort of Rohtas against the British.
When Jaswant Rao Holkar took refuge in the Punjab in 1805, Ranjit Singh made a treaty with the British, excluding Holkar from his territory.
The difference proceeded almost to the point of war; but at the last moment Ranjit Singh gave way, and for the future faithfully observed his engagements with the British, whose rising power he was wise enough to gauge.
In 1808 Charles Metcalfe was sent to settle this question with Ranjit Singh, and a treaty was concluded at Amritsar on the 15th of April 1809.
See Sir Lepel Griffin, Ranjit Singh (Rulers of India Series), 1892; General Sir John Gordon, The Sikhs, 1904; and S.
During the dissensions which followed the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, Raja Kalyan Singh Bhadauria obtained possession of Dholpur, and his family retained it till 1761, after which it was taken successively by the Jat raja, Suraj Mal of Bharatpur, by Mirza Najaf Khan in 1 775, by Sindhia in 1782, and in 1803 by the British.
Finally, in 1806, the territories of Dholpur, Bari and Rajakhera were handed over to the maharaj rana Kirat Singh, ancestor of the present chiefs of Dholpur, in exchange for his state of Gohad, which was ceded to Sindhia.
Kirat Singh, the first maharaj rana of Dholpur, was succeeded in 1836 by his son Bhagwant Singh, who showed great loyalty during the Mutiny of 1857, was created a K.C.S.I., and G.C.S.I.
He is said to have been resorted to, as a venerated teacher, by Maharaja Man Singh of Jaipur (d.
Singh, Daljit, Jai Rup Singh, and Vanita Kumar.
When the same situation arose in 2005, Budig left the show and was replaced by actress Sabine Singh.
During her time away, All My Children opted to recast the role of Greenlee with relative newcomer Sabine Singh.
Singh was abruptly fired, and in January 2008 Budig made one of the most widely publicized comebacks in soap opera history.
When the actress left the role in 2007, it was later recast and relative newcomer Sabine Singh took over as Greenlee.
Then, a few weeks later rumors surfaced claiming that Singh was getting axed and fan favorite Budig would be returning to All My Children.
Singh did get the boot and Budig did return, but only temporarily.
Sat Bir Singh Khalsa, PhD, an instructor at Harvard Medical School's Sleep Medicine Division, published a study that indicated a mere 30-45 minutes of daily yoga practice helped those with severe insomnia sleep through the night.
Author Nalini Singh has created a romantic hero of the angel Gabriel while Thomas E.
Authors such as Kresley Cole, Gena Showalter and Nalini Singh drive paranormal romance in the 21st century.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.