# How to use *Sines* in a sentence

The table gives the logarithms of

**sines**for every minute to seven figures.As new axes of co-ordinates we may take any other pair of lines through the origin, and for the X, Y corresponding to x, y any new constant multiples of the

**sines**of the angles which the line makes with the new axes.It gives tables of

**sines**and cosines, tangents, &c., for every to seconds, calculated to ten places.Pitiscus (1561-1613), who himself carried the calculation of a few of the earlier

**sines**to twenty-two places.He found out the formula for deriving the sine of a multiple angle, knowing that of the simple angle with due regard to the periodicity of

**sines**.AdvertisementAs with light the ratio involved in the second law is always equal to the ratio of the velocity of the wave in the first medium to the velocity in the second; in other words, the

**sines**of the angles in question are directly proportional to the velocities.The simplest form of wave, so far as our sensation goes - that is, the one giving rise to a pure tone - is, we have every reason to suppose, one in which the displacement is represented by a harmonic curve or a curve of

**sines**, y=a sin m(x - e).The table gives the logarithms of

**sines**for every minute of seven figures; it is arranged semi-quadrantally, so that the differentiae, which are the differences of the two logarithms in the same line, are the logarithms of the tangents.Napier's logarithms are not the logarithms now termed Napierian or hyperbolic, that is to say, logarithms to the base e where e= 2.7182818 ...; the relation between N (a sine) and L its logarithm, as defined in the Canonis Descriptio, being N=10 7 e L/Ip7, so that (ignoring the factors re, the effect of which is to render

**sines**and logarithms integral to 7 figures), the base is C".The title of Gunter's book, which is very scarce, is Canon triangulorum, and it contains logarithmic

**sines**and tangents for every minute of the quadrant to 7 places of decimals.AdvertisementThe next publication was due to Vlacq, who appended to his logarithms of numbers in the Arithmetica logarithmica of 1628 a table giving log

**sines**, tangents and secants for every minute of the quadrant to ro places; there were obtained by calculating the logarithms of the natural**sines**, &c. given in the Thesaurus mathematicus of Pitiscus (1613).During the last years of his life Briggs devoted himself to the calculation of logarithmic

**sines**, &c. and at the time of his death in 1631 he had all but completed a logarithmic canon to every hundredth of a degree.It contains log

**sines**(to 14 places) and tangents (to 10 places), besides natural**sines**, tangents and secants, at intervals of a hundredth of a degree.In the same year Vlacq published at Gouda his Trigonometria artificialis, giving log

**sines**and tangents to every ro seconds of the quadrant to ro places.It is evident that Wittich's prosthaphaeresis could not be a good method of practically effecting multiplications unless the quantities to be multiplied were

**sines**, on account of the labour of the interpolations.AdvertisementThe first logarithms to the base e were published by John Speidell in his New Logarithmes (London, 1619), which contains hYPerbolic log

**sines**, tangents and secants for every minute of the quadrant to 5 places of decimals.In the same year (1624) Kepler published at Marburg a table of Napierian logarithms of

**sines**with certain additional columns to facilitate special calculations.In the following year, 1626, Denis Henrion published at Paris a Traicte des Logarithmes, containing Briggs's logarithms of numbers up to 20,001 to io places, and Gunter's log

**sines**and tangents to 7 places for every minute.In the same year de Decker also published at Gouda a work entitled Nieuwe Telkonst, inhoudende de Logarithmi voor de Ghetallen beginnende van r tot io,000, which contained logarithms of numbers up to io,000 to io places, taken from Briggs's Arithmetica of 1624, and Gunter's log

**sines**and tangents to 7 places for every minute.'The calculation of tables of the natural trigonometrical functions may be said to have formed the work of the last half of the 16th century, and the great canon of natural

**sines**for every 10 seconds to 15 places which had been calculated by Rheticus was published by Pitiscus only in 1613, the year before that in which the Descriptio appeared.AdvertisementThe final step was made by John Newton in his Trigononometria Britannica (1658), a work which is also noticeable as being the only extensive eightfigure table that until recently had been published; it contains logarithms of

**sines**, &c., as well as logarithms of numbers.The next great advance on the Trigonometria artificialis took place more than a century and a half afterwards, when Michael Taylor published in 1792 his seven-decimal table of log

**sines**and tangents to every second of the quadrant; it was calculated by interpolation from the Trigonometria to 10 places and then contracted to 7.In 1784 the French government decided that new tables of

**sines**, tangents, &c., and their logarithms, should be calculated in relation to the centesimal division of the quadrant.I „ Logarithms of the ratios of arcs to

**sines**from 04 00000 to 0 4.05000, and log**sines**throughout the quadrant 4 „ Logarithms of the ratios of arcs to tangents from 0 4 00000 to 0 4.05000, and log tangents throughout the quadrant 4 The trigonometrical results are given for every hundred-thousandth of the quadrant (to" centesimal or 3" 24 sexagesimal).The printing of the table of natural

**sines**was once begun, and Lefort states that he has seen six copies, all incomplete, although including the last page.AdvertisementNapier's original work, the Descriptio Canonis of 1614, contained, not logarithms of numbers, but logarithms of

**sines**, and the relations between the**sines**and the logarithms were explained by the motions of points in lines, in a manner not unlike that afterwards employed by Newton in the method of fluxions.With Vieta, by reason of the advance in arithmetic, the style of treatment becomes more strictly trigonometrical; indeed, the Universales Inspectiones, in which the calculation occurs, would now be called plane and spherical trigonometry, and the accompanying Canon mathematicus a table of

**sines**, tangents and secants.'What is known as the method of

**sines**is used, for since the axes of the two magnets are always at right angles when the mirror magnet is in its zero position, the ratio M/H is proportional to the sine of the angle between the magnetic axis of the mirror magnet and the magnetic - = meridian.From the extreme north to Cape Mondego and thence onward to Cape Carvoeiro the outline of the coast is a long and gradual curve; farther south is the prominent mass of rock and mountain terminating westward in Capes Roca and Espichel; south of this, again, there is another wide curve, broken by the headland of

**Sines**, and extending to Cape St Vincent, the southeastern extremity of the country.At the commencement of his new career he enriched the academical collection with many memoirs, which excited a noble emulation between him and the Bernoullis, though this did not in any way affect their friendship. It was at this time that he carried the integral calculus to a higher degree of perfection, invented the calculation of

**sines**, reduced analytical operations to a greater simplicity, and threw new light on nearly all parts of pure mathematics.On one side are placed the natural lines (as the line of chords, the line of

**sines**, tangents, rhumbs, &c.), and on the other side the corresponding artificial or logarithmic ones.The expressions for the longitude, latitude `and parallax appear as an infinite trigonometric series, in which the coefficients of the

**sines**and cosines are themselves infinite series proceeding according to the powers of the above small numbers.These two conditions are only compatible when the representation is made with quite narrow pencils, and where the apertures are so small that the

**sines**and tangents are of about the same value.Perhaps independently of Aryabhatta (born at Pataliputra on the Ganges 476 A.D.), he introduced the use of

**sines**in calculation, and partially that of tangents.The primary utility of this procedure rests in fitting damped

**sines**or the damped exponentials that occur in multicomponent exponential decays.Prony (1755-1839) in the formation of the great French tables of logarithms of numbers,

**sines**, and tangents, and natural**sines**, called the Tables du Cadastre, in which the quadrant was divided centesimally; these tables have never been published (see Logarithms).Using this method, it is possible to fit exponentially damped

**sines**, undamped**sines**, and damped exponentials.